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Sample records for 8-phenylxanthine derivatives antagonist

  1. /sup 125/I-labeled 8-phenylxanthine derivatives: antagonist radioligands for adenosine A1 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, J.; Patel, A.; Earl, C.Q.; Craig, R.H.; Daluge, S.M.

    1988-04-01

    A series of 8-phenylxanthine derivatives has been synthesized with oxyacetic acid on the para phenyl position to increase aqueous solubility and minimize nonspecific binding and iodinatable groups on the 1- or 3-position of the xanthine ring. The structure-activity relationship for binding of these compounds to A1 adenosine receptors of bovine and rat brain and A2 receptors of human platelets was examined. The addition of arylamine or photosensitive aryl azide groups to the 3-position of xanthine had little effect on A1 binding affinity with or without iodination, whereas substitutions at the 1-position caused greatly reduced A1 binding affinity. The addition of an aminobenzyl group to the 3-position of the xanthine had little effect on A2 binding affinity, but 3-aminophenethyl substitution decreased A2 binding affinity. Two acidic 3-(arylamino)-8-phenylxanthine derivatives were labeled with /sup 125/I and evaluated as A1 receptor radioligands. The new radioligands bound to A1 receptors with KD values of 1-1.25 nM. Specific binding represented over 80% of total binding. High concentrations of NaCl or other salts increased the binding affinity of acidic but not neutral antagonists, suggesting that interactions between ionized xanthines and receptors may be affected significantly by changes in ionic strength. On the basis of binding studies with these antagonists and isotope dilution with the agonist (/sup 125/I)N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine, multiple agonist affinity states of A1 receptors have been identified.

  2. A Functionalized Congener Approach to Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: Amino Acid Conjugates of 1,3-Dipropylxanthine

    PubMed Central

    JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; KIRK, KENNETH L.; PADGETT, WILLIAM L.; DALY, JOHN W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY 1,3-Dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine, a synthetic analog of theophylline and a potent antagonist of adenosine at A1 and A2-adenosine receptors, has been attached covalently through a functionalized chain to amino acids and oligopeptides. The xanthine conjugates have been studied as competitive inhibitors of the specific binding of [3H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to A1-receptors of rat cerebral cortical membranes and for inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation elicited by 2-chloroadenosine in guinea pig brain slices through A2-receptors. A free amino group on the extended chain generally resulted in high potency at A1-receptors. The potency (in some cases extending into the subnanomolar range) and selectivity for A1-receptors (up to 200-fold) suggest that this approach can yield a versatile class of “functionalized congeners” of adenosine receptor antagonists in which distal modifications of the attached moiety (“carrier”) can serve also to improve pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The water solubility in many of the more potent analogs has been enhanced by two orders of magnitude over that of simple, uncharged 8-phenyl xanthine derivatives. Analogs in which the carrier contains d-tyrosine have potential for development of iodinated radioligands for adenosine receptors. The functionalized congener approach is potentially applicable to other drugs and for development of prodrugs. PMID:3005825

  3. Pyrrolidinyl phenylurea derivatives as novel CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Aiko; Iura, Yosuke; Inoue, Hideki; Sato, Ippei; Morihira, Koichiro; Kubota, Hirokazu; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi; Imaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiya

    2012-11-15

    Optimization starting with our lead compound 1 (IC(50)=4.9 nM) led to the identification of pyrrolidinyl phenylurea derivatives. Further modification toward improvement of the bioavailability provided (R)-1-(1-((6-fluoronaphthalen-2-yl)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-3-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl)urea 32 (IC(50)=1.7 nM), a potent and orally active CCR3 antagonist.

  4. A synthetic peptide derivative that is a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lignon, M F; Galas, M C; Rodriguez, M; Laur, J; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1987-05-25

    So far, there are no known peptidic effective receptor antagonists of both peripheral and central effects of cholecystokinin (CCK). Here, we describe a synthetic peptide derivative of CCK, t-butyloxycarbonyl-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-D-Trp-Nle-Asp 2-phenylethyl ester 1 (where Nle is norleucine), which is a potent CCK receptor antagonist. In rat and guinea pig dispersed pancreatic acini, this peptide derivative did not alter amylase secretion, but was able to antagonize the stimulation caused by cholecystokinin-related agonists. It caused a parallel rightward shift in the dose-response curve for the stimulation of amylase secretion with half-maximal inhibition of CCK-8-stimulated amylase release at a concentration of about 0.1 microM. Compound 1 was able to inhibit the binding of labeled CCK-9 (the C-terminal nonapeptide of CCK) to rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini (IC50 = 5 X 10(-8) M) as well as to guinea pig cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 5 X 10(-7) M). These results indicate that Compound 1 is a potent competitive CCK receptor antagonist.

  5. Benzocyclobutane, benzocycloheptane and heptene derivatives as melatonin agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tsotinis, Andrew; Afroudakis, Pandelis A; Garratt, Peter J; Bocianowska-Zbrog, Alina; Sugden, David

    2014-10-01

    Two series of analogues were designed, synthesised and evaluated as potential human melatonin type 1 and 2 receptor (hMT1 and hMT2 ) ligands. Their biological effects were assessed by a well-established, specific model of melatonin action, the pigment response of Xenopus laevis melanophores. Compounds containing a benzocyclobutane scaffold and a methoxy group in the "melatonin" orientation were found to be potent agonists, with one of the analogues exhibiting activity comparable to melatonin. In contrast, analogues with a methoxy group in non-melatonin positions or with multiple methoxy groups showed either weaker agonist activity or were antagonists. Benzocycloheptene derivatives with one methoxy group are found to be weak agonists, whereas those with two methoxy groups were found to be antagonists, as were all of the benzocycloheptane derivatives evaluated. The most active compounds were assessed in a human receptor radio ligand binding assay but showed little discrimination between MT1 and MT2 . These results again show that the indole nitrogen of melatonin is not a necessary component for analogue activity and also illustrate that replacement of the indole ring with a 4-membered carbocycle can provide highly active compounds when the methoxy group is in the melatonin position. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. N-Arylpiperazine-1-carboxamide derivatives: a novel series of orally active nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kinoyama, Isao; Taniguchi, Nobuaki; Kawaminami, Eiji; Nozawa, Eisuke; Koutoku, Hiroshi; Furutani, Takashi; Kudoh, Masafumi; Okada, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    A novel series of N-arylpiperazine-1-carboxamide derivatives was synthesized and their androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activities and in vivo antiandrogenic properties were evaluated. Reporter assays indicated that trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine derivatives are potent AR antagonists, and in this series trans-N-4-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1-carboxamide (18 g, YM-175735) exhibited the most potent antiandrogenic activity. Compared to bicalutamide, YM-175735 is an approximately 4-fold stronger AR antagonist and has slightly increased antiandrogenic activity, suggesting that YM-175735 may be useful in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. Discovery of novel indazole derivatives as dual angiotensin II antagonists and partial PPARγ agonists.

    PubMed

    Lamotte, Yann; Faucher, Nicolas; Sançon, Julien; Pineau, Olivier; Sautet, Stéphane; Fouchet, Marie-Hélène; Beneton, Véronique; Tousaint, Jean-Jacques; Saintillan, Yannick; Ancellin, Nicolas; Nicodeme, Edwige; Grillot, Didier; Martres, Paul

    2014-02-15

    Identification of indazole derivatives acting as dual angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists and partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists is described. Starting from Telmisartan, we previously described that indole derivatives were very potent partial PPARγ agonists with loss of AT1 receptor antagonist activity. Design, synthesis and evaluation of new central scaffolds led us to the discovery of pyrrazolopyridine then indazole derivatives provided novel series possessing the desired dual activity. Among the new compounds, 38 was identified as a potent AT1 receptor antagonist (IC50=0.006 μM) and partial PPARγ agonist (EC50=0.25 μM, 40% max) with good oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of compound 38 was demonstrated in two preclinical models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (Zucker fa/fa rat).

  8. Novel pyrazole derivatives as neutral CB₁ antagonists with significant activity towards food intake.

    PubMed

    Manca, Ilaria; Mastinu, Andrea; Olimpieri, Francesca; Falzoi, Matteo; Sani, Monica; Ruiu, Stefania; Loriga, Giovanni; Volonterio, Alessandro; Tambaro, Simone; Bottazzi, Mirko Emilio Heiner; Zanda, Matteo; Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Lazzari, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In spite of rimonabant's withdrawal from the European market due to its adverse effects, interest in the development of drugs based on CB1 antagonists is revamping on the basis of the peculiar properties of this class of compounds. In particular, new strategies have been proposed for the treatment of obesity and/or related risk factors through CB1 antagonists, i.e. by the development of selectively peripherally acting agents or by the identification of neutral CB1 antagonists. New compounds based on the lead CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant have been synthesized with focus on obtaining neutral CB1 antagonists. Amongst the new derivatives described in this paper, the mixture of the two enantiomers (±)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(2-cyclohexyl-1-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole ((±)-5), and compound 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-[(Z)-2-cyclohexyl-1-fluorovinyl]-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole ((Z)-6), showed interesting pharmacological profiles. According to the preliminary pharmacological evaluation, these novel pyrazole derivatives showed in fact both neutral CB1 antagonism behaviour and significant in vivo activity towards food intake.

  9. Discovery and structure-activity relationships of urea derivatives as potent and novel CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Aiko; Iura, Yosuke; Tomioka, Hiroki; Sato, Ippei; Morihira, Koichiro; Kubota, Hirokazu; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi; Imaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiya

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of ureas as CCR3 antagonists are described. Optimization starting with lead compound 2 (IC(50)=190 nM) derived from initial screening hit compound 1 (IC(50)=600 nM) led to the identification of (S)-N-((1R,3S,5S)-8-((6-fluoronaphthalen-2-yl)methyl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl)-N-(2-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamide 27 (IC(50)=4.9 nM) as a potent CCR3 antagonist.

  10. Diisothiocyanate derivatives as potent, insurmountable antagonists of P2Y6 nucleotide receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Liaman K.; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of the P2Y6 nucleotide receptor may involve cardiovascular, immune and digestive functions based on the receptor tissue distribution, and selective antagonists for this receptor are lacking. We have synthesized a series of symmetric aryl diisothiocyanate derivatives and examined their ability to inhibit phospholipase C (PLC) activity induced by activation of five subtypes of recombinant P2Y receptors. Several derivatives were more potent at inhibiting action of UDP at both human and rat P2Y6 receptors expressed in 1321N1 human astrocytes than activation of human P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y11 receptors. The inhibition by diisothiocyanate derivatives of 1,2-diphenylethane (MRS2567) and 1,4-di-(phenylthioureido) butane (MRS2578) was concentration-dependent and insurmountable, with IC50 values of 126 ± 15 nM and 37 ± 16 nM (human) and 101 ± 27 nM (rat), respectively. A derivative of 1,4-phenylendiisothiocyanate (MRS2575) inhibited only human but not rat P2Y6 receptor activity. MRS2567 and MRS2578 at 10 μM did not affect the UTP (100 nM)-induced responses of cells expressing P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, nor did they affect the 2-methylthio-ADP (30 nM)-induced responses at the P2Y1 receptor or the ATP (10 μM)-induced responses at the P2Y11 receptor. Other antagonists displayed mixed selectivities. The selective antagonists MRS2567, MRS2575 and MRS2578 (1 μM) completely blocked the protection by UDP of cells undergoing TNFα-induced apoptosis. Thus, we have identified potent, insurmountable antagonists of P2Y6 receptors that are selective within the family of PLC-coupled P2Y receptors. PMID:15081875

  11. New aminopropandiol derivatives as orally available and short-acting calcium-sensing receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Teruhiko; Hirata, Kazuyuki; Katsushima, Takeo; Nakagawa, Takashi; Matsuo, Yushi; Shindo, Masanori; Hashimoto, Hiromasa

    2010-06-15

    Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies on a new aminopropandiol class of derivatives as calcium-sensing receptor antagonists are described. Modification of the phenolic moiety of a calcilytic compound NPS 2143 led to the identification of an orally available compound (R,R)-31 which demonstrated a rapid and transient stimulation of PTH release in rats. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New glutaramic acid derivatives with potent competitive and specific cholecystokinin-antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Makovec, F; Chistè, R; Bani, M; Pacini, M A; Setnikar, I; Rovati, L A

    1985-01-01

    New glutaramic acid derivatives were evaluated for anti-cholecystokinin (CCK) activity in vitro on guinea pig gallbladder. The compounds are competitive and specific CCK-antagonists, causing a parallel right shift of the cumulative dose-response curve of the agonist. The affinity for the binding site of the CCK-receptor for some of these compounds was hundreds of times higher than that of pro-glumide, the model compound.

  13. New benzimidazole derivatives: selective and orally active 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pascual, David; Girón, Rocío; Alsasua, Angela; Benhamú, Belinda; López-Rodríguez, María Luz; Martín, María Isabel

    2003-02-21

    The synthesis of new 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists is an interesting field of research because of their wide therapeutic use. The aim of this work is to functionally characterise a new series of benzimidazole derivatives previously described. These compounds bind to 5-HT(3) receptors and have been evaluated using in vitro (rat tunica muscularis mucosae) and in vivo tests (Bezold-Jarisch reflex in rat and gastrointestinal motility and spontaneous motility in mice). Ondansetron and 1-[4-amino-5-chloro-2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenil)methyloxy]-3-[1-[2-methylsulfonylamino]piperidin-4-yl]propan-1-one hydrochloride (RS 39604) were used as well known 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptor antagonists. These benzimidazole derivatives have proved to be 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. Interestingly, they are as active as ondansetron when they are intraperitoneally (i.p.) or orally (p.o.) administered and, in mice, they seem to induce fewer behavioural changes at similar effective doses than does ondansetron. The present results confirm the usefulness of the previously proposed pharmacophore and justify the interest in these new benzimidazole derivatives.

  14. Indoloditerpenes from a marine-derived fungal strain of Dichotomomyces cejpii with antagonistic activity at GPR18 and cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Harms, Henrik; Rempel, Viktor; Kehraus, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Hufendiek, Peter; Müller, Christa E; König, Gabriele M

    2014-03-28

    A marine-derived strain of Dichotomomyces cejpii produces the new compounds emindole SB beta-mannoside (1) and 27-O-methylasporyzin C (2), as well as the known indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (3) and emindole SB (4). Indole derivative 1 was found to be a CB2 antagonist, while 2 was identified as the first selective GPR18 antagonist with an indole structure. Compound 4 was found to be a nonselective CB1/CB2 antagonist. The new natural indole derivatives may serve as lead structures for the development of GPR18- and CB receptor-blocking drugs.

  15. Design and optimization of quinazoline derivatives as melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sanjita; Balaji, Gade; Kanna Reddy, Hariprasada R; Balasubrahmanyam, D; Srinivas, Gujjary; Kyasa, Shivakumar; Sasmal, Pradip K; Khanna, Ish; Talwar, Rashmi; Suresh, J; Jadhav, Vikram P; Muzeeb, Syed; Shashikumar, Dhanya; Harinder Reddy, K; Sebastian, V J; Frimurer, Thomas M; Rist, Øystein; Elster, Lisbeth; Högberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is an important mediator of energy homeostasis and plays a role in metabolic and CNS disorders. The modeling-supported design, synthesis and multi-parameter optimization (biological activity, solubility, metabolic stability, hERG) of novel quinazoline derivatives as MCHR1 antagonists are described. The in vivo proof of principle for weight loss with a lead compound from this series is exemplified. Clusters of refined hMCHR1 homology models derived from the X-ray structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor, including extracellular loops, were developed and used to guide the design.

