Science.gov

Sample records for 8-m unit telescopes

  1. Acquisition and guiding unit for Gemini 8-m telescopes: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilemann, Wolfgang; Naumann, Helgard

    1998-07-01

    An international partnership of the USA, UK, Canada, Chile, Argentina and Brazil are projecting two high performance 8- meter Aperture Optical/Infrared Telescopes to be commissioned between the years 1998 and 2000 at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and Cerro Pachon, Chile. The aim is to exploit the best natural observing conditions to undertake a broad range of astronomical research programs within the national communities of other countries. Zeiss was awarded two mayor contracts within this project, to design, manufacture and test the secondary mirrors and the Gemini Acquisition and Guiding system (GAG) for the 8m telescopes. The current paper refers to the GAG. The Gemini Acquisition and Guiding Unit are complex integrated systems, including optics, mechanical assemblies, detectors and control and signal processing software. The project is to be accomplished under subcontract and in cooperation with the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom. We briefly review the technological and astronomical background of the project and the technical specification of the GAG. The paper describes the design of the Acquisition and Guidance Unit, highlights some design criteria and discusses the expected performance. A report about the actual status of work is given.

  2. 1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Changhui; Gu, Naiting; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yangyi; Huang, Jinlong; Li, Cheng; Cheng, Yuntao; Cao, Xuedong; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Lanqiang; Liu, Hong; Wan, Yongjian; Xian, Hao; Ma, Wenli; Bao, Hua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan, Chunlin; Chen, Donghong; Li, Mei

    2014-07-01

    For better understanding and forecasting of the solar activity and the corresponding impacts human technologies and life on earth, the high resolution observations for Sun are needed. The Chinese Large Solar Telescope (CLST) with 1.8 m aperture is being built. The CLST is a classic Gregorian configuration telescope with open structure, alt-azimuth mount, retractable dome, and a large mechanical de-rotator. The optical system with all reflective design has the field of view of larger than 3 arc-minute. The 1.8 m primary mirror is a honeycomb sandwiches fused silica lightweight mirror with ULE material and active cooling. The adaptive optics system will be developed to provide the capability for diffraction limited observations at visible wavelengths. The CLST design and development phase began in 2011 and 2012 respectively. We plan for the CLST's starting of commission in 2017. A multi-wavelength tomographic imaging system with seven wavelengths range from visible to near-infrared wavelength is considered as the first light scientific instruments. In this paper the main system configuration and the corresponding post focal instruments are described. Furthermore, the latest progress and current status of the CLST are also reported.

  3. Structural Design Considerations for an 8-m Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R. Sr.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2009-01-01

    NASA's upcoming ARES V launch vehicle, with its' immerse payload capacities (both volume and mass) has opened the possibilities for a whole new paradigm of space observatories. It becomes practical to consider a monolith mirror of sufficient size to permit significant scientific advantages, both in collection area and smoothness or figure at a reasonable price. The technologies and engineering to manufacture and test 8 meter class monoliths is mature, with nearly a dozen of such mirrors already in operation around the world. This paper will discuss the design requirements to adapt an 8m meniscus mirror into a Space Telescope System, both launch and operational considerations are included. With objects this massive and structurally sensitive, the mirror design must include all stages of the process. Based upon the experiences of the Hubble Space Telescope, testing and verification at both component and integrated system levels are considered vital to mission success. To this end, two different component level test methods for gravity sag (the so call zero- gravity simulation or test mount) are proposed, with one of these methods suitable for the full up system level testing as well.

  4. 1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Changhui; Gu, Naiting; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Jinlong; Li, Cheng; Cheng, Yuntao; Liu, Yangyi; Cao, Xuedong; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Lanqiang; Liu, Hong; Wan, Yongjian; Xian, Hao; Ma, Wenli; Bao, Hua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan, Chunlin; Chen, Donghong; Li, Mei

    2015-04-01

    For better understanding and forecasting of solar activity, high resolution observations for the Sun are needed. Therefore, the Chinese Large Solar Telescope (CLST) with a 1.8-m aperture is being built. The CLST is a classic Gregorian configuration telescope with an open structure, alt-azimuth mount, retractable dome, and a large mechanical de-rotator. The optical system with an all reflective design has a field of view of larger than 3 arc-min. The 1.8-m primary mirror is a honeycomb sandwich fused silica lightweight mirror with an ultra lower expansion material and active cooling. The adaptive optics system will be developed to provide the capability for diffraction-limited observations at visible wavelengths. The CLST design and development phase began in 2011 and 2012, respectively. We plan for the CLST's start of commission to be in 2017. A multiwavelength tomographic imaging system, ranging from visible to near-infrared, is considered as the first light scientific instrument. The main system configuration and the corresponding postfocal instruments are described. Furthermore, the latest progress and current status of the CLST are also reported.

  5. Solar System Research with the Spacewatch 1.8-m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    During this grant period, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope was put into routine operation to search for asteroids and comets ranging in location from near-Earth space to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune. All of these classes of objects can be detected simultaneously with our uniform scanning procedures. We are studying near Earth objects (NEOs), main belt asteroids, comets, Centaurs, and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), as well as the interrelationships of these classes and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter telescope is sensitive to V(mag) < 22.6 in sidereal scanning mode and is able to reach even fainter in longer 'staring' exposures, with a field of view 0.5 degrees square. These faint limits make the operation of the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope complementary to asteroid surveys being done by other groups. Specifically, EAs smaller than 100 m in diameter and small main belt asteroids can be found, as well as more distant objects such as Centaurs/Scattered Disk Objects (SDOs) and TNOs. The 1.8-m telescope is also being used to do recoveries and astrometry of recently-discovered asteroids that subsequently become too faint for the other groups before good orbits are established.

  6. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  7. Stability Error Budget for an Aggressive Coronagraph on a 3.8 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Krist, John; Rud, Mayer

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate in detail the stability requirements for a band-limited coronagraph with an inner working angle as small as 2 lambda/D coupled to an off-axis, 3.8-m diameter telescope. We have updated our methodologies since presenting a stability error budget for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph mission that worked at 4 lambda/D and employed an 8th-order mask to reduce aberration sensitives. In the previous work, we determined the tolerances relative to the total light leaking through the coronagraph. Now, we separate the light into a radial component, which is readily separable from a planet signal, and an azimuthal component, which is easily confused with a planet signal. In the current study, throughput considerations require a 4th-order coronagraph. This, combined with the more aggressive working angle, places extraordinarily tight requirements on wavefront stability and opto-mechanical stability. We find that the requirements are driven mainly by coma that leaks around the coronagraph mask and mimics the localized signal of a planet, and pointing errors that scatter light into the background, decreasing SNR. We also show how the requirements would be relaxed if a low-order aberration detection system could be employed.

  8. Stellar Archaeology and Galaxy Genesis: The Need for Large Area Multi-Object Spectrograph on 8 m-Class Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Mike J.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    The origin and evolution of galaxies like the Milky Way and M31 remain among the key questions in astrophysics. The galaxies we see today in and around the Local Group are representatives of the general field population of the Universe and have been evolving for the majority of cosmic time. As our nearest neighbour systems they can be studied in far more detail than their distant counterparts and hence provide our best hope for understanding star formation and prototypical galaxy evolution over the lifetime of the Universe [K. Freeman, J. Bland-Hawthorn in Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 487 (2002)]. Significant observational progress has been made, but we are still a long way from understanding galaxy genesis. To unravel this formative epoch, detailed large area multi-object spectroscopy of spatial, kinematic and chemical structures on 8 m-class telescopes are required, to provide the link between local near-field cosmology and predictions from the high-redshift Universe.

  9. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  10. Monitoring non-periodic comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS using Joan Oró 0.8 m robotic telescope at OAdM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Rodríguez, D.; Lacruz, J.; Sánchez, A.

    2013-09-01

    Comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS was discovered in June 2011 by R. Wainscoat and D. Tholen using the Pan-STARRS telescope located near the summit of Haleakala, on the island of Maui in Hawaii (USA) [1]. Once its orbit was computed it was noticed its non-periodic nature and the favorable geometry during its approach to perihelion in March 2013. It first became visible to the naked eye from the Southern hemisphere, and later on it started to be seen during mid-March from the Northern one. Due to the limited observational period in right conditions we introduce here some observations obtained taken from robotic 0.8 m Telescope Joan Oró (JO) from the Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM: www.oadm.cat) and other Spanish observatories.

  11. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Southern Cross) and YEPUN (UT4; ye-poon ; Sirius), respectively. An audio sequence with these names pronounced by a native speaker is available below: [RealMedia - Audio only - 164k] "First Light" of UT2 Following the installation of the main mirror in its cell and a 20-hour working session to put the complex secondary mirror and its support in place, the UT2, now Kueyen , achieved (technical) first light in the morning of March 1, 1999, when an image was obtained of a bright star. It showed this telescope to be in good optical shape and further adjustments of the optical and mechanical systems are expected soon to result in some "astronomical" images. The announcement of this important event was made by the ESO Director during the opening session of the VLT Symposium that was held in Antofagasta during March 1-4, 1999. This meeting attracted over 250 scientists from all over world. It provided a most useful opportunity to discuss future scientific programmes with the VLT and other large telescopes. The participants were left with the impression of mounting expectations, just four weeks before the first VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), will receive the first visiting astronomers. More images from UT1 ESO PR Photo 17c/99 ESO PR Photo 17c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 667 pix - 332k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1334 pix - 1.3M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2108 x 3450 pix - 2.8M] Caption to PR Photo 17c/99 : This colour composite photo of the Chamaeleon I area is based on six 1-min exposures obtained with VLT UT1 + FORS1 in the V, R and I bands. The sky field measures 6.8 x 11.2 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left [1]. Despite the extensive preparations for the Paranal Inguration and the VLT Symposium, excellent progress is being made during the final tuning of Antu (UT1) and its instruments for the "hand-over" to the astronomers on April 1, 1999. This involves exposures in many different modes and of different sky regions. Another impressive photo is shown here that was obtained some nights

  12. Chromospheric activity on the late-type star V1355 Ori using Lijiang 1.8-m and 2.4-m telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Qing-Feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Chang, Liang; Han, Xian-Ming; Lu, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Xi-Liang; Wang, Dai-Mei

    2016-10-01

    We obtained new high-resolution spectra using the Lijiang 1.8-m and 2.4-m telescopes to investigate the chromospheric activities of V1355 Ori as indicated in the behaviors of Ca ii H&K, Hδ, Hγ, Hβ, Na i D1, D2, Hα and Ca ii infrared triplet (IRT) lines. The observed spectra show obvious emissions above the continuum in Ca ii H&K lines, absorptions in the Hδ, Hγ, Hβ and Na i D1, D2 lines, variable behavior (filled-in absorption, partial emission with a core absorption component or emission above the continuum) in the Hα line, and weak self-reversal emissions in the strong filled-in absorptions of the Ca ii IRT lines. We used a spectral subtraction technique to analyze our data. The results show no excess emission in the Hδ and Hγ lines, very weak excess emissions in the Na i D1, D2 lines, excess emission in the Hβ line, clear excess emission in the Hα line, and excess emissions in the Ca ii IRT lines. The value of the ratio of EW8542/EW8498 is in the range 0.9 to 1.7, which implies that chromospheric activity might have been caused by plage events. The value of the ratio E Hα/E Hβ is above 3, indicating that the Balmer lines would arise from prominence-like material. We also found time variations in light curves associated with equivalent widths of chromospheric activity lines in the Na i D1, D2, Ca ii IRT and Hα lines in particular. These phenomena can be explained by plage events, which are consistent with the behavior of chromospheric activity indicators.

  13. Evidence for a 3 X 10^8 M_⊙ Black Hole in NGC 7052 from Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Nuclear Gas Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    1998-11-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of the nuclear region of the E4 radio galaxy NGC 7052, which has a nuclear disk of dust and gas. The Second Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2) was used to obtain B, V, and I broadband images and an Hα + [N II] narrowband image. The images yield the stellar surface brightness profile, the optical depth of the dust, and the flux distribution of the ionized gas. The Faint Object Spectrograph was used to obtain Hα + [N II] spectra at six different positions along the major axis, using a 0.26" diameter circular aperture. The emission lines yield the rotation curve of the ionized gas and the radial profile of its velocity dispersion. The observed rotation velocity at r = 0.2" from the nucleus is V = 155 +/- 17 km s^-1. The Gaussian dispersion of the emission lines increases from sigma ~ 70 km s^-1 at r = 1" to sigma ~ 400 km s^-1 on the nucleus. To interpret the gas kinematics, we construct axisymmetric models in which the gas and dust reside in a disk in the equatorial plane of the stellar body and are viewed at an inclination of 70 deg. It is assumed that the gas moves on circular orbits, with an intrinsic velocity dispersion due to turbulence (or otherwise nongravitational motion). The latter is required to fit the observed increase in the line widths toward the nucleus and must reach a value in excess of 500 km s^-1 in the central 0.1". The circular velocity is calculated from the combined gravitational potential of the stars and a possible nuclear black hole. Models without a black hole predict a rotation curve that is shallower than observed (V_pred = 92 km s^-1 at r = 0.2") and are ruled out at greater than 99% confidence. Models with a black hole of mass M_a=3.3^+2.3_-1.3x10^8 M_⊙ provide an acceptable fit. The best-fitting model with a black hole adequately reproduces the observed emission-line shapes on the nucleus, which have a narrower peak and broader wings than a Gaussian. NGC 7052 can be added to the

  14. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  15. Vadose Zone Remediation Assessment: M-Area Process Sewer Soil Vapor Extraction Units 782-5M, 782-7M, and 782-8M

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.

    2001-04-20

    This study focuses on the status of the vadose zone remediation along 1600 ft of the process sewer line between the M-Area security fence and the M-Area settling basin. Three soil vapor extraction (SVE) units 782-5M, 782-7M, and 782-8M, connected to 4 vertical wells and 3 horizontal wells have been addressing the vadose zone volatile organic contamination (VOC) since 1995. The specific objectives of this study were to obtain soil gas and sediment samples, evaluate SVE units and vadose zone remediation, and make recommendations to address further remediation needs.

  16. Shuttle orbiter with telescoping main propulsion unit and payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConochie, Ian O.

    1993-03-01

    An improved Space Shuttle with variable internal volume is provided. The Space Shuttle Orbiter includes a telescoping main propulsion unit. This main propulsion unit contains the main rocket engines and fuel tanks and telescopes into the Space Shuttle. A variable cavity is located between this unit and the crew compartment. Accordingly, the positioning of the telescoping main propulsion unit determines the volume of the variable cavity. Thus, the volume of the variable length of the entire Space Shuttle may be increased or decreased to achieve desired configurations for optimal storage. In one embodiment of the invention, the payload also telescopes within the variable cavity.

  17. United States Atlas of Optical Telescopes. [2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Stephen Paul

    1987-01-01

    This atlas shows the locations of and gives information about optical telescopes used for astronomical research in the United States as of late 1986. Those instruments with mirror or lens diameters of 3/4 m (approx. 30 inches) and larger are included. These telescopes are concentrated in the Southwest, on the West Coast and on the island of Hawaii.

  18. This is a CCD image taken 20 July UT (19 July CDT) at 02:00 UT (9:00pm CDT) with the 0.8m telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a CCD image taken 20 July UT (19 July CDT) at 02:00 UT (9:00pm CDT) with the 0.8m telescope of The University of Texas McDonald Observatory. An 893nm filter which isolates absorption by methane gas was used. This filter makes high cloud features appear bright. North is at the top and west is to the right. This image was obtained prior to sunset. In this image, impact sites from fragments L and G are clearly visible. This image was taken 4 hours after the L impact. The L impact site is the one nearest the west (right) limb. Notice the central dark region and the fountain pattern to the southwest. The G impact site is on the central meridian. It shows a central impact spot with a diffuse fan which also points to the southwest. The G impact occurred 4 Jupiter days before this image. The impact site for fragment H is just coming onto the east limb (left) and can be seen where it appears detached from the planet and may be a very high cloud. This image was taken by Dr. Wayne Pryor (University of Colorado), Dr. Chan Na (Southwest Research Institute) and Dr. Anita Cochran (University of Texas).

  19. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  20. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  1. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  2. Facility calibration unit of Hobby Eberly Telescope wide field upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Smith, Michael P.; Haeuser, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) will be equipped with new Facility Calibration Unit (FCU). The FCU is in support of VIRUS and the facility instruments and consists of the head and source box. The FCU head, connected to the source box through two liquid light guides, is attached to the bottom of the WFU Wide-Field Corrector (WFC) and can be deployed into the beam to inject calibration light through the WFC whenever calibration is needed. A set of Fresnel lenses is used in the FCU head to mimic the caustics of M1 as much as possible to re-produce the telescope’s focal plane illumination pattern. Various imaging/non-imaging optical components (e.g. Compound Parabolic Concentrators, cone reflectors, condenser lenses) are used for efficient coupling between different types of calibration lamps and light guides, covering wavelengths from 350nm to 1800nm. In addition, we developed an efficient and tunable Light-Emitting Diode (LED) based source and coupler for UV and Visible spectral flat field calibration. This paper presents the designs, prototypes, and as-built components / subsystems of the FCU.

  3. High-resolution fibre-fed spectrograph for the 6-m telescope. Polarimetric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, D. E.; Sazonenko, D. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Yushkin, M. V.; Bychkov, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We report the computation of the design of a polarimetric unit for the optical scheme of the fiberfed high-resolution spectrograph for the 6-m Russian telescope.We discuss a variant of its integration into the design of conversion optics at the input of the fiber path if the instrument and estimate the efficiency of the entire pre-fiber optical system. The luminous efficiency of the assembly is equal to 80 and 90% when operated in the polarimetry and normal spectroscopic modes, respectively.We estimate the lower limit for the distorting instrumental effects of the polarimetric unit.

  4. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  5. KOALA, a wide-field 1000 element integral-field unit for the Anglo-Australian Telescope: assembly and commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelem, Ross; Brzeski, Jurek; Case, Scott; Churilov, Vladimir; Ellis, Simon; Farrell, Tony; Green, Andrew; Heng, Anthony; Horton, Anthony; Ireland, Michael; Jones, Damien; Klauser, Urs; Lawrence, Jon; Miziarski, Stan; Orr, David; Pai, Naveen; Staszak, Nick; Tims, Julia; Vuong, Minh; Waller, Lew; Xavier, Pascal

    2014-07-01

    The KOALA optical fibre feed for the AAOmega spectrograph has been commissioned at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The instrument samples the reimaged telescope focal plane at two scales: 1.23 arcsec and 0.70 arcsec per image slicing hexagonal lenslet over a 49x27 and 28x15 arcsec field of view respectively. The integral field unit consists of 2D hexagonal and circular lenslet arrays coupling light into 1000 fibres with 100 micron core diameter. The fibre run is over 35m long connecting the telescope Cassegrain focus with the bench mounted spectrograph room where all fibres are reformatted into a one-dimensional slit. Design and assembly of the KOALA components, engineering challenges encountered, and commissioning results are discussed.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope and United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Observations of the Center of the Trifid Nebula: Evidence for the Photoevaporation of a Proplyd and a Protostellar Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Biretta, J.; Geballe, T. R.

    2005-09-01

    The Trifid Nebula (M20) is a well-known prominent optical H II region trisected by bands of obscuring dust lanes and excited by an O7.5 star, HD 164492A. Previous near-IR, mid-IR, and radio continuum observations of the cluster of stars at the center of the Trifid Nebula indicated the presence of circumstellar disks associated with hot stars with envelopes that are photoionized externally by the UV radiation from the hot central star, HD 164492A. Using the WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we present evidence of a resolved proplyd in Hα and [S II] line emission from a stellar source emitting cool dust emission. Using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, an infrared observation of the stellar source with a proplyd indicates a late F to mid-G spectral type. We also note a remarkable complex of filamentary and sheetlike structures that appear to arise from the edge of a protostellar condensation. These observations are consistent with a picture in which the bright massive star HD 164492A is responsible for the photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks of other less massive members of the cluster, as well as the closest protostellar condensation facing the central cluster. Using the evidence for a proplyd, we argue that the massive and intermediate-mass members of the cluster, HD 164492C (B6 star) and HD 164492 (Herbig Be star), have disks associated with them.

  7. Design, fabrication, integration and commissioning of an upgraded guiding probe for the VLT unit telescope 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Christoph; Hammersley, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Birkmann, Martin; Mueller, Michael; Salgado, Fernando; Guisard, Stephane; Kroedel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    As part of the preparation for the arrival of the MUSE instrument to the VLT, it was required to adapt the hosting telescope (UT4) guide probe, to increase its back focal length. This is to allow enough space for the later deployment of the MUSE Adaptive Optics module GALACSI, in-between the telescope adapter rotator and the instrument itself. The UT guide probe is a critical component for the successful operation of the telescope, so its modification to increase the telescope's back focal length, while maintaining full compatibility with the existing operation model and other hardware, was rather demanding. The design, manufacture, assembly and test for the new supporting arm in the UT guiding probe is presented. It mixes the use of novel materials (HB-CESIC® for the mirrors substrates) and state of the art manufacturing techniques (3D printing mould production and rapid casting for the support structure), which allow producing easily a high performance subsystem. Characterization of the system prior delivery to the telescope, its integration in the UT and results after commissioning is presented. Its successful implementation has validated new manufacturing techniques that may prove very useful for future instruments development.

  8. Deployable Integral Field Units, Multislits, and Image Slicer for the Goodman Imaging Spectrograph on the SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Moffett, A. J.; Cui, Y.; Eckert, K. D.; McBride, J.; Kannappan, S.; Keller, K.; Barlow, B. N.; Dunlap, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Goodman Imager-Spectrograph on the 4.1m SOAR telescope has operated on Cerro Pachon, Chile with volume-phase holographic gratings in long-slit mode since its commissioning in 2008. Recently, UNC graduate students played key roles to implement robust upgrades for multi-object spectroscopy that will soon be available to US astronomers through the NOAO time share on SOAR: • Multislits over 3x5 arcmin, generated on PCB solder stencils with exceptional sharpness compared to conventional laser cuts, initially to survey globular clusters for pulsating hot sub-dwarfs • An image slicer to obtain 3 simultaneous parallel spectra 70-arcsec long, 1- or 2-arcsec wide, spanning 320-750 nm to map stellar and gaseous emission and mass over the 1500 galaxies in the RESOLVE survey underway on SOAR • Four integral field units, each composed of 5-arcsec diameter, fused bundles of 0.5-arcsec diameter thin-clad optical fiber, independently deployed over a 10x5 arcmin field targeted by an EMCCD also used for Lucky Imaging. Initially will study aperture effects in single fiber surveys, extragalactic globular clusters, and demonstrate technology prior to deployment on larger telescopes • New wheels supporting a large set of existing narrow-band and Sloan filters • A trombone-style atmospheric dispersion compensator that corrects the full 12-arcmin diameter science field down to 30 deg elevation. Working in UNC's Goodman Laboratory for Astronomical Instrumentation, students employed SolidWorks and ZEMAX to design parts for in-house CAM on CNC machines and a 3D printer. All motors are controlled by LabVIEW as is the SOAR TCS. The deployable IFU axes are controlled by Quicksilver Controls Inc. intelligent servos and $80 model robot (Firgelli Corp.) actuators driven by a PIC-microcontroller and a student designed custom PCB. Upgrades and students were supported by $200K from SOAR Corporation, Research Corporation, NSF, and UNC competitive funds, and NC NASA Space Grant, Sigma Xi

  9. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  10. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  11. Coherent array telescopes as a fifteen meter optical telescope equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odgers, G. J.

    1982-10-01

    The potential benefits of using a mirror array to form a large optical telescope equivalent to a 15 m monolithic mirror telescope are discussed. The concept comprises 25 three meter telescopes in a circular array or 13 double unit telescopes, also in a circular array. The double-units would have individual 4.2 m instruments. Meniscus-shaped mirrors with F/2 aperture ratios would allow lightweight construction. A smaller, four double unit telescope would be equivalent to an 8.4 m telescope, larger than any existing in the world. The viewing capabilities could also be extended to the IR. Each sector of the compound telescopes, if built with 3 m apertures, could be controlled with 1/20th arsec acccuracy. Finally, the inherent long baseline of an array telescope would permit enhanced interferometric viewing.

  12. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi

    2011-08-01

    We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

  13. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  14. The MaNGA Integral Field Unit Fiber Feed System for the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drory, N.; MacDonald, N.; Bershady, M. A.; Bundy, K.; Gunn, J.; Law, D. R.; Smith, M.; Stoll, R.; Tremonti, C. A.; Wake, D. A.; Yan, R.; Weijmans, A. M.; Byler, N.; Cherinka, B.; Cope, F.; Eigenbrot, A.; Harding, P.; Holder, D.; Huehnerhoff, J.; Jaehnig, K.; Jansen, T. C.; Klaene, M.; Paat, A. M.; Percival, J.; Sayres, C.

    2015-02-01

    We describe the design, manufacture, and performance of bare-fiber integral field units (IFUs) for the SDSS-IV survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) on the the Sloan 2.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. MaNGA is a luminosity-selected integral-field spectroscopic survey of 104 local galaxies covering 360-1030 nm at R˜ 2200. The IFUs have hexagonal dense packing of fibers with packing regularity of 3 μm (rms), and throughput of 96 ± 0.5% from 350 nm to 1 μm in the lab. Their sizes range from 19 to 127 fibers (3-7 hexagonal layers) using Polymicro FBP 120:132:150 μm core:clad:buffer fibers to reach a fill fraction of 56%. High throughput (and low focal-ratio degradation (FRD)) is achieved by maintaining the fiber cladding and buffer intact, ensuring excellent surface polish, and applying a multi-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating of the input and output surfaces. In operations on-sky, the IFUs show only an additional 2.3% FRD-related variability in throughput despite repeated mechanical stressing during plate plugging (however other losses are present). The IFUs achieve on-sky throughput 5% above the single-fiber feeds used in SDSS-III/BOSS, attributable to equivalent performance compared to single fibers and additional gains from the AR coating. The manufacturing process is geared toward mass-production of high-multiplex systems. The low-stress process involves a precision ferrule with a hexagonal inner shape designed to lead inserted fibers to settle in a dense hexagonal pattern. The ferrule ID is tapered at progressively shallower angles toward its tip and the final 2 mm are straight and only a few microns larger than necessary to hold the desired number of fibers. Our IFU manufacturing process scales easily to accommodate other fiber sizes and can produce IFUs with substantially larger fiber counts. To assure quality, automated testing in a simple and inexpensive system enables complete characterization of throughput and

  15. The MaNGA integral field unit fiber feed system for the Sloan 2.5 m telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Drory, N.; MacDonald, N.; Byler, N.; Bershady, M. A.; Smith, M.; Tremonti, C. A.; Wake, D. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Jaehnig, K.; Bundy, K.; Gunn, J.; Law, D. R.; Cherinka, B.; Stoll, R.; Weijmans, A. M.; Cope, F.; Holder, D.; Huehnerhoff, J.; Harding, P.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe the design, manufacture, and performance of bare-fiber integral field units (IFUs) for the SDSS-IV survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) on the the Sloan 2.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. MaNGA is a luminosity-selected integral-field spectroscopic survey of 10{sup 4} local galaxies covering 360–1030 nm at R∼2200. The IFUs have hexagonal dense packing of fibers with packing regularity of 3 μm (rms), and throughput of 96 ± 0.5% from 350 nm to 1 μm in the lab. Their sizes range from 19 to 127 fibers (3–7 hexagonal layers) using Polymicro FBP 120:132:150 μm core:clad:buffer fibers to reach a fill fraction of 56%. High throughput (and low focal-ratio degradation (FRD)) is achieved by maintaining the fiber cladding and buffer intact, ensuring excellent surface polish, and applying a multi-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating of the input and output surfaces. In operations on-sky, the IFUs show only an additional 2.3% FRD-related variability in throughput despite repeated mechanical stressing during plate plugging (however other losses are present). The IFUs achieve on-sky throughput 5% above the single-fiber feeds used in SDSS-III/BOSS, attributable to equivalent performance compared to single fibers and additional gains from the AR coating. The manufacturing process is geared toward mass-production of high-multiplex systems. The low-stress process involves a precision ferrule with a hexagonal inner shape designed to lead inserted fibers to settle in a dense hexagonal pattern. The ferrule ID is tapered at progressively shallower angles toward its tip and the final 2 mm are straight and only a few microns larger than necessary to hold the desired number of fibers. Our IFU manufacturing process scales easily to accommodate other fiber sizes and can produce IFUs with substantially larger fiber counts. To assure quality, automated testing in a simple and inexpensive system enables complete characterization of

  16. ASTRO-1: a 1.8m unobscured space observatory for next generation UV/visible astrophysics and exoplanet exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Egerman, Robert; Morse, Jon A.; Wilkes, Belinda

    2016-07-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has been a scientific marvel that has provided unimaginable imagery and scientific discovery. Its exquisite UV/Visible imaging performance is unmatched from the ground. In NASA's future planning, the earliest possible successor mission would be in the 3030s, well beyond the expected lifetime of Hubble. The ASTRO-1 space telescope is a 1.8m off-axis (unobscured) observatory that looks to fill this critical void with Hubble-like performance to continue the scientific quest while also providing the possibility for exoplanet research with a coronagraphic instrument and/or a free flying starshade. BoldlyGo Institute seeks to reach beyond NASA funding to leverage the high public interest in space research and exploration, and the search for life beyond Earth.