  16. Synthesis of Arylpiperazine Derivatives As Protease Activated Receptor 1 Antagonists And Their Evaluation As Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Andrea Ilaria; Di Gennaro, Elena; Corvino, Angela; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Perissutti, Elisa; Cirino, Giuseppe; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Terranova-Barberio, Manuela; Iannelli, Federica; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Budillon, Alfredo; Severino, Beatrice

    2016-09-26

    Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G-coupled receptor activated by α-thrombin and other proteases. Several reports demonstrate PAR1 involvement in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In order to investigate on potential use of PAR1 antagonists as antiproliferative agents, we have identified a series of arylpiperazine derivatives acting as PAR1 antagonists; the selected molecules have been evaluated for their antiproliferative properties. All the compounds inhibited the growth of a panel of cell lines expressing PAR1; two of them, compounds 13 and 15, were able to inhibit, in a dose dependent manner, the growth of the selected cell lines with the lowest IC50 values, and were further characterized to define the mechanism responsible for the observed antiproliferative effect. This study directed us to the identification of two interesting leads that may help to further validate PAR1 as an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  17. Ether derivatives of 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol as non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Łazewska, Dorota; Ligneau, Xavier; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Schunack, Walter; Stark, Holger; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2006-05-15

    A series of aliphatic and aromatic ether derivatives of 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol has been prepared by four different methods. The ethers obtained were evaluated for their affinities at recombinant human histamine H3 receptor, stably expressed in CHO-K1 or HEK 293 cells. All compounds investigated show from moderate to high in vitro affinities in the nanomolar concentration range. Selected compounds were investigated under in vivo conditions after oral administration to mice. Some proved to be highly potent and orally available histamine H3 receptor antagonists. The most potent antagonists in this series have been in vitro the 4-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenyl ether 19 (hH3R K(i) = 8.4 nM) and in vivo the simple ethyl ether 2 (ED50 = 1.0mg/kg).

  18. Ergoline derivatives as highly potent and selective antagonists at the somatostatin sst 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Thomas; Enz, Albert; Hoyer, Daniel; Langenegger, Daniel; Neumann, Peter; Pfäffli, Paul; Schoeffter, Philippe; Hurth, Konstanze

    2008-02-01

    Non-peptidic compounds containing the octahydro-indolo[4,3-fg]quinoline (ergoline) structural element have been optimized into derivatives with high affinity (pK(d) r sst(1)>9) and selectivity (>1000-fold for h sst(1) over h sst(2)-h sst(5)) for the somatostatin sst(1) receptor. In functional assays, these ergolines act as antagonists at human recombinant sst(1) receptors. Pharmacokinetic studies in rodents reveal good oral bioavailability and brain penetration for some of these compounds.

  19. Vaninolol: a new selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist derived from vanillin.

    PubMed

    Wu, B N; Hwang, T L; Liao, C F; Chen, I J

    1994-07-05

    The beta-adrenoceptor blocking properties of vaninolol ((+/-)4-[4'-(2-hydroxy-3-tert-butyl-aminopropoxy)-3'-methoxyphenyl]- 3-buten-2-one), derived from vanillin, were first investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Vaninolol (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg, i.v.), as well as propranolol, produced a dose-dependent bradycardia response and a sustained pressor action in urethane-anesthetized normotensive rats. Vaninolol inhibited the tachycardia effects induced by (-)isoproterenol, but had no blocking effect on the arterial pressor responses induced by phenylephrine. These findings suggested that vaninolol possessed beta-adrenergic blocking activity, but was without alpha-adrenergic blocking activity. In isolated guinea-pig tissues, vaninolol antagonized (-)isoproterenol-induced positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of the atria and tracheal relaxation responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The parallel shift to the right of the concentration-response curve of (-)isoproterenol suggested that vaninolol was a beta-adrenoceptor competitive antagonist. The effect of vaninolol was more potent on the atria than on tracheal tissues, indicating it had some beta 1-adrenoceptor selectivity. On the other hand, the order of the hydrophilicity was atenolol > vaninolol > propranolol. In addition, vaninolol had a mild direct cardiac depression at high concentrations and was without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA). Furthermore, binding characteristics of vaninolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists were evaluated in [3H]dihydroalprenolol binding to guinea-pig ventricular membranes. The order of potency of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in competing for the binding sites was (-)propranolol > vaninolol > or = atenolol. In conclusion, vaninolol was found to be a selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist with relatively low lipophilicity in comparison with propranolol, devoid of ISA, and had a mild myocardial depressant effect.

  20. Bradykinin antagonists and thiazolidinone derivatives as new potential anti-cancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Avdieiev, Stanislav; Gera, Lajos; Havrylyuk, Dmytro; Hodges, Robert S; Lesyk, Roman; Ribrag, Vincent; Vassetzky, Yegor; Kavsan, Vadym

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GB), the most aggressive brain tumour, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a rare but very aggressive type of lymphoma, are highly resistant to chemotherapy. GB and MCL chemotherapy gives very modest results, the vast majority of patients experience recurrent disease. To find out the new treatment modality for drug-resistant GB and MCL cells, combining of bradykinin (BK) antagonists with conventional temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, and screening of thiazolidinones derivatives were the main objectives of this work. As it was revealed here, BKM-570 was the lead compound among BK antagonists under investigation (IC50 was 3.3 μM) in human GB cells. It strongly suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation. BK antagonists did not decrease the viability of MCL cells, thus showing the cell-specific mode, while thiazolidinone derivatives, a novel group of promising anti-tumour compounds inhibited proliferation of MCL cells: IC₅₀ of ID 4526 and ID 4527 compounds were 0.27 μM and 0.16 μM, correspondingly. However, single agents are often not effective in clinic due to activation of collateral pathways in tumour cells. We demonstrated a strong synergistic effect after combinatorial treatment by BKM-570 together with TMZ that drastically increased cytotoxic action of this drug in rat and human glioma cells. Small proportion of cells was still viable after such treatment that could be explained by presence of TMZ-resistant cells in the population. It is possible to expect that the combined therapy aimed simultaneously at different elements of tumourigenesis will be more effective with lower drug concentrations than the first-line drug temozolomide used alone in clinics.

  1. Fancy bioisosteres: novel paracyclophane derivatives as super-affinity dopamine D3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Schlotter, Karin; Boeckler, Frank; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2006-06-15

    The exploration of the chemical diversity space depends on the discovery of novel bioisosteric elements. As a continuation of our project on bilayered arene surrogates, we herein report on [2.2]paracyclophane-derived dopamine D3 receptor antagonists of type 4 and 6. For the most promising test compound 6a, bearing a 2-methoxyphenyl substituent, a stereocontrolled preparation was performed when the planar chirality of enantiomers (R)-6a (FAUC 418) and (S)-6a caused a considerable differentiation of D3 binding, which is indicated by K(i) values of 0.19 and 3.0 nM, respectively. Functional experiments showed D3 antagonist properties for the paracyclophane derivatives of type 6. To elucidate putative bioactive low-energy conformations, DFT-based studies including the calculation of diagnostic magnetic shielding properties were performed. An 89% increase in volume for the [2.2]paracyclophane moiety compared to that of the monolayered benzofurane of lead compound 3b indicates higher plasticity of GPCR binding regions than usually expected.

  2. Stilbene derivatives as human 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists from the root of Caragana sinica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Soon-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Jin, Changbae; Chung, Kwang Chul; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT₆ receptor (5-HT₆R) is a member of the class of recently discovered 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors. Due to the lack of selective 5-HT₆R ligands, the cellular signaling mechanisms of the 5-HT₆R are poorly understood. We previously developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method for the 5-HT₆R and screened synthetic chemical compounds. In the present study, we expanded our screening into natural products to find novel 5-HT₆R ligands. We found that the ethyl acetate fraction from the root of Caragana sinica (537-18BE) produced the most potent antagonistic activity. After further isolation of 537-18BE, we found that three stilbene derivatives, (+)-α-viniferin, miyabenol C and pallidol, are active constituents of 537-18BE inhibiting the 5-HT₆R. Among them, (+)-α-viniferin showed the most potent inhibition, and miyabenol C also produced a considerable inhibition. When examined effects on other neurotransmitters for selectivity, 537-18BE and three stilbene derivatives did not produce any notable effects on 5-HT₄, 5-HT₇, or muscarinic acetylcholine M1 (M(1)) receptors. Furthermore, 5-HT₆R antagonistic effects of (+)-α-viniferin, miyabenol C and pallidol were confirmed on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) which exerts effects in downstream pathways of 5-HT₆R activation.

  3. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (−)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

  4. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid derivatives as dual antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-containing kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Mark W; Costa, Blaise M; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia R; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T; Jane, David E

    2012-01-12

    Competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N(1)-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (-)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists, and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/kg ip) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury.

  5. Molecular Probes for Muscarinic Receptors: Derivatives of the M1-Antagonist Telenzepine

    PubMed Central

    Karton, Yishai; Baumgold, Jesse; Handen, Jeffrey S.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized congeners of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist telenzepine (4,9-dihydro-3-methyl-4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-10H-thieno[3,4–b][1,5]benzodiazepin-10-one) were developed and found to bind to the receptor with affinities (Ki values) in approximately the nanomolar range. The derivatives contain a 10-aminodecyl group, which provides a nucleophilic functionality for further derivatization. The attachment of a spacer chain to the distal piperazinyl nitrogen was based on previous findings of enhanced affinity at muscarinic receptors in an analogous series of alkylamino derivatives of pirenzepine [J. Med. Chem. (1991) 34, 2133–2145]. The telenzepine derivatives contain prosthetic groups for radioiodination, protein cross-linking, photoaffinity labeling, and fluorescent labeling and biotin for avidin complexation. The affinity for muscarinic receptors in rat forebrain (mainly m1 subtype) was determined in competitive binding assays vs [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. A (p-aminophenyl)-acetyl derivative for photoaffinity labeling had a Ki value of 0.29 nM at forebrain muscarinic receptors (16-fold higher affinity than telenzepine). A biotin conjugate displayed a Ki value of 0.60 nM at m2-receptors and a 5-fold selectivity versus forebrain. The high affinity of these derivatives makes them suitable for the characterization of muscarinic receptors in pharmacological and spectroscopic studies, for peptide mapping, and for histochemical studies. PMID:1520727

  6. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dimer derivatives of the bradykinin receptor antagonist HOE-140.

    PubMed

    Daffix, I; Amblard, M; Bergé, G; Dodey, P; Pruneau, D; Paquet, J L; Fouchet, C; Franck, R M; Defrêne, E; Luccarini, J M; Bélichard, P; Martinez, J

    1998-07-01

    The synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dimer derivatives of the C-terminal fragments of the potent bradykinin antagonist HOE-140, linked through their N-termini, were performed. The influence of peptide moiety length was studied using the succinyl moiety as a linker. Our attention focused on the dimer of the C-terminal tetrapeptide of HOE-140 (compound JMV 980), which displayed some inhibiting activity (IC50 = 247 nM) for bradykinin B2 receptors. Unexpectedly, it was orally active in inhibiting bradykinin-induced hypotension in the rat. Based on this tetrapeptide dimer model, we synthesized pseudotetrapeptide dimer bradykinin antagonists 29 and 33, which exhibited high affinity (Ki = 76 and 61 nM, respectively) for the human cloned B2 receptor. In addition, compound 29 inhibited bradykinin-induced contraction of the human umbilical vein giving a pKB value of 6.45. Compounds 29 and 33 were selective toward B2 receptors because they did not bind to the cloned human B1 receptor up to 10 microM.

  7. A Combined Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Research of Quinolinone Derivatives as Androgen Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwei; Bai, Fang; Cao, Hong; Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Antiandrogens bicalutamide, flutamide and enzalutamide etc. have been used in clinical trials to treat prostate cancer by binding to and antagonizing androgen receptor (AR). Although initially effective, the drug resistance problem will emerge eventually, which results in a high medical need for novel AR antagonist exploitation. Here in this work, to facilitate the rational design of novel AR antagonists, we studied the structure-activity relationships of a series of 2-quinolinone derivatives and investigated the structural requirements for their antiandrogenic activities. Different modeling methods, including 2D MLR, 3D CoMFA and CoMSIA, were implemented to evolve QSAR models. All these models, thoroughly validated, demonstrated satisfactory results especially for the good predictive abilities. The contour maps from 3D CoMFA and CoMSIA models provide visualized explanation of key structural characteristics relevant to the antiandrogenic activities, which is summarized to a position-specific conclusion at the end. The obtained results from this research are practically useful for rational design and screening of promising chemicals with high antiandrogenic activities.

  8. Sulfur-Containing 1,3-Dialkylxanthine Derivatives as Selective Antagonists at A1-Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kiriasis, Leonidas; Barone, Suzanne; Bradbury, Barton J.; Kammula, Udai; Campagne, Jean Michel; Secunda, Sherrie; Daly, John W.; Neumeyer, John L.; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective. PMID:2754711

  9. Novel sulfonylurea derivatives as H3 receptor antagonists. Preliminary SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Ceras, Javier; Cirauqui, Nuria; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Monge, Antonio; Galiano, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    The combination of antagonism at histamine H(3) receptor and the stimulation of insulin secretion have been proposed as an approach to new dual therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity. We have designed and synthesized a new series of non-imidazole derivatives, based on a basic amine ring connected through an alkyl spacer of variable length to a phenoxysulfonylurea moiety. These compounds were initially evaluated for histamine H(3) receptor binding affinities, suggesting that a propoxy chain linker between the amine and the core ring could be essential for optimal binding affinity. Compound 56, 1-(naphthalen-1-yl)-3-[(p-(3-pyrrolidin-1-ylpropoxy)benzene)]sulfonylurea exhibited the best H(3) antagonism affinity. However, since all these derivatives failed to block K(ATP) channels, the link of these two related moieties should not be considered a good pharmacophore for obtaining new dual H(3) antagonists with insulinotropic activity, suggesting the necessity to propose a new chemical hybrid prototype.

  10. Label-Free Kinetics: Exploiting Functional Hemi-Equilibrium to Derive Rate Constants for Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Riddy, Darren M; Valant, Celine; Rueda, Patricia; Charman, William N; Sexton, Patrick M; Summers, Roger J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Langmead, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Drug receptor kinetics is as a key component in drug discovery, development, and efficacy; however, determining kinetic parameters has historically required direct radiolabeling or competition with a labeled tracer. Here we present a simple approach to determining the kinetics of competitive antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors by exploiting the phenomenon of hemi-equilibrium, the state of partial re-equilibration of agonist, antagonist, and receptor in some functional assays. Using functional [Ca(2+)]i-flux and extracellular kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation assays that have short incubation times and therefore are prone to hemi-equilibrium "behaviors," we investigated a wide range of structurally and physicochemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists. Using a combined operational and hemi-equilibrium model of antagonism to both simulate and analyze data, we derived estimates of association and dissociation rates for the test set of antagonists, identifying both rapidly dissociating (4-DAMP, himbacine) and slowly dissociating (tiotropium, glycopyrrolate) ligands. The results demonstrate the importance of assay incubation time and the degree of receptor reserve in applying the analytical model. There was an excellent correlation between estimates of antagonist pK(B), k(on), and k(off) from functional assays and those determined by competition kinetics using whole-cell [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine binding, validating this approach as a rapid and simple method to functionally profile receptor kinetics of competitive antagonists in the absence of a labeled tracer.

  11. Structure-activity relationship studies of pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives as potent P2X7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Ga-Eun; Lee, So-Deok; Ko, Hyojin; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2015-12-01

    As an optimization strategy, the flexible structure of KN-62, a known P2X7 receptor antagonist, was converted into conformationally constrained derivatives using pyrimidine-2,4-dione as the core skeleton. Various modifications at the 4-position of the piperazine moiety of the new lead compound were performed to improve P2X7 receptor antagonistic activities, which were evaluated in HEK293 cells stably expressing the human P2X7 receptor (EtBr uptake assay) and in THP-1 cells (IL-1β ELISA assay). According to the results, polycycloalkyl acyl or di-halogenated benzoyl substituents were much more favorable than the original phenyl group of KN-62. Among these compounds, the trifluoromethyl-chloro benzoyl derivative 18 m and adamantyl carbonyl derivatives 19 g-19 i and 19k showed potent antagonistic effects, with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 nM. In addition, the in vitro adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profile of 18 m was determined to be in acceptable ranges in terms of metabolic stability and cytotoxicity. These results suggest that pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives may be promising novel P2X7 receptor antagonists for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and SAR of thieno[3,2-b]pyridinyl urea derivatives as urotensin-II receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jo; Oh, Seung Ae; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Kwang-Seok; Yi, Kyu Yang

    2014-12-15

    The preparation and SAR profile of thieno[3,2-b]pyridinyl urea derivatives as novel and potent urotensin-II receptor antagonists are described. An activity optimization study, probing the effects of substituents on thieno[3,2-b]pyridinyl core and benzyl group of the piperidinyl moiety, led to the identification of p-fluorobenzyl substituted thieno[3,2-b]pyridinyl urea 6n as a highly potent UT antagonist with an IC50 value of 13nM. Although 6n displays good metabolic stability and low hERG binding activity, it has an unacceptable oral bioavailability.

  13. Different peripheral and central antagonistic activity of new glutaramic acid derivatives on satiety induced by cholecystokinin in rats.

    PubMed

    Makovec, F; Bani, M; Chistè, R; Revel, L; Rovati, L C; Setnikar, I

    1986-12-30

    New glutaramic acid derivatives with cholecystokinin antagonistic activity were evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the satiety effect induced in the rat by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8). The most active compound, CR 1409, is about 4000 times more potent than proglumide when injected peripherally (i.p.). This compound competitively inhibits the action of CCK-8 at the receptor responsible for the satiety effect. In contrast, CR 1409, i.p. or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected does not exhibit antagonistic effects when CCK-8 is administered i.c.v., confirming the existence of at least two different populations of CCK receptors.

  14. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist improve fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Bao; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Zhan-Lian; Lin, Chao-Shuang; Lai, Jing; Gu, Yu-Rong; Lin, Bin-Liang; Xie, Dong-Ying; Xie, Shi-Bin; Peng, Liang; Gao, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled hepatic immunoactivation is regarded as the primary pathological mechanism of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The major acute-phase mediators associated with FHF, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, impair the regeneration of liver cells and stem cell grafts. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) have the capacity, under specific conditions, to differentiate into hepatocytes. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) plays an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role in acute and chronic inflammation, and has been used in many experimental and clinical applications. In the present study, we implanted IL-1Ra-expressing AF-MSCs into injured liver via the portal vein, using D-galactosamine-induced FHF in a rat model. IL-1Ra expression, hepatic injury, liver regeneration, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), and animal survival were assessed after cell transplantation. Our results showed that AF-MSCs over-expressing IL-1Ra prevented liver failure and reduced mortality in rats with FHF. These animals also exhibited improved liver function and increased survival rates after injection with these cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a marker, we demonstrated that the engrafted cells and their progeny were incorporated into injured livers and produced albumin. This study suggests that AF-MSCs genetically modified to over-express IL-1Ra can be implanted into the injured liver to provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of FHF.

  15. Discovery of histamine H3 receptor antagonistic property of simple imidazole-free derivatives: Preliminary pharmacological investigation.

    PubMed

    Barocelli, Elisabetta; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Manenti, Veronica; Flammini, Lisa; Bertoni, Simona; Morini, Giovanni; Comini, Mara; Impicciatore, Mariannina

    2006-03-01

    The histamine H3 receptor subtype negatively modulates the release of various neurotransmitters such as histamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, acetylcholine and many others mainly in the CNS and H3 antagonists have been developed to treat central diseases characterized by neurotransmission disturbance such as schizophrenia, memory/learning and sleep disorders. In search for non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists, currently indicated as a promising class of H3 blockers, a series of simple alkylpiperidine derivatives has been studied to attain a preliminary pharmacological profile. The compounds were characterized in vitro in terms of binding affinity, antagonistic potency and selectivity at rodent H3 receptors. The imidazole-free derivatives possessed moderate to pronounced antagonistic potency at guinea-pig ileal H3 receptor consistent with binding affinity at rat brain H3 receptors and showed a favourable receptor selectivity profile. For the compound 5, with the highest affinity at rat H3 receptors, comparable values were calculated in binding (pKi = 8.35) and functional (pA2 = 8.22) assays in SK-N-MC cells stably expressing human H3 receptors. These findings indicate to extend the investigation to pharmacokinetic property and central effects to gain deeper knowledge on the pharmacological potential of this compound.

  16. Synthesis and dual histamine H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonist activity of cyanoguanidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Alisch, Rudi; Buschauer, Armin; Elz, Sigurd

    2013-11-15

    Premedication with a combination of histamine H₁ receptor (H₁R) and H₂ receptor (H₂R) antagonists has been suggested as a prophylactic principle, for instance, in anaesthesia and surgery. Aiming at pharmacological hybrids combining H₁R and H₂R antagonistic activity, a series of cyanoguanidines 14-35 was synthesized by linking mepyramine-type H₁R antagonist substructures with roxatidine-, tiotidine-, or ranitidine-type H₂R antagonist moieties. N-desmethylmepyramine was connected via a poly-methylene spacer to a cyanoguanidine group as the "urea equivalent" of the H₂R antagonist moiety. The title compounds were screened for histamine antagonistic activity at the isolated ileum (H₁R) and the isolated spontaneously beating right atrium (H₂R) of the guinea pig. The results indicate that, depending on the nature of the H₂R antagonist partial structure, the highest H₁R antagonist potency resided in roxatidine-type compounds with spacers of six methylene groups in length (compound 21), and tiotidine-type compounds irrespective of the alkyl chain length (compounds 28, 32, 33), N-cyano-N'-[2-[[(2-guanidino-4-thiazolyl)methyl]thio]ethyl]-N″-[2-[N-[2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(pyridyl)-amino] ethyl]-N-methylamino]ethyl] guanidine (25, pKB values: 8.05 (H₁R, ileum) and 7.73 (H₂R, atrium) and the homologue with the mepyramine moiety connected by a six-membered chain to the tiotidine-like partial structure (compound 32, pKB values: 8.61 (H₁R) and 6.61 (H₂R) were among the most potent hybrid compounds. With respect to the development of a potential pharmacotherapeutic agent, structural optimization seems possible through selection of other H₁R and H₂R pharmacophoric moieties with mutually affinity-enhancing properties.

  17. Profiling the Interaction Mechanism of Quinoline/Quinazoline Derivatives as MCHR1 Antagonists: An in Silico Method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingwei; Li, Yan; Fu, Xinmei; Wang, Jinghui; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis involved in the control of feeding and energy metabolism, is a promising target for treatment of obesity. In the present work, the up-to-date largest set of 181 quinoline/quinazoline derivatives as MCHR1 antagonists was subjected to both ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity (3D-QSAR) analysis applying comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The optimal predictable CoMSIA model exhibited significant validity with the cross-validated correlation coefficient (Q2) = 0.509, non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (R2ncv) = 0.841 and the predicted correlation coefficient (R2pred) = 0.745. In addition, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for further elucidation of the binding modes of MCHR1 antagonists. MD simulations in both water and lipid bilayer systems were performed. We hope that the obtained models and information may help to provide an insight into the interaction mechanism of MCHR1 antagonists and facilitate the design and optimization of novel antagonists as anti-obesity agents. PMID:25257526

  18. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropyl benzylamine derivatives as melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tucci, Fabio C; Jiang, Wanlong; Tran, Joe A; Fleck, Beth A; Hoare, Sam R; Wen, Jenny; Chen, Takung; Johns, Michael; Markison, Stacy; Foster, Alan C; Marinkovic, Dragan; Chen, Caroline W; Arellano, Melissa; Harman, John; Saunders, John; Bozigian, Haig; Marks, Daniel

    2008-05-15

    A series of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropylbenzylamine derivatives were synthesized and characterized as melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonists. Attaching an amino acid to benzylamines 7 significantly increased their binding affinity, and the resulting compounds 8-12 bound selectively to MC4R over other melanocortin receptor subtypes and behaved as functional antagonists. These compounds were also studied for their permeability using Caco-2 cell monolayers and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes. Most compounds exhibited low permeability and high efflux ratio possibly due to their high molecular weights. They also showed moderate metabolic stability which might be associated with their moderate to high lipophilicity. Pharmacokinetic properties of these MC4R antagonists, including brain penetration, were studied in mice after oral and intravenous administrations. Two compounds identified to possess high binding affinity and selectivity, 10d and 11d, were studied in a murine cachexia model. After intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 1mg/kg dose, mice treated with 10d had significantly more food intake and weight gain than the control animals, demonstrating efficacy by blocking the MC4 receptor. Similar in vivo effects were also observed when 11d was dosed orally at 20mg/kg. These results provide further evidence that a potent and selective MC4R antagonist has potential in the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  19. Synthesis and pharmacology of willardiine derivatives acting as antagonists of kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Nigel P; Troop, Helen M; More, Julia C A; Alt, Andrew; Knauss, Jody L; Nistico, Robert; Jack, Samantha; Morley, Richard M; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Roberts, Peter J; Bleakman, David; Collingridge, Graham L; Jane, David E

    2005-12-01

    The natural product willardiine (8) is an AMPA receptor agonist while 5-iodowillardiine (10) is a selective kainate receptor agonist. In an attempt to produce antagonists of kainate and AMPA receptors analogues of willardiine with substituents at the N3 position of the uracil ring were synthesized. The N3-4-carboxybenzyl substituted analogue (38c) was found to be equipotent at AMPA and GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in the neonatal rat spinal cord. The N3-2-carboxybenzyl substituted analogue (38a) proved to be a potent and selective GLUK5 subunit containing kainate receptor antagonist when tested on native rat and human recombinant AMPA and kainate receptor subtypes. The GLUK5 kainate receptor antagonist activity was found to reside in the S enantiomer (44a) whereas the R enantiomer (44b) was almost inactive. 5-Iodo substitution of the uracil ring of 44a gave 45, which was found to have enhanced potency and selectivity for GLUK5.

  20. Antagonistic effects of a covalently dimerized insulin derivative on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, M.; Joost, H.G. ); Brandenburg, C.; Brandenburg, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In the present study the authors describe the antagonistic effects of the covalently dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 mouse cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the derivative fully inhibits binding of {sup 125}I-labeled insulin to its receptor with about the same affinity as unlabeled insulin. In contrast, the dimerized derivative only partially (approximately 20%) mimics insulin's effects on glucose transport and DNA synthesis in the absence of insulin. In the presence of insulin, the agent competitively inhibits insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis (({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into total DNA), glucose transport activity (2-deoxyglucose uptake rate), and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In rat adipocytes, in contrast, the dimerized derivative stimulates glucose transport (initial 3-O-methylglucose as well as 2-deoxyglucose uptake rates) to the same extent as insulin does, and it fails to inhibit the effect of insulin. The data indicate that the dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin is an insulin receptor antagonist (partial agonist) which retains a moderate intrinsic activity. The effects of this agent reveal a striking difference in insulin receptor-mediated stimulation of glucose transport between 3T3-L1 fatty fibroblasts and the mature rat adipocyte.

  1. Molecular modeling of histamine H3 receptor and QSAR studies on arylbenzofuran derived H3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Ghafourian, Taravat; Hamzeiy, Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Histamine H3 receptors are presynaptic autoreceptors found in both central and peripheral nervous systems of many species. The central effects of these receptors suggest a potential therapeutic role for their antagonists in treatment of several neurological disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the structural requirements for H3 antagonistic activity via quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies and receptor modeling/docking techniques. A combination of partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) was used in the QSAR approach to select the structural descriptors relevant to the receptor binding affinity of a series of 58 H3 antagonists. The descriptors were selected out of a pool of >1000 descriptors calculated by DRAGON, Hyperchem and ACD labs suite of programs. The resulting QSAR models for rat and human H3 binding affinities were validated using different strategies. QSAR models generated in the current work suggested the role of charge transfer interactions in the ligand-receptor interaction verified using the molecular modeling of the receptor and docking two antagonists to the binding site. The 3D model of human H3 receptor was built based on bovine rhodopsin structure and evaluated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a mixed water-vacuum-water environment. The results were indicative of the stability of the model relating the observed structural changes during the MD simulation to the suggested ligand-receptor interactions. The results of this investigation are expected to be useful in the process of design and development of new potent H3 receptor antagonists.

  2. Furoxan analogues of the histamine H3-receptor antagonist imoproxifan and related furazan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Cena, Clara; Sorba, Giovanni; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    Synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of a series of compounds in which the oxime substructure present in imoproxifan was constrained in the pentatomic NO-donor furoxan ring, as well as their structurally related furazan analogues devoid of NO-donating properties, are described. The whole series of products displayed reversible histamine H3-antagonistic activity on guinea-pig ileum. 4-(4-(3-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)propoxy)phenyl)furoxan-3-carbonitrile 16 was also able to induce partial relaxation when added to the bath after electrical contraction of the guinea-pig ileum during the study of its H3-antagonistic properties. This phenomenon seems to be dependent on NO-mediated sGC activation. The lipophilic-hydrophilic balance of all the products was investigated.

  3. Synthesis and SAR studies of benzimidazolone derivatives as histamine H3-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingbei; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Yang, Zhaoxia; Jiang, Yueheng; McCormick, Kevin D; Aslanian, Robert G; Duguma, Luli; Kozlowski, Joseph A; Shih, Neng-Yang; Hey, John A; West, Robert E; Korfmacher, Walter A; Berlin, Michael; Boyce, Christopher W

    2013-11-01

    A novel series of benzimidazolone-containing histamine H3-receptor antagonists were prepared and their structure-activity relationship was explored. These benzimidazolone analogs demonstrate potent H3-receptor binding affinities, no P450 enzyme inhibition, and strong H3 functional activity. Compound 1o exhibits the best overall profile with H3Ki=0.95nM and rat AUC=12.9μMh.

  4. Differentiation of central and peripheral cholecystokinin receptors by new glutaramic acid derivatives with cholecystokinin-antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Makovec, F; Bani, M; Chisté, R; Revel, L; Rovati, L C; Rovati, L A

    1986-01-01

    Three glutaramic acid derivatives provided with a potent antagonistic activity on the contractions elicited by the carboxyl terminal octapeptide CCK-8 in the guinea pig gallbladder have been evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the binding of [125I]-(Bolton-Hunter)-CCK-8 to both central and peripheric cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. The most active compound inhibits the CCK binding to rat pancreas acini at a concentration 10(-7) mol/l, but only at 10(-4) mol/l on cerebral cortex membranes, confirming the existence of at least two different populations of CCK receptors.

  5. A calixpyrrole derivative acts as an antagonist to GPER, a G-protein coupled receptor: mechanisms and models

    PubMed Central

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Rosano, Camillo; Pisano, Assunta; Santolla, Maria Francesca; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna; De Marco, Paola; Dolce, Vincenza; Ponassi, Marco; Felli, Lamberto; Cafeo, Grazia; Kohnke, Franz Heinrich; Abonante, Sergio; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estrogens regulate numerous pathophysiological processes, mainly by binding to and activating estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ. Increasing amounts of evidence have recently demonstrated that G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30; also known as GPER) is also involved in diverse biological responses to estrogens both in normal and cancer cells. The classical ER and GPER share several features, including the ability to bind to identical compounds; nevertheless, some ligands exhibit opposed activity through these receptors. It is worth noting that, owing to the availability of selective agonists and antagonists of GPER for research, certain differential roles elicited by GPER compared with ER have been identified. Here, we provide evidence on the molecular mechanisms through which a calixpyrrole derivative acts as a GPER antagonist in different model systems, such as breast tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) obtained from breast cancer patients. Our data might open new perspectives toward the development of a further class of selective GPER ligands in order to better dissect the role exerted by this receptor in different pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, calixpyrrole derivatives could be considered in future anticancer strategies targeting GPER in cancer cells. PMID:26183213

  6. A novel snake venom-derived GPIb antagonist, anfibatide, protects mice from acute experimental ischaemic stroke and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting-Ting; Fan, Man-Li; Hou, Shi-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yi; Barry, Devin M; Jin, Hui; Luo, Sheng-Yong; Kong, Feng; Lau, Lit-Fui; Dai, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Lan-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischaemic stroke is a serious disease with limited therapy options. Glycoprotein (GP)Ib binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF) exposed at vascular injury initiates platelet adhesion and contributes to platelet aggregation. GPIb has been suggested as an effective target for antithrombotic therapy in stroke. Anfibatide is a GPIb antagonist derived from snake venom and we investigated its protective effect on experimental brain ischaemia in mice. Experimental Approach Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced by 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). These mice were then treated with anfibatide (4, 2, 1 μg·kg−1), injected i.v., after 90 min of MCAO, followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Tirofiban, a GPIIb/IIIα antagonist, was used as a positive control. Key Results Twenty-four hours after MCAO, anfibatide-treated mice showed significantly improved ischaemic lesions in a dose-dependent manner. The mice had smaller infarct volumes, less severe neurological deficits and histopathology of cerebrum tissues compared with the untreated MCAO mice. Moreover, anfibatide decreased the amount of GPIbα, vWF and accumulation of fibrin(ogen) in the vasculature of the ischaemic hemisphere. Tirofiban had similar effects on infarct size and fibrin(ogen) deposition compared with the MCAO group. Importantly, the anfibatide-treated mice showed a lower incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage and shorter tail bleeding time compared with the tirofiban-treated mice. Conclusions and Implications Our data indicate anfibatide is a safe GPIb antagonist that exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Anfibatide is a promising candidate that could be beneficial for the treatment of ischaemic stroke. PMID:25917571

  7. Characterization of the binding of a novel nonxanthine adenosine antagonist radioligand, ( sup 3 H)CGS 15943, to multiple affinity states of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.F.; Williams, M.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The triazoloquinazoline CGS 15943 is the first reported nonxanthine adenosine antagonist that has high affinity for brain adenosine receptors. In the present study, the binding of (3H) CGS 15943 to recognition sites in rat cortical membranes was characterized. Saturation experiments revealed that (3H)CGS 15943 labeled a single class of recognition sites with high affinity and limited capacity. Competition studies revealed that the binding of (3H)CGS 15943 was consistent with the labeling of brain adenosine A1 receptors. Adenosine agonists inhibited 1 nM (3H)CGS 15943 binding with the following order of activity N6-cyclopentyladenosine (IC50 = 15 nM) greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than (R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 5'-N6-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than (S)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than CGS 21680 greater than CV 1808 (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). The potency order for adenosine antagonists was CGS 15943 (IC50 = 5 nM) greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-amino-2-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than theophylline = caffeine (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). Antagonist inhibition curves were steep and best described by a one-site binding model. In contrast, adenosine A1 agonist competition curves were shallow, as indicated by Hill coefficients less than unity. Computer analysis revealed that these inhibition curves were best described by a two-site binding model. Agonist competition curves generated in the presence of 1 mM GTP resulted in a rightward shift and steepening of the inhibition-concentration curves, whereas antagonist binding was not altered in the presence of GTP. The complex binding interactions found with adenosine agonists indicate that (3H)CGS 15943 labels both high and low affinity components of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex.