  17. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  18. Configurable slit-mask unit of the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration for the Keck telescope: integration and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Giriens, Laurent; Henein, Simon; Lisowski, Leszek; O'Hare, Aidan; Onillon, Emmanuel; Schwab, Philippe; Theurillat, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    A Configurable Slit Unit (CSU) has been developed for the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) instrument to be installed on the Keck 1 Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. MOSFIRE will provide NIR multi-object spectroscopy over a field of view of 6.1' x 6.1'. The reconfigurable mask allows the formation of 46 optical slits in a 267 x 267 mm2 field of view. The mechanism is an evolution of a former prototype designed by CSEM and qualified for the European Space Agency (ESA) as a candidate for the slit mask on NIRSpec for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The CSU is designed to simultaneously displace masking bars across the field-of-view (FOV) to mask unwanted light. A set of 46 bar pairs are used to form the MOSFIRE focal plane mask. The sides of the bars are convoluted so that light is prevented from passing between adjacent bars. The slit length is fixed (5.1 mm) but the width is variable down to 200 μm with a slit positioning accuracy of +/- 18 μm. A two-bar prototype mechanism was designed, manufactured and cryogenically tested to validate the modifications from the JWST prototype. The working principle of the mechanism is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 92 masking bars forming the optical mask. Original voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches. The design makes significant use of flexure structures.

  19. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  20. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  1. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  2. Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekers, Ron; Wilson, Thomas L.

    ``Radio Telescopes" starts with a brief historical introduction from Jansky's1931 discovery of radio emission from the Milky Way through the development ofradio telescope dishes and arrays to aperture synthesis imaging. It includessufficient basics of electromagnetic radiation to provide some understanding of thedesign and operation of radio telescopes. The criteria such as frequencyrange, sensitivity, survey speed, angular resolution, and field of view thatdetermine the design of radio telescopes are introduced. Because it is soeasy to manipulate the electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies, radiotelescopes have evolved into many different forms, sometimes with "wire"structures tuned to specific wavelengths, which look very different from anykind of classical telescope. To assist astronomers more familiar with otherwavelength domains, the appendix A.1. includes a comparison of radioand optical terminology. Some of the different types of radio telescopesincluding the filled aperture dishes, electronically steered phased arrays, andaperture synthesis radio telescopes are discussed, and there is a sectioncomparing the differences between dishes and arrays. Some of the morerecent developments including hierarchical beam forming, phased arrayfeeds, mosaicing, rotation measure synthesis, digital receivers, and longbaseline interferometers are included. The problem of increasing radiofrequency interference is discussed, and some possible mitigation strategies areoutlined.

  3. KOALA: a wide-field 1000 element integral-field unit for the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Ireland, M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Tims, J.; Staszak, N.; Brzeski, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sharp, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Case, S.; Colless, M.; Croom, S.; Couch, W.; De Marco, O.; Glazebrook, K.; Saunders, W.; Webster, R.; Zucker, D. B.

    2012-09-01

    KOALA, the Kilofibre Optimised Astronomical Lenslet Array, is a wide-field, high efficiency integral field unit being designed for use with the bench mounted AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. KOALA will have 1000 fibres in a rectangular array with a selectable field of view of either 1390 or 430 sq. arcseconds with a spatial sampling of 1.25" or 0.7" respectively. To achieve this KOALA will use a telecentric double lenslet array with interchangeable fore-optics. The IFU will feed AAOmega via a 31m fibre run. The efficiency of KOALA is expected to be ≍ 52% at 3700A and ≍ 66% at 6563°Å with a throughput of > 52% over the entire wavelength range.

  4. The science case of WISH-Spec, an Integral-field unit for the WISH telescope to study the first populations of galaxies in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarella, Denis

    2015-08-01

    WISH is a new space science mission concept whose primary goal is to study the first galaxies in the early universe. WISH will be a 1.5m telescope equipped with a 1000 arcmin2 wide-field Near-IR camera that would fly in ~2020 in order to conduct unique ultra-deep and wide-area sky surveys in the wavelength range 1-5 micron. A spectroscopic mode (Integral-Field Unit) in the same Near-IR range is also planned. The primary science goal of WISH mission is to push the high-redshift frontier beyond the epoch of reionization by utilizing its unique imaging capability and the dedicated survey strategy. Which spectral range should we select to optimize the detection of very high-redshift (i.e., z > 5) galaxies ? In the rest-frame Far-UV or in the rest-frame Far-IR? In a recent paper, Burgarella et al. (2013) showed that the Far-UV dust attenuation (AFUV) reaches the same level at z ~ 3 than at z = 0 . This suggest that the early universe would be better studied in the rest-frame Far-UV. At z > 5, this Far-UV range moves into the Near-IR (1 - 5um) which is WISH’s preferred spectral range. The baseline of WISH-Spec is a 1x1 arcmin2 Integral-Field Unit (IFU) using slicers. WISH-Spec could observe in a parallel mode which translates into spectroscopic exposure times as long as the telescope lifetime. WISH features two 100-deg2 and 1000-deg2 surveys. However, WISHSpec will allow to acquire very large samples of high-redshift and primordial galaxies by combining spectroscopic detections within total (non contiguous) 1-deg2 and 10-deg2 fields of views. Therefore, the first strong advantage of WISHSpec wrt JWST is that 10^4 - 10^5 faint emission-line galaxies in 1 deg2 and 10^3 - 10^6 bright emission-line galaxies in 10 deg2 in the redshift range 3 < z < 8 will be detected.

  5. Results from telescopes in orbit, and the greatest on the ground: A multifrequency study of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Armijos Abendaño, Jairo; Carreto, Francisco; Martin, Sergio; Mast, Damian; Diaz, Angeles

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present the result of combine and compare data from terrestrial observatories and space telescopes toward galaxies. We used the 8m NIR Gemini telescope at Chile, FIRST-Herschel in the space, ALMA interferometer at Chile, and Fermi telescope for gamma frequency in the space toward NGC1068. Also, we use a 2m optical/IR telescope at Mexico and the VLA interferometer in USA combined with Fermi telescope toward 3C454.3.

  6. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  7. Telescopic hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Cosmic blunders that have held back science" (2 June, http://ow.ly/xwC7C), about an essay by the astronomer Avi Loeb in which he criticized, among others, his Harvard University predecessor Edward Pickering, who claimed in 1909 that telescopes had reached their optimal size.

  8. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  9. SPATIALLY RESOLVED M-BAND EMISSION FROM IO’S LOKI PATERA–FIZEAU IMAGING AT THE 22.8 m LBT

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Albert; Veillet, Christian; Kleer, Katherine de; Pater, Imke de; Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip; Skemer, Andy; Camera, Andrea La; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Kürster, Martin; Rathbun, Julie; Skrutskie, Michael; Spencer, John; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-05-15

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer mid-infrared camera, LMIRcam, imaged Io on the night of 2013 December 24 UT and detected strong M-band (4.8 μm) thermal emission arising from Loki Patera. The 22.8 m baseline of the Large Binocular Telescope provides an angular resolution of ∼32 mas (∼100 km at Io) resolving the Loki Patera emission into two distinct maxima originating from different regions within Loki’s horseshoe lava lake. This observation is consistent with the presence of a high-temperature source observed in previous studies combined with an independent peak arising from cooling crust from recent resurfacing. The deconvolved images also reveal 15 other emission sites on the visible hemisphere of Io including two previously unidentified hot spots.

  10. DYNAMICAL MASS OF THE M8+M8 BINARY 2MASS J22062280 - 2047058AB {sup ,} {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.

    2009-11-20

    We present Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging of the M8+M8 binary 2MASS J2206 - 2047AB. Together with archival Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini-North, and Very Large Telescope data, our observations span 8.3 yr of the binary's 35{sup +6}{sub -5} yr orbital period, and we determine a total dynamical mass of 0.15{sup +0.05} {sub -0.03} M{sub sun}, with the uncertainty dominated by the parallax error. Using the measured total mass and individual luminosities, the Tucson and Lyon evolutionary models both give an age for the system of 0.4{sup +9.6}{sub -0.2} Gyr, which is consistent with its thin disk space motion derived from the Besancon Galactic structure model. Our mass measurement combined with the Tucson (Lyon) evolutionary models also yields precise effective temperatures, giving 2660{sup +90}{sub -100} K and 2640{sup +90}{sub -100} K (2550{sup +90}{sub -100} K and 2530{sup +90}{sub -100} K) for components A and B, respectively. These temperatures are in good agreement with estimates for other M8 dwarfs (from the infrared flux method and the M8 mass benchmark LHS 2397aA), but atmospheric model fitting of the integrated-light spectrum gives hotter temperatures of 2800 +- 100 K for both components. This modest discrepancy can be explained by systematic errors in the atmospheric models or by a slight underestimation of the distance (and thus, mass and age) of the system. We also find that the observed near-infrared colors and magnitudes do not agree with those predicted by the Lyon Dusty models, given the known mass of the system.

  11. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  12. Characterization of the supermirror hard-x-ray telescope for the InFOCmuS balloon experiment.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Takashi; Tamura, Keisuke; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Haga, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Seiji; Ichimaru, Satoshi; Kito, Hideo; Fukuda, Shin'ichi; Goto, Arifumi; Nomoto, Kentaro; Satake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Seima; Kamata, Yuichi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Akimoto, Fumie; Yoshioka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Kazumasa; Haba, Yoshito; Tanaka, Takeshi; Wada, Keiichi; Hamada, Noriyuki; Hudaverdi, Murat; Tawara, Yuzuru; Yamashita, Koujun; Serlemitsos, Peter J; Soong, Yang; Chan, Kai-Wing; Owens, Scott M; Berendse, Fred B; Tueller, Jack; Misaki, Kazutami; Shibata, Ryo; Mori, Hideyuki; Itoh, Kei; Kunieda, Hideyo; Namba, Yoshiharu

    2002-09-01

    A hard-x-ray telescope is successfully produced for balloon observations by making use of depth-graded multilayers, or so-called supermirrors, with platinum-carbon (Pt/C) layer pairs. It consists of four quadrant units assembled in an optical configuration with a diameter of 40 cm and a focal length of 8 m. Each quadrant is made of 510 pieces of coaxially and confocally aligned supermirrors that significantly enhance the sensitivity in an energy range of 20-40 keV. The configuration of the telescope is similar to the x-ray telescope onboard Astro-E, but with a longer focal length. The reflectivity of supermirrors is of the order of 40% in the energy range concerned at a grazing angle of 0.2 deg. The effective area of a fully assembled telescope is 50 cm2 at 30 keV. The angular resolution is 2.37 arc min at half-power diameter 8.0 keV. The field of view is 12.6 arc min in the hard-x-ray region, depending somewhat on x-ray energies. We discuss these characteristics, taking into account the figure errors of reflectors and their optical alignment in the telescope assembly. This hard-x-ray telescope is unanimously afforded in the International Focusing Optics Collaboration for muCrab Sensitivity balloon experiment.

  13. 77 K Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of Modified CF8M Stainless Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, R. P.; Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Heitzenroeder, P. J.; Nelson, B. E.

    2006-03-31

    The National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX) is the first of a new class of stellarators. The modular superconducting coils in the NCSX have complex geometry that are manufactured on cast stainless steel (modified CF8M) winding forms. Although CF8M castings have been used before at cryogenic temperature there is limited data available for their mechanical properties at low temperatures. The fatigue life behavior of the cast material is vital thus a test program to generate data on representative material has been conducted. Fatigue test specimens have been obtained from key locations within prototype winding forms to determine the 77 K fatigue crack growth rate. The testing has successfully developed a representative database that ensures confident design. The measured crack growth rates are analyzed in terms of the Paris law parameters and the crack growth properties are related to the materials microstructure.

  14. Detection of interleukin-8 mRNA and protein in human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Brew, R; Southern, S A; Flanagan, B F; McDicken, I W; Christmas, S E

    1996-11-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a member of the chemokine family of pro-inflammatory chemotactic cytokines and is secreted by some human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. We have used in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry to determine whether IL-8 mRNA and protein, respectively, are produced by human colorectal carcinoma cells in vivo. IL-8 mRNA was detected within the cytoplasm of tumour cells in all nine samples tested, including that of a tumour which had metastasised to a lymph node. Non-involved colonic mucosa within the same tissue blocks showed much weaker labelling. IL-8 protein was detected in 74% (23/31) of tumour samples and was mainly localised to the tumour cell cytoplasm. In 30% of cases, staining was heterogeneous, with between 1 and 30% of cells being positive. In some tumour cells, IL-8 showed a perinuclear distribution resembling that found by in situ hybridisation. Some infiltrating leucocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblast-like cells within the tumour sections were also positive for IL-8 mRNA and protein. The possibilities that colorectal tumours produce IL-8 to aid invasion and/or metastasis or as a tumour growth factor are discussed.

  15. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  16. JSC Particle Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Particle Telescope. Schematic diagrams of the telescope geometry and an electronic block diagram of the detector telescopes' components are also described.

  17. Effect of liquid channeling on a 1.8-m distillation sieve tray

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, S.J.; Biddulph, M.W.; Krishnamurthy, K.R.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation designed to establish the extent of the effects of liquid channeling and stagnant zones on the efficiency of a 1.8-m diameter sieve tray. The method used is to compare performance, in the same column and using the same system, with a novel tray which is known, from hydraulic studies, to remove stagnant zones. It is found that there is an observable loss in efficiency in the sieve tray, particularly at heavy loadings, and this will have implications for designers specifying high-capacity trays for new or upgraded columns.

  18. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  19. Innovative enclosure dome/observing aperture system design for the MROI Array Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busatta, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mian, S.; Payne, I.; Pozzobon, M.

    2010-07-01

    The close-pack array of the MROI necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) at Magdalena Ridge Observatory. The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a project which comprises an array of up to ten (10) 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. The most compact configuration includes all ten telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other. Since the minimum angle of the field of regard is 30° with respect to the horizon, it is difficult to prevent optical blockage caused by adjacent UTEs in this compact array. This paper presents the design constraints inherent in meeting the requirement for the close-pack array. An innovative design enclosure was created which incorporates an unique dome/observing aperture system. The description of this system focuses on how the field of regard requirement led to an unique and highly innovative concept that had to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). Finally, we describe the wide use of composites materials and structures (e.g. glass/carbon fibres, sandwich panels etc.) on the aperture system which represents the only way to guarantee adequate thermal and environmental protection, compactness, structural stability and limited power consumption due to reduced mass.

  20. VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; Cornell, Mark E.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Kelz, Andreas; Marshall, J. L.; Murphy, J. D.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Bender, Ralf; Blanc, Guillermo; Chonis, Taylor; Dalton, Gavin; Gebhardt, Karl; Good, John; Haynes, Dionne; Jahn, Thomas; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Rafal, M. D.; Roth, M. M.; Savage, R. D.; Snigula, Jan

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) consists of a baseline build of 150 identical spectrographs (arrayed as 75 units, each with a pair of spectrographs) fed by 33,600 fibers, each 1.5 arcsec diameter, deployed over the 22 arcminute field of the upgraded 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The goal is to deploy 82 units. VIRUS has a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R~700. VIRUS is the first example of industrial-scale replication applied to optical astronomy and is capable of spectral surveys of large areas of sky. This approach, in which a relatively simple, inexpensive, unit spectrograph is copied in large numbers, offers significant savings of engineering effort, cost, and schedule when compared to traditional instruments. The main motivator for VIRUS is to map the evolution of dark energy for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) using 0.8M Lyman-α emitting galaxies as tracers. The full VIRUS array is due to be deployed by early 2014 and will provide a powerful new facility instrument for the HET, well suited to the survey niche of the telescope. VIRUS and HET will open up wide-field surveys of the emission-line universe for the first time. We present the production design and current status of VIRUS.

  1. Adaptive-optics performance of Antarctic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S

    2004-02-20

    The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole. PMID:15008551

  2. The structure of the faint nebulosity and obscuration toward M8, M20, and W28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, H.; Malin, D. F.; MacGillivray, H. T.; Zealey, W. J.

    A study of filamentary nebulosity and dust clouds in the M8, M20, W28 region has been carried out using deep, UKSTU and ESO plate material. An arc of red nebulosity, centred near the W28 supernova remnant and passing across the face of M20 has been noted. Star counts show that W28 is embedded in a dense sheet of material (N0 > 120 cm-3). This sheet appears to be at a distance of less than 2100 pc. One possible interpretation is that the arc of nebulosity is part of a large, 1.5 degree diameter, shell formed by the expansion of the W28 SNR into an inhomogeneous medium.

  3. Beginning Research with the 1.8-meter Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of Spacewatch is to explore the various populations of small objects within the solar system. Spacewatch provides data for studies of comets and asteroids, finds potential targets for space missions, and provides information on the environmental problem of possible impacts. This grant provided some of the funds to implement Spacewatch operations on the new 1.8-m Spacewatch Telescope.

  4. Sensor Development for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor,P.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2007-06-07

    The Large Synoptic Survey project proposes to build an 8m-class ground-based telescope with a dedicated wide field camera. The camera consists of a large focal plane mosaic composed of multi-output CCDs with extended red response. Design considerations and preliminary characterization results for the sensors are presented in this contribution to the Workshop.

  5. Mechanized welding of a Christmans tree of 06Kh20N8M3D2L steel

    SciTech Connect

    Leibzon, V.M.; kakhramanov, V.T.; Eshtokin, V.I.; Fataliev, S.O.; Fisher, V.O.; Pavlov, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The most critical fitting of a well for the recovery of petroleum and gas with a high content of corrosive constituents is made of 06Kh20N8M3D2L steel. The quality, reliability, and life of a Christmas tree are determined primarily by the mechanical and corrosion properties of the weld joint. The authors report on the improvement of the existing method for welding the units of a Christmas tree. Argon and carbon dioxide were used as the protective medium in semiautomatic welding. The welding was done with a reverse polarity dc. An analysis of the data presented shows that the closest content to the base metal of chromium and nickel in the joint are provided in welding with OZL-41 electrodes. The molybdenum content in the joints welded with NZh-13 electrodes and Sv-08Kh19N10M38B wire in argon and carbon dioxide is at the level of the content of this element in the base metal.

  6. Hot Compression of TC8M-1: Constitutive Equations, Processing Map, and Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ke; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianrong; Wang, Qingjiang; Fang, Bo; Dou, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Hot compression of TC8M-1 was carried out under isothermal working conditions with temperature from 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C), strain rate from 0.001 to 10/s, and height reduction from 20 to 80 pct (corresponding true strain from 0.22 to 1.61). Constitutive equations were constructed and apparent activation energies of 149.5 and 617.4 kJ/mol were obtained for deformation in the β and upper α/ β phase regions, respectively. Microstructure examination confirmed the dominant role of dynamic recrystallization in the α/ β phase region and that of dynamic recovery in the β phase region, with the occurrence of grain boundary sliding at very low strain rate (0.001/s) in both regions. Based on the dynamic materials model, processing maps were constructed, providing optimal domains for hot working at the temperature of 1253 K (980 °C) and the strain rate of 0.01 to 0.1/s, or at 1193 K to 1213 K (920 °C to 940 °C) and 0.001/s. Moreover, our results indicated that the initial temperature non-uniformity along the specimen axis before compression existed and influenced the strain distribution, which contributed to the abnormal oscillations and/or abrupt rise-up of true stress and inhomogeneous deformation.

  7. Spectral identification of geological units on the surface of Mars related to the presence of silicates from earth-based near-infrared telescopic charge-coupled device imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge

    1990-08-01

    During the September 1988 Mars opposition, new high spatial (100-150 km) and spectral resolution near-IR telescopic CCD images of Mars were obtained from Pic-du-Midi Observatory. These images allow the association of spectral units with morphologic surface units on Mars, especially within the dark regions which exhibit much greater variability than the bright regions. Mineralogical interpretation of the data leads to a global description of the surface state of alteration consistent with the spatial distribution of bright and dark regions, with the bright regions being more altered than the dark. Within the less altered regions, Fe(2+) crystal field absorption bands are detected, indicative of the presence of mafic minerals in agreement with a likely crustal basaltic composition. The most conspicuous Fe(2+) absorption features are clearly related to the volcanic regions of the Syrtis Major Shield and Hesperia Planum unit. The strongest observed absorptions due to olivine and clinopyroxene are spatially associated with the restricted central caldera complex of Nili-Meroe Paterae (within Syrtis Major) and the Tyrrhena Patera unit (within Hesperia Planum) and indicate an ultramafic composition.

  8. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    World's Largest Interferometer with Moving Optical Telescopes on Track Summary The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory has just seen another extension of its already impressive capabilities by combining interferometrically the light from two relocatable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. Following the installation of the first Auxiliary Telescope (AT) in January 2004 (see ESO PR 01/04), the second AT arrived at the VLT platform by the end of 2004. Shortly thereafter, during the night of February 2 to 3, 2005, the two high-tech telescopes teamed up and quickly succeeded in performing interferometric observations. This achievement heralds an era of new scientific discoveries. Both Auxiliary Telescopes will be offered from October 1, 2005 to the community of astronomers for routine observations, together with the MIDI instrument. By the end of 2006, Paranal will be home to four operational ATs that may be placed at 30 different positions and thus be combined in a very large number of ways ("baselines"). This will enable the VLTI to operate with enormous flexibility and, in particular, to obtain extremely detailed (sharp) images of celestial objects - ultimately with a resolution that corresponds to detecting an astronaut on the Moon. PR Photo 07a/05: Paranal Observing Platform with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07b/05: AT1 and AT2 with Open Domes PR Photo 07c/05: Evening at Paranal with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07d/05: AT1 and AT2 under the Southern Sky PR Photo 07e/05: First Fringes with AT1 and AT2 PR Video Clip 01/05: Two ATs at Paranal (Extract from ESO Newsreel 15) A Most Advanced Device ESO PR Video 01/05 ESO PR Video 01/05 Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal [QuickTime: 160 x 120 pix - 37Mb - 4:30 min] [QuickTime: 320 x 240 pix - 64Mb - 4:30 min] ESO PR Photo 07a/05 ESO PR Photo 07a/05 [Preview - JPEG: 493 x400 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 985 x 800 pix - 727k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 4060 pix - 13.8M] Captions: ESO PR Video Clip 01/05 is an extract from

  9. Filter Mounting and Mechanism Design for the Pan-STARRS PS1 Prototype Telescope System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, A.; Morgan, J.; Siegmund, W.; Hude, C.

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope is a 1.8m Cassegrain telescope with a 7 square degree field of view and a 1.4 billion pixel CCD camera. The required clear aperture at the filters is 496mm in diameter, and therefore the filters needed are quite large. The Pan-STARRS filter complement consists of six octagonal shaped filters that have a distance between the flats of 538mm and a thickness of 10mm. The automated mechanism that will move the filters needs to fit into a small area. A filter wheel would be prohibitively large, so the mechanism will consist of three layers with two athermally mounted filters that slide on each layer. Each layer will be identical to the other two to provide interchangeability and commonality in manufacturing. The layers will be stacked and held together with top and bottom cover plates to form a rigid structure. The shutter will be mounted to the bottom of the mechanism and they will be installed as one unit. A separate structure will be utilized to clamp the mechanism to the telescope cassegrain core registration points. This installation system will allow the mechanism to be isolated from other structural loads and be easily removed without affecting the camera. This talk will present the detailed design of the mechanism an its performance to date.

  10. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  11. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  12. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  13. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  14. ATA50 telescope: hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Aksaker, N.; Yildiran, Y.; Güney, Y.; Güçsav, B. B.; Özeren, F. F.; Kiliç, Y.; Shameoni, M. N.; Fişek, S.; Kiliçerkan, G.; Nasiroğlu, İ.; Özbaldan, E. E.; Yaşar, E.

    2014-12-01

    ATA50 Telescope is a new telescope with RC optics and 50 cm diameter. It was supported by Atatürk University Scientific Research Project (2010) and established at about 2000 meters altitude in city of Erzurum in Turkey last year. The observations were started a few months ago under the direction and control of Atatürk University Astrophysics Research and Application Center (ATASAM). The technical properties and infrastructures of ATA50 Telescope are presented and we have been working on the robotic automation of the telescope as hardware and software in order to be a ready-on-demand candidate for both national and international telescope networks.

  15. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  16. VIRUS: production and deployment of a massively replicated fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Drory, Niv; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Kelz, Andreas; Haynes, Dionne; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Gebhardt, Karl; Allen, Richard D.; Anwad, Heiko; Bender, Ralf; Blanc, Guillermo; Chonis, Taylor; Cornell, Mark E.; Dalton, Gavin; Good, John; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Murphy, J. D.; Peterson, Trent W.; Prochaska, Travis; Nicklas, Harald; Ramsey, Jason; Roth, M. M.; Savage, Richard D.; Snigula, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) consists of a baseline build of 150 identical spectrographs (arrayed as 75 unit pairs) fed by 33,600 fibers, each 1.5 arcsec diameter, at the focus of the upgraded 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS has a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R~700. VIRUS is the first example of industrial-scale replication applied to optical astronomy and is capable of surveying large areas of sky, spectrally. The VIRUS concept offers significant savings of engineering effort, cost, and schedule when compared to traditional instruments. The main motivator for VIRUS is to map the evolution of dark energy for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), using 0.8M Lyman-α emitting galaxies as tracers. The full VIRUS array is due to be deployed starting at the end of 2014 and will provide a powerful new facility instrument for the HET, well suited to the survey niche of the telescope, and will open up large area surveys of the emission line universe for the first time. VIRUS is in full production, and we are about half way through. We review the production design, lessons learned in reaching volume production, and preparation for deployment of this massive instrument. We also discuss the application of the replicated spectrograph concept to next generation instrumentation on ELTs.

  17. Apollo Telescope Mount Sun End Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM flight unit sun end canister in MSFC's building 4755.

  18. Concepts for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, M.; Tenerelli, D.

    1996-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA GSFC, we have examined a wide range of potential concepts for a large, passively cooled space telescope. Our design goals were to achieve a theoretical imaging sensitivity in the near-IR of 1 nJy and an angular resolution at 1 micron of 0.06 arcsec. Concepts examined included a telescope/spacecraft system with a 6-m diameter monolithic primary mirror, a variety of telescope/spacecraft systems with deployable primary mirror segments to achieve an 8-m diameter aperture, and a 12-element sparse aperture phased array telescope. Trade studies indicate that all three concept categories can achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, but that considerable technology development is required to bring any of the concepts to fruition. One attractive option is the system with the 6-m diameter monolithic primary. This option achieves high sensitivity without telescope deployments and includes a stiff structure for robust attitude and figure control. This system capitalizes on coming advances in launch vehicle and shroud technology, which should enable launch of large, monolithic payloads into orbit positions where background noise due to zodiacal dust is low. Our large space telescope study was performed by a consortium of organizations and individuals including: Domenick Tenerelli et al. (Lockheed Martin Corp.), Roger Angel et al. (U. Ariz.), Tom Casey et al. (Eastman Kodak Co.), Jim Gunn (Princeton), Shel Kulick (Composite Optics, Inc.), Jim Westphal (CIT), Johnny Batache et al. (Harris Corp.), Costas Cassapakis et al. (L'Garde, Inc.), Dave Sandler et al. (ThermoTrex Corp.), David Miller et al. (MIT), Ephrahim Garcia et al. (Garman Systems Inc.), Mark Enright (New Focus Inc.), Chris Burrows (STScI), Roc Cutri (IPAC), and Art Bradley (Allied Signal Aerospace).

  19. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  20. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  1. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueff, G.; Alvito, G.; Ambrosini, R.; Bolli, P.; D'Amico, N.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Morsiani, M.; Mureddu, L.; Natale, V.; Olmi, L.; Orfei, A.; Pernechele, C.; Poma, A.; Porceddu, I.; Rossi, L.; Zacchiroli, G.

    We describe the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia). With its large aperture (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT is capable of operations up to ˜100GHz, it will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and standing wave. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  2. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  3. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  4. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber.

  5. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  6. Development of a mid-sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Robert A.

    2012-06-28

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based observatory for very high-energy (10 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays, planned for operation starting in 2018. It will be an array of dozens of optical telescopes, known as Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACTs), of 8 m to 24 m diameter, deployed over an area of more than 1 square km, to detect flashes of Cherenkov light from showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere by gamma rays. CTA will have improved angular resolution, a wider energy range, larger fields of view and an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current ACT arrays such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. Several institutions have proposed a research and development program to eventually contribute 36 medium-sized telescopes (9 m to 12 m diameter) to CTA to enhance and optimize its science performance. The program aims to construct a prototype of an innovative, Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (SCT) design that will allow much smaller and less expensive cameras and much larger fields of view than conventional Davies-Cotton designs, and will also include design and testing of camera electronics for the necessary advances in performance, reliability and cost. We report on the progress of the mid-sized SCT development program.

  7. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  8. 8-mJ TEM(00) diode-end-pumped frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Feugnet, G; Pocholle, J P

    1998-01-01

    A frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser pumped by a commercially available high-brightness stack is described. A master oscillator power amplifier configuration was implanted, and the laser delivered energy of 8 mJ at 0.266microm . The laser was air cooled for easy use.

  9. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  10. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  11. Synthesis, Structure, and Complex Magnetism of MIr2In8 (M = Eu, Sr).