  8. Synthesis and preliminary investigations into novel 1,2,3-triazole-derived androgen receptor antagonists inspired by bicalutamide.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-11-01

    A versatile and high yielding synthesis of novel androgen receptor (AR) antagonists is presented. Using this methodology, six 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole derived bicalutamide mimics were synthesised in five steps and in isolated overall yields from 41% to 85%. Evaluation of these compounds for their anti-proliferative properties against androgen dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC-3) cells showed promising IC50 values of 34-45 μM and 29-151 μM, respectively. The data suggest that the latter compounds may be an excellent starting point for the development of prostate cancer therapeutics for both androgen dependent and independent forms of this disease. Docking of these compounds (each enantiomer) in silico into the T877A mutated androgen receptor, as possessed by LNCaP cells, was also undertaken.

  9. Enhanced Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Regulating Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Antagonists and Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jiabing; Im, Choong Sung; Guo, Mian; Cui, Zhong-Kai; Fartash, Armita; Kim, Soyon; Patel, Nikhil; Bezouglaia, Olga; Wu, Benjamin M.; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering, direct use of ASCs alone has had limited success in the treatment of large bone defects. Although bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are believed to be the most potent osteoinductive factors to promote osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, their clinical applications require supraphysiological dosage, leading to high medical burden and adverse side effects. In the present study, we demonstrated an alternative approach that can effectively complement the BMP activity to maximize the osteogenesis of ASCs without exogenous application of BMPs by regulating levels of antagonists and agonists to BMP signaling. Treatment of ASCs with the amiloride derivative phenamil, a positive regulator of BMP signaling, combined with gene manipulation to suppress the BMP antagonist noggin, significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of ASCs through increased BMP–Smad signaling in vitro. Furthermore, the combination approach of noggin suppression and phenamil stimulation enhanced the BMP signaling and bone repair in a mouse calvarial defect model by adding noggin knockdown ASCs to apatite-coated poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) scaffolds loaded with phenamil. These results suggest novel complementary osteoinductive strategies that could maximize activity of the BMP pathway in ASC bone repair while reducing potential adverse effects of current BMP-based therapeutics. Significance Although stem cell-based tissue engineering strategy offers a promising alternative to repair damaged bone, direct use of stem cells alone is not adequate for challenging healing environments such as in large bone defects. This study demonstrates a novel strategy to maximize bone formation pathways in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and functional bone formation by combining gene manipulation with a small molecule activator toward osteogenesis. The findings indicate promising stem cell

  10. Multivalent benzene polyphosphate derivatives are non-Ca(2+)-mobilizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Luyten, Tomas; Erneux, Christophe; Parys, Jan B; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-12-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P31] mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) through the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor [InsP3R]. Although some progress has been made in the design of synthetic InsP3R partial agonists and antagonists, there are still few examples of useful small molecule competitive antagonists. A "multivalent" approach is explored and new dimeric polyphosphorylated aromatic derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The established weak InsP3R ligand benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4)P32] is dimerized through its 5-position in two different ways, first directly as the biphenyl derivative biphenyl 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate, [BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P68] and with its regioisomeric biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P611]. Secondly, a linker motif is introduced in a flexible ethylene-bridged dimer (9) with its corresponding 1,2-bisphosphate dimer (10), both loosely analogous to the very weak antagonist 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA 7). In permeabilized L15 fibroblasts overexpressing type 1 InsP3R, BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8) inhibits Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca(2+) release in a apparently competitive fashion [IC50 187 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 dimer (9) is only slightly weaker [IC50 380 nM]. Compounds were also evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. All compounds are resistant to dephosphorylation, with BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8), being the most effective inhibitor of any biphenyl derivative synthesized to date [IC50 480 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 ethylene dimer (9) weaker [IC50 3.55 μM]. BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 (11) also inhibits 5-phosphatase [IC50 730 nM] and exhibits unexpected Ca(2+) releasing activity [EC50 800 nM]. Thus, relocation of only a single mirrored phenyl phosphate group in (11) from that of antagonist (8) does not markedly change enzyme inhibitory activity, but elicits a dramatic switch in Ca(2+)-releasing activity. Such new agents demonstrate the

  11. Cationic derivatives of dextran and hydroxypropylcellulose as novel potential heparin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Kamil; Płonka, Monika; Ciejka, Justyna; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Lorkowska, Barbara; Korbut, Ryszard; Lach, Radosław

    2011-10-13

    Cationic derivatives of dextran (Dex) and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) were studied as potential alternatives of protamine sulfate (PS) used in the reversal of anticoagulant activity of heparin. The modification was performed by the attachment of cationic groups to the Dex main chain or by grafting short side chains of a polycation onto HPC. The cationic derivatives of these polysaccharides were found to bind heparin with the efficiency increasing with growing degree of cationic modification. The degree of cationic modification and consequently the ζ potential of the polymers do not have to be high to achieve effective heparin binding. The size of the complexes of cationic Dex with unfractionated heparin (UFH) is a few micrometers. For complexes of cationic HPC and UFH the size is much below 1 μm, both below and above the lower critical solution temperature of HPC. None of the cationic polysaccharides studied caused hemolysis. The concentrations of the polymers inducing the aggregation of human erythrocytes in vitro were determined.

  12. Benzamide derivatives and their constrained analogs as histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Tiriveedhi, Vinaykumar; Kota, Laxman; Saraf, Sangram Keshari; Badange, Rajesh Kumar; Mohammed, Abdul Rasheed; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Muddana, Nageshwararao; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Abraham, Renny

    2016-01-27

    A series of 4-(1-substituted piperidin-4-yloxy) benzamides and 6-(1-substituted piperidin-4-yloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2H-isoquinolin-1-one derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their binding affinity towards H3 receptor. Most of these synthesized compounds have displayed potent binding affinity for H3 receptor when tested in in vitro binding assay. Preliminary SAR studies, functional activity, pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy profile constitute the subject matter of this communication.

  13. Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Romano, Barbara; Panzera, Stefania; Maiello, Francesco; Coppola, Diana; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Buono, Lorena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-12-01

    Cannabigerol (CBG) is a safe non-psychotropic Cannabis-derived cannabinoid (CB), which interacts with specific targets involved in carcinogenesis. Specifically, CBG potently blocks transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 (TRPM8), activates TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2 channels, blocks 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) receptors and inhibits the reuptake of endocannabinoids. Here, we investigated whether CBG protects against colon tumourigenesis. Cell growth was evaluated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride assays; apoptosis was examined by histology and by assessing caspase 3/7 activity; reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by a fluorescent probe; CB receptors, TRP and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; small hairpin RNA-vector silencing of TRPM8 was performed by electroporation. The in vivo antineoplastic effect of CBG was assessed using mouse models of colon cancer. CRC cells expressed TRPM8, CB1, CB2, 5-HT1A receptors, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2 mRNA. CBG promoted apoptosis, stimulated ROS production, upregulated CHOP mRNA and reduced cell growth in CRC cells. CBG effect on cell growth was independent from TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2 channels activation, was further increased by a CB2 receptor antagonist, and mimicked by other TRPM8 channel blockers but not by a 5-HT1A antagonist. Furthermore, the effect of CBG on cell growth and on CHOP mRNA expression was reduced in TRPM8 silenced cells. In vivo, CBG inhibited the growth of xenograft tumours as well as chemically induced colon carcinogenesis. CBG hampers colon cancer progression in vivo and selectively inhibits the growth of CRC cells, an effect shared by other TRPM8 antagonists. CBG should be considered translationally in CRC prevention and cure. © The Author 2014

  14. Design and synthesis of novel 3-substituted-indole derivatives as selective H3 receptor antagonists and potent free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Zhao, Liying; Hong, Lingjuan; Yang, Fenyan; Sheng, Rong; Chen, Jianzhong; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naimin; Hu, Yongzhou

    2013-10-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted-indole derivatives with a benzyl tertiary amino moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated as H3 receptor antagonists and free radical scavengers for Alzheimer's disease therapy. Most of these synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to potent antagonistic activities in CREs driven luciferase assay. In particular, compound 2d demonstrated the most favorable H3 receptor antagonistic activity with the IC50 value of 0.049μM. Besides, it also displayed high binding affinity to H3 receptor (Ki=4.26±2.55nM) and high selectivity over other three histamine receptors. Moreover, 2d and other two 3-substituted indole derivatives 1d and 3d exerted potent ABTS radical cation scavenging capacities similar to melatonin. Above results illustrate that 2d is an interesting lead for extensive optimization to explore new drug candidate for AD therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of 6α- and 6β-N-Heterocyclic Substituted Naltrexamine Derivatives as Novel Leads to Development of Mu Opioid Receptor Selective Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As important pharmacological probes, highly selective opioid receptor antagonists are essential in opioid receptor structural characterization and opioid agonist functional studies. At present, a nonpeptidyl, highly selective, and reversible mu opioid receptor antagonist is still not available. Among a series of novel naltrexamine derivatives that have been designed and synthesized following molecular modeling studies, two compounds, NAP and NAQ, were identified as leads based on the results of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological assays. Both of them displayed high binding affinity and selectivity to the mu opioid receptor. Further pharmacokinetic and functional characterization revealed that NAP seems to be a peripheral nervous system agent while NAQ seems to be a central one. Such characteristics provide two distinguished potential application routes for these two agents and their derivatives. These results also supported our hypothesis that they may serve as leads to develop more potent and selective antagonists for the mu opioid receptor. PMID:22816021

  16. Patient-derived glioblastoma cells show significant heterogeneity in treatment responses to the inhibitor-of-apoptosis-protein antagonist birinapant

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Z; Tivnan, A; Flanagan, L; Murray, D W; Salvucci, M; Stringer, B W; Day, B W; Boyd, A W; Kögel, D; Rehm, M; O'Brien, D F; Byrne, A T; Prehn, J H M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) greatly limits chemotherapeutic effectiveness in glioblastoma (GBM). Here we analysed the ability of the Inhibitor-of-apoptosis-protein (IAP) antagonist birinapant to enhance treatment responses to TMZ in both commercially available and patient-derived GBM cells. Methods: Responses to TMZ and birinapant were analysed in a panel of commercial and patient-derived GBM cell lines using colorimetric viability assays, flow cytometry, morphological analysis and protein expression profiling of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. Responses in vivo were analysed in an orthotopic xenograft GBM model. Results: Single-agent treatment experiments categorised GBM cells into TMZ-sensitive cells, birinapant-sensitive cells, and cells that were insensitive to either treatment. Combination treatment allowed sensitisation to therapy in only a subset of resistant GBM cells. Cell death analysis identified three principal response patterns: Type A cells that readily activated caspase-8 and cell death in response to TMZ while addition of birinapant further sensitised the cells to TMZ-induced cell death; Type B cells that readily activated caspase-8 and cell death in response to birinapant but did not show further sensitisation with TMZ; and Type C cells that showed no significant cell death or moderately enhanced cell death in the combined treatment paradigm. Furthermore, in vivo, a Type C patient-derived cell line that was TMZ-insensitive in vitro and showed a strong sensitivity to TMZ and TMZ plus birinapant treatments. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate remarkable differences in responses of patient-derived GBM cells to birinapant single and combination treatments, and suggest that therapeutic responses in vivo may be greatly affected by the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26657652

  17. Antagonist Targeting microRNA-155 Protects against Lithium-Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in C57BL/6 Mice by Activating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengxu; Li, Song; Li, Sheng; Song, Fan; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Guanhua; Li, Tianbai; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Sui, Hua; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155) could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and Western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study. PMID:27303295

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, biological evaluation, and molecular docking studies of quinoline-arylpiperazine derivative as potent α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Jiang, Renwang; Yuan, Mu

    2017-02-01

    Arylpiperazine derivatives received special attention owing to their antagonist potency on α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs). In this work, quinoline-arylpiperazine derivative (1) was synthesized and its structural properties were investigated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical calculations. Biological evaluation in vitro revealed that compound 1 exhibited a 3-fold higher selectivity for α1A-AR over than α1B subtype when compared to non-selective antagonist prazosin. Molecular docking studies shed light on the antagonistic activity of both 1 and prazosin on α1A and α1B-AR. The docking results suggested that residues Gln177, Phe86, Phe288, Phe308, Phe312 and Tyr316 were identified as the major sites for the two agents binding to the α1A receptor. As depicted by pharmacophoric model, 1 was deemed to be the α1A-selective antagonist on the basis of pharmacophoric features. Our present work may provide valuable information for better drug design of subtype-selective α1-AR antagonists.

  19. Effects of structural modifications of N-CPM-normorphine derivatives on agonist and antagonist activities in isolated organs.

    PubMed

    Riba, P; Tóth, Z; Hosztafi, S; Friedmann, T; Fürst, S

    2003-01-01

    The agonistic and antagonistic properties of N-cyclopropylmethyl (N-CPM) morphine derivatives were observed in mouse vas deferens (MVD), longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum (GPI) and rabbit vas deferens (LVD). In MVD the K(e) values of the titled compounds (N-CPM-morphine, N-CPM-isomorphine, N-CPM-dihydromorphine, N-CPM-dihydroisomorpPhine, N-CPM-dihydromorphone and naltrexone) were measured for mu-, kappa- and delta-receptors using normorphine, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and D-Pen2-D-Pen5-enkephaline (DPDPE) as selective agonists on the receptors, respectively. For mu-receptors of MVD the tested compounds showed similar affinity. For kappa-receptors the non-iso-6-OH derivatives possessed much less affinity than the iso-derivatives. Similar difference could be observed for delta-receptors. The agonistic activities of these compounds in MVD were observed to be between 0-20% of the inhibition of muscle contractions. In GPI the compounds except naltrexone possessed strong agonistic activities effectively antagonized by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) (K(e) of nor-BNI was 0.23 nM) suggesting that they were strong kappa-receptor agonists. We investigated these agents in LVD too, which contains kappa-receptors, but they did not produce any agonist potencies. It raises the possibility that the kappa-receptor subtypes of LVD and MVD are different from the kappa-receptor subtype of GPI or the vasa deferentia contain much fewer kappa-receptors than GPI and the intrinsic activities of these compounds are too small to reach the 50% inhibition of the contractions.