    PubMed

    Calta, Nicholas P; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Rodriguez, Alexandra P; Han, Fei; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-03-21

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of two new polar intermetallic compounds, EuIr2In8 and SrIr2In8. Both were synthesized in good yield using In metal as a reactive flux medium, enabling the growth of large crystals for physical property measurements. They crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbam with the CeFe2Al8 structure type, which is sometimes also referred to as the CaCo2Al8 structure type. The two analogues have unit cell parameters of a = 13.847(3) Å, b = 16.118(3) Å, and c = 4.3885(9) Å for M = Eu and a = 13.847(3) Å, b = 16.113(3) Å, and c = 4.3962(9) Å for M = Sr at room temperature. SrIr2In8 is a diamagnetic metal with no local magnetic moments on either the Sr or Ir sites, and the diamagnetic contribution from core electrons overwhelms the expected Pauli paramagnetism normally seen in intermetallic compounds. Magnetism in EuIr2In8 is dominated by the local Eu moments, which order antiferromagnetically at 5 K in low applied fields. Increasing the field strength depresses the magnetic ordering temperature and also induces a spin reorientation at lower temperature, indicating complex competing magnetic interactions. Low-temperature heat capacity measurements show a significant enhancement of the Sommerfeld coefficient in EuIr2In8 relative to that in SrIr2In8, with estimated values of γ = 118(3) and 18.0(2) mJ mol(-1) K(-2), respectively.

  12. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  13. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-01

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'×20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  14. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided. PMID:26117519

  15. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  16. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  18. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

  19. An Evolvable Space Telescope for Future Astronomical Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will require lower cost space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures.Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance.Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8-m to 16-m telescopes that have been studied for the follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without accounting for too large of a portion of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an 'Evolvable Space Telescope' that would be 3 to 4-m when placed on orbit and then periodically augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16-m space telescope.This paper reviews the technologies required for such a mission, identifies candidate architectures, and discusses different science measurement objectives for these architectures.

  20. An evolvable space telescope for future astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.

    2014-08-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after JWST will require affordable space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures. Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance. Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8 m to 16 m telescopes that have been studied as a follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without decimating the rest of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an "Evolvable Space Telescope" that would begin as a 3 to 4 m telescope when placed on orbit and then periodically be augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16 m or larger space telescope. This paper reviews the approach for such a mission and identifies and discusses candidate architectures.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  2. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  6. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  7. Cooled infrared telescope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the design concept for a 1-m-aperture, cryogenically cooled telescope for Spacelab is assessed. The device makes use of double-folded Gregorian reflective optics. The planned cryogen is helium, and beryllium will be used for the 1.2 m primary mirror. Results of studies based on smaller instruments indicate that no new technology will be required to construct a Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility which will offer improvement over the sensitivity of conventional telescopes by a factor of 1000 at 10 micrometers.

  8. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  9. The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) optical alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süss, Martin; Koch, Dietmar; Paluszek, Heiko

    2012-09-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the largest radio telescope recently built in Europe - a 64m Radio Telescope designed to operate in a wavelength regime down to 1mm. The SRT is designed in a classical Gregorian configuration, allowing access to the primary mirror focus (F1), the Gregorian focus (F2) as well as a further translation to different F3 using a beam waveguide system and an automated change between different F3 receiver positions. The primary mirror M1, 64m in diameter, is composed by 1008 individual panels. The surface can be actively controlled. It’s surface, as well as the one of the 8 m Gregorian subreflector, needed to be adjusted after panel mounting at the Sardinia site. The measurement technique used is photogrammetry. In case of the large scale M1 a dedicated combination of a large scale and a small scale approach was developed to achieve extremely high accuracy on the large scale dimension. The measurement/ alignment efforts were carried out in 2010 and 2011, with a final completion in spring 2012. The results obtained are presented and discussed. The overall alignment approach also included the absolute adjustments of M2 to M1 and the alignments of M3, M4 and M5. M3 is a rotating mirror guiding the RF beam to M4 or M5, depending on the operational scenario. These adjustments are based on Lasertracker measurements and have been carried out in an integrated approach.

  10. Structural innovations in the Columbus Project - an 11.3 meter optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Warren B.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Steward Observatory's Columbus Project is the construction of an 11.3-m effective aperture telescope by the 500th aniversary of the discovery of America in 1992. The configuration of the telescope is projected to consist of two 8-m diameter F:1 primary mirrors with 14-m center separation; these two mirrors can be supported with a relatively lightweight and simple structure that will facilitate the achievement of high servo performance with modest technology and costs.

  11. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  12. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter; Carrasco, Luis

    2004-10-01

    We present a summary of the Large Millimeter Telescope Project and its present status. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave telescope. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. Construction of the antenna is now well underway. The basic structure with a limited number of surface panels is expected to be completed in 2005. Engineering acceptance and telescope commissioning are expected to be completed in 2007.

  13. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  14. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  15. Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will combine high sensitivity with the flexibility offered by the Space Transportation System. A recently completed study has generated a preliminary design which demonstrates the feasibility of SIRTF. The 1.0 to 1.5 meter aperture, f/8 Gregorian telescope will be cooled to 20 K by a stored supercritical helium system. The telescope will be pointed and stabilized at two levels: the European-developed Instrument Pointing System provides primary pointing and stabilization; and an internal star tracker senses residual errors and drives a folding mirror inside the telescope to null the errors. The folding mirror can also be driven by square or triangular waves to provide space chopping or small-area scanning.

  16. Paper Productivity of Ground-based Large Optical Telescopes from 2000 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul

    2011-08-01

    We present an analysis of the scientific (refereed) paper productivity of the current largest (diameter>8m) ground-based optical (and infrared) telescopes during the ten-year period from 2000 to 2009. The telescopes for which we have gathered and analysed the scientific publication data are the two 10-m Keck telescopes, the four 8.2-m Very Large Telescopes (VLT), the two 8.1-m Gemini telescopes, the 8.2-m Subaru telescope, and the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). We have analysed the numbers of papers published in various astronomical journals produced by using these telescopes. While the total numbers of papers from these observatories are largest for the VLT, followed by Keck, Gemini, Subaru, and HET, the number of papers produced by each component of the telescopes is largest for Keck, followed by VLT, Subaru, Gemini, and HET. In 2009, each telescope of the Keck, VLT, Gemini, Subaru, and HET observatories produced 135, 109, 93, 107, and 5 refereed papers, respectively. We have shown that each telescope of the Keck, VLT, Gemini, and Subaru observatories is producing 2.1+/-0.9 Nature and Science papers annually and these papers make up 1.7+/-0.8% of all refereed papers produced by using each of those telescopes. Extending this relation, we propose that this ratio of the number of Nature and Science papers to the total number of refereed papers that will be produced by future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) will remain similar. From a comparison of the publication trends of the above telescopes, we suggest that (i) having more than one telescope of the same kind at the same location and (ii) increasing the number of instruments available at the telescope are good ways to maximize the paper productivity.

  17. Telescopes in History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The precise origins of the optical telescope are hidden in the depths of time. In the thirteenth century Roger Bacon claimed to have devised a combination of lenses which enabled him to see distant objects as if they were near. Others who have an unsubstantiated claim to have invented the telescope in the sixteenth century include an Englishman, Leonard DIGGES, and an Italian, Giovanni Batista Po...

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  20. Design of an afocal telescope for the ARIEL mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Micela, Giuseppina

    2016-07-01

    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) expected to be launched in 2026. This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in our Galaxy. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 microns. In addition there are four photometric channels: two wide band, also used as fine guidance sensors, and two narrow band. During its 3.5 years operations from L2 orbit, ARIEL will continuously observe exoplanets transiting their host star. The ARIEL design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is an off-axis portion of a two-mirror classic telescope coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror providing a collimating output beam. The telescope and optical bench operating temperatures, as well as those of some subsystems, will be monitored and fine tuned/stabilised mainly by means of a thermal control subsystem (TCU - Telescope Control Unit) working in closed-loop feedback and hosted by the main Payload electronics unit, i.e. the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). In this paper the telescope requirements will be given together with the foreseen design. The technical solution chosen to passively cool the telescope unit will be detailed discussed.

  1. The Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope: TIM Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Salas, L.; Ruiz, E.; Luna, E.; Pedrayes, M.; Sohn, E.; Si Erra, G.; Sanchez, B.; Valdez, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Hiriart, D.; Iriarte, A.

    2001-07-01

    We present the Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope Project (TIM). The design and construction of a 7.8 m telescope, which will operate at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), are described. The site has been selected based on seeing and sky condition measurements taken for several years. The f/1.5 primary mirror consists of 19 hexagonal off-axis hyperbolic segments of 1.8 m in diameter. The telescope structure will be alt-az, lightweight, low cost, and high stiffness. It will be supported by hydrostatic bearings. The single secondary will complement a Ritchey-Chretien f/15 design, delivering to Cassegrain focus instrumentation. The telescope will be infrared optimized to allow observations ranging from 0.3 to 20 microns. The TIM mirror cell provides an independent and full active support system for each segment, in order to achieve both, phasing capability and very high quality imaging (0.25 arcsec). The TIM project is one of the most advanced technological UNAM projects. The participation of technical and scientific professionals of other national institutions is crucial for its success. The project is seeking partners and financing.

  2. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  3. New optical telescope projects at Devasthal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Ram; Kumar, Brijesh; Omar, Amitesh; Pandey, A. K.

    2012-09-01

    Devasthal, located in the Kumaun region of Himalayas is emerging as one of the best optical astronomy site in the continent. The minimum recorded ground level atmospheric seeing at the site is 0.006 with median value at 1.001. Currently, a 1.3-m fast (f/4) wide field-of-view (660) optical telescope is operating at the site. In near future, a 4-m liquid mirror telescope in collaboration with Belgium and Canada, and a 3.6-m optical telescope in collaboration with Belgium are expected to be installed in 2013. The telescopes will be operated by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences. The first instruments on the 3.6-m telescope will be in-house designed and assembled faint object spectrograph and camera. The second generation instruments will be including a large field-of-view optical imager, high resolution optical spectrograph, integral field unit and an optical near-infrared spectrograph. The 1.3-m telescope is primarily used for wide field photometry imaging while the liquid mirror telescope will see a time bound operation to image half a degree wide strip in the galactic plane. There will be an aluminizing plant at the site to coat mirrors of sizes up to 3.7 m. The Devasthal Observatory and its geographical importance in between major astronomical observatories makes it important for time critical observations requiring continuous monitoring of variable and transient objects from ground based observatories. The site characteristics, its expansions plans and first results from the existing telescope are presented.

  4. Weldability of corrosion-resistant high-nitrogen austenitic Kh22AG16N8M-type steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannykh, O. A.; Blinov, V. M.; Kostina, M. V.; Blinov, E. V.; Zvereva, T. N.

    2007-10-01

    The influence of thermal treatment on the structures and mechanical properties of welds of corrosion-resistant high-nitrogen austenitic 05Kh22AG16N8M-type steels is studied. In these steels, austenite is found to be highly resistant to discontinuous precipitation and the formation of σ phase and δ ferrite upon cooling regardless of the temperature of heating for quenching (from 900 to 1250°C) and the cooling conditions (water, air, furnace). Welding of these steels can produce high-strength welds with an enhanced impact toughness.

  5. Machining of Christmas tree parts of 06Kh20N8M3D2L corrosion-resistant steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinov, S.R.; Balaoglanov, M.M.; Baluyants, E.G.

    1983-09-01

    To address the problem of corrosion cracking, equipment has been developed of 06Kh20N8M3D21 austenitic-ferritic corrosion-resistant multiply alloyed steel. But as this steel is difficult to machine investigations were made to determine the parameters and conditions for machining Christmas tree parts made of this steel. Turning, drilling, thread cutting, and milling are specified. The optimum conditions for machining Christmas tree parts were established in tests. The tests also showed that the coefficient of machinability of the steel is 3 or 4 times less than that of 20KhGSL steel, which is normally used for Christmas tree production.

  6. [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) Coordination Cubes (M(II)=Cu, Co).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Sergio; O'Connor, Helen M; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Pedersen, Kasper S; Nichol, Gary S; Mønsted, Ole; Weihe, Høgni; Piligkos, Stergios; McInnes, Eric J L; Lusby, Paul J; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-06-01

    [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) (M(II) =Cu, Co) coordination cubes were constructed from a simple [Cr(III) L3 ] metalloligand and a "naked" M(II) salt. The flexibility in the design proffers the potential to tune the physical properties, as all the constituent parts of the cage can be changed without structural alteration. Computational techniques (known in theoretical nuclear physics as statistical spectroscopy) in tandem with EPR spectroscopy are used to interpret the magnetic behavior.

  7. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  8. Short telescope design of 1.5-m aperture solar UV visible and IR telescope aboard Solar-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Horiuchi, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2011-10-01

    We present an optical and thermal design of one of major instrumental payload planned for SOLAR-C mission/Plan-B (high resolution spectroscopic option): the telescope assembly of Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). To accommodate a launcher's nosecone size, a wide observing wavelength coverage from UV (down to 280 nm) through near IR (up to 1100 nm), and an 0.1 arcsec resolution in the field of 200 arcsec diameter, a short telescope design was made for a 1.5 m aperture solar Gregorian telescope with the compact design of three-mirror collimator unit.

  9. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  10. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  11. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  12. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  13. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  14. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  15. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  16. Beginning Research with the 1.8-meter Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom; Lane, Lynn A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to bring the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope to operational status for research on asteroids and comets. This objective was achieved; first light with the telescope was in May 2000 and since then several tests and demonstrations of the facility's capability to observe Earth-approaching Asteroids (EAs) have been made, including the first observations to be incorporated into a peer-reviewed publication. The Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope will be the largest in the world dedicated full time to finding and doing astrometry of asteroids and comets. It will be used to search for asteroids and comets anywhere from the space near Earth to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune, and to do astrometry and lightcurves on the fainter of such objects that are already known. Its comparatively large aperture will permit faster discovery of the very small asteroids in Earthlike orbits, such as 1998 KY(sub 26), that are coveted for their accessibility as material resources in space, as well as recovery of EAs on their return apparitions when they tend to be more distant and fainter than they were at the times of their discoveries. It will also tend to find EAs when they do not happen to be close to Earth. Discoveries made under those circumstances allow the objects to be followed for longer intervals, providing better determinations of their orbits during their discovery apparitions. In addition to its size, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope will have the unique capability of long strip scanning in any direction, for example along the ecliptic (the plane of the solar system), and along the line of variation of EAs with uncertain orbits that are being targeted for recovery.

  17. Amateur Telescope Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkin, Stephen

    Many amateur astronomers make their own instruments, either because of financial considerations or because they are just interested. Amateur Telescope Making offers a variety of designs for telescopes, mounts and drives which are suitable for the home-constructor. The designs range from simple to advanced, but all are within the range of a moderately well-equipped home workshop. The book not only tells the reader what he can construct, but also what it is sensible to construct given what time is available commercially. Thus each chapter begins with reasons for undertaking the project, then looks at theoretical consideration before finishing with practical instructions and advice. An indication is given as to the skills required for the various projects. Appendices list reputable sources of (mail order) materials and components. The telescopes and mounts range from "shoestring" (very cheap) instruments to specialist devices that are unavailable commercially.

  18. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Grovas, Alfonso Serrano; Schloerb, F. Peter; Hughes, David; Yun, Min

    2006-06-01

    We present a summary of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Project and its current status. The LMT is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave telescope. The LMT site is at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. Construction of the antenna steel structure has been completed and the antenna drive system has been installed. Fabrication of the reflector surface is underway. The telescope is expected to be completed in 2008.

  19. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  20. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  1. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a photograph of giant twisters and star wisps in the Lagoon Nebula. This superb Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar twisters, eerie furnels and twisted rope structures (upper left), in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) that lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2).

  3. Ground based automated telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Thompson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendation that a ground-based automated telescope of the 2-meter class be built for remote multiuser use as a natural facility. Experience dictates that a primary consideration is a time shared multitasking operating system with virtual memory overlayed with a real time priority interrupt. The primary user facility is a remote terminal networked to the single computer. Many users must have simultaneous time shared access to the computer for program development. The telescope should be rapid slewing, and hence a light weight construction. Automation allows for the closed loop pointing error correction independent of extreme accuracy of the mount.

  4. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  5. Pointing the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Moore, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    SOFIA is an airborne, gyroscopically stabilized 2.5m infrared telescope, mounted to a spherical bearing. Unlike its predecessors, SOFIA will work in absolute coordinates, despite its continually changing position and attitude. In order to manage this, SOFIA must relate equatorial and telescope coordinates using a combination of avionics data and star identification, manage field rotation and track sky images. We describe the algorithms and systems required to acquire and maintain the equatorial reference frame, relate it to tracking imagers and the science instrument, set up the oscillating secondary mirror, and aggregate pointings into relocatable nods and dithers.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This color image from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shows a region in NGC 1365, a barred spiral galaxy located in a cluster of galaxies called Fornax. A barred spiral galaxy is characterized by a bar of stars, dust, and gas across its center. The black and white photograph from a ground-based telescope shows the entire galaxy, which is visible from the Southern Hemisphere. The galaxy is estimated to be 60-million light-years from Earth. This image was taken by the HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC-2).

  7. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  8. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32m-diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  9. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. H.; Schloerb, F. P.; LMT Project Team

    2009-05-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between México and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of ˜ 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  10. Solar Rotating Fourier Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Proposed telescope based on absorbing Fourier-transform grids images full Sun at unprecedented resolution. Overcomes limitations of both conventional optical and pinhole cameras. Arrays of grids and detectors configured for sensitivity to selected fourier components of x-ray images.

  11. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  12. The Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A convenient guide to the expected characteristics of the Space Telescope Observatory for astronomers and physicists is presented. An attempt is made to provide enough detail so that a professional scientist, observer or theorist, can plan how the observatory may be used to further his observing programs or to test theoretical models.

  13. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  14. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David H.; Jáuregui Correa, Juan-Carlos; Schloerb, F. Peter; Erickson, Neal; Romero, Jose Guichard; Heyer, Mark; Reynoso, David Huerta; Narayanan, Gopal; Perez-Grovas, Alfonso Serrano; Souccar, Kamal; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Volcán Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. The commissioning and scientific operation of the LMT is divided into two major phases. As part of phase 1, the installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation within the inner 32m-diameter of the LMT surface is now complete. The alignment of these surface segments is underway. The telescope (in its 32-m diameter format) will be commissioned later this year with first-light scientific observations at 1mm and 3mm expected in early 2011. In phase 2, we will continue the installation and alignment of the remainder of the reflector surface, following which the final commissioning of the full 50-m LMT will take place. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  15. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  16. The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  17. Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2007-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a pioneering centimeter-wavelength radio telescope that will produce science that cannot be done with any other instrument. The ATA is the first radio telescope designed for commensal observing; it will undertake the most comprehensive and sensitive SETI surveys ever done as well as the deepest and largest area continuum and spectroscopic surveys. Science operations will commence this year with a 42-element array. The ATA will ultimately comprise 350 6-meter dishes at Hat Creek in California, and will make possible large, deep radio surveys that were not previously feasible. The telescope incorporates many new design features including hydroformed antenna surfaces, a log-periodic feed covering the entire range of frequencies from 500 MHz to 11.2 GHz, low noise, wide-band amplifiers with a flat response over the entire band. The full array has the sensitivity of the Very Large Array but with a survey capability that is greater by an order of magnitude due to the wide field of view of the 6-meter dishes. Even with 42 elements, the ATA will be one of the most powerful radio survey telescopes. Science goals include the Five GHz sky survey (FiGSS) to match the 1.4-GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the first year of operation with the 42 element array, and a deep all-sky survey of extragalactic hydrogen to investigate galaxy evolution and intergalactic gas accretion. Transient and variable source surveys, pulsar science, spectroscopy of new molecular species in the galaxy, large-scale mapping of galactic magnetic filaments, and wide-field imaging of comets and other solar system objects are among the other key science objectives of the ATA. SETI surveys will reach sufficient sensitivity to detect an Arecibo planetary radar from 1,000,000 stars to distances of 300 pc.

  18. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  19. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-08-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  20. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  1. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  2. NASA's Newest Orbital Debris Ground-based Telescope Assets: MCAT and UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Frith, J.; Pace, L. F.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Buckalew, B.; Nishimoto, D.; Douglas, D.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2014-09-01

    NASAs Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) will break ground on Ascension Island in 2014 to build the newest optical (0.30 1.06 microns) ground-based telescope asset dedicated to the study of orbital debris. The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is a 1.3m optical telescope designed to track objects in orbits ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Ascension Island is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, offering longitudinal sky coverage not afforded by the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network. With a fast-tracking dome, a suite of visible wide-band filters, and a time-delay integration (TDI) capable camera, MCAT is capable of multiple observing modes ranging from tracking cataloged debris targets to surveying the overall debris environment. Access to the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) will extend our spectral coverage into the near- (0.8-5 micron) and mid- to far-infrared (8-25 micron) regime. UKIRT is a 3.8m telescope located on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. At nearly 14,000-feet and above the atmospheric inversion layer, this is one of the premier astronomical sites in the world and is an ideal setting for an infrared telescope. An unprecedented one-third of this telescopes time has been allocated to collect orbital debris data for NASAs ODPO over a 2-year period. UKIRT has several instruments available to obtain low-resolution spectroscopy in both the near-IR and the mid/far-IR. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for constraining the material types, albedos and sizes of debris targets, and potentially gaining insight into reddening effects caused by space weathering. In addition, UKIRT will be used to acquire broadband photometric imaging at GEO with the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) for studying known objects of interest as well as collecting data in survey-mode to discover new targets. Results from the first stage of the debris campaign will be presented. The combination of

  3. NASA's Newest Orbital Debris Ground-based Telescope Assets: MCAT and UKIRT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Frith, J. M.; Pace, L. F.; Cowardin, H. M.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Buckalew, B.; Nishimoto, D.; Douglas, D.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) will break ground on Ascension Island in 2014 to build the newest optical (0.30 - 1.06 micrometers) ground-based telescope asset dedicated to the study of orbital debris. The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is a 1.3m optical telescope designed to track objects in orbits ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Ascension Island is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, offering longitudinal sky coverage not afforded by the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network. With a fast-tracking dome, a suite of visible wide-band filters, and a time-delay integration (TDI) capable camera, MCAT is capable of multiple observing modes ranging from tracking cataloged debris targets to surveying the overall debris environment. Access to the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) will extend our spectral coverage into the near- (0.8-5 micrometers) and mid- to far-infrared (8-25 micrometers) regime. UKIRT is a 3.8m telescope located on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. At nearly 14,000-feet and above the atmospheric inversion layer, this is one of the premier astronomical sites in the world and is an ideal setting for an infrared telescope. An unprecedented one-third of this telescope's time has been allocated to collect orbital debris data for NASA's ODPO over a 2-year period. UKIRT has several instruments available to obtain low-resolution spectroscopy in both the near-IR and the mid/far-IR. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for constraining the material types, albedos and sizes of debris targets, and potentially gaining insight into reddening effects caused by space weathering. In addition, UKIRT will be used to acquire broadband photometric imaging at GEO with the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) for studying known objects of interest as well as collecting data in survey-mode to discover new targets. Results from the first stage of the debris campaign will be presented. The

  4. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, David; Ackermann, Rob; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey; Davis, Michael; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fleming, Matt; Keleta, Girmay; Harp, Gerry; Lugten, John; Tarter, Jill; Thornton, Doug; Wadefalk, Niklas; Weinreb, Sander; Welch, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The Allen Telescope Array, a joint project between the SETI Institute and the Radio Astronomy Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley, is currently under development and construction at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in northern California. It will consist of 350 6.1-m offset Gregorian antennas in a fairly densely packed configuration, with minimum baselines of less than 10 m and a maximum baseline of about 900 m. The dual-polarization frequency range spans from about 500 MHz to 11 GHz, both polarizations of which are transported back from each antenna. The first generation processor will provide 32 synthesized beams of 104 MHz bandwidth, eight at each of four tunings, as well as outputs for a full-polarization correlator at two of the tunings at the same bandwidth. This paper provides a general description of the Allen Telescope Array.

  5. Telescopes of galileo.

    PubMed

    Greco, V; Molesini, G; Quercioli, F

    1993-11-01

    The Florentine Istituto e Museo di Storia delta Scienza houses two complete telescopes and a single objective lens (reconstructed from several fragments) that can be attributed to Galileo. These optics have been partially dismantled and made available for optical testing with state-of-the-art equipment. The lenses were investigated individually; the focal length and the radii of curvature were measured, and the optical layout of the instruments was worked out. The optical quality of the surfaces and the overall performance of the two complete telescopes have been evaluated interferometrically at a wavelength of 633 nm (with a He-Ne laser source). It was found in particular that the optics of Galileo came close to attaining diffraction-limited operation.

  6. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation I will describe the current status of the European Solar Telescope (EST) project. The EST design has a 4-m aperture to achieve both a large photon collection and very high spatial resolution. It includes a multi-conjugate adaptive system integrated in the light path for diffraction-limited imaging. The optical train is optimized to minimize instrumental polarization and to keep it nearly constant as the telescope tracks the sky. A suite of visible and infrared instruments are planned with a light distribution system that accomodates full interoperability and simultaneous usage. The science drivers emphasize combined observations at multiple heights in the atmosphere to build a connected view of solar magnetism from the photosphere to the corona.

  7. COROT telescope development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Thierry; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain

    2004-06-01

    COROTEL is the telescope of the future COROT satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Space has proposed an original optical concept associated with a high performance baffle. From 2001, the LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) has placed the telescope development contract to Alcatel Space and is presently almost finished. Based on relevant material and efficient thermal control design, COROTEL should meet its ambitious performance and bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  8. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  9. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  10. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  11. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book. PMID:16929794

  12. Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of M2Mn3O8 (M=Ca,Cu) Compounds and Derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yong Joon; Doeff, Marca M.

    2005-08-25

    M{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} (M=Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) compounds were synthesized and characterized in lithium cells. The M{sup 2+} cations, which reside in the van der Waal's gaps between adjacent sheets of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8}{sup 4-}, may be replaced chemically (by ion-exchange) or electrochemically with Li. More than 7 Li{sup +}/Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} may be inserted electrochemically, with concomitant reduction of Cu{sup 2+} to Cu metal, but less Li can be inserted into Ca{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8}. In the case of Cu{sup 2+}, this process is partially reversible when the cell is charged above 3.5 V vs. Li, but intercalation of Cu{sup +} rather than Cu{sup 2+} and Li{sup +}/Cu{sup +} exchange occurs during the subsequent discharge. If the cell potential is kept below 3.4 V, the Li in excess of 4Li{sup +}/Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} can be cycled reversibly. The unusual mobility of +2 cations in a layered structure has important implications both for the design of cathodes for Li batteries and for new systems that could be based on M{sup 2+} intercalation compounds.

  13. MIRI Telescope Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenguer, T.; Alcacera, M. A.; Aricha, A.; Balado, A.; Barandiarán, J.; Bernardo, A.; Canchal, M. R.; Colombo, M.; Diaz, E.; Eiriz, V.; Figueroa, I.; García, G.; Giménez, A.; González, L.; Herrada, F.; Jiménez, A.; López, R.; Menéndez, M.; Reina, M.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2008-07-01

    The MTS, MIRI Telescope Simulator, is developed by INTA as the Spanish contribution of MIRI (Mid InfraRed Instrument) on board JWST (James Web Space Telescope). The MTS is considered as optical equipment which is part of Optical Ground Support Equipment for the AIV/Calibration phase of the instrument at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. It is an optical simulator of the JWST Telescope, which will provide a diffractionlimited test beam, including the obscuration and mask pattern, in all the MIRI FOV and in all defocusing range. The MTS will have to stand an environment similar to the flight conditions (35K) but using a smaller set-up, typically at lab scales. The MTS will be used to verify MIRI instrument-level tests, based on checking the implementation/realisation of the interfaces and performances, as well as the instrument properties not subject to interface control such as overall transmission of various modes of operation. This paper includes a functional description and a summary of the development status.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  15. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  16. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  17. World Atlas of large optical telescopes (second edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    By early 1986 there will be over 120 large optical telescopes in the world engaged in astronomical research with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39-inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their observatory sites on continent sized maps. Also shown are observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes. Of the 126 major telescopes listed in this atlas, 101 are situated in the Northern Hemisphere and 25 are located in the Southern Hemisphere. The totals by regions are as follows: Europe (excluding the USSR), 30; Soviet Union, 9; Asia (excluding the USSR), 5; Africa, 9; Australia, 6; The Pacific, 4 (all on Hawaii); South America, 17; North America, 46 (the continental US has 38 of these). In all, the United States has 42 of the world's major telescopes on its territory (continental US plus Hawaii) making it by far the leading nation in astronomical instrumentation.

  18. Detecting Exoplanets with the George Mason University Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, J.

    2014-04-01

    The George Mason Exoplanet Team has become an official follow up team for the KELT Survey. Research areas for the team include: Transit Timing Variations, High-altitude spectroscopy, and characterization of extrasolar planets. Detections were performed using the STX 16803 and filter wheel STX-FW7 at the George Mason 0.8m Telescope. We will present observed transit characteristics of Kelt-1b, HD189733b, WASP-33b, as well as others - discussing the transit depths, timing variations, and data reduction methods.

  19. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, but also from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born and remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimetre wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. More information The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ESO is the European partner in ALMA. ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising an array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will start scientific observations in 2011. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a

  20. Magnetic measurement data of the 0.8-m prototype quadrupole magnets for the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.

    1995-07-01

    From magnetic measurement data of the two 0.8-m prototype quadrupole magnets (P-SRQ-1 and P-SRQ-2) and the study of the geometries for the pole-end bevels and pole chamfers, the following conclusions have been made. Mechanical stability of the magnet poles has been achieved by modification of the weld procedures between two quadrants of the magnets. Stability of the magnet-pole positions was measured optically and was also concluded from the fact that the allowed coefficients, mainly sextupole and octupole terms, were independent of the magnet excitation currents. Unallowed multipole field coefficients for the second magnet, without correction of the magnet-pole positions, are smaller than for the first magnet. The field gradient integrals of the two magnets at 400A differ by less than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for r = 2.5 cm. This indicates that an acceptable magnet assembly procedure has been established. The 2-D calculations and ``body`` measurements for allowed coefficients after the main field, b{sub 5} and b{sub 9}, agree within 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at r = 2.5 cm. This implies that the 2-D design geometry is basically correct and acceptable. As expected for a magnet with long and narrow poles, saturation effects of pole shims have been observed. In order to reduce fabrication cost for the end-plates, the geometries for the pole-end bevels and pole chamfers have been studied. By choosing a bevel angle of 61{degree}, instead of 45{degree}, it is possible to have acceptable allowed coefficients with dimensions of pole-chamfers up to 16.5 mm. This allows the design of the end-plate as one piece without removable pole-tip.

  1. Conceptual design of the data handling system for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolli, Ilaria; Cauzzi, Gianna; Collados, Manuel; Paletou, Frederic; Reardon, Kevin; Aboudarham, Jean; Cirami, Roberto; Cosentino, Rosario; Del Moro, Dario; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Lafon, Martine; Pietropaolo, Ermanno; Romano, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the conceptual design of the data handling unit of the ECS, the Control System for the European Solar Telescope (EST). We will focus on describing the critical requirements for this unit resulting from the overall design of the telescope, together with its architecture and the results of the feasibility analysis carried out to date.

  2. GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Lawrence, J. S.; Bryant, J.; Haynes, R.; Horton, A.; Lee, S.; Leon-Saval, S.; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Mladenoff, J.; O'Byrne, J.; Rambold, W.; Roth, M.; Trinh, C.

    2010-07-01

    GNOSIS is an OH suppression unit to be used in conjunction with existing spectrographs. The OH suppression is achieved using fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), and will deliver the darkest near-infrared background of any ground-based instrument. Laboratory and on-sky tests demonstrate that FBGs can suppress OH lines by 30dB whilst maintaing > 90% throughput between the lines, resulting in a 4 mag decrease in the background. In the first implementation GNOSIS will feed IRIS2 on the AAT. It will consist of a seven element lenslet array, covering 1.4" on the sky, and will suppress the 103 brightest OH lines between 1.47 and 1.70 μm. Future upgrades will include J-band suppression and implementation on an 8m telescope.

  3. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBoer, David R.; Welch, William J.; Dreher, John; Tarter, Jill; Blitz, Leo; Davis, Michael; Fleming, Matt; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey; Lugten, John; Girmay-Keleta, G.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Harp, Gerry R.; Ackermann, Rob; Weinreb, Sander; Engargiola, Greg; Thornton, Doug; Wadefalk, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    The Allen Telescope Array, originally called the One Hectare Telescope (1hT) [1] will be a large array radio telescope whose novel characteristics will be a wide field of view (3.5 deg-GHz HPBW), continuous frequency coverage of 0.5 - 11 GHz, four dual-linear polarization output bands of 100 MHz each, four beams in each band, two 100 MHz spectral correlators for two of the bands, and hardware for RFI mitigation built in. Its scientific motivation is for deep SETI searches and, at the same time, a variety of other radio astronomy projects, including transient (e.g. pulsar) studies, HI mapping of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, Zeeman studies of the galactic magnetic field in a number of transitions, mapping of long chain molecules in molecular clouds, mapping of the decrement in the cosmic background radiation toward galaxy clusters, and observation of HI absorption toward quasars at redshifts up to z=2. The array is planned for 350 6.1-meter dishes giving a physical collecting area of about 10,000 square meters. The large number of components reduces the price with economies of scale. The front end receiver is a single cryogenically cooled MIMIC Low Noise Amplifier covering the whole band. The feed is a wide-band log periodic feed of novel design, and the reflector system is an offset Gregorian for minimum sidelobes and spillover. All preliminary and critical design reviews have been completed. Three complete antennas with feeds and receivers are under test, and an array of 33 antennas is under construction at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory for the end of 2004. The present plan is to have a total of about 200 antennas completed by the summer of 2006 and the balance of the array finished before the end of the decade.

  4. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  5. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  6. Astronomy before the telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.

    This book is the most comprehensive and authoritative survey to date of world astronomy before the telescope in AD 1609. International experts have contributed chapters examining what observations were made, what instruments were used, the effect of developments in mathematics and measurement, and the diversity of early views of cosmology and astrology. The achievements of European astronomers from prehistoric times to the Renaissance are linked with those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, India and the Islamic world. Other chapters deal with early astronomy in the Far East and in the Americas, and with traditional astronomical knowledge in Africa, Australia and the Pacific.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will employ magnetic torque controllers, which make use of the Earth's magnetic field augmented by four reaction wheels. DC torques are easily allowed for, but variations, orbit by orbit, can result in excessive wheel speeds which can excite vibratory modes in the telescope structure. If the angular momentum from aerodynamic sources exceeds its allocation of 100 Nms, the excess has to come out of the maneuvering budget since the total capacity of the momentum storage system is fixed at 500 Nms. This would mean that maneuvers could not be made as quickly, and this would reduce the amount of science return. In summary, there is a definite need for a model that accurately portrays short term (within orbit) variations in density for use in angular momentum management analyses. It would be desirable to have a simplified model that could be used for planning purposes; perhaps applicable only over a limited altitude range (400 to 700 km) and limited latitude band.

  8. Antares Reference Telescope System

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  9. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  10. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  11. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1982-03-15

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengagable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  12. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1984-03-13

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out is disclosed. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine. 3 figs.

  13. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, James B.

    1984-01-01

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls (10, 12) are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit (14) and a rigid member (16, 18, 20, 22, 24). One gage ball (10) is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly (34) which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball (12) is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly (38) which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball (12) is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball (10). As the moving ball (12) executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls (10, 12) caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60) actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit (14). Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball (10) locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  14. Active optics system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiol, Daniele; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fantinel, Daniela; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Loreggia, Davide; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Russo, Federico; Volpicelli, Antonio C.

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype of Small Size class of Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. It will apply a dual mirror configuration to Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The 18 segments composing the primary mirror (diameter 4.3 m) are equipped with an active optics system enabling optical re-alignment during telescope slew. The secondary mirror (diameter 1.8 m) can be moved along three degrees of freedom to perform focus and tilt corrections. We describe the kinematic model used to predict the system performance as well as the hardware and software design solution that will be implemented for optics control.

  15. Simulation of segmented mirror telescope and calculating asphericity of segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhou; Qiu, Qi; Zhang, Yudong

    2014-09-01

    To determine parameters of the Segmented Mirror Telescope is quite essential for the design, manufacture, testing and construct of the telescope system, especially the F-number parameters and curvature radius of the primary mirror, as well as the asphericity. A model of Sub-segmented mirror was established in this paper, based on which, using the feature points combined with lagrange condition extreme, the asphericity calculation of the asymmetrical hexagon off-axis parabolic mirror in different central points is solved. The 8m and 11m segmented mirror telescope were taken for example in the calculation, and got the relation curve between F-number of primary mirror and Asphericity of segmented mirror, respectively. This work is useful for the design, manufacturing and testing of the large diameter Segmented Mirror Telescope.

  16. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  17. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  18. The Parkes radio telescope - 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ables, J. G.; Jacka, C. E.; McConnell, D.; Schinckel, A. E.; Hunt, A. J.

    The Parkes radio telescope has been refurbished 25 years after its commisioning in 1961, with complete replacement of its drive and control systems. The new computer system distributes computing tasks among a loosely coupled network of minicomputers which communicate via full duplex serial lines. Central to the control system is the 'CLOCK' element, which relates all positioning of the telescope to absolute time and synchronizes the logging of astronomical data. Two completely independent servo loops furnish telescope positioning functions.

  19. Telescope structures - An evolutionary overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1987-01-01

    A development history is presented for telescope structural support materials, design concepts, equatorial and altazimuthal orientational preferences, and mechanical control system structural realizations. In the course of 50 years after Galileo, the basic configurations of all reflecting telescopes was set for the subsequent 300 years: these were the Cassegrain, Gregorian, and Newtonian designs. The challenge of making a lightweight ribbed pyrex glass primary mirror for the 5-m Palomar telescope was met by von Karman's use of finite element analysis. Attention is given to the prospects for a 20-m deployable space-based reflecting telescope.

  20. Why Space Telescopes Are Amazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    One of humanity's best ideas has been to put telescopes in space. The dark stillness of space allows telescopes to perform much better than they can on even the darkest and clearest of Earth's mountaintops. In addition, from space we can detect colors of light, like X-rays and gamma rays, that are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere I'll talk about NASA's team of great observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory} and how they've worked together to answer key questions: When did the stars form? Is there really dark matter? Is the universe really expanding ever faster and faster?

  1. Neutral Buoyancy Test - NB23 - Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Included in the plans for the space station was a space telescope. This telescope would be attached to the space station and directed towards outerspace. Astronomers hoped that the space telescope would provide a look at space that is impossible to see from Earth because of Earth's atmosphere and other man made influences. In an effort to make replacement and repairs easier on astronauts the space telescope was designed to be modular. Practice makes perfect as demonstrated in this photo: an astronaut practices moving modular pieces of the space telescope in the Neutral

  2. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  3. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  4. The plasma membrane of Leishmania donovani promastigotes is the main target for CA(1-8)M(1-18), a synthetic cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Achirica, P; Ubach, J; Guinea, A; Andreu, D; Rivas, L

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the lethal activity of animal antibiotic peptides have largely focused on bacterial rather than eukaryotic targets. In these, involvement of internal organelles as well as mechanisms different from those of prokaryotic cells have been described. CA(1-8)M(1-18) is a synthetic cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide with leishmanicidal activity. Using Leishmania donovani promastigotes as a model system we have studied the mechanism of action of CA(1-8)M(1-18), its two parental peptides and two analogues. At micromolar concentration CA(1-8)M(1-18) induces a fast permeability to H+/OH-, collapse of membrane potential and morphological damage to the plasma membrane. Effects on other organelles are related to the loss of internal homeostasis of the parasite rather than to a direct effect of the peptide. Despite the fast kinetics of the process, the parasite is able to deactivate in part the effect of the peptide, as shown by the higher activity of the d-enantiomer of CA(1-8)M(1-18). Electrostatic interaction between the peptide and the promastigote membrane, the first event in the lethal sequence, is inhibited by polyanionic polysaccharides, including its own lipophosphoglycan. Thus, in common with bacteria, the action of CA(1-8)M(1-18) on Leishmania promastigotes has the same plasma membrane as target, but is unique in that different peptides show patterns of activity that resemble those observed on eukaryotic cells. PMID:9461543

  5. Initial contamination control considerations for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA's Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a 6 m to 8 m diameter device, is described. The NGST will be radiatively cooled to 30 K to 60 K in order to carry out extremely deep exposures at near infrared wavelengths, for 5 years to 10 years lifetime. Initial contamination control design options include strict materials selection and baking out of both hardware down to the component level, minimizing or eliminating the exposure to the optical telescope assembly to sunlight or earth albedo during deployment and early in-orbit operations.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  7. Composite telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  8. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  9. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  10. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  11. Asteroseismology with robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.

    2004-10-01

    Asteroseismology explores the interior of pulsating stars by analysing their normal mode spectrum. The detection of a sufficient number of pulsation modes for seismic modelling of main sequence variables requires large quantities of high-precision time resolved photometry. Robotic telescopes have become an asset for asteroseismology because of their stable instrumentation, cost- and time-efficient operation and the potentially large amounts of observing time available. We illustrate these points by presenting selected results on several types of pulsating variables, such as δ Scuti stars (main sequence and pre-main sequence), γ Doradus stars, rapidly oscillating Ap stars and β Cephei stars, thereby briefly reviewing recent success stories of asteroseismic studies of main sequence stars.

  12. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  13. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms.

  14. The Metagenomic Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well–known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well–researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  15. Innovative relocation system for enclosures for MROI array telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marchiori, G.; Mian, S.; Payne, I.; Pozzobon, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) comprises an array of up to ten (10) 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes. Each of these ten telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which can be relocated, with the telescope inside, to any of 28 stations arranged in a "Y" configuration. These stations comprise fixed foundations with utility and data connections. There are four standard array configurations, the most compact of which one has less than 350 mm of space between the enclosures. This paper describes the relocation systems that were evaluated, including a rail based system, wheels or trolley fixed to the bottom of the enclosure, and various lifting mechanisms, all of which were analyzed to determine their performances related to the requirements. Eventually a relocation system utilizing a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) has been selected. The reachstacker is capable of manoeuvring between and around the enclosures, is capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (40tons), and can manoeuvre the enclosure with minimal vibrations. A rigorous testing procedure has been performed to determine the vibrations induced in a dummy load in order to guarantee the safety of optics that must remain on the nasmyth table during the relocation. Finally we describe the lifting system, constituted by hydraulic jacks and locating pins, designed to lift and lower the enclosure and telescope during the precise positioning of the telescopes in the various stations.

  16. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  17. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters. PMID:20119010

  18. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters.

  19. DESTINY: The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, T. R.; Destiny Science Team

    2005-08-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8-m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7 for determining cosmological distances, measuring the expansion rate of the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called ``dark energy" component of the Universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5-sq.-deg. area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δλ = R˜75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, and valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared with SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field of view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  20. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  1. Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Chris; Taylor, Stuart; Wren, James; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-30

    The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) observatory network consists of several robotic astronomical telescopes primarily designed to search for astrophysical transients called a gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although intrinsically bright, GRBs are difficult to detect because of their short duration. Typically, they are first observed by satellites that then relay the coordinates of the GRB to a ground station which, in turn, distributes the coordinates over the internet so that ground based observers can perform follow-up observations. Typically the ground based observations begin after the GRB has ended and only residual emiSSion (the 'afterglow') is left. However, if the satellite relays the GRB coordinates quickly enough, a 'fast' robotic telescope on the ground may be able to catch the GRB in progress. The RAPTOR telescope system is one of only a few in the world to have accomplished this feat. In order to achieve these results, the RAPTOR telescopes must operate autonomously at a high duty-cycle and in peak operating condition. Currently the telescopes are maintained in an ad hoc manner, often in a run-to-failure mode. The RAPTOR project could benefit greatly from a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, especially as more complex units are added to the suite of telescopes. This paper will summarize preliminary results from an SHM study performed on one of the RAPTOR telescopes. Damage scenarios that are of concern and that have been previously observed are first summarized. Then a specific study of damage to the telescope drive mechanism is presented where the data acquisition system is first described. Next, damage detection algorithms are developed with LANL's new publically available software SHMTools and the results of this process are discussed in detail. The paper will conclude with a summary of future planned refinemenls of the RAPTOR SHM system.

  2. Fighting for Telescope Time? Use the Amateurs!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversberg, T.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term campaigns, surveys and line monitoring of massive stars can be performed by small telescopes plus adapted spectrographs. Off-the-shelf standard spectrographs are cheap, easy to use and contain respective calibration units. Echelle spectrographs are even delivered with a complete MIDAS-XECHELLE reduction loop. In addition, amateurs design such instrumentation and use it on a professional level. However, the community is small and needs support from the professional side for mutual benefit. Amateurs can deliver design tools, observation time and data. Professionals should deliver scientific knowledge and their organizational skills.

  3. 1.6 M Solar Telescope in Big Bear -- The NST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Denker, Carsten J.; Didkovsky, Leonid I.; Kuhn, J. R.; Wang, Haimin

    2003-06-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), in collaboration with the University of Hawaii (UH), is upgrading Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) by replacing its principal, 65 cm aperture telescope with a modern, off-axis 1.6 m clear aperture instrument from a 1.7 m blank. The new telescope offers a significant incremental improvement in ground-based infrared and high angular resolution capabilities, and enhances our continuing program to understand photospheric magneto-convection and chromospheric dynamics. These are the drivers for what is broadly called space weather -- an important problem, which impacts human technologies and life on earth. This New Solar Telescope (NST) will use the existing BBSO pedestal, pier and observatory building, which will be modified to accept the larger open telescope structure. It will be operated together with our 10 inch (for larger field-of-view vector magnetograms, Ca II K and Hα observations) and Singer-Link (full disk Hα, Ca II K and white light) synoptic telescopes. The NST optical and software control design will be similar to the existing SOLARC (UH) and the planned Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) facility led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) -- all three are off-axis designs. The NST will be available to guest observers and will continue BBSO's open data policy. The polishing of the primary will be done in partnership with the University of Arizona Mirror Lab, where their proof-of-concept for figuring 8 m pieces of 20 m nighttime telescopes will be the NST's primary mirror. We plan for the NST's first light in late 2005. This new telescope will be the largest aperture solar telescope, and the largest aperture off-axis telescope, located in one of the best observing sites. It will enable new, cutting edge science. The scientific results will be extremely important to space weather and global climate change research.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These eerie, dark, pillar-like structures are actually columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust that are also incubators for new stars. The pillars protrude from the interior wall of a dark molecular cloud like stalagmites from the floor of a cavern. They are part of the Eagle Nebula (also called M16), a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away, in the constellation Serpens. The ultraviolet light from hot, massive, newborn stars is responsible for illuminating the convoluted surfaces of the columns and the ghostly streamers of gas boiling away from their surfaces, producing the dramatic visual effects that highlight the three-dimensional nature of the clouds. This image was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emissions from singly-ionized sulfur atoms, green shows emissions from hydrogen, and blue shows light emitted by doubly-ionized oxygen atoms.

  5. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, J.

    2006-12-01

    The ATA will be a massively parallel array of 350 6-m antennas operating from 0.5 GHz to 11.3 GHz. It will be a superb instrument for both surveys and for imaging large, complex sources. By exploiting recent drops in the cost of electronics and by adopting the simplest possible design, the cost of the ATA will be significantly less than that of existing 100-m class telescopes. The ATA offers a very large primary field of view that may be imaged with a spectralline correlator and, at the same time, be studied with 16 dual-polarization pencil beams. The ATA also will have unique capabilities for very high fidelity imaging and for RFI excision. Central to the design is a high performance, yet cost effective, antenna with a Gregorian reflector system, connected to a novel ultrawide- band, log-periodic feed. Analog fiber is used to eliminate most of the electronics that are located at the antennas in more conventional arrays, allowing for a massively parallel signal processing design that offers enormous flexibility. A 42-element version of the ATA will begin observing in 2006.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. PMID:27284131

  7. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  8. Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter; Carrasco, Luis; Wilson, Grant W.

    2003-02-01

    We present a summary of the Large Millimeter Telescope Project and its present status. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave telescope. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. Construction of the antenna is now well underway, and it is expected to be completed in 2004.

  9. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  10. Geodetic Observatory Wettzell - 20-m Radio Telescope and Twin Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Schatz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012, the 20-m radio telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany again contributed very successfully to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry observing program. Technical changes, developments, improvements, and upgrades were made to increase the reliability of the entire VLBI observing system. In parallel, the new Twin radio telescope Wettzell (TTW) got the first feedhorn, while the construction of the HF-receiving and the controlling system was continued.

  11. Ice Middleware in the New Solar Telescope's Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumko, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now in the process of assembling and aligning its 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST). There are many challenges controlling NST and one of them is establishing reliable and robust communications between different parts of the Telescope Control System (TCS). For our TCS we selected Ice (Internet communication engine) from ZeroC, Inc. In this paper we discuss advantages of the Ice middleware, details of implementation and problems we face implementing it.

  12. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  13. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2010-01-01

    The ATA is a 42-element centimeter wavelength array located in Hat Creek, California and jointly operated by UC Berkeley Radio Astronomy Laboratory and the SETI Institute. Since the ATA dedication in Fall 2007, activities have been focused on commissioning the array, retrofitting a handful of components including the feed, developing an operations model, creation of pipeline processing for correlator imaging data, early science observations, and launching of the major surveys for which the telescope was built. The retrofit of the feed improves feed mechanical robustness as well as high frequency performance. Science programs launched include imaging radio transient and static sky surveys (ATATS and PiGSS), commensal SETI and transient surveys of the Galactic Center, targeted SETI observations of nearby stars, the Fly's Eye transient survey, broadband spectra of nearby star-forming galaxies, polarimetric observations of bright radio sources, observations of hydrogen in nearby galaxies and galaxy groups, molecular line observations in the Galaxy, and observations of Jupiter and the Moon. The baseline Square Kilometer Array (SKA) design, a large-N-small-diameter (LNSD) array with wide-band single-pixel feeds and an offset Gregorian antenna, bears a strong resemblance to the ATA. Additional ATA contributions to the SKA include configuration studies for LNSD arrays, the use of fiber optics for broadband data transmission, the use of flexible FPGA-based digital electronics, passive cooling of antennas, and implementation of commensal observing modes. The ATA is currently used for exploration of calibration and imaging algorithms necessary for the SKA. I will summarize current technical status and performance, the results from early science and surveys, and ATA contributions to SKA development.

  14. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  15. Prism beamswitch for radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Payne, J M; Ulich, B L

    1978-12-01

    A dielectric prism and switching mechanism have been constructed for beamswitching a Cassegrain radio telescope. Spatially extended radio sources may be mapped without significant confusion utilizing the sensitivity and stability inherent in the conventional Dicke radiometer.

  16. The CMS pixel luminosity telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmayer, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a new complement to the CMS detector for the LHC Run II data taking period. It consists of eight 3-layer telescopes based on silicon pixel detectors that are placed around the beam pipe on each end of CMS viewing the interaction point at small angle. A fast 3-fold coincidence of the pixel planes in each telescope will provide a bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity. Particle tracking allows collision products to be distinguished from beam background, provides a self-alignment of the detectors, and a continuous in-time monitoring of the efficiency of each telescope plane. The PLT is an independent luminometer, essential to enhance the robustness on the measurement of the delivered luminosity and to reduce its systematic uncertainties. This will allow to determine production cross-sections, and hence couplings, with high precision and to set more stringent limits on new particle production.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  20. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  1. Telescope optical systems program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, Murray S.; Key, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    Telescope Optical Systems is a new focused program of technology development that will shape and enable the new 'telescope' missions being studied and planned by NASA. The program structure contains six major elements: systems, optics, materials, structures, controls, and integration and test. Activities in each element will address key technology issues that support a wide range of user needs. Program goals, technology needs, and technology performance objectives are summarized in outline form.

  2. The ASTRI prototype and mini-array: precursor telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (9.6 degrees) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. CTA plans to install about 70 small size telescopes in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirror's optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. Although it is a technological prototype, the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be able to perform systematic monitoring of bright TeV sources. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa) and with also a contribution by INFN. The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least nine ASTRI SST-2M units. It is proposed as one of the CTA mini-array of telescope precursors and initial seeds of CTA, to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the sensitivity, similar to the H.E.S.S. one in the 1-10 TeV energy range, up to about 100 TeV.

  3. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  4. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  5. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  6. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  7. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  8. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    and a proof of concept mission for which SOFIA was opportunely positioned is showcased. Success on this time-critical mission to observe a rare astronomical event proved the usefulness of an airborne observatory and the value in waiting for the capability provided by SOFIA. Finally, lessons learned in the test program are presented with emphasis on how lessons from previous aircraft and successful test programs were applied to SOFIA. Effective application of these lessons was crucial to the success of the SOFIA flight test program. SOFIA is an international cooperative program between NASA and the German Space Agency, DLR. It is a 2.5 meter (100-inch) telescope mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft used for astronomical observations at altitudes above 35,000 feet. SOFIA will accommodate a host of scientific instruments from the international science community and has a planned operational lifespan of more than 20 years.

  9. Imaging Extra-Solar Planets with an Ultra-Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Origins Program is directed toward two main goals: Imaging of galactic evolution in the early universe, and searching for planets orbiting nearby stars. The Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), operating at low temperature with an 8-m aperture, is well designed to meet the first goal. The goal of imaging planets orbiting nearby stars is more problematic. One line of investigation has been the ULTIMA concept (Ultra-Large Telescope, Integrated Missions in Astronomy). In this report, I will lay out the resolution requirements for telescopes to achieve the imaging of extrasolar planets, and describe a modeling tool created to investigate the requirements for imaging a planet when it is very near a much brighter star.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:12, 1.8-m (72-in.) Main Process Sewer Pipeline, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-034

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-29

    The 100-F-26:12 waste site was an approximately 308-m-long, 1.8-m-diameter east-west-trending reinforced concrete pipe that joined the North Process Sewer Pipelines (100-F-26:1) and the South Process Pipelines (100-F-26:4) with the 1.8-m reactor cooling water effluent pipeline (100-F-19). In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Development of a telescope for medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Legere, Jason; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) is being developed at GSFC as a future NASA MIDEX mission to explore the medium-energy (5-200 MeV) gamma-ray range. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three- Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI), a gaseous time projection chamber. The high spatial resolution 3-D electron tracking of 3-DTI enables AdEPT to achieve high angular resolution gamma-ray imaging via pair production and triplet production (pair production on electrons) in the medium-energy range. The low density and high spatial resolution of 3-DTI allows the electron positron track directions to be measured before they are dominated by Coulomb scattering. Further, the significant reduction of Coulomb scattering allows AdEPT to be the first medium-energy gamma-ray telescope to have high gamma-ray polarization sensitivity. We review the science goals that can be addressed with a medium-energy pair telescope, how these goals drive the telescope design, and the realization of this design with AdEPT. The AdEPT telescope for a future MIDEX mission is envisioned as a 8 m3 active volume filled with argon at 2 atm. The design and performance of the 3-DTI detectors for the AdEPT telescope are described as well as the outstanding instrument challenges that need to be met for the AdEPT mission.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Scale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is a photograph of a 1/15 scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  13. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  14. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  15. Electrochemical bioplatforms for the simultaneous determination of interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA and IL-8 protein oral cancer biomarkers in raw saliva.

    PubMed

    Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Campuzano, S; Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, V; Gamella, M; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-03-15

    The development of electrochemical magnetobiosensors for the simultaneous determination of two biomarkers associated with salivary oral cancer, protein IL-8 and its messenger RNA (IL-8 mRNA) associated, in undiluted human saliva samples is reported in this work. The implemented methodology involves the use of functionalized magnetic beads, specific antibodies against IL-8 protein, a specific hairpin DNA sequence for IL-8 mRNA and amperometric detection at disposable dual screen printed carbon electrodes. This methodology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target analytes providing detection limits of 0.21 nM for IL-8 mRNA and 72.4 pgmL(-1) (far below the clinical established cut-off of 600 pgmL(-1)) for IL-8 protein in undiluted saliva samples. The dual amperometric magnetobiosensor was applied to the direct determination of both biomarkers in spiked raw saliva samples and to determine the endogenous content of IL-8 protein in saliva samples from 7 healthy individuals. The obtained results were statistically in agreement with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit.

  16. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  18. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  19. Design of multichannel image processing on the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin

    2000-07-01

    The multi-channel image processing system on the Space Solar Telescope (SST) is described in this paper. This system is main part of science data unit (SDU), which is designed for dealing with the science data from every payload on the SST. First every payload on the SST and its scientific objective are introduced. They are main optic telescope, four soft X- ray telescopes, an H-alpha and white light (full disc) telescope, a coronagraph, a wide band X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer, and a solar and interplanetary radio spectrometer. Then the structure of SDU is presented. In this part, we discuss the hardware and software structure of SDU, which is designed for multi-payload. The science data scream of every payload is summarized, too. Solar magnetic and velocity field processing that occupies more than 90% of the data processing of SDU is discussed, which includes polarizing unit, image receiver and image adding unit. Last the plan of image data compression and mass memory that is designed for science data storage are presented.

  20. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  1. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being polished at the the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows engineers inspecting the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025- micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being ground at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  5. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design. PMID:26977642

  6. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  7. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  8. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design.

  9. Driving with bioptic telescopes: organizing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-09-01

    Being a licensed driver in the United States and many other countries facilitates health and well-being. Based on the vision standards in most states, individuals with worse than 20/40 visual acuity who desire licensure are denied through the usual licensure application process. However, >40 states have bioptic telescope licensing programs where applicants can gain licensure contingent on meeting specific requirements. Despite the existence of the bioptic telescope and these licensing programs since the 1970s, there has been little rigorous scientific study of this topic. Here, I offer an organizing perspective for a research agenda on driving with bioptic telescopes, with the long-term practical goal being to provide an evidence basis for licensure policies and training programs.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  11. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  12. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  13. Astronomers, Congress, and the Large Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanle, P. A.

    1985-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) project was initiated near the end of the Apollo program and immediately encountered fiscal contraints. Planned as a long-term facility, the HST had to be continually justified to the public, astronomers and Congress from 1973 onward. Budgetary restraints caused design reductions which for a while threatened the practicality of the HST and changed it from a pressurized, manned unit to an automatic mode, teleoperated, intermittently visited spacecraft. It is noted that numerous exaggerations were made of both the power of the HST for scientific research and the total support of the astronomical community during promotion of the HST program, although the HST is the most powerful visual wavelength telescope ever to be built due to its unique operating environment. NASA's consistent and steadily more detailed definitions of the design features and missions of the HST proved to be a decisive factor in repeated requests for information by funding committees who were deliberating in the presence of severe fiscal difficulties.