  20. Powerful antinociceptive effects of the cone snail venom-derived subtype-selective NMDA receptor antagonists conantokins G and T.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Annika B; Gilbert, Heather; McCabe, R Tyler; Basbaum, Allan I

    2003-01-01

    Subunit non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists reduce injury-induced pain behavior, but generally produce unacceptable side effects. In this study, we examined the antinociceptive and motor effects of cone snail venom-derived peptides, conantokins G and T (conG and conT), which are selective inhibitors of the NR2B or NR2A and NR2B subtypes of the NMDA receptor, respectively. We tested the effects of conG and conT in models of tissue (formalin test), nerve injury (partial sciatic nerve ligation) and inflammation-induced (intraplantar Complete Freund's Adjuvant; CFA) pain in mice. In the formalin test, intrathecal (i.t.) conG or conT suppressed the ongoing pain behavior (ED(50) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), 11 (7-19) and 19 (11-33), respectively) at doses that were 17-27 times lower than those required to impair motor function (accelerating rotarod treadmill test: ED(50) and 95% CI, 300 (120-730) and 320 (190-540) pmol, respectively). By comparison, SNX-111, an N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel antagonist that is also derived from cone snail venom, produced significant motor impairment at a dose (3.0 pmol, i.t.) that was only partially efficacious in the formalin test. Furthermore, conG reversed the allodynia produced by nerve injury, with greater potency on thermal (ED50 and 95% CI, 24 (10-55) pmol) than on mechanical allodynia (59 (33-105) pmol). Finally, a single dose of conG (100 pmol, i.t.) also reduced CFA-evoked thermal and mechanical allodynia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that conantokins exhibit potent antinociceptive effects in several models of injury-induced pain. The study supports the notion that drugs directed against subtypes of the NMDA receptor, by virtue of their reduced side-effect profile, hold promise as novel therapeutic agents for the control of pain.

  1. Design and synthesis of tryptophan containing dipeptide derivatives as formyl peptide receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hung, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Huang, Yin-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2013-06-14

    Our previous studies identified an Fmoc-(S,R)-tryptophan-containing dipeptide derivative, 1, which selectively inhibited neutrophil elastase release induced by formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP) in human neutrophils. In an attempt to improve pharmacological activity, a series of tryptophan-containing dipeptides were synthesized and their pharmacological activities were investigated in human neutrophils. Of these, five compounds 3, 6, 19a, 24a, and 24b exhibited potent and dual inhibitory effects on FMLP-induced superoxide anion (O2˙(-)) generation and neutrophil elastase release in neutrophils with IC50 values of 0.23/0.60, 1.88/2.47, 1.87/3.60, 0.12/0.37, and 1.32/1.03 μM, respectively. Further studies indicated that inhibition of superoxide production in human neutrophils by these dipeptides was associated with the selective inhibition of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). Furthermore, the results of structure-activity relationship studies concluded that the fragment N-benzoyl-Trp-Phe-OMe (3) was most suitable as a core structure for interaction with FPR1, and may be approved as a lead for the development of new drugs in the treatment of neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. As some of the synthesized compounds exhibited separable conformational isomers, and showed diverse bioactivities, the conformation analysis of these compounds is also discussed herein.

  2. Crystal structures of four indole derivatives as possible cannabinoid allosteric antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jamie R.; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M. D.; Wardell, James L.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of four indole derivatives with various substituents at the 2-, 3- and 5-positions of the ring system are described, namely, ethyl 3-(5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-phenyl­propano­ate, C25H22ClNO2, (I), 2-bromo-3-(2-nitro-1-phenyl­eth­yl)-1H-indole, C16H13BrN2O2, (II), 5-meth­oxy-3-(2-nitro-1-phenyl­eth­yl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole, C23H20N2O3, (III), and 5-chloro-3-(2-nitro-1-phenyl­eth­yl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole, C22H17ClN2O2, (IV). The dominant inter­molecular inter­action in each case is an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates either chains or inversion dimers. Weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions occur in these structures but there is no consistent pattern amongst them. Two of these compounds act as modest enhancers of CB1 cannabanoid signalling and two are inactive. PMID:26090143

  3. Concentration-dependent antagonistic persuasion of SDS and naphthalene derivatives on the fibrillation of stem bromelain.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Atiyatul; Ahmad, Ejaz; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Mohd Wasif; Khan, Javed Masood; Rabbani, Gulam; Tarique, Khaja Faisal; Sharma, Gaurav; Gourinath, Samudrala; Nadeem, Sajid; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2013-12-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate, a biological membrane mimetic, can be used to study the conversion of globular proteins into amyloid fibrils in vitro. Using multiple approaches, the effect of SDS was examined on stem bromelain (SB), a widely recognized therapeutic protein. SB is known to exist as a partially folded intermediate at pH 2.0, situation also encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (its site of absorption). In the presence of sub-micellar SDS concentration (500-1000 μM), this intermediate was found to exhibit great propensity to form large-sized β-sheeted aggregates with fibrillar morphology, the hall marks of amyloid structure. We also observed inhibition of fibrillation by two naphthalene-based compounds, ANS and bis-ANS. While bis-ANS significantly inhibited fibril formation at 50 μM, ANS did so at relatively higher concentration (400 μM). Alcohols, but not salts, were found to weaken the inhibitory action of these compounds suggesting the possible involvement of hydrophobic interactions in their binding to protein. Besides, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking studies suggested that inhibition of fibrillation by these naphthalene derivatives is mediated not just through hydrophobic forces, but also by disruption of π-π interactions between the aromatic residues together with the inter-polypeptide chain repulsion among negatively charged ANS/bis-ANS bound SB.

  4. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 6alpha- and 6beta-N-heterocyclic substituted naltrexamine derivatives as mu opioid receptor selective antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Aschenbach, Lindsey C; Chen, Jianyang; Cassidy, Michael P; Stevens, David L; Gabra, Bichoy H; Selley, Dana E; Dewey, William L; Westkaemper, Richard B; Zhang, Yan

    2009-03-12

    Opioid receptor selective antagonists are important pharmacological probes in opioid receptor structural characterization and opioid agonist functional study. Thus far, a nonpeptidyl, highly selective and reversible mu opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist is unavailable. On the basis of our modeling studies, a series of novel naltrexamine derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Among them, two compounds were identified as leads based on the results of in vitro and in vivo assays. Both of them displayed high binding affinity for the MOR (K(i) = 0.37 and 0.55 nM). Compound 6 (NAP) showed over 700-fold selectivity for the MOR over the delta receptor (DOR) and more than 150-fold selectivity over the kappa receptor (KOR). Compound 9 (NAQ) showed over 200-fold selectivity for the MOR over the DOR and approximately 50-fold selectivity over the KOR. Thus these two novel ligands will serve as leads to further develop more potent and selective antagonists for the MOR.

  5. Synthesis, QSAR and calcium channel antagonist activity of new 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives containing 1-methyl-4,5-dichloroimidazolyl substituents.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Amini, Mohsen; Mirkhani, Hossein; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Ghodsi, Shahram; Alipour, Eskandar; Shafiee, Abbas

    2007-10-01

    A group of dialkyl and diarylester analogues of nifedipine, in which the ortho-nitrophenyl group at position 4 was replaced by a 1-methyl-4,5-dichloroimidazolyl substituent, were synthesized and evaluated as calcium-channel antagonists using the high K(+)concentration of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle. The structure of all compounds was confirmed by IR,(1)H-NMR, and mass spectra. The calcium-channel antagonist activity of compounds 10a-f demonstrated that compound 10b was the most active and 10f the least active one. With unsymmetrical diesters 12a-k, the most active compound was the ethyl, phenethyl derivative. Structural parameters on the calcium-channel antagonist activity were evaluated by QSAR analysis and a linear correlation was found between the -log IC(50) values of these compounds and their constitutional and topological properties.

  6. Exploring details about structure requirements based on novel CGRP receptor antagonists urethanamide, aspartate, succinate and pyridine derivatives by in silico methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; He, Haoran; Wang, Jinghui; Han, Chunxiao; Feng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    The migraine never fails to afflict individuals in the world that knows no lack of such cases. CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) is found closely related to migraine and olcegepant (BIBN4096) is effective in alleviating the pain. In our work, the combination of ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies along with molecular docking was applied to provide us insights about how urethanamide, pyridine and aspartate and succinate derivatives (novel CGRP receptor antagonists) play a part in inhibiting the activity of CGRP receptor. The optimal CoMSIA model shows the Q2 of 0.505, R2ncv of 0.992 and its accurate predictive ability was confirmed by checking out an independent test set which gave R2pred value of 0.885. Besides, the 3D contour maps help us identify how different groups affect the antagonist activity while connecting to some key positions. In addition, the docking analysis shows the binding site emerging as the distorted “V” shape and including two binding pockets: one of them is hydrophobic, fixing the structural part 3 of compound 80, the other anchors the part 1 of compound 80. The docking analysis also shows the interaction mechanism between compound 80 and CGRP receptor, similar to the interaction between olcegepant and CGRP receptor. The findings derived from this work reveal the mechanism of related antagonists and facilitate the future rational design of novel antagonists with higher potency.

  7. Glycogen phosphorylase a inhibitors with a phenethylphenylphthalimide skeleton derived from thalidomide-related alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and liver X receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Motoshima, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Minoru; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2009-09-01

    Novel glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) inhibitors with a phenethylphenylphthalimide skeleton were prepared based on alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and liver X receptor (LXR) antagonists derived from thalidomide. Their structure-activity relationships were analyzed. Some of the compounds thus prepared showed potent inhibitory activity against rabbit muscle GPa with more than 10-fold greater efficacy than a typical GPa inhibitor, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol.

  8. Molecular modeling of a phenyl-amidine class of NMDA receptor antagonists and the rational design of new triazolyl-amidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paula A; Castro, Helena C; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Giongo, Viveca; Paixão, Izabel C N P; Santana, Marcos V; Ferreira, Jainne M; Caversan, Octavia M; Leão, Raquel A C; Marins, Luana M S; Henriques, André M; Farias, Florence M C; Albuquerque, Magaly G; Pinheiro, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    Recently, many efforts have been made to develop N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonists for treating different pathological conditions such as thrombo-embolic stroke, traumatic head injury, Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's diseases). However, as side-effects limit the use of most antagonists, new drugs are still required. In this work, we performed a (quantitative) structure-activity relationship analysis of 17 phenyl-amidine derivatives (1a-1q), reported as N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonists, and used this data to rationally design the triazolyl-amidines. The best (quantitative) structure-activity relationship model constructed by multiple linear regression analysis presented high data fitting (R = 0.914) was able to explain 83.6% of the biological data variance (R(2) = 0.836), presented a satisfactory internal predictive ability (Q(2) = 0.609) and contained the descriptors (E(HOMO), Ovality and cLogP). Our assays confirmed that glutamate promotes an extensive cell death in avian neurons (77%) and 2a and 2b protected the neurons from the glutamate effect (from 77% to 27% and 45%, respectively). The results of neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity on Vero cells suggested the favorable profile of 2a and 2b. Also, the molecular modeling used to predict the activity, the interaction with the receptor and the pharmacokinetic and toxicity of the triazolyl-amidines pointed them as a promising class for further exploration as N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonists.

  9. Decahydroisoquinoline derivatives as novel non-peptidic, potent and subtype-selective somatostatin sst(3) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Thomas; Hurth, Konstanze; Schuh, Karl-Heinrich; Schoeffter, Philippe; Langenegger, Daniel; Enz, Albert; Hoyer, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Starting from non-peptidic sst(1)-selective somatostatin receptor antagonists, first compounds with mixed sst(1)/sst(3) affinity were identified by directed structural modifications. Systematic optimization of these initial leads afforded novel, enantiomerically pure, highly potent and sst(3)-subtype selective somatostatin antagonists based on a (4S,4aS,8aR)-decahydroisoquinoline-4-carboxylic acid core moiety. These compounds can efficiently be synthesized and show promising PK properties in rodents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Androgen Receptor Antagonists and Anti-Prostate Cancer Activities of Some Newly Synthesized Substituted Fused Pyrazolo-, Triazolo- and Thiazolo-Pyrimidine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bahashwan, Saleh A.; Fayed, Ahmed A.; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Amr, Abd El-Galil E.; Al-Harbi, Naif O.

    2014-01-01

    A series of substituted pyrazole, triazole and thiazole derivatives (2–13) were synthesized from 1-(naphtho[1,2-d]thiazol-2-yl)hydrazine as starting material and evaluated as androgen receptor antagonists and anti-prostate cancer agents. The newly synthesized compounds showed potent androgen receptor antagonists and anti-prostate cancer activities with low toxicity (lethal dose 50 (LD50)) comparable to Bicalutamide as reference drug. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectral data and elemental analysis. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, LD50 values and pharmacological activities of the synthesized compounds are reported. PMID:25421248

  11. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives: A novel class of non-competitive NR2C/D subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Cara A.; Acker, Timothy M.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Andersen, Karen T.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives is non-competitive and voltage-independent, suggesting that this family of compounds does not exert action on the agonist binding site of the receptor or block the channel pore. The compounds described here resemble CP-465,022 ((S)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(6-diethylaminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-vinyl]-6-fluoro-3H-quinazolin-4-one), a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors. However, modification of ring substituents resulted in analogues with greater than 100-fold selectivity for recombinant NMDA receptors over AMPA and kainate receptors. Furthermore, within this series of compounds, analogues were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of non-competitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:20684595

  12. Synthesis of sterically encumbered 11β-aminoprogesterone derivatives and evaluation as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Keyur; Dietrich, David; Seibert, Julia; Vederas, John C; Odermatt, Alex

    2013-11-01

    11β-Hydroxyprogesterone is a well-known nonselective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) types 1 and 2. It also activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Modulation of corticosteroid action by inhibition of 11βHSDs or blocking MR is currently under consideration for treatment of electrolyte disturbances, metabolic diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders. We established conditions to synthesize sterically demanding 11β-aminoprogesterone, which following subsequent nucleophilic or reductive amination, allowed extension of the amino group to prepare amino acid derivatives. Biological testing revealed that some of the 11β-aminoprogesterone derivatives selectively inhibit 11βHSD2. Moreover, two compounds that did not significantly inhibit 11βHSDs had antagonist properties on MR. The 11β-aminoprogesterone derivatives form a basis for the further development of improved modulators of corticosteroid action.

  13. 4-(Alkylthio)- and 4-(arylthio)-benzonitrile derivatives as androgen receptor antagonists for the topical suppression of sebum production.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lorna; Wang, Zhi; Hu, Lain-Yen; Kostlan, Catherine; Carroll, Matthew; Dettling, Danielle; Du, Daniel; Pocalyko, David; Wade, Kimberly

    2009-03-01

    The first examples of thioether-substituted benzonitriles as potential soft-drug androgen receptor antagonists are reported. A number of 4-(alkylthio)- and of 4-(arylthio)-benzonitrile analogs were evaluated in human androgen receptor binding and cellular functional assays. Analogs with potent in vitro binding and cellular activities were evaluated for topical in vivo efficacy in the Golden Syrian hamster ear model. Analogs from both the 4-(alkylthio)- and of 4-(arylthio)-benzonitrile series showed moderate reduction of wax esters in vivo.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel indoloazepine derivatives as non-peptide vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jay M; Greco, Michael N; Hecker, Leonard R; Hoekstra, William J; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; de Garavilla, Lawrence; Demarest, Keith T; Ericson, Eric; Gunnet, Joseph W; Hageman, William; Look, Richard; Moore, John B; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2003-02-24

    A series of novel 3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-1H-azepino[4,3,2-cd]indoles was synthesized and tested for vasopressin receptor antagonist activity. We identified compounds with high affinity for the human V2 receptor and good selectivity over the human V1a receptor. Compound 6c bound to V2 receptors with an IC(50) value of 20 nM, had >100-fold selectivity over V1a receptors, and inhibited cAMP formation in a cellular V2 functional assay with an IC(50) value of 70 nM.

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of some 2,2-diphenyl propionate (DPP) derivatives of muscarinic antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.K.; Breuer, E.; Padilla, F.N.; Chiang, P.K.

    1987-05-01

    QSAR between biological activities and molecular-chemical properties were investigated to aid in designing more effective and potent antimuscarinic pharmacophores. A molecular modeling program was used to calculate geometrical and topological values of a series of DPP pharmacophores. The newly synthesized pharmacophores were tested for their antagonist activities by: (1) inhibition of (N-methyl-/sup 3/H)scopolamine binding assay to the muscarinic receptors of N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells; (2) blocking of acetylcholine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum; and (3) inhibition of carbachol-induced ..cap alpha..-amylase release from rat pancreas. The differences in the log of these biological activities were directly and significantly related to the distances between the carbonyl oxygen of the DPP and the quaternary nitrogen of the modified pharmacophores. The biological activities, while depending on each particular assay, varied between three and four logs of activity. The charge remained the same in all the pharmacophores. There were no QSAR correlations between molecular volume, molecular connectivity, or principle moments and their antagonistic activities, although multivariate QSAR was not employed. Thus, based on distance geometry, potent muscarinic pharmacophores can be predicted.