  14. Expression of aquaporin-3 and -8 mRNAs in the parr and smolt stages of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka: effects of cortisol treatment and seawater acclimation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Suk; Kim, Na Na; Cho, Sung Hwoan; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Ueda, Hiroshi; Lee, Jehee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of 2 aquaporin (AQP) isoforms (AQP3, and -8) in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in response to a hyperosmotic challenge from freshwater to seawater (SW) during the parr and smoltification (smolt) stages. AQP3 mRNA was primarily detected in the osmoregulatory organs, such as gills, while AQP8 mRNA was primarily found in the intestine. These results suggested that AQP isoforms play a role in osmoregulation in specific osmoregulatory organs. Similarly, AQP3 mRNA expression in the gills (mean values:1.06 ± 0.05 [parr] and 1.29 ± 0.07 [smolt]) was significantly higher than AQP8 mRNA levels (parr: 0.04 ± 0.003; smolt: 0.14 ± 0.004), and in the intestine, AQP8 mRNA expression (parr: 0.89 ± 0.007; smolt: 1.91 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than AQP3 mRNA levels (parr: 0.24 ± 0.006; smolt: 0.83 ± 0.005); these expression patterns were similar in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, AQP mRNA levels were lower in cortisol treated than in control groups. Therefore, these results suggest that AQPs play important roles in the water absorption mechanisms associated with multiple AQP isoforms, and that cortisol enhances the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of fish in SW, and also controls the expression of AQPs in a hyperosmotic environment. PMID:23507572

  15. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  16. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  17. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  18. Telescope search for decaying relic axions

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, Daniel; Kamionkowski, Marc; Blain, Andrew; Covone, Giovanni; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jullo, Eric

    2007-05-15

    A search for optical line emission from the two-photon decay of relic axions was conducted in the galaxy clusters Abell 2667 and 2390, using spectra from the VIMOS (Visible MultiObject Spectrograph) integral field unit at the Very Large Telescope. New upper limits to the two-photon coupling of the axion are derived, and are at least a factor of 3 more stringent than previous upper limits in this mass window. The improvement follows from a larger collecting area, integration time, and spatial resolution, as well as from improvements in signal to noise and sky subtraction made possible by strong-lensing mass models of these clusters. The new limits either require that the two-photon coupling of the axion be extremely weak or that the axion mass window between 4.5 eV and 7.7 eV be closed. Implications for sterile-neutrino dark matter are discussed briefly also.

  19. Metrication study for large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creswick, F. A.; Weller, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches which could be taken in developing a metric-system design for the Large Space Telescope, considering potential penalties on development cost and time, commonality with other satellite programs, and contribution to national goals for conversion to the metric system of units were investigated. Information on the problems, potential approaches, and impacts of metrication was collected from published reports on previous aerospace-industry metrication-impact studies and through numerous telephone interviews. The recommended approach to LST metrication formulated in this study cells for new components and subsystems to be designed in metric-module dimensions, but U.S. customary practice is allowed where U.S. metric standards and metric components are not available or would be unsuitable. Electrical/electronic-system design, which is presently largely metric, is considered exempt from futher metrication. An important guideline is that metric design and fabrication should in no way compromise the effectiveness of the LST equipment.

  20. NEAT: a microarcsec astrometric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.; Malbet, F.; Leger, A.

    2011-10-01

    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope ~ 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise < 1 uas (microarcsec) astrometric measurements of nearby stars in a ~ 1hr observation. Four major error sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of ~0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a ~2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 1010 over the lifetime of the mission (~5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have > 2 pixels per λ/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  1. Design of the Apache-Point Observatory 3.5-METER Telescope - Part Three - Primary Mirror Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannery, E. J.; Siegmund, W. A.; Hull, M. T.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe a system of pneumatic piston mirror supports for use in an altitude over azimuth telescope which react to gravity and wind loading. A pressure controller provides dynamic compensation of variable wind loading and changes in the gravity loading as a result of altitude angle changes. An active air circulation system which ventilates every honeycomb cell can be implemented without interference from the mirror supports. The system can be expanded in principle to accomodate 8 m honeycomb mirrors.

  2. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective of this work is to define and initiate a long-term program to mature six inter-linked critical technologies for future UVOIR space telescope mirrors to TRL6 by 2018 so that a viable flight mission can be proposed to the 2020 Decadal Review. (1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors: 4 to 8 m monolithic & 8 to 16 m segmented primary mirrors require larger, thicker, stiffer substrates. (2) Support System:Large-aperture mirrors require large support systems to ensure that they survive launch and deploy on orbit in a stress-free and undistorted shape. (3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error:A very smooth mirror is critical for producing a high-quality point spread function (PSF) for high-contrast imaging. (4) Segment Edges:Edges impact PSF for high-contrast imaging applications, contributes to stray light noise, and affects the total collecting aperture. (5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing:Segment phasing is critical for producing a high-quality temporally stable PSF. (6) Integrated Model Validation:On-orbit performance is determined by mechanical and thermal stability. Future systems require validated performance models. We are pursuing multiple design paths give the science community the option to enable either a future monolithic or segmented space telescope.

  3. Eclipse Photographs Through a Small Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Bill

    1999-08-01

    Results of previous eclipse photography using a small telescope (Questar 90mm x 1200mm EFL) and camera. During the presentation of images, tips and ideas for getting good pictures through a telescope will be discussed.

  4. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  5. Optical Telescope Assembly Concept for Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, N.; Krim, M.; Horner, G.

    1996-12-01

    A recent study by a TRW/HDOS/GSFC/LaRC/Swales team produced a conceptual design for an eight-meter diameter Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). This space telescope would have a deployed primary mirror with active figure control of the mirror petals to give diffraction limited performance at one micron wavelength. The High Accuracy Reflector Development (HARD) scheme, utilizing special translation-rotation mechanisms and precision latches, would deploy and lock the primary mirror segments into place. Thin mirror faceplates on stiff, lightweight backing structure would allow the extremely low weight at moderate cost. The telescope would produce images and spectra from radiation in the 0.5 micron to 10 micron spectral interval, have a 10 arc-minute circular field of view, weigh about 1000 kg, and fit within the shroud of an Atlas II AS launch vehicle. A deployable sunshield and an L2 Lissajous orbit would give passive cooling to 30 K. This paper describes the baseline optics, structures, and control systems of the Optical Telescope Assembly design produced in the study. The associated technologies are discussed, with emphasis on the optics and mechanisms for the primary mirror. For the optics, different mirror materials, fabrication processes, structural configurations, controls configurations, and verification techniques were studied, and a preliminary wavefront error budget was produced. For mechanisms, concepts were produced for high resolution actuators with a large operating range and for active vibration suppression. The state-of-the-art of all these technologies is presented, the technological advances needed, and some preliminary plans for their development.

  6. Gemini facility calibration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Harris, John W.; Gostick, David C.; Laidlaw, Ken; Kidd, Norrie; Strachan, Mel; Wilson, Ken

    2000-08-01

    High-quality, efficient calibration instruments is a pre- requisite for the modern observatory. Each of the Gemini telescopes will be equipped with identical facility calibration units (GCALs) designed to provide wavelength and flat-field calibrations for the suite of instruments. The broad range of instrumentation planned for the telescopes heavily constrains the design of GCAL. Short calibration exposures are required over wavelengths from 0.3micrometers to 5micrometers , field sizes up to 7 arcminutes and spectral resolution from R-5 to 50,000. The output from GCAL must mimic the f-16 beam of the telescope and provide a uniform illumination of the focal plane. The calibration units are mounted on the Gemini Instrument Support Structure, two meters from the focal pane, necessitating the use of large optical components. We will discuss the opto-mechanical design of the Gemini calibration unit, with reference to those feature which allow these stringent requirements to be met. A novel reflector/diffuser unit replaces the integration sphere more normally found in calibration systems. The efficiency of this system is an order of magnitude greater than for an integration sphere. A system of two off-axis mirrors reproduces the telescope pupil and provides the 7 foot focal plane. The results of laboratory test of the uniformity and throughput of the GCAL will be presented.

  7. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  8. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  9. World atlas of large optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    By 1980 there will be approximately 100 large optical telescopes in the world with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39 inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their locations on continent-sized maps. Observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes are also shown.

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  11. The secondary mirror concept for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Cayrel, Marc; Bonnet, Henri; Ciattaglia, Emanuela; Esselborn, Michael; Koch, Franz; Kurlandczyk, Herve; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Rakich, Andrew; Sedghi, Babak

    2014-07-01

    The E-ELT is an active and adaptive 39-m telescope, with an anastigmat optical solution (5 mirrors including two flats), currently being developed by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The convex 4-metre-class secondary mirror (M2) is a thin Zerodur meniscus passively supported by an 18 point axial whiffletree. A warping harness system allows to correct low order deformations of the M2 Mirror. Laterally the mirror is supported on 12 points along the periphery by pneumatic jacks. Due to its high optical sensitivity and the telescope gravity deflections, the M2 unit needs to allow repositioning the mirror during observation. Considering its exposed position 30m above the primary, the M2 unit has to provide good wind rejection. The M2 concept is described and major performance characteristics are presented.

  12. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  13. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  14. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  15. Synchronous network of distant telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilyaev, B.; Svyatogorov, O.; Verlyuk, I.; Andreev, M.; Sergeev, A.; Lovkaya, M.; Antov, A.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Bogdanovski, R.; Avgoloupis, S.; Seiradakis, J.; Contadakis, M. E.

    The Synchronous Network of distant Telescopes (SNT) represents an innovative approach in observational astrophysics. The authors present an unique existing realization of the SNT-conception. It was founded within the international collaboration between astronomical observatories of Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria and Greece. All the telescopes of the Network are equipped with standardized photometric systems (based on photo-multipliers). The unified timing systems (based on GPS-receivers) synchronize all the apertures to UTC with an accuracy of 1 microsecond and better. The essential parts of the SNT are the original software for operating and data processing. The described international Network successfully works for more than 10 years. The obtained unique observational data made it possible to discover new fine-scale features and flare-triggered phenomena in flaring red dwarfs, as well as the recently found high-frequency variability in some chromospherically active stars.

  16. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  17. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  18. TOML - Telescope Observation Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, S.; Jenness, T.; Economou, F.; Folger, M.

    2005-12-01

    Telescope Observation Markup Language (TOML) has been developed by the Joint Astronomy Centre as a means of expressing an astronomical observing program in XML. It provides a means of encoding a program developed using a graphical tool in a language neutral format which can be sent over the web to a database or a colleague who is also working on the same project. This can then be loaded into any tool capable of accepting TOML.

  19. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  1. First light for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresch-Fienberg, Richard

    1986-12-01

    The launch of the 2.4-m Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by the Space Shuttle Atlantis in late 1988 is discussed. Only after a commissioning period will the observatory begin routine scientific operations. After circling the globe in tandem for two days, Atlantis and space telescope will part and a one-to-two month Orbital Verification period will begin. 'First light' will involve the detection of an anonymous star by the spacecraft's pointing and control system. Three fine-guidance sensors permit the telescope to find a particular object and remain pointed at it to within 0.007 arc second for as long as 24 hours. Magnitude 28 stars will be detected routinely and magnitude 31 stars in the longest exposures. Objects that will be used to test the functioning of the various scientific instruments are noted: NGC 188 for the wide-field/planetary camera, 30 Doradus (Tarantula nebula) for the high-resolution spectrograph, the triple quasar PG 1115 + 80A, B, C in Leo for the faint-object spectrograph. In a Science verification period, the scientific instruments will be calibrated so as to remove their signatures as much as possible from the data. Kapteyn's Selected Area 95, the Orion nebula, and the 'Egg nebula' in Cygnus are candidate calibration objects.

  2. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  3. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  4. NEWS: Hands-on telescopes!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    As part of the International Astronomical Union Meeting taking place in Manchester in August, the Education Committee of the Royal Astronomical Society is organizing a day conference on using robotic telescopes in schools. `Astronomy research projects for schools and university students' will commence at 10.30 on Friday 18 August 2000. This discussion meeting will explore ways in which students at school and university can participate in research projects, and at the same time increase their understanding of astronomy and develop useful skills. The increase in access to robotic telescopes and to astronomy databases is making research by school and undergraduate students ever more feasible. In addition, useful research can be done with very modest telescope systems, of the sort a school could afford. A range of international speakers will describe and demonstrate the possibilities, as well as leading the discussion. This meeting is being organized by the Education Committee of the Royal Astronomical Society and by Commission 46 of the International Astronomical Union. It is being held at the end of the IAU General Assembly. Those who pay the registration fee for the General Assembly need pay no further fee for attending the discussion meeting; otherwise there is a fee of £10. Refreshments will be provided at no charge. To obtain a registration form for this discussion meeting please contact Alan Pickwick (Alan_C_Pickwick@compuserve.com).

  5. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  6. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  7. On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Surdej, Isabelle; Yaitskova, Natalia; Gonte, Frederic

    2010-07-20

    The Zernike phase contrast method is a novel technique to phase the primary mirrors of segmented telescopes. It has been tested on-sky on a unit telescope of the Very Large Telescope with a segmented mirror conjugated to the primary mirror to emulate a segmented telescope. The theoretical background of this sensor and the algorithm used to retrieve the piston, tip, and tilt information are described. The performance of the sensor as a function of parameters such as star magnitude, seeing, and integration time is discussed. The phasing accuracy has always been below 15 nm root mean square wavefront error under normal conditions of operation and the limiting star magnitude achieved on-sky with this sensor is 15.7 in the red, which would be sufficient to phase segmented telescopes in closed-loop during observations. PMID:20648188

  8. Efficient and versatile internal reference sources for remote sensing space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintner, Eric C.; Wong, Wallace K.; Jacobs, Eric S.; Cucchiaro, Paul J.; Koshel, R. John

    2006-08-01

    Access to an internal calibration reference system during flight is an important requirement for contemporary remote sensing missions. L-3 Communications SSG-Tinsley has designed, built, and tested a novel internal calibration source based on ribbon sources. Via a flip-in mirror, the source assembly couples light through the field stop of an off-axis reimaging telescope to provide a reliable test of the following optics and electronics. Non-imaging illumination design principles assure uniform illumination of the sensor focal plane at levels adjustable over a very wide dynamic range. The source assembly can be packaged into a compact, lightweight, and efficient flight unit for convenient installation at an accessible location on the telescope. While the prototype source was specifically designed to match the GIFTS telescope as a representative example of an off-axis re-imaging telescope, the design principles are flexible to allow optimization for any comparable telescope system.

  9. On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Surdej, Isabelle; Yaitskova, Natalia; Gonte, Frederic

    2010-07-20

    The Zernike phase contrast method is a novel technique to phase the primary mirrors of segmented telescopes. It has been tested on-sky on a unit telescope of the Very Large Telescope with a segmented mirror conjugated to the primary mirror to emulate a segmented telescope. The theoretical background of this sensor and the algorithm used to retrieve the piston, tip, and tilt information are described. The performance of the sensor as a function of parameters such as star magnitude, seeing, and integration time is discussed. The phasing accuracy has always been below 15 nm root mean square wavefront error under normal conditions of operation and the limiting star magnitude achieved on-sky with this sensor is 15.7 in the red, which would be sufficient to phase segmented telescopes in closed-loop during observations.

  10. Cu NQR Study of Impurity-doped YBa_2(Cu_1-xM_x)_4O8 (M=Ni, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yutaka; Machi, Takato; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Koshizuka, Naoki

    2001-03-01

    We report Cu NQR measurements of ^63Cu(2) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation curves for the impurity-doped powdered YBa_2(Cu_1-xM_x)_4O8 (M=Ni, x=0 ~0.042 M=Zn, x=0 ~0.022) from 4.2 K to 300 K. We estimated the host and the impurity-induced Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times from the nonexponential recovery curves. Near the superconductor-to-semiconductor transition at the critical impurity concentration, we observed that the wipeout effect works at low temperature and that the pseudo spin-gap behavior of the host Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T_1T)_HOST is suppressed. We associate these results with the localization effect in conduction. This work was supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as Collaborative Research and Development of Fundamental Technologies for Superconductivity Applications.

  11. Educational activities with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S.; Roche, P.; Ross, R.

    2008-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) will eventually provide access to a global network of robotic telescopes for research-based science education. Here we present the educational projects that have been undertaken using the 2-m Faulkes Telescopes in Hawaii and Australia in both the UK and Europe. These include themed observing days in which schools collaborate in their telescope sessions, the development of science portals where schools can upload and share their telescope data, and other innovative projects. Public access to these facilities will increase as IYA2009 approaches.

  12. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  13. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  14. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  15. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. Current and foreseeable launch vehicles will be limited to carrying around 4-5 meter diameter objects. Thus, if a large, filled-aperture telescope (6-20 meters in diameter) is to be placed in space, it will be required to have a deployable primary mirror. Such a mirror may be an inflatable membrane or a segmented mirror consisting of many smaller pieces. In any case, it is expected that the deployed primary will not be of sufficient quality to achieve diffraction-limited performance for its aperture size. Thus, an active optics system will be needed to correct for initial as well as environmentally-produced primary figure errors. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed considerable expertise in the area of active optics with the PAMELA test-bed. The combination of this experience along with the Marshall optical shop's work in mirror fabrication made MSFC the logical choice to lead NASA's effort to develop active optics technology for large, space-based, astronomical telescopes. Furthermore, UAH's support of MSFC in the areas of optical design, fabrication, and testing of space-based optical systems placed us in a key position to play a major role in the development of this future-generation telescope. A careful study of the active optics components had to be carried out in order to determine control segment size, segment quality, and segment controllability required to achieve diffraction-limited resolution with a given primary mirror. With this in mind, UAH undertook the following effort to provide NASA/MSFC with optical design and analysis support for the large telescope study. All of the work performed under this contract has already been reported, as a team member with MSFC, to NASA Headquarters in a series of presentations given between May and December of 1995. As specified on the delivery

  16. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  18. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  19. All-spherical catadioptric telescope design for wide-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2010-10-20

    The current trend in building medium-size telescopes for wide-field imaging is to use a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) design with a multilens corrector near the focus. Our goal is to find a cost-effective alternative design to the RC system for seeing-limited observations. We present an f/4.5 all-spherical catadioptric system with a 1.5° field of view. The system consists of a 0.8 m spherical primary and 0.4 m flat secondary mirror combined with a meniscus lens and followed by a three-lens field corrector. The optical performance is comparable to an equivalent f/4.5 RC system. We conclude that, for telescopes with apertures up to 2 m, the catadioptric design is a good alternative to the RC system. PMID:20962933

  20. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Education in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. J.

    2011-09-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes to be placed around the world providing 24/7 sky coverage of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These telescopes will range in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m and will be available for scientific and educational uses in both real-time and in a queue-scheduler. The educational uses of LCOGT will be primarily online through our website (http://www.lcogt.net) where there will be how-to guides, ideas for activities, opportunities for participating in research projects with our astronomers, full access to the public archive, as well as an online community built through forums and groups. Content will be visible to all, although registered users will have the ability to add resources, post on blogs and forums, comment and rate existing pages and resources, collaborate in world-wide projects, and much more. The current network includes the two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes on Haleakala, Maui and at Siding Spring, Australia. A 0.8 m telescope located at Sedgwick Reserve in the Santa Ynez Valley is nearly commissioned and will be used both for local outreach events as well as on the LCOGT network. The first pair of 0.4 m telescopes has been deployed to Maui and are enclosed inside the clamshell dome with Faulkes Telescope North (FTN), but still have some time to go before they are fully commissioned. The site in Chile is currently being prepped for three 1.0 m and two pairs of 0.4 m telescopes with the site in South Africa to follow shortly. Other sites include the Canary Islands, a site in North America, one in Asia, and another site in Australia. The 0.4 m telescopes will be deployed by pair and the 1.0 m telescopes will be deployed in groups of two or three, all with research-grade instrumentation.

  1. The mini-array of ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, precursors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (FoV, ~ 9.6°) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes (SST). The CTA plans to install about 70 SST in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirrors optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. A remarkable performance improvement could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed as a precursor and initial seed of the CTA to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to the CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will, if compared for instance to H.E.S.S., extend the point source sensitivity up to ~ 100 TeV, also improving it above 5-10 TeV. Moreover, the unprecedented width of the FoV, with its homogeneous acceptance and angular resolution, will significantly contribute to the achievement of original results during the early CTA science phase.

  2. Recent developments for the Large Binocular Telescope Guiding Control Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golota, T.; De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Lesser, M.; Leibold, T.; Miller, D.; Meeks, R.; Hahn, T.; Storm, J.; Sargent, T.; Summers, D.; Hill, J.; Kraus, J.; Hooper, S.; Fisher, D.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has eight Acquisition, Guiding, and wavefront Sensing Units (AGw units). They provide guiding and wavefront sensing capability at eight different locations at both direct and bent Gregorian focal stations. Recent additions of focal stations for PEPSI and MODS instruments doubled the number of focal stations in use including respective motion, camera controller server computers, and software infrastructure communicating with Guiding Control Subsystem (GCS). This paper describes the improvements made to the LBT GCS and explains how these changes have led to better maintainability and contributed to increased reliability. This paper also discusses the current GCS status and reviews potential upgrades to further improve its performance.

  3. SST-GATE: an innovative telescope for very high energy astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Philippe; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Boisson, Catherine; Chadwick, Paula; Dumas, Delphine; Fasola, Gilles; de Frondat, Fatima; Greenshaw, Tim; Hervet, Olivier; Hinton, James; Horville, David; Huet, Jean-Michel; Jégouzo, Isabelle; Schmoll, Jürgen; White, Richard; Zech, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international collaboration that aims to create the world's largest (ever) Very High Energy gamma-ray telescope array, consisting of more than 100 telescopes covering an area of several square kilometers to observe the electromagnetic showers generated by incoming cosmic gamma-rays with very high energies (from a few tens of GeV up to over 100 TeV). Observing such sources requires - amongst many other things - a large FoV (Field of View). In the framework of CTA, SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) aims to investigate and to build one of the two first CTA prototypes based on the Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optical design that delivers a FoV close to 10 degrees in diameter. To achieve the required performance per unit cost, many improvements in mirror manufacturing and in other technologies are required. We present in this paper the current status of our project. After a brief introduction of the very high energy context, we present the opto-mechanical design, discuss the technological tradeoffs and explain the electronics philosophy that will ensure the telescopes cost is minimised without limiting its capabilities. We then describe the software nedeed to operate the telescope and conclude by presenting the expected telescope performance and some management considerations.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  5. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Baliber, N.; Bianco, F. B.; Bowman, M.; Burleson, B.; Conway, P.; Crellin, M.; Depagne, É.; De Vera, J.; Dilday, B.; Dragomir, D.; Dubberley, M.; Eastman, J. D.; Elphick, M.; Falarski, M.; Foale, S.; Ford, M.; Fulton, B. J.; Garza, J.; Gomez, E. L.; Graham, M.; Greene, R.; Haldeman, B.; Hawkins, E.; Haworth, B.; Haynes, R.; Hidas, M.; Hjelstrom, A. E.; Howell, D. A.; Hygelund, J.; Lister, T. A.; Lobdill, R.; Martinez, J.; Mullins, D. S.; Norbury, M.; Parrent, J.; Paulson, R.; Petry, D. L.; Pickles, A.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W. E.; Ross, R.; Sand, D. J.; Saunders, E. S.; Shobbrook, J.; Shporer, A.; Street, R. A.; Thomas, D.; Tsapras, Y.; Tufts, J. R.; Valenti, S.; Vander Horst, K.; Walker, Z.; White, G.; Willis, M.

    2013-09-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a young organization dedicated to time-domain observations at optical and (potentially) near-IR wavelengths. To this end, LCOGT is constructing a worldwide network of telescopes, including the two 2 m Faulkes telescopes, as many as 17 × 1 m telescopes, and as many as 23 × 40 cm telescopes. These telescopes initially will be outfitted for imaging and (excepting the 40 cm telescopes) spectroscopy at wavelengths between the atmospheric UV cutoff and the roughly 1-μm limit of silicon detectors. Since the first of LCOGT's 1 m telescopes are now being deployed, we lay out here LCOGT's scientific goals and the requirements that these goals place on network architecture and performance, we summarize the network's present and projected level of development, and we describe our expected schedule for completing it. In the bulk of the paper, we describe in detail the technical approaches that we have adopted to attain desired performance. In particular, we discuss our choices for the number and location of network sites, for the number and sizes of telescopes, for the specifications of the first generation of instruments, for the software that will schedule and control the network's telescopes and reduce and archive its data, and for the structure of the scientific and educational programs for which the network will provide observations.

  6. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  8. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, J. W. M.; Carrasco, L.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1999-05-01

    The University of Massachusetts at Amherst, through the FCRAO, and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Puebla, Mexico, are collaborating in the design, construction and joint operation of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). The LMT is a full aperture telescope of 50 m diameter for operation to a shortest wavelength of 1 mm. First generation facility instruments include a 32-channel spectroscopy receiver for the 85-115 GHz band and a 144-channel bolometer system at 250 GHz. A joint institute, the LMT Observatory, will operate the telescope for the astronomers from the participating institutes and outside observers. Commissioning of the LMT is scheduled to start in 2001. The LMT is expected to contribute in particular to the study of the Universe at high redshifts. Its size and southern location also make it a powerful member of the growing mm-wavelength VLBI activity. The LMT is located on Cerro la Negra in Central Mexico at 4600 m altitude and a latitude of 19 degrees. The site is 100 km east of Puebla. The opacity shows median tau-values of less than 0.15 at 230 GHz from Sep through May, good for operation to 300 GHz. Site preparation and installation of utilities is under way. Work on the telescope foundation will begin in Spring 1999 with steel assembly expected to commence in early 2000. The LMT is being designed by MAN Technologie. It is an exposed, alt-azimuth antenna with a wheel-on-track azimuth drive and double bull-gear elevation drive. An advanced servo-system will aid in achieving the pointing accuracy of 1''. A spacious receiver cabin behind the reflector, allows the deployment of and easy access to several receiver systems. The reflector is a space-frame structure, supporting 130 reflector subframes of about 5x3 m2 which carry the reflector surface panels. The subframes are supported on actuators to enable real-time correction of the reflector surface for deformations, caused by gravity, temperature gradients and

  9. Supersonic Testing of 0.8 m Disk Gap Band Parachutes in the Wake of a 70 Deg Sphere Cone Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Wernet, Mark; Roeder, James; Kelsch, Richard; Witkowski, Al; Jones, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic wind tunnel testing of Viking-type 0.8 m Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachutes was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10'x10' wind-tunnel. The tests were conducted in support of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute Decelerator System development and qualification program. The aerodynamic coupling of the entry-vehicle wake to parachute flow-field is under investigation to determine the cause and functional dependence of a supersonic canopy breathing phenomenon referred to as area oscillations, characteristic of DGB's above Mach 1.5 operation. Four percent of full-scale parachutes (0.8 m) were constructed similar to the flight-article in material and construction techniques. The parachutes were attached to a 70-deg sphere-cone entry-vehicle to simulate the Mars flight configuration. The parachutes were tested in the wind-tunnel from Mach 2 to 2.5 in a Reynolds number range of 2x105 to 1x106, representative of a Mars deployment. Three different test configurations were investigated. In the first two configurations, the parachutes were constrained horizontally through the vent region to measure canopy breathing and wake interaction for fixed trim angles of 0 and 10 degrees from the free-stream. In the third configuration the parachute was unconstrained, permitted to trim and cone, similar to free-flight (but capsule motion is constrained), varying its alignment relative to the entry-vehicle wake. Non-intrusive test diagnostics were chosen to quantify parachute performance and provide insight into the flow field structure. An in-line loadcell provided measurement of unsteady and mean drag. Shadowgraph of the upstream parachute flow field was used to capture bow-shock motion and wake coupling. Particle image velocimetry provided first and second order flow field statistics over a planar region of the flow field, just upstream of the parachute. A photogrammetric technique was used to quantify fabric motion using multiple high speed video cameras to record

  10. High Resolution Imaging with Adaptive Optics at the Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hart, M.; McLeod, B. A.; Wittman, D.; Colucci, D.; McCarthy, D. W.; Angel, R.; Dekany, R.

    1992-12-01

    We present the latest results from an adaptive optics program being implemented at the MMT using a six element adaptive mirror. The tilt of the wavefront over each of the six telescopes is determined with a Shack-Hartmann type sensor using a 24times 24 pixel low-noise CCD. This system allows the MMT to operate at a resolution of 0.3'' at 2 microns -- near the diffraction limit of the individual 1.8-m telescopes. This resolution can be obtained within ~ 1' of any star with visual magnitude < 16, allowing high-resolution near-IR imaging with a NICMOS2 array of a wide variety of targets, including high-redshift galaxies and young and evolved stars. This system can also be used with the MMT operated as a phased array telescope. In this mode, the piston errors between the telescopes are determined by examining the Fourier transform of the combined 2-micron image of the natural guide star using a fast-readout InSb array. In this configuration we have achieved a resolution of 0.075''. In good seeing we expect to obtain images of interest within the isoplanatic patch of guide stars with K magnitude <7. We acknowledge financial support from the NSF (AST92-03336) and the Flintridge Foundation. The adaptive mirror was donated by ThermoTrex Corp.

  11. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W.B.; Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Anderson, B. Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Band, D.L.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bartelt, J.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bederede, D.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G.F.; Bisello, D.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R.D.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3) measure

  12. Cyanide-bridged [Fe8M6] clusters displaying single-molecule magnetism (M=Ni) and electron-transfer-coupled spin transitions (M=Co).

    PubMed

    Mitsumoto, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Emiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Shiga, Takuya; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya; Oshio, Hiroki

    2011-08-22

    Cyanide-bridged metal complexes of [Fe(8)M(6)(μ-CN)(14)(CN)(10)(tp)(8)(HL)(10)(CH(3)CN)(2)][PF(6)](4)⋅n CH(3)CN⋅m H(2)O (HL=3-(2-pyridyl)-5-[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]-1H-pyrazole), tp(-) =hydrotris(pyrazolylborate), 1: M=Ni with n=11 and m=7, and 2: M=Co with n=14 and m=5) were prepared. Complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphous, and crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n. They have tetradecanuclear cores composed of eight low-spin (LS) Fe(III) and six high-spin (HS) M(II) ions (M=Ni and Co), all of which are bridged by cyanide ions, to form a crown-like core structure. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that intramolecular ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions are operative in 1 and in a fresh sample of 2, respectively. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 showed frequency-dependent in- and out-of-phase signals, characteristic of single-molecule magnetism (SMM), while desolvated samples of 2 showed thermal- and photoinduced intramolecular electron-transfer-coupled spin transition (ETCST) between the [(LS-Fe(II))(3) (LS-Fe(III))(5)(HS-Co(II))(3)(LS-Co(III))(3)] and the [(LS-Fe(III))(8)(HS-Co(II))(6)] states. PMID:21830241

  13. Structural and electronic properties of graphite and graphite intercalation compounds MC[sub 8] (M = K, Rb, Cs) governing their scanning tunneling microscopy images

    SciTech Connect

    Whangbo, M.H.; Liang, W.; Ren, J. ); Magonov, S.N.; Wawkuschewski, A. )

    1994-08-04

    Several puzzling observations in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and its intercalation compounds MC[sub 8] (M = K, Rb, Cs) were investigated on the basis of atom-atom potential and Coulombic interaction energy calculations. The charge or spin density wave state of a graphite monolayer is found inconsistent with an identical peak registry of the HOPG STM images obtained at plus and minus bias voltages. Simultaneous STM/AFM measurements of HOPG show the STM and AFM images to have an identical peak registry, which implies that the local hardness of the surface monolayer is larger at the B-site than at the A-site. We confirm this implication by estimating the local hardness in the surface monolayer of a graphite bilayer in terms of atom-atom potential calculations. The essential characteristics of the Moire STM images of HOPG are correctly predicted by the local hardness map obtained for the surface monolayer of a graphite bilayer in terms of atom-atom potential calculations. This supports the notion that the tip-force-induced topography change in the surface monolayer is generally responsible for Moire STM patterns in layered materials. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Three-Dimensional Assignment of the Structures of Atomic Clusters: an Example of Au8M (M=Si, Ge, Sn) Anion Clusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Rong; Huang, Teng; Gai, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Yang; Feng, Ya-Juan; Huang, Wei

    2015-12-03

    Identification of different isomer structures of atomic and molecular clusters has long been a challenging task in the field of cluster science. Here we present a three-dimensional (3D) assignment method, combining the energy (1D) and simulated (2D) spectra to assure the assignment of the global minimum structure. This method is more accurate and convenient than traditional methods, which only consider the total energy and first vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of anion clusters. There are two prerequisites when the 3D assignment method is ultilized. First, a reliable global minimum search algorithm is necessary to explore enough valleys on the potential energy surface. Second, trustworthy simulated spectra are necessary, that is to say, spectra that are in quantitative agreement. In this paper, we demonstrate the validity of the 3D assignment method using Au8M(-) (M=Si, Ge, Sn) systems. Results from this study indicate that the global minimum structures of Au8Ge(-) and Au8Sn(-) clusters are different from those described in previous studies.

  15. Jet Stream Converges Prior to 6.8M Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake of Japan on 2007/07/16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.

    2007-12-01

    The 6.8M Niigata Chuetsu-oki earthquake occurred on 2007/07/16 and resulted in 11 deaths and at least 1000 injuries have been reported, and 342 buildings were completely destroyed. The 108km/hr isobar jet stream line converged around an epicenter on 2007/07/01 12:00 and 2007/07/02 06:00. Before a devastating earthquake occurs, the underground water level usually changes caused by the rock squishing or loosening. This study assumed that rock squishing or loosening caused air inhalation or exhalation that creates an internal gravity wave. This phenomenon will change the jet streams at an altitude of 10 km. Ps. The predicted Data:07/06/26-07/07/26 Japan(37.4N140.0E)M 6.0 100% The Actual Data: 07/07/16 Japan (37.576N138.469E) 6.6M 10km This earthquake prediction had been predicted on http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/wu10002002/ and sent to Dr. Dimitar Ouzounov in advance.

  16. Effects of the A-site cation number on the properties of Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, J. A.; García-Muñoz, J. L.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2010-05-01

    The properties of manganites can be tuned by changing the doping level x in Ln1-xM xMnO 3. A second mechanism allows tuning of magnetic and electronic properties, for fixed x values, by varying the average A-cation radius, < r A>. Moreover, for fixed x and < r A> values, the changes in the A-cation size variance, σ2, also modify the ferromagnetic and metal-insulator transition temperatures. Here, we investigate the influence of the number of A-site cations on Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 manganites, where x, < r A> and σ2 values are kept constant, and in the absence of phase separation phenomena. We have found that the number of cation species at the A site ( N A) has a strong influence on the width of the ferromagnetic and metal-insulator transitions, and a small influence on the average transition temperature. This behavior is opposite to that observed for increasing values of the variance σ2 in manganites, with the same x and < r A> values, where average transition temperatures are strongly reduced.

  17. Magnetodielectric effects in A -site cation-ordered chromate spinels Li M C r4O8 (M =Ga and In)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rana; Fauth, Francois; Avdeev, Maxim; Kayser, Paula; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Sundaresan, A.

    2016-08-01

    We report the occurrence of a magnetodielectric effect and its correlation with structure and magnetism in the A -site ordered chromate spinel oxides Li M C r4O8 (M =Ga , In). In addition to magnetic and dielectric measurements, temperature dependent synchrotron and neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out for the Ga compound. The results are compared and contrasted with that of a corresponding conventional B -site magnetic chromate spinel oxide, ZnC r2O4 . Like ZnC r2O4 , the A -site ordered chromate spinels exhibit a magnetodielectric effect at the magnetic ordering temperature (TN˜13 -15 K ), resulting from magnetoelastic coupling through a spin Jahn-Teller effect. While the presence of a broad magnetic anomaly, associated with a short-range magnetic ordering (TSO˜45 K ) in ZnC r2O4 , does not cause any dielectric anomaly, a sharp change in dielectric constant has been observed in LiInC r4O8 at the magnetic anomaly, which is associated with the opening of a spin gap (TSG˜60 K ). Contrary to the In compound, a broad dielectric anomaly exists at the onset of short-range antiferromagnetic ordering (TSO˜55 K ) in LiGaC r4O8 . The differences in dielectric behavior of these compounds have been discussed in terms of breathing distortion of the C r4 tetrahedra.

  18. Three-Dimensional Assignment of the Structures of Atomic Clusters: an Example of Au8M (M=Si, Ge, Sn) Anion Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Rong; Huang, Teng; Gai, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Yang; Feng, Ya-Juan; Huang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Identification of different isomer structures of atomic and molecular clusters has long been a challenging task in the field of cluster science. Here we present a three-dimensional (3D) assignment method, combining the energy (1D) and simulated (2D) spectra to assure the assignment of the global minimum structure. This method is more accurate and convenient than traditional methods, which only consider the total energy and first vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of anion clusters. There are two prerequisites when the 3D assignment method is ultilized. First, a reliable global minimum search algorithm is necessary to explore enough valleys on the potential energy surface. Second, trustworthy simulated spectra are necessary, that is to say, spectra that are in quantitative agreement. In this paper, we demonstrate the validity of the 3D assignment method using Au8M- (M = Si, Ge, Sn) systems. Results from this study indicate that the global minimum structures of Au8Ge- and Au8Sn- clusters are different from those described in previous studies.

  19. Holographic spectrograph for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Crenshaw, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    A spectrograph is described which is made with dual Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) which are identical and parallel to each other. Both optics are collimating transmission HOEs with focal points that are at equal and opposite distances from each other. The identical HOEs are formed by the interference of a plane wave parallel to the grating plane with an off-axis spherical wave originating in the near-field. In playback, a spectrum can be formed from a point source radiator placed at the position of the recording spherical wave. If played back at an arbitrary wavelength other than the recording wavelength, the image exhibits coma. This spectrograph is intended for an unusual configuration where many nearly monochromatic sources of known wavelengths are separately positioned relative to the first HOE. The special application is in a space telescope capable of resolving spectra from habitable planets within 10 pc. HOEs of this type could be fabricated on membrane substrates with a low areal mass and stowable on rolls for insertion into the second Lagrange point. The intended application is for a 50 x 10 meter class primary objective holographic space telescope with 50 x 10 m HOEs in the spectrograph. We present a computer model of the spectrograph.. Experimental results are compared with predictions from theory. A single HOE is shown to perform over a wider bandwidth and is demonstrated.

  20. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  1. JWST Telescope Integration and Test Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  2. JWST telescope integration and test progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  3. Review of lunar telescope studies at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Nein, Max E.

    1993-09-01

    In the near future astronomers can take advantage of the lunar surface as the new 'high ground' from which to study the universe. Optical telescopes placed and operated on the lunar surface would be successors to NASA's Great Observatories. Four telescopes, ranging in aperture from a 16-m, IR/Vis/UV observatory down to a 1-m, UV 'transit' instrument, have been studied by the Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE (lunar telescope ultraviolet experiment) Task Team of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper presents conceptual designs of the telescopes, provides descriptions of the telescope subsystem options selected for each concept, and outlines the potential evolution of their science capabilities.

  4. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-04-16

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  5. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  6. Optical photometry using Bradford robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal Braun, P.; Baruch, J. E. F.

    2009-06-01

    The Bradford Robotic Telescope (BRT) is located on Mount Teide at Tenerife and is working, taking observations since 2003. It is a fully automated telescope. The hardware and software used for the working of the telescope are described here. Twenty four BL Lac objects are observed since 2005 and magnitudes of the objects are calculated. We describe in this paper the working of BRT and optical BVR photometry of BL Lac objects, observed during 2005-2007.

  7. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  8. A cooled telescope for infrared balloon astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, C.; Jacobson, M. R.; Harwit, M. O.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a 16 inch liquid helium cooled Cassegrain telescope with vibrating secondary mirror are discussed. The telescope is used in making far infrared astronomical observations. The system houses several different detectors for multicolor photometry. The cooled telescope has a ten to one increase in signal-to-noise ratio over a similar warm version and is installed in a high altitude balloon gondola to obtain data on the H2 region of the galaxy.

  9. Design of Galilean-type telescope systems.

    PubMed

    Menchaca, C; Malacara, D

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we present the design of three Galilean-type telescope systems with magnifications of 2.2x, 4x, and 5x. These systems are free of the large weight and length as well as the reduced field of view, which are frequent undesirable properties of Galilean telescopes. These designs have a moderate field of view and a short length, with reasonably good aberration correction, and may be used as binocular telescopes or magnifiers with a large working distance.

  10. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . This includes the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), an array of 10 telescopes spanning the United States from Hawaii to Saint Croix; NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) sites in California, Spain, and Australia; the European VLBI Network, more than a dozen telescopes ranging from the United Kingdom to China; a Southern Hemisphere array of telescopes stretching from eastern Australia to South Africa; and Japan's network of domestic radio telescopes. In the United States, NASA is funding critical roles in the VSOP mission at both JPL and NRAO. JPL has built an array of three new tracking stations at its DSN sites in Goldstone, CA; Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia. A large existing tracking station at each of these sites has also been converted to an extremely sensitive radio telescope for simultaneous observations with the satellite. JPL also is providing precision orbit determination, scientific and operational planning support to the Japanese, and advice to U.S. astronomers who wish to observe with the satellite. NRAO is building a new tracking station at Green Bank, WV; contributing observing time on the VLBA array of telescopes; modifying existing data analysis hardware and software, and aiding astronomers with the analysis of the VSOP data. Much of the observational data will be processed at NRAO's facility in Socorro, NM, using the VLBA Correlator, a special purpose high-performance computer designed to process VLBI data. VSOP is the culmination of many years of planning and work by scientists and engineers around the world. Tests using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) proved the feasibility of space VLBI in 1986. Just last year, those old data were used again to test successfully the data-reduction facilities for VSOP. JPL manages the U.S. Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The VLBA, headquartered in Socorro, NM, is part of the National Radio

  11. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  12. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  13. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  14. Alt-Az telescope control system standardization attempt: case study of the TT1 (Toppo Telescope #1) control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Dario; Brescia, Massimo; Spirito, Gianfranco

    1998-05-01

    The TT1 is a 1.54 m Alt-Az telescope designed and built by the Technology Working Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. The standardization process is of course one of the fundamental requirements for telescope control system design and development, well considered in the TT1 design. In this paper we present the approach used to identify a control system applicable to medium-size Alt-Az telescope. The TT1 control system architecture is based on a distributed working flow and it is PC-based, i.e. organized in several interconnected standard PCs and standard fast communication protocol. Every PC is based on the 'dedicated processing unit' concept and it makes real time own tasks independently by other units. Also, the extremely reduced communication flow between PCs, and the internal organization based on the preference given to software rather than hardware solutions, makes its control system extremely reliable, easily reconfigurable and upgradable, obsolescence deprived and independent from any hardware choice.

  15. The Ball Aerospace Concept for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbets, D.; Meyer, W.; Woodruff, R.; Lightsey, P.; Reinert, R.; Sullivan, M. Lieber J.; Osborne, B.

    1997-12-01

    As part of our Mission Architecture Study, Ball Aerospace has developed concepts for NGST which address the scientific goals developed by the Science Working Group and described in the Design Reference Mission. The core objectives are to obtain wide-field multi-spectral imaging and moderate resolution spectroscopy of exceedingly faint sources in the near infrared wavelength region, 1 - 5 mu m. Our approach allows a telescope with an aperture of 6 to 8 meters to be placed into a heliocentric orbit which will permit passive cooling to low temperature but still allow relatively simple solutions to issues such as power, communications and operations. All aspects of the design are subject to detailed trade studies which evaluate their value to the mission with reference to technological feasibility, mass and volume, cost and contribution to scientific productivity. The efficiency with which a candidate system architecture carries out the DRM is an important figure of merit. The approach favored by Ball includes an 8m diameter primary mirror fabricated from Berylium panels, and folded in an efficient manner to accomodate existing launch vehicles. An integrated science instruments module provides the required imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation. Radiometric analysis shows that the foreground Zodiacal Light influences the ability to image faint sources, while spectroscopic observations are much more sensitive to the telescope aperture and detector noise. These dependencies are crucial to the mission architecture analysis, since the aperture drives the overall size and mass, and the ability of a launch vehicle to deliver NGST to a preferred orbit. The scientific requirements on the imaging and spectroscopy, and the mix of such exposures in the DRM will the the ultimate referee of the options available for the NGST mission.

  16. Effect of cation site-disorder on the structure and magneto-transport properties of Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, J. A.; Frontera, C.; García-Muñoz, J. L.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2005-06-01

    Five members of Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 series with A-cation size variance ( σ2) ranging between 3×10 -4 and 71×10 -4 Å 2, and the same A-cation size =1.2025 Å, have been synthesized by the ceramic method. The five manganites are single phase and they crystallize in the Pnma perovskite superstructure. The five compositions display ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transitions at temperatures ranging between 130 and 270 K, for the highest and lowest variance sample, respectively. The samples with smaller variances show sharp magnetization transitions and the samples with the larger variances display broad transitions. These transitions have also been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and some enthalpy changes are reported. The resistivity study indicates that all samples display the expected metal-to-insulator transitions at temperatures ranging between 140 and 270 K. The samples have been analysed at room temperature by ultra-high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and the structural and microstructural features are reported. Furthermore, Nd 5/8Sr 0.255Ca 0.12MnO 3 ( σ2=40×10-4 Å2) and Sm 0.225Nd 0.4Sr 0.308Ca 0.067MnO 3 ( σ2=53×10-4 Å2) samples have also been studied by synchrotron powder diffraction at 140 K, below the transition temperatures. Both samples are found to be single phase above and below the transition by ultra-high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction. The microstructure of the samples has been investigated through Williamson-Hall plots. Sample broadenings are markedly anisotropic and strongly dominated by microstrains with average values of the Δ d/ d term close to 14×10 -4. A direct correlation is found between the microstrain values and the widths of the magnetization transitions.

  17. The Scientific Promise of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G. J.

    1998-12-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is a revolutionary large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located in West Texas at McDonald Observatory. HET is a collaboration of the University of Texas at Austin, Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Georg-August-Universitat, Gottingen, and Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitat, Munchen. The telescope was dedicated on Oct. 8, 1997, and will enter science operations in 1999. The US community will have several weeks per year of queue-scheduled nights on the HET via National Science Foundation support of instrumentation. The HET is a unique telescope with an 11 m hexagonal-shaped spherical mirror made of 91 segments that sits at a fixed zenith distance of 35(o) . It can be moved in azimuth to access about 70% of the sky visible at McDonald Observatory. The pupil is 9.2 m and sweeps over the primary as the x-y tracker follows objects for between 40 minutes (in the south at delta =-10.3(o) ) and 2.8 hours (in the north at delta =+71.6(o) ). The maximum track time per night is 5 hours and occurs at delta ~ +63(o) . The effective aperture for these track times is 8 m. Three facility instruments are under construction. The High Resolution and Medium Resolution Spectrographs will reside in the basement instrument room and will be fed by fibers. The Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) rides on the HET tracker at prime focus. The LRS is virtually complete and will see first light in early 1999. The HET is a special-purpose instrument aimed primarily at science requiring spectroscopic observations over a relatively small field of view (4 arcmin.). It will be used in a different manner to the other large telescopes. The principal niches of the HET will be large surveys and temporal phenomena, taking advantage of its aperture and queue-scheduling. Studies involving large samples and long-term monitoring are likely to be emphasized over intensive work on small numbers of very faint objects. It will be possible to build up signal

  18. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  19. The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nityananda, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the National Centre of Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) at Khodad, India, has been operational in the band 0.2 to 2 metres for the last two and a half years. The system characteristics and performance and recent results from the group will be presented. Details of use over the last six months by scientists from other observatories under the GMRT Time Allocation Committee (GTAC) and future plans will be also be reviewed in this paper. Areas which have been studied include observations made in the GMRT band of neutral hydrogen, nearby galaxies, supernova remnants, the Galactic Centre, pulsars, the Sun and others.

  20. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  1. Recent results from telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum (XMAX) are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20∘ radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 σ. The measured ⟨XMAX⟩ is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 1018.2 eV-1019.2 eV.

  2. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  3. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  4. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2007-05-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and private sponsors, the design and development efforts are well underway at many institutions, including top universities and leading national laboratories. The main science themes that drive the LSST system design are Dark Energy and Matter, the Solar System Inventory, Transient Optical Sky and the Milky Way Mapping. The LSST system, with its 8.4m telescope and 3,200 Megapixel camera, will be sited at Cerro Pachon in northern Chile, with the first light scheduled for 2014. In a continuous observing campaign, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two 15 second exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be observed about 1000 times, with the total exposure time of 8 hours distributed over six broad photometric bandpasses (ugrizY). This campaign will open a movie-like window on objects that change brightness, or move, on timescales ranging from 10 seconds to 10 years, and will produce a catalog containing over 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. The survey will have a data rate of about 30 TB/night, and will collect over 60 PB of raw data over its lifetime, resulting in an incredibly rich and extensive public archive that will be a treasure trove for breakthroughs in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics.

  5. The Onsala Twin Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.

    2013-08-01

    This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

  6. Advanced Technology Lunar Telescopes I. Overview and Progress Report On Ultra-Lightweight Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R. E.; Oliversen, R. J.; Stolarik, J. D.; Segal, K.; Wilson, T. L.; Lin, E. I.; Hull, J. R.; Romeo, R.; Hojaji, H.; Ma, K. B.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.; Chu, C. W.

    1993-12-01

    The materials and technology already exist to build fully functional steerable telescopes for use on the moon, telescopes that are cost effective, that can be deployed using existing launchers, and that can function for extended periods without human maintenance. We describe our concept of advanced technology telescopes (ATT) which combines the elements of i) ultra-lightweight precision optics and structures, ii) non-contact, electronically controlled superconductor bearings and drive mechanisms, and iii) high dynamic range radiation resistant sensors. Unlike previous transit telescope designs, the ATTs can point and track objects anywhere in the sky over the entire lunar night (or day), can be deployed in multiple unit arrays, and can be equipped with standard astronomical instruments including spectrographs, imagers, or even interferometers. We first describe the optics. Lightweight optics are crucial because they minimize the mass of the telescope assembly and its support structure and ultimately the entire payload. By using materials and fabrication technology similar to that already refined by ESA and proven for space applications, we show that it is possible to produce precision optical elements of very low areal density (< 2 kg per sq. m). The process also has much lower per unit cost compared to traditional mirror fabrication techniques. By supporting the optical elements with a class of very lightweight but stiff material already developed by NASA, a telescope assembly can be made that has essentially the minimum possible mass. Such ultra-lightweight construction makes possible astronomical payloads that can be sent to the moon using existing small and medium size rockets. The very low per unit cost permits the production and deployment of multiple units, thereby increasing the versatility and productivity of a lunar observatory while providing good redundancy. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept optical telescope assembly that has a 31 cm diameter primary

  7. Proposed Integrated Radio-Telescope Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Ewing, M. S.; Levy, G. S.; Mallis, R. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Smith, J. R.; Backer, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed network of radio telescopes, controlled by a central computer and managed by a single organization, offer potential for research on a scale that could not be matched by present privately and publicly-owned radio telescopes. With 10 antenna sites, network would establish base lines thousands of miles long. Antennas will be linked to computer center by telephone circuits.

  8. Milestone reached for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The primary mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope - is complete after engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, US, put in place the craft's 18th and final mirror segment.

  9. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A.; Vanlew, K.; Melsheimer, T.; Melsheimer, L.; Rideout, C.; Patterson, T.

    1997-12-01

    A second observatory of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project is in the planning stages, with hopes to be in use by fall 1998. The Little Thompson Observatory will be located adjacent to Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. TIE has offered the observatory a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. Local schools and youth organizations will have prioritized access to the telescope until midnight; after that, the telescope will be open to world-wide use by schools via the Internet. The first TIE observatory is a 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson, already booked through July 1998. That telescope has been in use every clear night for the past four years by up to 50 schools per month. Students remotely control the telescope over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The estimated cost of the Little Thompson Observatory is roughly \\170,000. However, donations of labor and materials have reduced the final price tag closer to \\40,000. Habitat for Humanity is organized to construct the dome, classrooms, and other facilities. Tom and Linda Melsheimer, who developed the remote telescope control system for the University of Denver's Mount Evans Observatory, are donating a similar control system. The formally-trained, all-volunteer staff will be comprised of local residents, teachers and amateur astronomers. Utilities and Internet access will be provided by the Thompson School District.

  10. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  11. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines. PMID:23006349

  12. Galaxies, quasars, and beyond - The Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1983-03-01

    The overall NASA plans for the Space Telescope are described. A brief history of the development of the Space Telescope is presented and the major characteristics of the ST Observatory are summarized. The astronomical instruments that will be used in the first few years are described and some of the important scientific projects are outlined.

  13. Adaptive compensation for an optical tracking telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.; Winston, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    The application of model referenced adaptive control theory to an optical tracking telescope is discussed. The capability of the adaptive technique to compensate for mount irregularities such as inertial variations and bearing friction is demonstrated via field test results on a large tracking telescope. Results are presented which show a 6 to 1 improvement in tracking accuracy for a worst-case satellite trajectory.

  14. Design progress of the solar UV-Vis-IR telescope (SUVIT) aboard SOLAR-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a design progress of the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. SUVIT has an aperture diameter of ~1.4 m for achieving spectro-polarimetric observations with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We have studied structural and thermal designs of the optical telescope as well as the optical interface between the telescope and the focal plane instruments. The focal plane instruments are installed into two packages, filtergraph and spectrograph packages. The spectropolarimeter is the instrument dedicated to accurate polarimetry in the three spectrum windows at 525 nm, 854 nm, and 1083 nm for observing magnetic fields at both the photospheric and chromospheric layers. We made optical design of the spectrograph accommodating the conventional slit spectrograph and the integral field unit (IFU) for two-dimensional coverage. We are running feasibility study of the IFU using fiber arrays consisting of rectangular cores.

  15. Software controls for the ATST Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Bret D.; Wampler, Stephen B.

    2004-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is intended to be the premier solar observatory for experimental solar physics. The ATST telescope control software is designed to operate similar to current nighttime telescopes, but will contain added functionality required for solar observations. These additions include the use of solar coordinate systems, non-sidereal track rates, solar rotation models, alternate guide signal sources, the control of thermal loads on the telescope, unusual observation and calibration motions, and serendipitous acquisition of transient objects. These requirements have resulted in a design for the ATST telescope control system (TCS) that is flexible and well-adapted for solar physics experiments. This report discusses both the classical design of the ATST TCS and the modifications required to observe in a solar physics environment. The control and servo loops required to operate both the pointing and wavefront correction systems are explained.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  17. Optical design of a rotating eyepiece telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, M.; Nasim, F.; Khan, A. N.; Gul, A.

    2016-08-01

    Flexible eyepiece telescope has been designed and verified. The rotating eyepiece of telescope will facilitate viewing of objects in a remote or out of sight target. Eyepiece arm of telescope can be rotated upto 360o keeping objective and reticule unchanged and ensuring zero deviation in reticule inclination. Main application of this scope is off axis viewing of objects. Image inversion has been carried out by using pair of mirrors and length of telescope is controlled by using relay lenses. The optical design, simulation and image analysis has been carried out by using ZEMAX®. Magnification of telescope is between 10∼⃒12 times with FOV of 60. Experiment has been carried out using uncoated Edmund Optics and optical tool box of Micro Series Kit, NEWPORT.

  18. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope 1-meter Telescope Project: Design, Deployment Plans, Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Burleson, B.; Crellin, M.; De Vera, J.; Dubberly, M.; Greene, R.; Falarski, M.; Haldeman, B.; Hausler, S.; Haynes, R.; Hjelstrom, A.; Hygelund, J.; Johnson, D.; Lobdill, R.; Martinez, J.; Mullins, D.; Pickles, A.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; Tufts, J.; Vander Horst, K.; Vanderhyden, B.; Walker, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a privately-funded observatory dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Our main observing tool will be a homogeneous world-wide network of 12 x 1m optical telescopes, each equipped for both imaging and spectroscopy. Here we describe the LCOGT 1m telescope design, its development status, and our plans for deploying a dozen or so such telescopes in a worldwide network capable of continuous observing. We also describe the 80 cm Sedgwick telescope, which is now in regular operation as a research instrument, and which has served as a prototype for many of the 1m mechanical and control systems.

  19. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  20. DESTINY: The dark energy space telescope [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2005-11-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8 m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7, for determining cosmological distances, measuring the expansion rate of the universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called "dark energy" component of the universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5 square-degree area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δ λ = R ˜ 75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field-of-view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  1. User interface for the control of the Gemini Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven S.; Gillies, Kim K.

    1997-09-01

    A discussion of the interactive operator user interface developed for the Gemini 8-m Telescopes is presented. Topics include the use of a layered synthesized view of the area of interest on the sky, a data driven approach to the control of the subsystems, and an adaptive view on the health of those subsystems. The synthesized view utilizes information from pre-existing databases; guide, wavefront and scientific detector image data; as well as operating and performance limits. This information is presented to the user in layers, with each layer containing an observer, subsystem or other logically oriented view. The ability to control which layers are presented, as well as which parameters are directly modifiable is vested in both the user and the configuration software. Implementing this above a data driven control interface encourages the use of observing templates. Exhaustive parameter control with parallel realization in the lower level mechanisms results in fast, fine grained and repeatable control. Combining the major control interfaces, each with a different view of the desired behavior, error in behavior, and possible corrections allows the operator to spend more time optimizing observations, rather than setting up equipment. Maximizing time with quality light falling on the science detectors is a primary goal.

  2. MegaMIR: The Megapixel Mid-Infrared Instrument for the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Young, Erick; Hong, John; Werner, Mike; Hinz, Phil; Gorjan, Varoujan; Ressler, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The Megapixel Mid-infrared Instrument (MegaMIR) is a proposed Fizeau-mode camera for the Large Binocular Telescope operating at wavelengths between 5 and 28 micrometers. The camera will be used in conjunction with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), a cryogenic optical system that combines the beams from twin 8.4-m telescopes in a phase coherent manner. Unlike other interferometric systems, the co-mounted telescopes on the LBT satisfy the sine condition, providing diffraction-limited resolution over the 40" field of view of the camera. With a 22.8-m baseline, MegaMIR will yield 0.1" angular resolution, making it the highest resolution wide field imager in the thermal infrared for at least the next decade. MegaMIR will utilize a newly developed 1024 x 1024 pixel Si:As detector array that has been optimized for use at high backgrounds. This new detector is a derivative of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) low-background detector. The combination of high angular resolution and wide field imaging will be a unique scientific capability for astronomy. Key benefits will be realized in planetary science, galactic, and extra-galactic astronomy. High angular resolution is essential to disentangle highly complex sources, particularly in star formation regions and external galaxies, and MegaMIR provides this performance over a full field of view. Because of the great impact being made by space observatories like the Spitzer Space Telescope, the number of available targets for study has greatly increased in recent years, and MegaMIR will allow efficient follow up science.

  3. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. S.; Carrasco, L.; Schloerb, F. P.