  16. Structure-Based Design of 3-(4-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-Biphenyl Derivatives as P2Y14 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    UDP and UDP-glucose activate the P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R) to modulate processes related to inflammation, diabetes, and asthma. A computational pipeline suggested alternatives to naphthalene of a previously reported P2Y14R antagonist (3, PPTN) using docking and molecular dynamics simulations on a hP2Y14R homology model based on P2Y12R structures. By reevaluating the binding of 3 to P2Y14R computationally, two alternatives, i.e., alkynyl and triazolyl derivatives, were identified. Improved synthesis of fluorescent antagonist 4 enabled affinity quantification (IC50s, nM) using flow cytometry of P2Y14R-expressing CHO cells. p-F3C-phenyl-triazole 65 (32) was more potent than a corresponding alkyne 11. Thus, additional triazolyl derivatives were prepared, as guided by docking simulations, with nonpolar aryl substituents favored. Although triazoles were less potent than 3 (6), simpler synthesis facilitated further structural optimization. Additionally, relative P2Y14R affinities agreed with predicted binding of alkynyl and triazole analogues. These triazoles, designed through a structure-based approach, can be assessed in disease models. PMID:27331270

  17. Effects of histamine and its antagonists on murine T-cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiufen; Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of histamine and its antagonists on the surface marker expression of dendritic cells (DCs) and the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), histamine, and histamine receptor antagonists on DCs and T-cells. The bone marrow was extracted from the femurs and tibiae of 6- to 8-week-old female Balb/c mice and cultured in medium containing penicillin, streptomycin, L-glutamine, fetal calf serum, or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) alone or with interleukin (IL)-4. The cells received three different doses of LPS and histamine, plus three different doses of descarboethoxyloratadine (DCL). We assayed the supernatant for various cytokines. The spleen cells of DO11.10 mice were examined by flow cytometry, which included labeling and sorting CD4+ T-cells, as well as coculture of DCs and T-cells with ovalbumin (OVA)323-339 peptide. Histamine or histamine plus DCL did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD11c, CD11b, CD86, and CD80. However, GM-CSF increased the expression of all markers except CD80. Histamine increased interferon-γ production in GM-CSF + IL-4-cultured cells; it also enhanced IL-10 production, but suppressed IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated DCs with no DCL. Cimetidine inhibited IL-10 production and restored IL-12 secretion in LPS-treated DCs. LPS increased IL-10 and decreased IL-12 levels. GM-CSF + IL-4-generated DCs had a stronger stimulatory effect on DO11.10 T-cell proliferation than GM-CSF-generated DCs. Inducible costimulator ligand expression was higher in GM-CSF + IL-4- than in GM-CSF-generated DC groups after 2 days of coculture, but decreased 4 days later. IL-13 production was higher in bone marrow DCs generated with GM-CSF than in those generated with GM-CSF + IL-4. OVA-pulsed DCs and OVA-plus-DCL DCs showed increased IL-12 levels. OVA plus LPS increased both IL-10 and interferon-α. Although histamine or histamine receptor-1 antagonists did not influence DC LPS

  18. Identification of opioid ligands possessing mixed micro agonist/delta antagonist activity among pyridomorphinans derived from naloxone, oxymorphone, and hydromorphone [correction of hydropmorphone].

    PubMed

    Ananthan, Subramaniam; Khare, Naveen K; Saini, Surendra K; Seitz, Lainne E; Bartlett, Jeffrey L; Davis, Peg; Dersch, Christina M; Porreca, Frank; Rothman, Richard B; Bilsky, Edward J

    2004-03-11

    A series of pyridomorphinans derived from naloxone, oxymorphone, and hydromorphone (7a-k) were synthesized and evaluated for binding affinity at the opioid delta, micro, and kappa receptors in brain membranes using radioligand binding assays and for functional activity in vitro using [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding assays in brain tissues and bioassays using guinea pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) smooth muscle preparations. The pyridine ring unsubstituted pyridomorphinans possessing the oxymorphone and hydromorphone framework displayed nearly equal binding affinity at the micro and delta receptors. Their affinities at the kappa site were nearly 10-fold less than their binding affinities at the micro and delta sites. Introduction of aryl substituents at the 5'-position on the pyridine ring improved the binding affinity at the delta site while decreasing the binding affinity at the micro site. Nearly all of the ligands possessing an N-methyl group at the17-position with or without a hydroxyl group at the 14-position of the morphinan moiety displayed agonist activity at the micro receptor with varying potencies and efficacies. In the [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding assays, most of these pyridomorphinans were devoid of any significant agonist activity at the delta and kappa receptors but displayed moderate to potent antagonist activity at the delta receptors. In antinociceptive evaluations using the warm-water tail-withdrawal assay in mice, the pyridomorphinans produced analgesic effects with varying potencies and efficacies when administered by the intracerebroventricular route. Among the ligands studied, the hydromorphone-derived 4-chlorophenylpyridomorphinan 7h was identified as a ligand possessing a promising profile of mixed micro agonist/delta antagonist activity in vitro and in vivo. In a repeated administration paradigm in which the standard micro agonist morphine produces significant tolerance, repeated administration of the micro agonist/delta antagonist

  19. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F.; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  20. Synthesis of a potent and selective (18)F-labeled delta-opioid receptor antagonist derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore for positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Wu, Zhanhong; Chen, Kai; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Marczak, Ewa D; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Salvadori, Severo; Ren, Chuancheng; Zhao, Heng; Balboni, Gianfranco; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2008-03-27

    Identification and pharmacological characterization of two new selective delta-opioid receptor antagonists, derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, of potential utility in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are described. On the basis of its high delta selectivity, H-Dmt-Tic--Lys(Z)-OH (reference compound 1) is a useful starting point for the synthesis of (18)F-labeled compounds prepared by the coupling of N-succinimidyl 4-[ (18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) with Boc-Dmt-Tic--Lys(Z)-OH under slightly basic conditions at 37 degrees C for 15 min, deprotection with TFA, and HPLC purification. The total synthesis time was 120 min, and the decay-corrected radiochemical yield of [(18)F]- 1 was about 25-30% ( n = 5) starting from [(18)F]SFB ( n = 5) with an effective specific activity about 46 GBq/micromol. In vitro autoradiography studies showed prominent uptake of [ (18)F]- 1 in the striatum and cortex with significant blocking by 1 and UFP-501 (selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist), suggesting high specific binding of [(18)F]- 1 to delta-opioid receptors. Noninvasive microPET imaging studies revealed the absence of [(18)F]- 1 in rat brain, since it fails to cross the blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrates the suitability of [ (18)F]- 1 for imaging peripheral delta-opioid receptors.

  1. 6β-N-heterocyclic substituted naltrexamine derivative NAP as a potential lead to develop peripheral mu opioid receptor selective antagonists.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yunyun; Stevens, David L; Braithwaite, Amanda; Scoggins, Krista L; Bilsky, Edward J; Akbarali, Hamid I; Dewey, William L; Zhang, Yan

    2012-07-15

    A 6β-N-heterocyclic substituted naltrexamine derivative, NAP, was proposed as a peripheral mu opioid receptor (MOR) selective antagonist based on the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies. To further validate this notion, several functional assays were carried out to fully characterize this compound. In the charcoal gavage and intestinal motility assay in morphine-pelleted mice, when administered 0.3 mg/kg or higher doses up to 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, NAP significantly increased the intestinal motility compared to the saline treatment. The comparative opioid withdrawal precipitation study and the lower locomotor assay demonstrated that NAP showed only marginal intrinsic effect in the central nervous system either given subcutaneously or intravenously: no jumps were witnessed for the tested animals even given up to a dose of 50 mg/kg, while similar noticeable wet-dog shakes only occurred at the dose 50 times of those for naloxone or naltrexone, and significant reduction of the hyper-locomotion only happened at the dose as high as 32 mg/kg. Collectively, these results suggested that NAP may serve as a novel lead to develop peripheral MOR selective antagonist which might possess therapeutic potential for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD), such as opioid-induced constipation (OIC).

  2. X-ray Crystallography, DFT Calculations and Molecular Docking of Indole-Arylpiperazine Derivatives as α1A-Adrenoceptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Jun-Jun; Shao, Bin-Hao; Xu, Xing-Jie; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yuan, Mu

    2015-10-30

    Indole-arylpiperazine derivatives have exhibited good selectivity for the α1A-adrenoceptor, but the structure-activity-binding mechanism relationship remains unclear. In the current study, three compounds (1, 2 and 3) were investigated through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular docking using a homology model of the α1A receptor. Compounds 1 and 3 form H-bonds networks to stabilize their three-dimensional structures, while C-H···π interactions play a significant role in the packing of 2. Based on DFT-optimized conformations, the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were theoretically calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) level of theory. Chemical reactivity increases in the order of 3 < 2 < 1, and the maximum positive region of the MEP maps is mainly localized over the NH group. The binding mechanisms of ligand-α1A-adrenoceptor complexes were illustrated by molecular docking. Binding to Gln177 of the second extracellular loop region via hydrogen bonds is likely to be essential for α1A-selective antagonists. The present work sheds light on the studies of structure-activity-binding mechanism and aids in the design of α1A antagonists with high selectivity.

  3. Phosphatase Inhibitors Function as Novel, Broad Spectrum Botulinum Neurotoxin Antagonists in Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neuron-Based Assays.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Nuss, Jonathan E; Stanford, Stephanie M; Wanner, Laura M; Cazares, Lisa; Maestre, Michael F; Du, Hao T; Gomba, Glenn Y; Burnett, James C; Gussio, Rick; Bottini, Nunzio; Panchal, Rekha G; Kane, Christopher D; Tessarollo, Lino; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop novel treatments to counter Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) poisoning. Currently, the majority of BoNT drug development efforts focus on directly inhibiting the proteolytic components of BoNT, i.e. light chains (LC). Although this is a rational approach, previous research has shown that LCs are extremely difficult drug targets and that inhibiting multi-serotype BoNTs with a single LC inhibitor may not be feasible. An alternative approach would target neuronal pathways involved in intoxication/recovery, rather than the LC itself. Phosphorylation-related mechanisms have been implicated in the intoxication pathway(s) of BoNTs. However, the effects of phosphatase inhibitors upon BoNT activity in the physiological target of BoNTs, i.e. motor neurons, have not been investigated. In this study, a small library of phosphatase inhibitors was screened for BoNT antagonism in the context of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ES-MNs). Four inhibitors were found to function as BoNT/A antagonists. Subsequently, we confirmed that these inhibitors protect against BoNT/A in a dose-dependent manner in human ES-MNs. Additionally, these compounds provide protection when administered in post-intoxication scenario. Importantly, the inhibitors were also effective against BoNT serotypes B and E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing phosphatase inhibitors as broad-spectrum BoNT antagonists.

  4. New nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists. 2. Synthesis, biological properties, and structure-activity relationships of 2-alkyl-4-(biphenylylmethoxy)quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, R H; Allott, C P; Dennis, M; Fisher, E; Major, J S; Masek, B B; Oldham, A A; Pearce, R J; Rankine, N; Revill, J M

    1992-10-30

    A novel series of nonpeptidic angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists is reported, derived from linkage of the biphenylcarboxylic acid or biphenylyltetrazole moiety found in previously described antagonists via a methyleneoxy chain to the 4-position of a 2-alkyl quinoline. When evaluated in an in vitro binding assay using a guinea pig adrenal membrane preparation, compounds in this series generally gave IC50 values in the range 0.01-1 microM. Structure-activity studies showed the quinoline nitrogen atom and a short alkyl chain at the quinoline 2-position to be essential for receptor binding. On intravenous administration in a normotensive rat model, the more potent compounds inhibited the AII-induced pressor response with ED50 values in the range 0.1-2.0 mg/kg. One of the compounds, 2-ethyl-4-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methoxy]quinoline (5g), demonstrated good oral activity in two rat models. At doses in the range 1-10 mg/kg in AII-infused, normotensive rats, the compound exhibited a dose-related inhibition of the pressor response with a good duration of action at the higher doses. In a renal hypertensive rat model, compound 5g showed a rapid and sustained lowering of blood pressure at a dose of 5 mg/kg. On the basis of its profile, this compound, designated ICI D8731, has been selected for clinical evaluation.

  5. Conformationally constrained NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists derived from ifenprodil: Synthesis and biological evaluation of tetrahydro-3-benzazepine-1,7-diols.

    PubMed

    Tewes, Bastian; Frehland, Bastian; Schepmann, Dirk; Schmidtke, Kai-Uwe; Winckler, Thomas; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-11-15

    NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists with tetrahydro-3-benzazepine-1,7-diol scaffold have been designed by formal cleavage and reconstitution of the piperidine ring of the lead compound ifenprodil (1). The secondary amine 10 represents the central building block for the synthesis of more than 25 tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-1-ols. Generally 7-hydroxy derivatives display higher NR2B receptor affinities than the corresponding 7-benzyloxy compounds. A distance of four atoms (five bond lengths) between the basic amino group and the terminal aryl moiety led to highest NR2B affinity. 3-(4-Phenylbutyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine-1,7-diol (WMS-1410, 25) represents the most promising NR2B antagonist of this series showing a K(i)-value of 14nM. Compound 25 reveals excellent selectivity over more than 100 further relevant target proteins, antagonizes glutamate induced excitotoxicity (IC(50)=18.4nM) and is metabolically more stable than ifenprodil. Up to a dose of 100mg/kg 25 is well tolerated by mice and it shows dose dependent analgesic activity in the late neuropathic pain phase of the formalin assay.

  6. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonists Containing S-aryl/alkyl Norcysteines and their Oxidized Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Manoj P.; White, Richard; Hong, Doley J.; Croston, Glenn; Conn, P. Michael; Janovick, Jo Ann; Rivier, Jean

    2008-01-01

    A series of acyline analogues incorporating l- and d- isomers of S-arylated/alkylated norcysteines [Ncy(R), where R is 2-naphthyl, methyl and isopropyl] at positions 1, 4, 7 and 10 were synthesized. Some of these analogues were mono- and di-oxidized to sulfoxides and sulfones. All of the analogues of acyline were screened for the antagonism of GnRH-induced response in a reporter gene assay in HEK-293 cells expressing the human GnRH receptor. Nine of the analogues (9, 11, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, and 22) had an antagonist potency (IC50 < 2 nM) similar to that of acyline (IC50 = 0.52 nM) in this assay. Selected analogues (9, 11, 15, 16, 19 and 21) were tested in vitro for their antagonism at the rat GnRH-R in a reporter gene assay as well as in an in vivo intact male rat assay. Analogues 9 and 15 were most potent in suppressing testosterone levels. PMID:17402723

  7. Kisspeptin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roseweir, Antonia Kathryn; Millar, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is now known to be an important regulator of the hypothalamic--pituitary-gonadal axis and is the target of a range of regulators, such as steroid hormone feedback, nutritional and metabolic regulation. Kisspeptin binds to its cognate receptor, KISS1R (also called GPR54), on GnRH neurons and stimulates their activity, which in turn provides an obligatory signal for GnRH secretion-thus gating down-stream events supporting reproduction. The development of peripherally active kisspeptin antagonists could offer a unique therapeutic agent for treating hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction, including precocious puberty, endometriosis, and metastatic prostate cancer. The following chapter discusses the advances made in the search for both peptide and small molecule kisspeptin antagonists and their use in delineating the role of kisspeptin within the reproductive system. To date, four peptide antagonists and one small molecule antagonist have been designed.

  8. New substituted 1-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[1, 4]dioxin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl derivatives with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P; Brunel, P; Chaplain, C; Piedecoq, C; Calmel, F; Schambel, P; Chopin, P; Wurch, T; Pauwels, P J; Marien, M; Vidaluc, J L; Imbert, T

    2000-10-05

    The emergence of a novel theory concerning the role of noradrenaline in the progression and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has provided a new impetus toward the discovery of novel compounds acting at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. A series of substituted 1-(2, 3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl derivatives bearing an amide, urea, or imidazolidinone moiety was studied. Some members of this series of compounds proved to be potent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists with good selectivity versus alpha(1)-adrenergic and D(2)-dopamine receptors. Particular emphasis is given to compound 33g which displays potent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor binding affinity in vitro and central effects in vivo following oral administration.

  9. QSAR models for predicting the activity of non-peptide luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists derived from erythromycin A using quantum chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Michael; Caballero, Julio

    2007-04-01

    Multiple linear regression (MLR) combined with genetic algorithm (GA) and Bayesian-regularized Genetic Neural Networks (BRGNNs) were used to model the binding affinity (pK(I)) of 38 11,12-cyclic carbamate derivatives of 6-O-methylerythromycin A for the Human Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) receptor using quantum chemical descriptors. A multiparametric MLR equation with good statistical quality was obtained that describes the features relevant for antagonistic activity when the substituent at the position 3 of the erythronolide core was varied. In addition, four-descriptor linear and nonlinear models were established for the whole dataset. Such models showed high statistical quality. However, the BRGNN model was better than the linear model according to the external validation process. In general, our linear and nonlinear models reveal that the binding affinity of the compounds studied for the LHRH receptor is modulated by electron-related terms.

  10. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of new carbonyl guanidine derivatives as novel dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Moritomo, Ayako; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Itahana, Hirotsune; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Okada, Minoru; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2013-12-15

    To identify potent dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists, we synthesized a series of novel carbonyl guanidine derivatives and examined their structure-activity relationships. Among these compounds, N-(9-hydroxy-9H-fluorene-2-carbonyl)guanidine (10) had a good in vitro profile, that is, potent affinity for human 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes (Ki=1.8 nM and Ki=17.6 nM, respectively) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, α1, D2 and M1 receptors. Compound 10 also showed a suppressing effect on 5-HT-induced dural protein extravasation in guinea pigs when orally administered.

  11. Amide derivatives of ethacrynic acid: synthesis and evaluation as antagonists of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and CLL cell survival.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangyi; Lu, Desheng; Yao, Shiyin; Wu, Christina C N; Liu, Jerry X; Carson, Dennis A; Cottam, Howard B

    2009-02-01

    A series of amides of ethacrynic acid was prepared and evaluated for their ability to inhibit Wnt signaling and decrease the survival of CLL cells. Several of the most potent derivatives were active in the low micromolar range. Reduction of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbon-carbon double bond of EA abrogated both the inhibition of Wnt signaling as well as the decrease in CLL survival. Preliminary mechanism of action studies suggest that these derivatives covalently modify sulfhydryl groups present on transcription factors important for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

  12. Receptor-directed inhibition of chemotactic factor-induced neutrophil hyperactivity by pyrazolon derivatives. Definition of a chemotactic peptide antagonist.

    PubMed

    Dahinden, C; Fehr, J

    1980-11-01

    The two pyrazolon derivatives, phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone, selectively inhibit chemotactic peptide-induced effects on neutrophils. As they antagonize the induction of acute neutropenia in vivo and of cellular hyperadhesiveness, lysosomal enzyme release, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and superoxide production in vitro, these effects occur with a specificity not shared with other prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition by these drugs resembles the competitive type of antagonism and occurs at concentrations attainable in vivo under clinical conditions. The locomotory machinery, the direction-finding mechanisms, and the basic metabolic machinery of the cell are unaffected. These drugs interfere with specific binding of the formylpeptide to its receptor on neutrophils.

  13. Receptor-directed inhibition of chemotactic factor-induced neutrophil hyperactivity by pyrazolon derivatives. Definition of a chemotactic peptide antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Dahinden, C; Fehr, J

    1980-01-01

    The two pyrazolon derivatives, phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone, selectively inhibit chemotactic peptide-induced effects on neutrophils. As they antagonize the induction of acute neutropenia in vivo and of cellular hyperadhesiveness, lysosomal enzyme release, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and superoxide production in vitro, these effects occur with a specificity not shared with other prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition by these drugs resembles the competitive type of antagonism and occurs at concentrations attainable in vivo under clinical conditions. The locomotory machinery, the direction-finding mechanisms, and the basic metabolic machinery of the cell are unaffected. These drugs interfere with specific binding of the formylpeptide to its receptor on neutrophils. PMID:7430350

  14. Phosphatase Inhibitors Function as Novel, Broad Spectrum Botulinum Neurotoxin Antagonists in Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neuron-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kiris, Erkan; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Stanford, Stephanie M.; Wanner, Laura M.; Cazares, Lisa; Maestre, Michael F.; Du, Hao T.; Gomba, Glenn Y.; Burnett, James C.; Gussio, Rick; Bottini, Nunzio; Panchal, Rekha G.; Kane, Christopher D.; Tessarollo, Lino; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop novel treatments to counter Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) poisoning. Currently, the majority of BoNT drug development efforts focus on directly inhibiting the proteolytic components of BoNT, i.e. light chains (LC). Although this is a rational approach, previous research has shown that LCs are extremely difficult drug targets and that inhibiting multi-serotype BoNTs with a single LC inhibitor may not be feasible. An alternative approach would target neuronal pathways involved in intoxication/recovery, rather than the LC itself. Phosphorylation-related mechanisms have been implicated in the intoxication pathway(s) of BoNTs. However, the effects of phosphatase inhibitors upon BoNT activity in the physiological target of BoNTs, i.e. motor neurons, have not been investigated. In this study, a small library of phosphatase inhibitors was screened for BoNT antagonism in the context of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ES-MNs). Four inhibitors were found to function as BoNT/A antagonists. Subsequently, we confirmed that these inhibitors protect against BoNT/A in a dose-dependent manner in human ES-MNs. Additionally, these compounds provide protection when administered in post-intoxication scenario. Importantly, the inhibitors were also effective against BoNT serotypes B and E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing phosphatase inhibitors as broad-spectrum BoNT antagonists. PMID:26061731

  15. Structure-Affinity Relationships and Structure-Kinetics Relationships of Pyrido[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione Derivatives as Human Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lizi; Burger, Wessel A C; van Veldhoven, Jacobus P D; Kuiper, Boaz J; van Duijl, Tirsa T; Lenselink, Eelke B; Paasman, Ellen; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2017-09-14

    We expanded on a series of pyrido[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione derivatives as human adenosine A3 receptor (hA3R) antagonists to determine their kinetic profiles and affinities. Many compounds showed high affinities and a diverse range of kinetic profiles. We found hA3R antagonists with very short residence time (RT) at the receptor (2.2 min for 5) and much longer RTs (e.g., 376 min for 27 or 391 min for 31). Two representative antagonists (5 and 27) were tested in [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays, and their RTs appeared correlated to their (in)surmountable antagonism. From a kon-koff-KD kinetic map, we divided the antagonists into three subgroups, providing a possible direction for the further development of hA3R antagonists. Additionally, we performed a computational modeling study that sheds light on the crucial receptor interactions, dictating the compounds' binding kinetics. Knowledge of target binding kinetics appears useful for developing and triaging new hA3R antagonists in the early phase of drug discovery.

  16. 1,4-Dihydropyridine derivatives without Ca2+-antagonist activity up-regulate Psma6 mRNA expression in kidneys of intact and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ošiņa, Kristīne; Rostoka, Evita; Sokolovska, Jelizaveta; Paramonova, Natalia; Bisenieks, Egils; Duburs, Gunars; Sjakste, Nikolajs; Sjakste, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Impaired degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is observed in numerous pathologies including diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Dysregulation of proteasomal degradation might be because of altered expression of genes and proteins involved in the UPS. The search for novel compounds able to normalize expression of the UPS appears to be a topical problem. A novel group of 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) derivatives lacking Ca2+-antagonists activities, but capable to produce antidiabetic, antioxidant and DNA repair enhancing effects, were tested for ability to modify Psma6 mRNA expression levels in rat kidneys and blood in healthy animals and in rats with streptozotocin (STZ) induced DM. Psma6 gene was chosen for the study, as polymorphisms of its human analogue are associated with DM and cardiovascular diseases. 1,4-DHP derivatives (metcarbatone, etcarbatone, glutapyrone, J-9-125 and AV-153-Na) were administered per os for three days (0.05 mg/kg and/or 0.5 mg/kg). Psma6 gene expression levels were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Psma6 expression was higher in kidneys compared to blood. Induction of diabetes caused increase of Psma6 expression in kidneys, although it was not changed in blood. Several 1,4-DHP derivatives increased expression of the gene both in kidneys and blood of control and model animals, but greater impact was observed in kidneys. The observed effect might reflect coupling of antioxidant and proteolysis-promoting activities of the compounds.

  17. Triazolopyrimidine (trapidil), a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, inhibits parathyroid bone disease in an animal model for chronic hyperparathyroidism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Sibonga, Jean D.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    Parathyroid bone disease in humans is caused by chronic hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Continuous infusion of PTH into rats results in histological changes similar to parathyroid bone disease, including increased bone formation, focal bone resorption, and severe peritrabecular fibrosis, whereas pulsatile PTH increases bone formation without skeletal abnormalities. Using a cDNA microarray with over 5000 genes, we identified an association between increased platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) signaling and PTH-induced bone disease in rats. Verification of PDGF-A overexpression was accomplished with a ribonuclease protection assay. Using immunohistochemistry, PDGF-A peptide was localized to mast cells in PTH-treated rats. We also report a novel strategy for prevention of parathyroid bone disease using triazolopyrimidine (trapidil). Trapidil, an inhibitor of PDGF signaling, did not have any effect on indexes of bone turnover in normal rats. However, dramatic reductions in marrow fibrosis and bone resorption, but not bone formation, were observed in PTH-treated rats given trapidil. Also, trapidil antagonized the PTH-induced increases in mRNA levels for PDGF-A. These results suggest that PDGF signaling is important for the detrimental skeletal effects of HPT, and drugs that target the cytokine or its receptor might be useful in reducing or preventing parathyroid bone disease.

  18. Triazolopyrimidine (trapidil), a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, inhibits parathyroid bone disease in an animal model for chronic hyperparathyroidism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Sibonga, Jean D.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    Parathyroid bone disease in humans is caused by chronic hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Continuous infusion of PTH into rats results in histological changes similar to parathyroid bone disease, including increased bone formation, focal bone resorption, and severe peritrabecular fibrosis, whereas pulsatile PTH increases bone formation without skeletal abnormalities. Using a cDNA microarray with over 5000 genes, we identified an association between increased platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) signaling and PTH-induced bone disease in rats. Verification of PDGF-A overexpression was accomplished with a ribonuclease protection assay. Using immunohistochemistry, PDGF-A peptide was localized to mast cells in PTH-treated rats. We also report a novel strategy for prevention of parathyroid bone disease using triazolopyrimidine (trapidil). Trapidil, an inhibitor of PDGF signaling, did not have any effect on indexes of bone turnover in normal rats. However, dramatic reductions in marrow fibrosis and bone resorption, but not bone formation, were observed in PTH-treated rats given trapidil. Also, trapidil antagonized the PTH-induced increases in mRNA levels for PDGF-A. These results suggest that PDGF signaling is important for the detrimental skeletal effects of HPT, and drugs that target the cytokine or its receptor might be useful in reducing or preventing parathyroid bone disease.

  19. Effects of Filovirus Interferon Antagonists on Responses of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells to RNA Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are major targets of filovirus infection in vivo. Previous studies have shown that the filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) suppress DC maturation in vitro. Both viruses also encode innate immune evasion functions. The EBOV VP35 (eVP35) and the MARV VP35 (mVP35) proteins each can block RIG-I-like receptor signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) production. The EBOV VP24 (eVP24) and MARV VP40 (mVP40) proteins each inhibit the production of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) by blocking Jak-STAT signaling; however, this occurs by different mechanisms, with eVP24 blocking nuclear import of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and mVP40 blocking Jak1 function. MARV VP24 (mVP24) has been demonstrated to modulate host cell antioxidant responses. Previous studies demonstrated that eVP35 is sufficient to strongly impair primary human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) responses upon stimulation induced through the RIG-I-like receptor pathways. We demonstrate that mVP35, like eVP35, suppresses not only IFN-α/β production but also proinflammatory responses after stimulation of MDDCs with RIG-I activators. In contrast, eVP24 and mVP40, despite suppressing ISG production upon RIG-I activation, failed to block upregulation of maturation markers or T cell activation. mVP24, although able to stimulate expression of antioxidant response genes, had no measurable impact of DC function. These data are consistent with a model where filoviral VP35 proteins are the major suppressors of DC maturation during filovirus infection, whereas the filoviral VP24 proteins and mVP40 are insufficient to prevent DC maturation. IMPORTANCE The ability to suppress the function of dendritic cells (DCs) likely contributes to the pathogenesis of disease caused by the filoviruses Ebola virus and Marburg virus. To clarify the basis for this DC suppression, we assessed the effect of filovirus proteins known to antagonize innate immune signaling pathways, including Ebola

  20. A Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Imidazole-5-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives as Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists Combining 2D and 3D QSAR Methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh C

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed for correlating the chemical composition of imidazole-5-carboxylic acid analogs and their angiotensin II [Formula: see text] receptor antagonist activity using partial least squares and k-nearest neighbor, respectively. For comparing the three different feature selection methods of 2D-QSAR, k-nearest neighbor models were used in conjunction with simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm and stepwise coupled with partial least square (PLS) showed variation in biological activity. The statistically significant best 2D-QSAR model having good predictive ability with statistical values of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was developed by SA-partial least square with the descriptors like [Formula: see text]count, 5Chain count, SdsCHE-index, and H-acceptor count, showing that increase in the values of these descriptors is beneficial to the activity. The 3D-QSAR studies were performed using the SA-PLS. A leave-one-out cross-validated correlation coefficient [Formula: see text] and predicate activity [Formula: see text] = 0.7226 were obtained. The information rendered by QSAR models may lead to a better understanding of structural requirements of substituted imidazole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives and also aid in designing novel potent antihypertensive molecules.

  1. Design and synthesis of 6-fluoro-2-naphthyl derivatives as novel CCR3 antagonists with reduced CYP2D6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ippei; Morihira, Koichiro; Inami, Hiroshi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Suzuki, Keiko; Iura, Yosuke; Nitta, Aiko; Imaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiya; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-Ichi

    2008-09-15

    In our previous study on discovering novel types of CCR3 antagonists, we found a fluoronaphthalene derivative (1) that exhibited potent CCR3 inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 20 nM. However, compound 1 also inhibited human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) with an IC(50) value of 400 nM. In order to reduce its CYP2D6 inhibitory activity, we performed further systematic structural modifications on 1. In particular, we focused on reducing the number of lipophilic moieties in the biphenyl part of 1, using ClogD(7.4) values as the reference index of lipophilicity. This research led to the identification of N-{(3-exo)-8-[(6-fluoro-2-naphthyl)methyl]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl}-3-(piperidin-1-ylcarbonyl)isonicotinamide 1-oxide (30) which showed comparable CCR3 inhibitory activity (IC(50)=23 nM) with much reduced CYP2D6 inhibitory activity (IC(50)=29,000 nM) compared with 1.