    2002-05-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave antenna which will operate with good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. At 18 degrees 59' N latitude, the site offers an excellent view of the Galactic Center and good sky coverage of both hemispheres. Construction of the telescope is now well underway, and it is expected to be completed in late 2004. The LMT specifications call for an overall effective surface accuracy of 75 microns rms and a pointing accuracy of 1" rms. The strategy for meeting these performance goals supplements conventional antenna designs with various "active" systems to bring the final performance within the requirements. For surface accuracy, the LMT will rely on an open loop active surface which includes 180 moveable surface segments. For pointing accuracy, we will use traditional approaches supplemented by measurements to characterize the behavior of the structure, including inclinometers and temperature sensors which may be used with finite element models to determine structural deformations and predict pointing behavior. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies; and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and angular resolution, the LMT will enable unique studies of the early universe and galaxy evolution, the interstellar medium and star formation in galaxies, and planetary science. In particular, with nearly 2000 m2 of collecting

  4. Laser guide star AO project at the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hideki; Watanabe, Makoto; Takato, Naruhisa; Colley, Stephen; Eldred, Michael; Kane, Thomas; Guyon, Olivier; Hattori, Masayuki; Goto, Miwa; Iye, Masanori; Hayano, Yutaka; Kamata, Yukiko; Arimoto, Nobou; Kobayashi, Naoto; Minowa, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    The laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system for Subaru Telescope is presented. The system will be installed at the IR Nasmyth platform, whereas the current AO system with 36 elements is operating at the Cassegrain focus. The new AO system has a 188 element wavefront curvature sensor with photon counting APD modules which is the largest control element curvature sensor system ever. The system will have 4-10 W solid state sum-frequency laser to generate a laser guide star. The laser launching telescope with 50 cm aperture will be installed at behind the secondary mirror. The laser unit will be installed on the third floor of the dome and the laser beam will be transferred to the laser launching telescope using single mode photonic crystal fiber cable. The field of view of the optics is 2.7 arcmin to maximize the probability to find tilt guide stars for laser guide star operation. The expected Strehl ratio as raw AO performance is 0.46 at H-band under 0.60" seeing with 12 th mag guide star, and 0.71 for 8 th mag stars. New wavefront modulation technique, dual stroke membrane mirror control, is developed to reduce the tilt error which is more dominant for curvature sensor AO system. The superb contrast imaging capability will be expected as natural guide star system. The first light as the natural guide star system is planned in March 2006, the laser first light will be expected in March 2007.

  5. ESO Telescope Designer Raymond Wilson Wins Prestigious Kavli Award for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    with four individual telescopes with 17.5 cm thick 8.2-metre mirrors. Active optics has contributed towards making the VLT the world's most successful ground-based observatory and will be an integral part of ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) project. Active optics technology is also part of the twin 10-metre Keck telescopes, the Subaru telescope's 8.2-metre mirror and the two 8.1-metre Gemini telescopes. Co-prize winners Jerry Nelson and Roger Angel respectively pioneered the use of segmentation in telescope primary mirrors - as used on the Keck telescopes, and the development of lightweight mirrors with short focal ratios. A webcast from Oslo, Norway, announcing the prize winners is available at www.kavlifoundation.org and www.kavliprize.no. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  6. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  7. Innovative focal plane design for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Future large drift-scan space telescopes, providing high angular resolution and sensitive observations, require long linear focal planes covering large fields of view. In order to reach higher on-earth spatial resolution while keeping a large field of view, the use of homothetic imaging systems is prohibitive for VIS/IR applications. Based on Integral Field Unit technology developed for ground based instrumentation, we present an innovative optical system reorganizing a 1D field of view on a 2D detector array. Such a solution presents a high gain in terms of volume and weight, allowing compact cryogenic systems for IR observations.

  8. NASA Joins "Around the World in 80 Telescopes"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    WASHINGTON-- A collection of NASA missions will be involved in a live event April 3 that will allow the public to get an inside look at how these missions are run. "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" is a 24- hour webcast that is part of the "100 Hours of Astronomy" event for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. During the webcast, viewers will be able to visit some of the most advanced telescopes on and off the planet. For NASA's space-based missions, the webcast will be broadcast from control centers throughout the United States. To view the webcast, visit: http://www.100hoursofastronomy.org/component/content/article/34/75 People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding As part of the webcast, each mission will release a never-before-seen image from the telescope or observatory. The new images can be found on the websites listed below. Please note these times correspond to the beginning of each mission's segment on the live webcast and when each new image will be available. The NASA missions participating in the Webcast, in chronological order, are (times EDT, April 3): Hubble Space Telescope: 1:20 p.m. http://hubblesite.org/news/2009/14 Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer: 1:40 p.m. http://www.nasa.gov/swift Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope: 2 p.m. http://www.nasa.gov/fermi SOHO and TRACE: 3:20 p.m. http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/ and http://sunland.gsfc.nasa.gov/smex/trace/ STEREO: 3:40 p.m. http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX): 4:20 p.m. http://www.galex.caltech.edu/ Chandra X-ray Observatory: 4:40 p.m. http://www.chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2009/ Spitzer Space Telescope: 5:20 p.m. http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/spitzer/index.shtml Kepler 3:05 a.m. (April 4) http://kepler.nasa.gov For information about the International Year of

  9. The One-Hectare Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, William J.; Dreher, John W.

    2000-07-01

    The 1HT will be a large area telescope whose novel characteristics will be a wide field of view, continuous frequency coverage from .500 - 11 Ghz, multibeam capability, and provision for RFI mitigation built in. Its scientific motivation includes deep SETI searches, pulsar detection and investigation, galactic magnetic field mapping through many Zeemann transitions, mapping of the decrement in the cosmic background radiation seen toward galaxy clusters, observation of HI absorption toward quasars at redshifts up to z equals 2, and deep mapping of the HI distributions in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The array will use economies of scale to keep the costs down. It will consist of 500 - 1000 dishes of diameters in the range 3.6 m - 5 m. The dishes will be TV satellite style with wideband MMIC chip front-end amplifiers. Substantial prototype activity is under way. The feed, dish, and front-end MMIC designs are well along. A seven element test array is nearing completion. It will be used for studying RFI mitigation. By 2002, a 12 element array (PTA) which will be made up of all the final components will be operational. Final construction of the full array is expected by 2005.

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The findings of the Hubble Space Telescope Optical Systems Board of Investigation are reported. The Board was formed to determine the cause of the flaw in the telescope, how it occurred, and why it was not detected before launch. The Board conducted its investigation to include interviews with personnel involved in the fabrication and test of the telescope, review of documentation, and analysis and test of the equipment used in the fabrication of the telescope's mirrors. The investigation proved that the primary mirror was made in the wrong shape (a 0.4-wave rms wavefront error at 632.8 nm). The primary mirror was manufactured by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation (Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc.). The critical optics used as a template in shaping the mirror, the reflective null corrector (RNC), consisted of two small mirrors and a lens. This unit had been preserved by the manufacturer exactly as it was during the manufacture of the mirror. When the Board measured the RNC, the lens was incorrectly spaced from the mirrors. Calculations of the effect of such displacement on the primary mirror show that the measured amount, 1.3 mm, accounts in detail for the amount and character of the observed image blurring. No verification of the reflective null corrector's dimensions was carried out by Perkin-Elmer after the original assembly. There were, however, clear indications of the problem from auxiliary optical tests made at the time. A special optical unit called an inverse null corrector, designed to mimic the reflection from a perfect primary mirror, was built and used to align the apparatus; when so used, it clearly showed the error in the reflective null corrector. A second null corrector was used to measure the vertex radius of the finished primary mirror. It, too, clearly showed the error in the primary mirror. Both indicators of error were discounted at the time as being themselves flawed. The Perkin-Elmer plan for fabricating the primary mirror placed complete

  12. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  13. NLST: the Indian National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Soltau, D.; Kärcher, H.; Süss, M.; Berkefeld, T.

    2010-07-01

    India is planning a new solar telescope with an aperture of 2-m for carrying out high resolution studies of the Sun. Site characterization is underway at high altitude locations in the Himalayan mountains. A detailed concept design for NLST (National Large Solar Telescope) has been completed. The optical design of the telescope is optimized for high optical throughput and uses a minimum number of optical elements. A high order AO system is integrated part of the design that works with a modest Fried's parameter of 7-cm to give diffraction limited performance. The telescope will be equipped with a suite of post-focus instruments including a high resolution spectrograph and a polarimeter. NLST will also be used for carrying out stellar observations during the night. The mechanical design of the telescope, building, and the innovative dome is optimized to take advantage of the natural air flush which will help to keep the open telescope in temperature equilibrium. After its completion (planned for 2014), NLST will fill a gap in longitude between the major solar facilities in USA and Europe, and it will be for years the largest solar telescope in the world

  14. Reproduction Of William Herschel's Metallic Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, N.; Hirabayashi, S.; Isida, A.; Komori, A.; Nishitani, M.

    2006-08-01

    Following the reproduction of Cassini's open-air telescope, which took us almost three years to complete, our club decided to reproduce the metallic mirror telescope invented by William Herschel, which is a telescope of the subsequent generation. We based our design on the 7-foot telescope by which he used to discover Uranus in 1781. The metallic mirror was casted and blended copper and tin in the ratio of seven to three, exactly like the mirrors in those days. The surface of the casted mirror had many imperfections such as hollow portions and bubbles. These were removed by using the rock grinder at our school and the mirror was later polished at the Hidaka Optical Institute. The tube of the mirror was also made up of eight polygons just like the original. When we observed the stars with the metallic mirror telescope, they were a little bit dark, but it was possible to observe them well and to observe the gap between Saturn and Cassini. We also succeeded in observing Uranus with this telescope last September. Reproduction of the telescope mount is being made in a nearly the same design as the original one. We have learned through the reproduction that the unique design of the mount allows us to make observations with precise tracking accuracy in a comfortable observing position.

  15. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  16. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    telescopes in Parkes, Mopra, and Ceduna, Australia; Hobart, Tasmania; Urumqi and Shanghai, China; and Kashima, Japan. The positional measurements are a project led by JIVE and involving ESA, the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, the University of Bonn, Helsinki University of Technology, JPL, the Australia Telescope National Facility, the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, and the National Institute for Communication Technologies in Kashima, Japan. The Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe is funded by the national research councils, national facilities and institutes of The Netherlands (NWO and ASTRON), the United Kingdom (PPARC), Italy (CNR), Sweden (Onsala Space Observatory, National Facility), Spain (IGN) and Germany (MPIfR). The European VLBI Network is a joint facility of European, Chinese, South African and other radio astronomy institutes funded by their national research councils. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. Introduction to Small Telescope Research Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2016-06-01

    Communities of practice are natural, usually informal groups of people who work together. Experienced members teach new members the “ropes.” Social learning theorist Etienne Wenger’s book, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, defined the field. There are, in astronomy, many communities of practice. One set of communities uses relatively small telescopes to observe brighter objects such as eclipsing binaries, intrinsically variable stars, transiting exoplanets, tumbling asteroids, and the occultation of background stars by asteroids and the Moon. Advances in low cost but increasingly powerful instrumentation and automation have greatly increased the research capabilities of smaller telescopes. These often professional-amateur (pro-am) communities engage in research projects that require a large number of observers as exemplified by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. For high school and community college students with an interest in science, joining a student-centered, small telescope community of practice can be both educational and inspirational. An example is the now decade-long Astronomy Research Seminar offered by Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California. Each student team is required to plan a project, obtain observations (either locally or via a remote robotic telescope), analyze their data, write a paper, and submit it for external review and publication. Well over 100 students, composed primarily of high school juniors and seniors, have been coauthors of several dozen published papers. Being published researchers has boosted these students’ educational careers with admissions to choice schools, often with scholarships. This seminar was recently expanded to serve multiple high schools with a volunteer assistant instructor at each school. The students meet regularly with their assistant instructor and also meet online with other teams and the seminar’s overall community college instructor. The seminar

  18. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  19. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes.

    PubMed

    Saha, T T

    1987-02-15

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higherorder telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters. PMID:20454195

  20. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  2. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  3. Passive Cooling For Large Infrared Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Edward I.

    1993-01-01

    Conceptual passive-cooling technique enables very large infrared telescope in vacuum of outer space cooled to below 20 K without using cryogen. Telescope orbiting Earth at high altitude of around 100,000 km. Scheme also offers very small gradient of temperature across primary telescope reflector, so thermal distortions smaller; accuracy of surface figure of reflector significantly enhanced. Passive-cooling technique also applied to building of very large cryostats and to development of very large sun shields in traditional manner, and some elements of technique adapted for current small observatories.

  4. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  5. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  6. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  7. Measuring Neutrinos with the ANTARES Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Corey

    2009-12-17

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope has been taking data since construction began in 2006. The telescope, completed in May of 2008, detects the Cerenkov radiation of charged leptons produced by high energy neutrinos interacting in or around the detector. The lepton trajectory is reconstructed with high precision, revealing the direction of the incoming neutrino. The performance of the detector will be discussed and recent data showing muons, electromagnetic showers and atmospheric neutrinos will be presented. Studies have been underway to search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data since 2007. Results from these studies will be presented, and the sensitivity of the telescope will be discussed.

  8. A launching vehicle for optical modules of a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wolf, E.; Bakker, R.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Gostiaux, L.; Groenewegen, R.; van Haren, H.; van Heerwaarden, J.; Hillebrand, Th.; Laan, M.; Smit, A.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    KM3NeT is a future deep-sea research facility that will be built at depths between 3 and 5 km in the Mediterranean Sea. The facility will host a neutrino telescope consisting of several hundreds of detection units-vertical mechanical structures that suspend the optical sensor modules of the telescope. During the design phase of the KM3NeT telescope, two concepts for the mechanical design for the detection unit have been worked out, one of which is a mooring consisting of two parallel ropes with 20 optical sensor modules attached at regular intervals; a data cable runs along the full length of the structure. For this design, which usually is referred to as a string, a novel deployment method using a recyclable launching vehicle has been successfully tested during two cruises in the Ionian Sea. We will present the design and the results of the deployment tests.

  9. California Extremely Large Telescope : conceptual design for a thirty-meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Following great success in the creation of the Keck Observatory, scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California have begun to explore the scientific and technical prospects for a much larger telescope. The Keck telescopes will remain the largest telescopes in the world for a number of years, with many decades of forefront research ahead after that. Though these telescopes have produced dramatic discoveries, it is already clear that even larger telescopes must be built if we are to address some of the most profound questions about our universe. The time required to build a larger telescope is approximately ten years, and the California community is presently well-positioned to begin its design and construction. The same scientists who conceived, led the design, and guided the construction of the Keck Observatory have been intensely engaged in a study of the prospects for an extremely large telescope. Building on our experience with the Keck Observatory, we have concluded that the large telescope is feasible and is within the bounds set by present-day technology. Our reference telescope has a diameter of 30 meters, the largest size we believe can be built with acceptable risk. The project is currently designated the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT).

  10. Australia to Build Fibre Positioner for the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) at Epping (New South Wales, Australia) has been awarded the contract to build a fibre positioner for the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT). This new, large astronomical facility is located at the Paranal Observatory in Chile and will feature four Unit Telescopes, each with a main mirror of 8.2-m diameter. This positioner, (affectionately) known as the OzPoz , will form part of the FLAMES facility (the F ibre L arge A rea M ulti- E lement S pectrograph), to be mounted on the second Unit Telescope (UT2) of the VLT in 2001. The construction of this facility includes other institutes in Europe, e.g. Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland) and Observatoire de Meudon (France). The ESO Instrument Division will coordinate the entire project that will result in an observational capability that is unique in the world. Optical fibres at astronomical telescopes Optical fibres have come to play an increasingly important role as transmitters of information, for instance in telephone and computer networks. It may be less known that they can be used in a similar way to transmit visible and infrared light in astronomical telescopes. Over the past decade, the AAO has been refining its skills in building optical-fibre instruments for its own telescopes, the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope and the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope (a telescope dedicated to wide-field surveys). These instruments enable astronomers to study many celestial objects simultaneously, increasing the effectiveness and productivity by enormous factors. The OzPoz positioner sets up to 560 optical fibres (developed in collaboration with the Observatoire de Meudon in France) very precisely by a robotic arm to match the positions of galaxies and quasars in the telescope's focal plane. The positional accuracy is about 50 µm (0.05 mm), or 0.08 arcsec on the sky. The fibres siphon the light from these very faint and distant astronomical objects and guide it

  11. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  12. RING-APODIZED VORTEX CORONAGRAPHS FOR OBSCURED TELESCOPES. I. TRANSMISSIVE RING APODIZERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mawet, D.; Pueyo, L.; Carlotti, A.; Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2013-11-01

    The vortex coronagraph (VC) is a new generation small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraph currently offered on various 8 m class ground-based telescopes. On these observing platforms, the current level of performance is not limited by the intrinsic properties of actual vortex devices, but by wavefront control residuals and incoherent background (e.g., thermal emission of the sky), or the light diffracted by the imprint of the secondary mirror and support structures on the telescope pupil. In the particular case of unfriendly apertures (mainly large central obscuration) when very high contrast is needed (e.g., direct imaging of older exoplanets with extremely large telescopes or space-based coronagraphs), a simple VC, like most coronagraphs, cannot deliver its nominal performance because of the contamination due to the diffraction from the obscured part of the pupil. Here, we propose a novel yet simple concept that circumvents this problem. We combine a vortex phase mask in the image plane of a high-contrast instrument with a single pupil-based amplitude ring apodizer, tailor-made to exploit the unique convolution properties of the VC at the Lyot-stop plane. We show that such a ring-apodized vortex coronagraph (RAVC) restores the perfect attenuation property of the VC regardless of the size of the central obscuration, and for any (even) topological charge of the vortex. More importantly, the RAVC maintains the IWA and conserves a fairly high throughput, which are signature properties of the VC.

  13. Antique Telescope Society's Inaugural Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Bruce

    The first ATS meeting held at the United States Naval Observatory. 26 inch Clark shown. Other instruments pictured (displayed by ATS members) were: John Adams Gregorian; Bardou and Sons refractor; Zeiss refractor; George Dollond refractor; Mogey refractor; Browning filar micrometer, and a reflector; several Clark refractors; Fitz eyepieces; portraits by Alvan Clark; Stackpole & Bro.'s transit; and a Brashear Comet-Seeker.

  14. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  15. Screening for high-spin metal organic frameworks (MOFs): density functional theory study on DUT-8(M1,M2) (with Mi = V,…,Cu).

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Sebastian; Trepte, Kai; Seifert, Gotthard; Kortus, Jens

    2016-03-21

    We present a first principles study of low-spin (LS)/high-spin (HS) screening for 3d metal centers in the metal organic framework (MOF) DUT-8(Ni). Various density functional theory (DFT) codes have been used to evaluate numerical and DFT related errors. We compare highly accurate all-electron implementations with the widely used plane wave approach. We present electronically and magnetically stable DUT-8(Ni) HS secondary building units (SBUs). In this work we show how to tune the magnetic and electronic properties of the original SBU only by changing the metal centers. PMID:26922864

  16. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  17. Radio Telescopes "Save the Day," Produce Data on Titan's Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    eventually provide a three-dimensional record of motion for the Huygens Probe during its mission at Titan. Huygens was built by the European Space Agency. The radio astronomy support of the Huygens mission is coordinated by JIVE and JPL and involves the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (Green Bank, WV and Socorro, NM), the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON, The Netherlands), the University of Bonn (Germany), Helsinki University of Technology (Espoo, Finland), the MERLIN National Facility (Jodrell Bank, UK), the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden), the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA), the CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF, Sydney, Australia), the University of Tasmania (Hobart, Australia), the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (Shanghai and Urumqi, China) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technologies (Kashima Space Research Center, Japan). The Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe is hosted by ASTRON and funded by the national research councils, national facilities and institutes of The Netherlands (NOW), the United Kingdom (PPARC), Italy (CNR), Sweden (Onsala Space Observatory, National Facility), Spain (IGN) and Germany (MPIfR). The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperation between NASA, ESA and ASI, the Italian space agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is managing the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter while ESA operated the Huygens atmospheric probe. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  19. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  20. Theoretical contamination of cryogenic satellite telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of contaminant molecules, the deposition rate on key surfaces, and the heat transfer rate were estimated by the use of a zeroth-order approximation. Optical surfaces of infrared telescopes cooled to about 20 K should be considered to be covered with at least several deposition layers of condensible molecules without any contamination controls. The effectiveness of the purge gas method of contamination controls was discussed. This method attempts to drive condensible molecules from the telescope tube by impacts with a purge gas in the telescope tube. For this technique to be sufficiently effective, the pressure of the purge gas must be more than 2 x .000001 torr. The influence caused by interactions of the purged gas with the particulate contaminants was found to slightly increase the resident times of the particulate contaminants within the telescope field of view.

  1. Compound catadioptric telescopes with all spherical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sigler, R D

    1978-05-15

    Catadioptric, all spherical Cassegrainian and Gregorian telescopes with one and two full aperture corrector lenses are investigated. Appropriate closed form third-order aberration equations are presented, and a variety of aplanatic and anastigmatic solutions are indicated. PMID:20198015

  2. Improving the Blanco Telescope's delivered image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Montane, Andrés; Tighe, Roberto; Walker, Alistair R.; Gregory, Brooke; Smith, R. Christopher; Cisternas, Alfonso

    2010-07-01

    The V. M. Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory is undergoing a number of improvements in preparation for the delivery of the Dark Energy Camera. The program includes upgrades having potential to deliver gains in image quality and stability. To this end, we have renovated the support structure of the primary mirror, incorporating innovations to improve both the radial support performance and the registration of the mirror and telescope top end. The resulting opto-mechanical condition of the telescope is described. We also describe some improvements to the environmental control. Upgrades to the telescope control system and measurements of the dome environment are described in separate papers in this conference.

  3. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  4. Hunting Spinning Asteroids with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Faulkes telescopes are proving a dab hand at allowing schools and amateurs to do real science. The author discusses the latest Faulkes research project, and his record-breaking discovery that was pert of it.

  5. Wind loads on ground-based telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George Z; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Nelson, Jerry E

    2006-10-20

    One of the factors that can influence the performance of large optical telescopes is the vibration of the telescope structure due to unsteady wind inside the telescope enclosure. Estimating the resulting degradation in image quality has been difficult because of the relatively poor understanding of the flow characteristics. Significant progress has recently been made, informed by measurements in existing observatories, wind-tunnel tests, and computational fluid dynamic analyses. We combine the information from these sources to summarize the relevant wind characteristics and enable a model of the dynamic wind loads on a telescope structure within an enclosure. The amplitude, temporal spectrum, and spatial distribution of wind disturbances are defined as a function of relevant design parameters, providing a significant improvement in our understanding of an important design issue.

  6. Compound catadioptric telescopes with all spherical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sigler, R D

    1978-05-15

    Catadioptric, all spherical Cassegrainian and Gregorian telescopes with one and two full aperture corrector lenses are investigated. Appropriate closed form third-order aberration equations are presented, and a variety of aplanatic and anastigmatic solutions are indicated.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  8. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-01

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  9. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  10. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  11. Productivity and Impact of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul; Bosler, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, about 2100 papers appearing in 18 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based optical and infrared telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. About 250 telescopes were represented, including 25 with primary mirror diameters of 3 m or larger. The subjects covered in the papers divide reasonably cleanly into 20 areas, from solar system to cosmology. These papers were cited 24,354 times in 2002 and 2003, for a mean rate of 11.56 citations per paper, or 5.78 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor). We analyze here the distributions of the papers, citations, and impact factors among the telescopes and subject areas and compare the results with those of a very similar study of papers published in 1990-1991 and cited in 1993. Some of the results are exactly as expected. Big telescopes produce more papers and more citations per paper than small ones. There are fashionable topics (cosmology and exoplanets) and less fashionable ones (binary stars and planetary nebulae). And the Hubble Space Telescope has changed the landscape a great deal. Some other results surprised us but are explicable in retrospect. Small telescopes on well-supported sites (La Silla and Cerro Tololo, for instance) produce papers with larger impact factors than similar sized telescopes in relative isolation. Not just the fraction of all papers, but the absolute numbers of papers coming out of the most productive 4 m telescopes of a decade ago have gone down. The average number of citations per paper per year resulting from the 38 telescopes (2 m and larger) considered in 1993 has gone up 38%, from 3.48 to 4.81, a form, perhaps, of grade inflation. And 53% of the 2100 papers and 38% of the citations (including 44% of the papers and 31% of the citations from mirrors of 3 m and larger) pertain to topics often not regarded as major drivers for the next generation of still larger ground-based telescopes.

  12. Present and future instrumentation for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Palunas, Povilas; Barnes, Stuart I.; Shetrone, Matthew D.

    2008-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located in West Texas at McDonald Observatory. The HET operates with a fixed segmented primary and has a tracker which moves the four-mirror corrector and prime focus instrument package to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of objects. The HET has been taking science data for nearly a decade. Recent work has improved performance significantly, replacing the mirror coatings and installing metrology equipment to provide feedback that aids tracking and alignment of the primary mirror segments. The first phase of HET instrumentation included three facility instruments: the Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS), the Medium Resolution Spectrograph (MRS), and High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). The current status of these instruments is briefly described. A major upgrade of HET is in progress that will increase the field of view to 22 arcminutes diameter, replacing the corrector, tracker and prime focus instrument package. This wide field upgrade will feed a revolutionary new integral field spectrograph called VIRUS, in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). VIRUS is a facility instrument that consists of 150 or more copies of a simple unit integral field spectrograph. In total VIRUS will observe 34,000 spatial elements simultaneously, and will open up wide-area surveys of the emission-line universe for the first time. We describe the HET wide field upgrade and the development of VIRUS, including results from testing the prototype of the VIRUS unit spectrograph.

  13. The cryogenic system for the VIRUS array of spectrographs on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael P.; Mulholland, George T.; Booth, John A.; Good, John M.; Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Rafal, Marc D.; Savage, Richard D.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2008-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an existing innovative large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located at the McDonald Observatory in West Texas. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) requires a major upgrade to the HET, including a substantial increase in the telescope field of view, as well as the development and integration of a revolutionary new integral field spectrograph called VIRUS. The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is an instrument comprising approximately 150 individual IFU-fed spectrographs which will be mounted on the telescope structure. Each spectrograph has a CDD camera detector package which must be cryogenically cooled during scientific operation. In order to cool each of these camera systems a liquid nitrogen system has been proposed and design study completed. The proposed system includes: a liquid nitrogen source, vacuum jacket distribution system, local storage on the telescope, and distribution under a thermal siphon to the individual spectrographs and local thermal connectors.

  14. CHAIN-project and installation of the flare monitoring telescopes in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Kimura, Goichi; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Kitai, Reizaburo; Nagata, Shin'ichi

    2007-12-01

    The Flare Monitoring Telescope (FMT) was constructed in 1992 at the Hida Observatory in Japan to investigate the long-term variation of solar activity and explosive events, as a project of the international coordinated observations programme (STEP). The FMT consists of five solar imaging telescopes and one guide telescope. The five telescopes simultaneously observe the full-disk Sun at different wavelengths around H-alpha absorption line or in different modes. Therefore, the FMT can measure the three-dimensional velocity field of moving structures on the full solar disk without the atmospheric seeing effect. The science target of the FMT is to monitor solar flares and erupting filaments continuously all over the solar disk and as many events as possible and to investigate the relationship between such phenomena and space weather. Now we are planning to start a new worldwide project called as ``Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network (CHAIN)-project''. As part of this project, we are examining the possibility of installing telescopes similar to the FMT in developing countries with cooperative help by the United Nations. We have selected Peru as the candidate country where the first oversea FMT will be installed, and are beginning to study the natural environment, the seeing conditions, the proper design of the telescope for Peru and the training and education programme of operating staff, etc.

  15. Development of a clean optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate contamination on astronomical mirrors degrades performance in two ways: by information loss by extinction of light; and background and noise from scattering, especially forward or Fraunhofer scattering. These effects were not generally understood, and an ambitious pilot program was outlined to measure particulate effects on telescope optical performance; develop prophylactic and cleaning procedures suitable for groundbased observatories; investigate by computational modelling the effects on telescopes in space; and communicate the results and concerns within the astronomical community.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Primary Mirror Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Prior to installation, technicians inspect the primary mirror of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first in a series of great observatories launched by NASA, the HST was designed to last approximately 15 years. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility for the development of the HST and played a major role in ground tests and orbital checkout of the telescope. The HST was launched April 24, 1990 aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-31 mission.

  17. Improvements to the CTIO Blanco Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The V. M. Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is undergoing a number of improvements prior to the delivery of the Dark Energy Camera. These include improved slewing and tracking performance resulting from a new telescope control system plus new encoders, and upgrades to the primary mirror support system and the environmental control system that have potential to improve both image quality and stability. I will describe the status of the upgrades.

  18. Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

  19. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  20. Commissioning Results on the JWST Testbed Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Acton, D. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The one-meter 18 segment JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) has been developed at Ball Aerospace to facilitate commissioning operations for the JWST Observatory. Eight different commissioning activities were tested on the TBT: telescope focus sweep, segment ID and Search, image array, global alignment, image stacking, coarse phasing, fine phasing, and multi-field phasing. This paper describes recent commissioning results from experiments performed on the TBT.

  1. Utrecht and the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, F. C. M.; EST Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, in the quest towards large solar facilities, a pan-European project was started to study a 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST). As one of the major partners, Utrecht played a significant role in the design, in particular in relation to the intended open design, its enclosure, telescope mechanics as well its polarimetric properties. Mid-2011 the work did result in an innovative conceptual design for EST.

  2. Range-balancing the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakich, A.; Thompson, D.; Kuhn, O. P.

    2011-10-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4 m telescopes mounted on a common alt-az gimbal. The telescope has various modes of operation, including prime-focus, bent- and direct-Gregorian modes. The telescopes can feed independent instruments or their light can be combined in one of two interferometric instruments, giving an interferometric baseline of over 22 m. With all large telescopes, including the LBT, collimation models or modeled values for hexapod positions, are required to maintain reasonable optical alignment over the working range of temperatures and telescope elevations. Unlike other telescopes, the LBT has a highly asymmetric mechanical structure, and as a result the collimation models are required to do a lot more "work", than on an equivalent aperture monocular telescope that are usually designed to incorporate a Serurrier truss arrangement. LBT has been phasing in science operations over the last 5 years, with first light on the prime-focus cameras in 2006, and first light in Gregorian mode in 2008. In this time the generation of collimation models for LBT has proven to be problematic, with large departures from a given model, and large changes in pointing, being the norm. A refined approach to generating collimation models, "range balancing", has greatly improved this situation. The range-balancing approach to generating collimation models has delivered reliable collimation and pointing in both prime focus and Gregorian modes which has led to greatly increased operational efficiency. The details of the range-balancing approach, involving the removal of pointing "contamination" from collimation data, are given in this paper.

  3. The Faulkes Telescope Optical Spectrographs and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    The Faulkes Telescope project funded primarily by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust is currently constructing two 2-m robotic telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Australia. These will be the largest and most powerful telescopes ever built dedicated for use by schools and colleges. We have been awarded funding to build two optical spectrographs to be permanently mounted on these telescopes by the end of 2003. At this time an astronomical satellite called Swift will be launched by NASA. Swift is dedicated to the study of gamma-ray bursts the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester has provided the X-ray camera for Swift and is a partner in the Faulkes Telescopes project. To enhance both projects we intend to use the Faulkes Telescope optical spectrographs to study the gamma-ray bursts identified by Swift. These data will also be made available to schools thereby raising the profile of physics and astronomy in the educational community.

  4. Thermal analysis of the TMT telescope structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung; Corredor, Andrew; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George

    2010-07-01

    Thermal performances of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) structure were evaluated by finite element thermal models. The thermal models consist of the telescope optical assembly systems, instruments, laser facility, control and electronic equipments, and structural members. Temporal and spatial temperature distributions of the optical assembly systems and the telescope structure were calculated under various thermal conditions including air convections, conductions, heat flux loadings, and radiations. In order to capture thermal responses faithfully, a three-consecutive-day thermal environment data was implemented. This thermal boundary condition was created by CFD based on the environment conditions of the corresponding TMT site. The thermo-elastic analysis was made to predict thermal deformations of the telescope structure at every hour for three days. The line of sight calculation was made using the thermally induced structural deformations. Merit function was utilized to calculate the OPD maps after repositioning the optics based on a best fit of M1 segment deformations. The goal of this thermal analysis is to establish creditable thermal models by finite element analysis to simulate the thermal effects with the TMT site environment data. These thermal models can be utilized for estimating the thermal responses of the TMT structure. Thermal performance prediction of the TMT structure will guide us to assess the thermal impacts, and enables us to establish a thermal control strategy and requirements in order to minimize the thermal effects on the telescope structure due to heat dissipation from the telescope mounted equipment and systems.

  5. Analysis of space telescope data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Multiple Access (MA) communication link of the Space Telescope (ST) is described. An expected performance bit error rate is presented. The historical perspective and rationale behind the ESTL space shuttle end-to-end tests are given. The concatenated coding scheme using a convolutional encoder for the outer coder is developed. The ESTL end-to-end tests on the space shuttle communication link are described. Most important is how a concatenated coding system will perform. This is a go-no-go system with respect to received signal-to-noise ratio. A discussion of the verification requirements and Specification document is presented, and those sections that apply to Space Telescope data and communications system are discussed. The Space Telescope System consists of the Space Telescope Orbiting Observatory (ST), the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the Space Telescope Operation Control Center. The MA system consists of the ST, the return link from the ST via the Tracking and Delay Relay Satellite system to White Sands, and from White Sands via the Domestic Communications Satellite to the STOCC.

  6. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  7. Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Mues, Sebastian; Keilig, Ludger; Schrader, Anja; Enkling, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical conditions. Forty-three combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1-2°. A specifically designed measuring device was used. The retentive forces were measured with and without lubrication by a saliva substitute. The measured values were analyzed according to the type of tooth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). Additionally, a comparison between lubricated and unlubricated telescopic crowns was done. As maximum retention force value 29.98 N was recorded with a telescopic crown on a molar, while the minimum of 0.08 N was found with a specimen on a canine. The median value of retention force of all telescopic crowns reached 1.93 N with an interquartile distance of 4.35 N. No statistically significant difference between lubricated and unlubricated specimens was found. The results indicate that retention force values of telescopic crowns, measured in clinical practice, are often much lower than those cited in the literature. The measurements also show a wide range. Whether this proves to be a problem for the patient's quality of life or not can however only be established by a comparison of the presented results with a follow-up study involving measurement of intraoral retention and determination by e.g. oral health impact profile.

  8. Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueff, Gavril; Alvito, Giovanni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Morsiani, Marco; Mureddu, Leonardo; Natale, Vincenzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Pernechele, Claudio; Poma, Angelo; Porceddu, Ignazio; Rossi, Lucio; Zacchiroli, Gianpaolo

    2004-10-01

    This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA. With its large antenna size (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT, capable of operations up to about 100GHz, will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and the standing wave between secondary mirror and feed. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  9. Telescopes Lofted to Space: An Historical Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To become airborne was an early dream of humanity. It was a profound dream because of the meaningfulness of the perspective from aloft: the subject was able to observe the Earth and to become closer to heaven. In this context, a telescope is the most basic augmentation of the airborne experience: it expands the new perspective, allows measurement and analysis, and provides new forms of beauty. The first telescopes in space were anticipated by imaginative authors and by exacting engineers, whose dreams and proposals have a part in this story. The earliest telescopes to achieve space, the rocket-launched suborbital missions, both successes and failures, will be described, along with the effect they had on science and culture. Telescopes in orbit and in space probes are the current generation of instruments, a prelude to a future of lunar and planetary telescopes. Every success can be seen to have had a direct effect on the widening of horizons provided by the telescope. This paper will serve as an introduction to a very extensive subject.

  10. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  11. Astronomy in Hawaii: Telescopes, Research, and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. K.

    2012-08-01

    Since early Polynesian way-finding combined observations of sky and ocean and allowed voyagers to locate and se ttle the far-flung islands of the Pacific, astronomy has impacted the islands of Hawaii. The Twentieth Century saw telescope development on both Haleakala on Maui and Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island. These complexes have developed libraries and information services to support and enhance their research. The University of Hawaii established the Institute for Astronomy (IfA). The IfA Library serves researchers and instrument developers at each of its three locations. Canada-France-Ha waii Telescope, the Joint Astronomy Center, the W. M. Keck Observatory, Gemini Northern Telescope and Subaru Telescope have each developed library services to respond to their unique needs. The librarians at these organizations have formed Astronomy Libraries of HAwaii (A LOHA) to share resources. As electronic research has developed, each library has responded to capitalize on these new capabilities. In coming years, projects such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope on Maui and the Thirty Meter Telescope on Hawaii Island have the promise of enlarging our understanding of the Universe. Astronomy libraries in Hawaii will con tinue to enhance their expertise to match the evolution of astronomy technologies and maximize research impact.

  12. Wind responses of Giant Magellan telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irarrazaval, Benjamin; Buleri, Christine; Johns, Matt

    2014-08-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is 25 meter diameter extremely large ground based infrared/optical telescope being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4 meter diameter borosilicate mirror segments. Two seven segment Gregorian secondary mirror systems will be built; an Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM) to support adaptive optics modes and a Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) with monolithic segments to support natural seeing modes when the ASM is being serviced. Wind excitation results in static deformation and vibration in the telescope structure that affects alignment and image jitter performance. The telescope mount will reject static and lower frequency windshake, while each of the Faststeering Secondary Mirror (FSM) segments will be used to compensate for the higher frequency wind-shake, up to 20 Hz. Using a finite element model of the GMT, along with CFD modeling of the wind loading on the telescope structure, wind excitation scenarios were created to study the performance of the FSM and telescope against wind-induced jitter. A description of the models, methodology and results of the analyses are presented.

  13. Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masahiko; Maihara, Toshinori; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Dalton, Gavin B.; Takato, Naruhisa; Tait, Philip; Ohta, Kouji; Eto, Shigeru; Mochida, Daisaku; Elms, Brian; Kawate, Kaori; Kurakami, Tomio; Moritani, Yuuki; Noumaru, Junichi; Ohshima, Norio; Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Yabe, Kiyoto; Brzeski, Jurek; Farrell, Tony; Frost, Gabriella; Gillingham, Peter R.; Haynes, Roger; Moore, Anna M.; Muller, Rolf; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg; Bonfield, David G.; Brooks, Charles B.; Holmes, Alan R.; Curtis Lake, Emma; Lee, Hanshin; Lewis, Ian J.; Froud, Tim R.; Tosh, Ian A.; Woodhouse, Guy F.; Blackburn, Colin; Content, Robert; Dipper, Nigel; Murray, Graham; Sharples, Ray; Robertson, David J.

    2010-10-01

    Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) is the first near-infrared instrument with a wide field of view capable of acquiring spectra simultaneously from up to 400 objects. It has been developed as a common-use instrument for the F/2 prime-focus of the Subaru Telescope. The field coverage of 30' diameter is achieved using a new 3-element corrector optimized in the near-infrared (0.9-1.8μm) wavelength range. Due to limited space at the prime-focus, we have had to develop a novel fibre positioner, called ``Echidna'', together with two OH-airglow suppressed spectrographs. FMOS consists of three subsystems: the prime focus unit for IR, the fibre positioning system/connector units, and the two spectrographs. After full systems integration, FMOS was installed on the telescope in late 2007. Many aspects of the performance were checked through various test and engineering observations. In this paper, we present the optical and mechanical components of FMOS, and show the results of our on-sky engineering observations to date.

  14. Portable triple silicon detector telescope spectrometer for skin dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Larsen, H. E.; Christensen, P.

    1999-12-01

    The features of a newly developed portable beta telescope spectrometer are described. The detector probe uses three silicon detectors with the thickness: 50μm/150μm/7000μm covered by a 2μm thick titanium window. Rejection of photon contributions from mixed beta/photon exposures is achieved by coincidence requirements between the detector signals. The silicon detectors, together with cooling aggregate, bias supplies, preamplifiers and charge generation for calibration are contained in a handy detector probe. Through a 3- or 10-m cable the detector unit is connected to a compact, portable processing unit including a laptop computer executing control, monitor, histogram and display tasks. The use of digital signal processing at an early stage of the signal chain has facilitated the achievement of a compact, low-weight device. 256 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The LabVIEWTM software distributed by National Instruments was used for all program developments for the spectrometer, comprising also the capability of evaluating the absorbed dose rates from the measured beta spectra. The report describes the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in mixed beta/photon radiation fields. It also describes the main features of the digital signal-processing electronics.

  15. Seismic analysis of the 4-meter telescope SST-GATE for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Blake, Simon; Sol, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create a next generation Very High Energy (VHE)γ-ray telescope array, devoted to the observation in a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky, with the main one in the Southern Hemisphere where about 100 telescopes of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are 4-meter telescopes and are devoted to the highest energy region, from 1 TeV to beyond 100 TeV. Some of these sites considered for CTA exhibit strong seismic constraints. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which was never before implemented in the design of a Cherenkov telescope. The integration of this telescope on the site of the Observatoire de Paris is currently in progress. Technical solutions exist in the literature to protect structures from dynamic loads caused by earthquakes without increasing the mass and cost of the structure. This paper presents a state of the art of these techniques by keeping in mind that the operational performance of the telescope should not be compromised. The preliminary seismic analysis of SSTGATE performed by the finite element method is described before.

  16. Low-friction magnetically levitating support for telescope primary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakley, Rick D.

    2000-08-01

    A unit device for supporting a telescope primary mirror in its cell is described. It replaces the traditional roller- ball or oil-bellows support unit. The device utilizes the levitating field from opposing magnets to support the primary's weight above the cell's surface. This frees the bearings of the device so that the primary may expand or contract smoothly, unimpaired with `sticky', loaded bearings. The mechanics of the device restrain the opposing magnets from drifting inappropriately and work to isolate the primary from undesirable bending moments. Supplying the near-cell magnet, which may advance toward the near-primary magnet, with the standard counterweight and fulcrum commonly seen behind the cell assures the primary/device, weight/force balance remains for any orientation. Design, forces, and ongoing research for levitated support is discussed. A prototype is under construction.

  17. Multispectral mapping of the lunar surface using groundbased telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Feirberg, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Images of the lunar surface were obtained at several wavelengths using a silicon vidicon imaging system and groundbased telescopes. These images were recorded and processed in digital form so that quantitative information is preserved. The photometric precision of the images is shown to be better than 1 percent. Ratio images calculated by dividing images obtained at two wavelengths (0.40/0.56 micrometer) and 0.95/0.56 micrometer are presented for about 50 percent of the lunar frontside. Spatial resolution is about 2 km at the sub-earth point. A complex of distinct units is evident in the images. Earlier work with the reflectance spectrum of lunar materials indicates that for the most part these units are compositionally distinct. Digital images of this precision are extremely useful to lunar geologists in disentangling the history of the lunar surface.

  18. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol): Instrument and 2010 Science Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandilo, Natalie; BLAST-Pol Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol) is a 1.8-m telescope that observes polarized dust emission with a resolution of 1'. BLAST-Pol images the sky onto a focal plane that consists of 270 feed-horn coupled bolometers at 250, 350, and 500 microns. In January 2011, BLAST-Pol completed a successful 9.5-day flight over Antarctica. Eight science targets were observed, and a second flight is planned for December 2012. I will give an overview of the instrument performance during the first science campaign and present preliminary maps. BLAST-Pol maps will provide an excellent dataset for studying the role of magnetic fields in star formation.

  19. Reliability-centered maintenance for ground-based large optical telescopes and radio antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Formentin, F.; Rampini, F.

    2014-07-01

    the logic is completed for all the analyzed items, the resulting Maintenance Program is compiled in order to preserve all the system important functions and to rationalize the tasks periodicities. Lastly, the RCM is kept alive throughout the entire life of the telescope, where the effectiveness of the maintenance is constantly reviewed and adjusted on the basis of the "lesson learned". In addition to the RCM analysis methodology, a second basic concept is applied for the telescope maintenance: to design and install components in such a manner to restore a failure and to perform servicing procedures as close as possible to the telescope, maximizing the replacement of Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) or Shop Replaceable Units (SRUs), rather than repair on-equipment.

  20. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  1. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1990-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  2. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  3. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  4. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope after being released into orbit, with the high gain anternas and solar arrays deployed and the aperture doors opened. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being raised to a vertical position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being positioned for release from the Space Shuttle orbiter by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  8. Electro-optical characterization of MPPC detectors for the ASTRI Cherenkov telescope camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, D.; Belluso, M.; Bonanno, G.; Billotta, S.; Grillo, A.; Garozzo, S.; Romeo, G.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G.; Impiombato, D.; Giarrusso, S.

    2014-12-01

    This work addresses a systematic and in-depth electro-optical characterization of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) sensors constituting the camera detection system at the focal plane of the ASTRI telescope prototype. The paper reports the experimental results of a large set of measurements on the MPPC devices in order to provide a reliable qualification of the detector performance and evaluate its compliance with the telescope focal plane requirements. In particular, breakdown voltage, internal gain, dark count rate, cross-talk and extra-charge probability, and absolute photon detection efficiency measurements are performed on the basic sensor device unit as a function of the detector operating conditions.

  9. Lessons Learned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Contamination Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hedgeland, Randy J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Contamination Control Program has evolved from a ground-based integration program to a space-based science-sustaining program. The contamination controls from the new-generation Scientific Instruments and Orbital Replacement Units were incorporated into the HST Contamination Control Program to maintain scientific capability over the life of the telescope. Long-term on-orbit scientific data has shown that these contamination controls implemented for the instruments, Servicing Mission activities (Orbiter, Astronauts, and mission), and on-orbit operations successfully protected the HST from contamination and the instruments from self-contamination.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Contamination Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hedgeland, Randy J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Contamination Control Program has evolved from a ground-based integration program to a space-based science-sustaining program. The contamination controls from the new-generation Scientific Instruments and Orbital Replacement Units were incorporated into the HST Contamination Control Program to maintain scientific capability over the life of the telescope. Long-term on-orbit scientific data has shown that these contamination controls implemented for the instruments, Servicing Mission activities (Orbiter, Astronauts, and mission), and on-orbit operations successfully protected the HST &om contamination and the instruments from self-contamination.

  11. Development of the NASA MCAT Auxiliary Telescope for Orbital Debris Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Hickson, Paul; Anz-Meador, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) has recently deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island. MCAT will provide NASA with a dedicated optical sensor for observations of orbital debris with the goal of statistically sampling the orbital and photometric characteristics of the population from low Earth to Geosynchronous orbits. Additionally, a small auxiliary telescope, co-located with MCAT, is being deployed to augment its observations by providing near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry, as well as offloading low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. It will also be available to provide observational measurements to the Space Surveillance Network for the United States Air Force.

  12. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System : intelligent linking of distributed autonomous robotic telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. R.; Wren, J.; Davis, H. R.; Galassi, M. C.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficienfiy in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescopes to be linked together and communicate. Coupled with an intelligent alert client at each telescope, it can analyze and respond to each distributed TALON alert based on the telescopes needs and schedule.

  13. SST-GATE telescope: an innovative dual-mirror prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Delphine; Huet, Jean-Michel; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Laporte, Philippe; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles; Zech, Andreas; Rulten, Cameron; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jurgen

    2014-07-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project by designing and constructing on the site of Meudon a Small Size Telescope prototype, named SST-GATE, in collaboration with the CHEC team (Compact High Energy Camera) which is providing the camera. The telescope structure is based on the Schwarzschild- Couder optical design which has never been adopted before in the design of a ground-based telescope. This concept allows a larger field of view and cheaper and smaller telescope and camera design with improved performance compared to the Davies-Cotton design traditionally used in very high energy gamma-ray telescopes. The SST-GATE telescope has been designed with the prime objectives of being light, versatile and simple to assemble with a minimal maintenance cost. This papers aims at reviewing the SST-GATE telescope structure from mechanics to optics along with the control command architecture; several innovative developments implemented within the design are discussed. Updates of the project status and perspectives are made.

  14. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope.

  15. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2012-12-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  16. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Jin, Zhenyu; Ji, Haisheng

    2012-09-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  17. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  18. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  19. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  20. Control challenges for extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2003-08-01

    The next generation of large ground-based optical telescopes are likely to involve a highly segmented primary mirror that must be controlled in the presence of wind and other disturbances, resulting in a new set of challenges for control. The current design concept for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) includes 1080 segments in the primary mirror, with the out-of-plane degrees of freedom actively controlled. In addition to the 3240 primary mirror actuators, the secondary mirror of the telescope will also require at least 5 degree of freedom control. The bandwidth of both control systems will be limited by coupling to structural modes. I discuss three control issues for extremely large telescopes in the context of the CELT design, describing both the status and remaining challenges. First, with many actuators and sensors, the cost and reliability of the control hardware is critical; the hardware requirements and current actuator design are discussed. Second, wind buffeting due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure is likely to drive the control bandwidth higher, and hence limitations resulting from control-structure-interaction must be understood. Finally, the impact on the control architecture is briefly discussed.

  1. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  2. Optimal Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan; Brugarolas, Paul; Boussalis, Dhemetrio

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the focal-plane calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope by use of the instrument pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, which was described in Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane (NPO-40798), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 62. To recapitulate: In the IPF Kalman filter, optimal estimates of both engineering and scientific focal-plane parameters are obtained simultaneously, using data taken in each focalplane survey activity. The IPF Kalman filter offers greater efficiency and economy, relative to prior calibration practice in which scientific and engineering parameters were estimated by separate teams of scientists and engineers and iterated upon each other. In the Spitzer Space Telescope application, the IPF Kalman filter was used to calibrate 56 frames for precise telescope pointing, estimate >1,500 parameters associated with focal-plane mapping, and process calibration runs involving as many as 1,338 scientific image centroids. The final typical survey calibration accuracy was found to be 0.09 arc second. The use of the IPF Kalman filter enabled a team of only four analysts to complete the calibration processing in three months. An unanticipated benefit afforded by the IPF Kalman filter was the ability to monitor health and diagnose performance of the entire end-to-end telescope-pointing system.

  3. Roughness tolerances for Cherenkov telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabaly, K.; Spiga, D.; Canestrari, R.; Bonnoli, G.; Lavagna, M.; Pareschi, G.

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming international ground-based observatory for very high-energy gamma rays. Its goal is to reach sensitivity five to ten times better than existing Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS, H.E.S.S. or MAGIC and extend the range of observation to energies down to few tens of GeV and beyond 100 TeV. To achieve this goal, an array of about 100 telescopes is required, meaning a total reflective surface of several thousands of square meters. Thence, the optimal technology used for CTA mirrors' manufacture should be both low-cost (~1000 euros/m2) and allow high optical performances over the 300-550 nm wavelength range. More exactly, a reflectivity higher than 85% and a PSF (Point Spread Function) diameter smaller than 1 mrad. Surface roughness can significantly contribute to PSF broadening and limit telescope performances. Fortunately, manufacturing techniques for mirrors are now available to keep the optical scattering well below the geometrically-predictable effect of figure errors. This paper determines first order surface finish tolerances based on a surface microroughness characterization campaign, using Phase Shift Interferometry. That allows us to compute the roughness contribution to Cherenkov telescope PSF. This study is performed for diverse mirror candidates (MAGIC-I and II, ASTRI, MST) varying in manufacture technologies, selected coating materials and taking into account the degradation over time due to environmental hazards.

  4. Pier vibration isolation for lightweight interferometry telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Perry G.; Penado, F. Ernesto; Clark, James H., III; Walton, Joshua P.

    2007-09-01

    The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) in Flagstaff, Arizona, makes use of separate smaller telescopes spaced along a Y-array and used simultaneously to simulate an equivalent single large telescope. Each telescope is mounted on a massive reinforced concrete pier tied to bedrock. The mass of the pier dampens most, but not all, of the unwanted vibration in the required spectrum. The quality and resolution of a stellar image depends on minimizing movement of the mirrors due to vibration. The main source of pier vibration is due to the soil-pier interaction. Surrounding environmental and man-made vibration propagates through the soil as body and surface waves, and forces the pier to move. In this paper, a novel concept based on a sleeve/air gap system to isolate the soil from the pier is used to minimize the vibration input to the telescope. An example of the concept is presented with respect to the future implementation of a 1.4-m diameter composite telescope at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer.

  5. Debris Collision Warning Sensor (DCWS) telescope design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The 60-cm diameter, f/2 DCWS telescope is a modified Ritchey Chretein configuration which collects radiation in three spectral bands, 0.4 to 0.9/micron (visible), 5.0 to 9.0/microns (MWIR), and 9.0 to 12.0 microns (LWIR). The visible and infrared radiation are separated by a dichroic beamsplitter and focused on to separate focal planes; the MWIR and LWIR radiation share a common focal plane with separate detector arrays residing side-by-side. The conic constants of the primary and secondary mirrors are that of a Ritchey Chretein telescope; to improve the image quality at the edges of the field of view, a set of zero power correcting optics have been introduced to each optical train. The Ritchey Chretein telescope is corrected to have zero third order spherical aberration and zero third order coma; the DCWS telescope is further configured such that the positive power in the primary mirror is approximately equal to the negative power in the secondary mirror, resulting in a telescope with very little field curvature.

  6. The Astronomical Telescope of New York: a new 12-meter astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebring, T.; Junquist, R.; Stutzki, C.; Sebring, P.; Baum, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Astronomical Corporation of New York has commissioned a study of a 12-meter class telescope to be developed by a group of NY universities. The telescope concept builds on the basic principles established by the Keck telescopes; segmented primary mirror, Ritchey Chretien Nasmyth instrument layout, and light weight structures. New, lightweight, and low cost approaches are proposed for the primary mirror architecture, dome structure and mechanisms, telescope mount approach, and adaptive optics. Work on the design is supported by several NY based corporations and universities. The design offers a substantially larger aperture than any existing Visible/IR wavelength telescope at historically low cost. The concept employs an adaptive secondary mirror and laser guide star adaptive optics. Two First Light instruments are proposed; A High resolution near infrared spectrograph and a near infrared Integral field spectrograph/imager.

  7. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  8. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA s mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated reacquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  9. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States' major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  10. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  11. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is ulxve uperk/rc (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 prnio 28 pn). JWS7 s primaryacicoce goal is k) detect and characterize the first galaxies. U will also study the uascrob|y of galaxies, uiur bzcrou1ion, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will he presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the science goals, the capabilities of each science instrument, and the design and operation of the telescope.

  12. AIROscope: Ames infrared balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, O. L.; Scott, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon-borne telescope system designed for astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths is discussed. The telescope is gyro-stabilized with updated pointing information derived from television, star tracker, or ground commands. The television system furnishes both course and fine acquisition after initial orientation using a pair of fluxgate servo compasses. Command and control is by a UHF link with 256 commands available. Scientific and engineering data are telemetered to the ground station via narrow band F.M. in the L band. The ground station displays all scientific, engineering and status information during the flights and records the command and telemetry digital bit stream for detailed analysis. The AIROscope telescope has a 28-inch diameter primary mirror and Dall-Kirkham optics. The beam is modulated by oscillating a secondary mirror at 11 or 25 Hz with provision for left or right beam fixed positions by command.

  13. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (Light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  14. Pulsar prospects for the Cherenkov telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, T.; Bonnefoy, S.; López, M.; Mirabal, N.; Barrio, J. A.; Contreras, J. L.; de los Reyes, R.; Wilhelmi, E. O.; Rudak, B.; CTA Consortium

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, the Fermi-LAT telescope has discovered over a 100 pulsars at energies above 100 MeV, increasing the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude. In parallel, imaging Cherenkov telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, have detected for the first time VHE pulsed gamma-rays from the Crab pulsar. Such detections have revealed that the Crab VHE spectrum follows a power-law up to at least 400 GeV, challenging most theoretical models, and opening wide possibilities of detecting more pulsars from the ground with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this contribution, we study the capabilities of CTA for detecting Fermi pulsars. For this, we extrapolate their spectra with "Crab-like" power-law tails in the VHE range, as suggested by the latest MAGIC and VERITAS results.

  15. Science with the James Webb Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2011. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. Its science goals are to detect and identify the first galaxies to form in the universe, to trace the assembly of galaxies, and to study stellar and planetary system formation. JWST will have three instruments: The Near Infrared Camera and the Near Infrared multiobject Spectrometer will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, and the Mid Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In this special session, we review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of these major goals.

  16. On buying a telescope for videolaryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Painter, C; Komiyama, S

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare aspects of the performance of three widely-used rigid laryngoscopy telescopes. The Nagashima SFT-I, Wolf 4450.57, and Karl Storz 8702 D were used with a JVC GX-N8U camera and Panasonic PV 8600 VCR to make recordings of a one-tenth-inch grid at various distances between the lens and the grid and at two telescope holding angles. Measurements were made of the anteroposterior and mediolateral viewing fields at all distances and holding angles on maximum and minimum zoom. The telescopes were compared for viewing field, lens angle effects, holding angle effects, plane distortion effects, effects due to lens distance, color, edge definition, focus control, light source compatibility, stroboscopic use, cross-sectional diameter, fogging, and cost. An overview enables laryngologists to assess their needs before buying.

  17. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W.

    1998-07-01

    The LMT is a 50 m diameter telescope for operation to a wavelength of 1 mm from a high mountain site in central Mexico at a latitude of 19 degrees. The telescope is designed to address fundamental questions about the origin and formation of galaxies, clusters of galaxies as well as stars and planets. It is a joint project of the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Tonantzintla, Puebla and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The telescope is in the Critical Design phase and completion of the basic assembly at the site is scheduled for the end of 2000. We describe historical and organizational aspects of the Project and present the major technical specifications and plans for realization.

  18. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    DOEpatents

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  19. The Wyoming Infrared Observatory telescope software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillar, Earl J.; Dumbrill, Daniel; Grasdalen, G. L.; Howell, R. R.

    1993-06-01

    We describe the University of Wyoming telescope control and data- acquisition software system. The software was designed to be maintainable, portable, and inexpensive. Moreover, the software was designed to allow rapid communication between the hardware, the data- acquisition processes, and the tracking processes, while leaving each distinct. We show how the new real-time features embodied in the POSIX.4 standard and implemented in the Unix compatible LynxOS operating system allow us to perform all of our tasks on a single 80486 machine with a standard Unix-like environment, with outstanding real-time performance. We discuss our telescope pointing model, which allows us to point with a root-mean-square error of less than 5 arcsec over the sky with the 2.3-m telescope. For more detailed investigation and use, we will make the software available through anonymous FTP.

  20. Deployable reflector configurations. [for space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    Both the theoretical reasons for considering a non-circular format for the Large Deployable Reflector, and a potentially realizable concept for such a device, are discussed. The optimum systems for diffraction limited telescopes with incoherent detection have either a single filled aperture, or two such apertures as an interferometer to synthesize a larger aperture. For a single aperture of limited area, a reflector in the form of a slot can be used to give increased angular resolution. It is shown how a 20 x 8 meter telescope can be configured to fit the Space Shuttle bay, and deployed with relatively simple operations. The relationship between the sunshield design and the inclination of the orbit is discussed. The possible use of the LDR as a basic module to permit the construction of supergiant space telescopes and interferometers both for IR/submm studies and for the entire ultraviolet through mm wave spectral region is discussed.