  2. Trapidil, a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, inhibits osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NFATc1 and suppresses bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Don; Kim, Ha-Neui; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jin, Won Jong; Hwang, Soon Jung; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2013-09-15

    Trapidil, a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, was originally developed as a vasodilator and anti-platelet agent and has been used to treat patients with ischemic coronary heart, liver, and kidney disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of trapidil on osteoclastogenesis and elucidated the possible mechanism of action of trapidil. Trapidil strongly inhibited osteoclast formation in co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts without affecting receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin expression in osteoblasts. In addition, trapidil suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation from osteoclast precursors. Trapidil reduced RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis, without affecting the expression of c-Fos that functions as a key upstream activator of NFATc1 during osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 reversed the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of trapidil, indicating that NFATc1 is a critical target of the anti-osteoclastogenic action of trapidil. RANKL-induced calcium oscillation and Pim-1 expression, which are required for NFATc1 induction and osteoclastogenesis, were abrogated by trapidil. Consistent with the in vitro results, trapidil had a potent inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation and bone resorption induced by interleukin-1 in an animal model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that trapidil abrogates RANKL-induced calcium oscillation and Pim-1 expression required for NFATc1 induction, thereby inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  3. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship CoMSIA/CoMFA and LeapFrog studies on novel series of bicyclo [4.1.0] heptanes derivatives as melanin-concentrating hormone receptor R1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bayuelo, Alejandro; Ayazo, Hernan; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed on a series of bicyclo [4.1.0] heptanes derivatives as melanin-concentrating hormone receptor R1 antagonists (MCHR1 antagonists). Molecular superimposition of antagonists on the template structure was performed by database alignment method. The statistically significant model was established on sixty five molecules, which were validated by a test set of ten molecules. The CoMSIA model yielded the best predictive model with a q(2) = 0.639, non cross-validated R(2) of 0.953, F value of 92.802, bootstrapped R(2) of 0.971, standard error of prediction = 0.402, and standard error of estimate = 0.146 while the CoMFA model yielded a q(2) = 0.680, non cross-validated R(2) of 0.922, F value of 114.351, bootstrapped R(2) of 0.925, standard error of prediction = 0.364, and standard error of estimate = 0.180. CoMFA analysis maps were employed for generating a pseudo cavity for LeapFrog calculation. The contour maps obtained from 3D-QSAR studies were appraised for activity trends for the molecules analyzed. The results show the variability of steric and electrostatic contributions that determine the activity of the MCHR1 antagonist, with these results we proposed new antagonists that may be more potent than previously reported, these novel antagonists were designed from the addition of highly electronegative groups in the substituent di(i-C(3)H(7))N- of the bicycle [4.1.0] heptanes, using the model CoMFA which also was used for the molecular design using the technique LeapFrog. The data generated from the present study will further help to design novel, potent, and selective MCHR1 antagonists.

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as Potent Smoothened Antagonists with in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenfeng; Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Haikuo; Zheng, Jiyue; Tian, Sheng; Sun, Zhijian; Luo, Lusong; Li, Jiajun; Zhang, Hongjian; Yang, Zeng-Jie; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2017-09-20

    Medulloblastoma is one of the most prevalent brain tumors in children. Aberrant hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling is thought to be involved in the initiation and development of medulloblastoma. Vismodegib, the first FDA-approved cancer therapy based on inhibition of aberrant hedgehog signaling, targets smoothened (Smo), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) central to the Hh pathway. Although vismodegib exhibits promising therapeutic efficacy in tumor treatment, concerns have been raised from its nonlinear pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles at high doses partly due to low aqueous solubility. Many patients experience adverse events such as muscle spasms and weight loss. In addition, drug resistance often arises among tumor cells during treatment with vismodegib. There is clearly an urgent need to explore novel Smo antagonists with improved potency and efficacy. Through a scaffold hopping strategy, we have identified a series of novel tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives, which exhibited effective inhibition of Hh signaling. Among them, compound 24 is three times more potent than vismodegib in the NIH3T3-GRE-Luc reporter gene assay. Compound 24 has a lower melting point and much greater solubility compared with vismodegib, resulting in linear PK profiles when dosed orally at 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg in rats. Furthermore, compound 24 showed excellent PK profiles with a 72% oral bioavailability in beagle dogs. Compound 24 demonstrated overall favorable in vitro safety profiles with respect to CYP isoform and hERG inhibition. Finally, compound 24 led to significant regression of subcutaneous tumor generated by primary Ptch1-deficient medulloblastoma cells in SCID mouse. In conclusion, tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives represent a novel set of Smo inhibitors that could potentially be utilized to treat medulloblastoma and other Hh pathway related malignancies.

  5. Articular inflammation is controlled by myeloid cell-derived interleukin 1 receptor antagonist during the acute phase of arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lamacchia, Céline; Rodriguez, Emiliana; Palmer, Gaby; Vigne, Solenne; Martin, Praxedis; Talabot-Ayer, Dominique; Seemayer, Christian A; Gabay, Cem

    2012-02-01

    To define the cell type (myeloid vs other cells) specific effect of interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) deficiency on the acute inflammatory phase of arthritis. Arthritis was induced by K/BxN serum transfer in wild-type (WT), IL-1Ra-deficient (IL-1Ra(-/-)) and conditional knockout mice. In the latter, IL-1Ra production was specifically targeted in myeloid cells (IL-1Ra(ΔM)) or in both hepatocytes and myeloid cells (IL-1Ra(ΔH+M)). Arthritis severity was clinically evaluated and ankle sections were scored for synovial inflammation and cartilage erosion. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses measured expression, localisation and cellular sources of the different IL-1Ra isoforms in arthritic joints. Total and myeloid cell-specific IL-1Ra deficiency was associated with increased arthritis severity, although disease incidence was similar to that of WT mice. Increased clinical scores were associated with exacerbated synovial inflammation. All IL-1Ra isoforms, except for intracellular (ic)IL-1Ra2, were expressed in arthritic joints of WT mice. In contrast, production of secreted (s)IL-1Ra and icIL-1Ra3 isoforms was markedly decreased in arthritic joints of both IL-1Ra(ΔM) and IL-1Ra(ΔH+M) mice. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses suggested that the icIL-1Ra1 isoform is produced primarily by synovial fibroblasts. Myeloid cell-derived IL-1Ra, including both sIL-1Ra and icIL-1Ra3 isoforms, controls articular inflammation during the acute phase of K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis.

  6. International normalized ratio monitoring of vitamin K antagonist therapy: comparative performance of point-of-care and laboratory-derived testing.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Roslyn; Mohammed, Soma; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring of warfarin therapy using the international normalized ratio (INR) has now moved outside the laboratory's control by use of point-of-care (POC) devices. Although this provides patients with the convenience of immediate results and clinical assessment, POC-INRs are often performed by nonlaboratory staff with little experience in quality control. The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPAQAP) Haematology has devised a POC-INR external quality assessment (EQA) program that is suitable for both laboratory and nonlaboratory operators (e.g., nurses) to perform INR testing with good accuracy and precision. A comparison of the performance of the POC versus the laboratory-derived INR testing over the past 8 years has shown that the variation in test results (expressed as coefficient of variation; CV) for laboratory INRs increases with more prolonged INR values, whereas CVs for the POC-INR testing were generally lower, with a reduced dependency on INR values. In our program, the CoaguChek XS (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) showed the best performance among the POC devices. A comparative assessment with other EQA providers showed agreement and disparity with our data in terms of comparative CVs obtained between the laboratory and POC-INRs. The growth of the RCPAQAP POC-INR program from 29 to 360 in the past 12 years highlights the importance of providing suitable EQA for POC-INR staff who are unfamiliar with laboratory practice. This helps maintaining consistent results, which have important implications for the therapeutic management of patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Inhibition of mediator release in RBL-2H3 cells by some H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs: relation to lipophilicity and membrane effects.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M J; Paulussen, J J; Horbach, D A; Roelofsen, E P; van Miltenburg, J C; de Mol, N J; Janssen, L H

    1995-02-01

    In a model for mucosal mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) a set H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs containing a diphenylmethyl piperazinyl moiety was examined for their ability to inhibit release of the mediator beta-hexosaminidase. Cells were activated with antigen or the calcium ionophore A23187, whether or not in combination with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Oxatomide, hydroxyzine and cetirizine inhibit the antigen induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The release triggered by A23187, whether or not in combination with TPA is hardly influenced by the compounds. A biphasic dependence of the inhibition of exocytosis in RBL cells on lipophilicity is observed with the optimum at log P is 5-6. The extremely lipophilic compounds meclozine and buclizine are not active in this model. pH dependence of the effect of the drugs shows that especially the uncharged species are active in inhibiting exocytosis. The investigated compounds show an effect on phase transitions in L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl liposomes as assayed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the less extremely lipophilic compounds the induced changes in the phospholipid membranes increased with lipophilicity. The relation between structural features of the drug and the interaction with phospholipids is discussed in view of the DSC results. We conclude that location of the active drugs at the membrane or the membrane/protein interface is important for the inhibiting activity on exocytosis. This could affect several membrane related processes, which are abundant in the early phases of the IgE-mediated signal transduction process.

  8. Characterization of potential NMDA and cholecystokinin antagonists. II. Lipophilicity studies on 2-methyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazoline-3-alkyl-carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Almási, J; Takács-Novák, K; Kökösi, J; Vámos, J

    1999-03-25

    The lipophilicity of 17 newly synthesized potential NMDA and cholecystokinin antagonist 2-methyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazoline-3-alkyl-carboxylic acid derivatives has been investigated. The apparent partition coefficients of two amphoteric compounds of overlapping protonation (Q1 and Q2) were determined by shake-flask method and converted into true log P values using the protonation microconstants. The difference between their lipophilicity expressed with the true partition coefficients was less, than it could be expected from the 2D structures and was explained with conformational preferences and formation of intramolecular interactions. Out of the other 15 monoprotic quinazolone compounds the lipophilicity of ten molecules (Q8-Q17, experimental set) was determined by TLC method with the help of a calibration set consisting of 12 standard molecules, five quinazolones (Q3-Q7) and seven pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidines (PP1-PP7). In order to justify the suitability of pyrido-pyrimidines as standards for the chromatographic log P determination of quinazolones, first Q3-Q7 were examined by TLC and HPLC using PP1-PP7 for calibration. Data showed good agreement of results obtained by shake-flask and two different chromatographic methods indicating the similar chromatographic behavior of the two bicyclic systems and the relevance of PP1-PP7 to extend the calibration set of quinazolones. The obtained log P values proved mostly the expected structure-activity relationships. Some findings, however, have revealed specific partition behavior of the compounds providing useful information in the estimation of their pharmacokinetics, and these are discussed in the paper.

  9. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-{1-[(6-fluoro-2-naphthyl)methyl]piperidin-4-yl}benzamide derivatives as novel CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ippei; Morihira, Koichiro; Inami, Hiroshi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Suzuki, Keiko; Hamada, Noritaka; Iura, Yosuke; Nitta, Aiko; Imaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiya; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    A novel class of potent CCR3 receptor antagonists were designed and synthesized starting from N-{1-[(6-fluoro-2-naphthyl)methyl]piperidin-4-yl}benzamide (1),which was found by subjecting our chemical library to high throughput screening (HTS). The CCR3 inhibitory activity of the synthesized compounds against eotaxin-induced Ca(2+) influx was evaluated using CCR3-expressing preB cells. Systematic chemical modifications of 1 revealed that the 6-fluoro-2-naphthylmethyl moiety was essential for CCR3 inhibitory activity in this new series of CCR3 antagonists. Further structural modifications of the benzamide and piperidine moieties of 1 led to the identification of exo-N-{8-[(6-fluoro-2-naphthyl)methyl]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3- yl}biphenyl-2-carboxamide [corrected] (31) as a potent CCR3 antagonist with an IC(50) value of 0.020 microM.

  10. Quantitative projection of human brain penetration of the H3 antagonist PF-03654746 by integrating rat-derived brain partitioning and PET receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Chen, Laigao; Shaffer, Christopher L; Palumbo, Donna; Schmidt, Anne; Tseng, Elaine; Spracklin, Douglas K; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Labaree, David; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; McCarthy, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    1. Unbound brain drug concentration (Cb,u), a valid surrogate of interstitial fluid drug concentration (CISF), cannot be directly determined in humans, which limits accurately defining the human Cb,u:Cp,u of investigational molecules. 2. For the H3R antagonist (1R,3R)-N-ethyl-3-fluoro-3-[3-fluoro-4-(pyrrolidin-1-lmethyl)phenyl]cyclobutane-1-carboxamide (PF-03654746), we interrogated Cb,u:Cp,u in humans and nonhuman primate (NHP). 3. In rat, PF-03654746 achieved net blood-brain barrier (BBB) equilibrium (Cb,u:Cp,u of 2.11). 4. In NHP and humans, the PET receptor occupancy-based Cp,u IC50 of PF-03654746 was 0.99 nM and 0.31 nM, respectively, which were 2.1- and 7.4-fold lower than its in vitro human H3 Ki (2.3 nM). 5. In an attempt to understand this higher-than-expected potency in humans and NHP, rat-derived Cb,u:Cp,u of PF-03654746 was integrated with Cp,u IC50 to identify unbound (neuro) potency of PF-03654746, nIC50. 6. The nIC50 of PF-03654746 was 2.1 nM in NHP and 0.66 nM in human which better correlated (1.1- and 3.49-fold lower) with in vitro human H3 Ki (2.3 nM). 7. This correlation of the nIC50 and in vitro hH3 Ki suggested the translation of net BBB equilibrium of PF-03654746 from rat to NHP and humans, and confirmed the use of Cp,u as a reliable surrogate of Cb,u. 8. Thus, nIC50 quantitatively informed the human Cb,u:Cp,u of PF-03654746.

  11. Effects of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58621 on cyclooxygenase-2 expression, glial activation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor availability in a rat model of striatal neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Luisa; Greco, Anita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Pezzola, Antonella; Blum, David; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Popoli, Patrizia

    2007-05-01

    Inhibition of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) is neuroprotective in several experimental models of striatal diseases. However, the mechanisms elicited by A2AR blockade are only partially known, and critical aspects about the potential beneficial effects of A2AR antagonism in models of neurodegeneration still await elucidation. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the selective A2AR antagonist SCH 58261 in a rat model of striatal excitotoxicity obtained by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA). We found that SCH 58261 differently affected the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by QA in cortex and striatum. The antagonist enhanced COX-2 expression in cortical neurons and prevented it in striatal microglia-like cells. Similarly, SCH 58261 differently regulated astrogliosis and microglial activation in the 2 brain regions. In addition, the A2AR antagonist prevented the QA-induced increase in striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Because COX-2 activity has been linked to excitotoxic processes and because brain-derived neurotrophic factor depletion has been observed in mouse models as well as in patients with Huntington disease, we suggest that the final outcome of A2AR blockade (namely neuroprotection vs neurodegeneration) is likely to depend on the balance among its various and region-specific effects.

  12. ACTH Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  13. Structure Selectivity Relationship Studies of 17-Cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6β-[(4'-pyridyl)carboxamido]morphinan Derivatives Toward the Development of the Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yunyun; Elbegdorj, Orgil; Chen, Jianyang; Akubathini, Shashidhar K.; Beletskaya, Irina O.; Selley, Dana E.; Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor antagonists have been applied to target a variety of diseases clinically. The current study is designed to explore the structure selectivity relationship (SSR) of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6β-[(4'-pyridyl)carboxamido]morphinan (NAP), a lead compound identified as a selective mu opioid receptor antagonist based on the previous study. Among a series of NAP derivatives synthesized, compounds 6 (NMP) and 9 (NGP) maintained comparable binding affinity, selectivity and efficacy to the lead compound. Particularly, the mu opioid receptor selectivity over kappa opioid receptor of NGP was considerably enhanced compared to that of NAP. Overall, the preliminary SSR supported our original hypothesis that an alternate “address” domain may exist in the mu opioid receptor, which favours the ligands carrying a hydrogen bond acceptor and an aromatic system to selectively recognize the mu opioid receptor. PMID:21788135

  14. Structure selectivity relationship studies of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6β-[(4'-pyridyl)carboxamido]morphinan derivatives toward the development of the mu opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yunyun; Elbegdorj, Orgil; Chen, Jianyang; Akubathini, Shashidhar K; Beletskaya, Irina O; Selley, Dana E; Zhang, Yan

    2011-09-15

    Mu opioid receptor antagonists have been applied to target a variety of diseases clinically. The current study is designed to explore the structure selectivity relationship (SSR) of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6β-[(4'-pyridyl)carboxamido]morphinan (NAP), a lead compound identified as a selective mu opioid receptor antagonist based on the previous study. Among a series of NAP derivatives synthesized, compounds 6 (NMP) and 9 (NGP) maintained comparable binding affinity, selectivity and efficacy to the lead compound. Particularly, the mu opioid receptor selectivity over kappa opioid receptor of NGP was considerably enhanced compared to that of NAP. Overall, the preliminary SSR supported our original hypothesis that an alternate 'address' domain may exist in the mu opioid receptor, which favors the ligands carrying a hydrogen bond acceptor and an aromatic system to selectively recognize the mu opioid receptor.

  15. Novel opioid peptide derived antagonists containing (2S)-2-methyl-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-carbamoylphenyl)propanoic acid [(2S)-Mdcp].

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Animesh; Luo, Jie; Liu, Chen; Weltrowska, Grazyna; Lemieux, Carole; Chung, Nga N; Lu, Yixin; Schiller, Peter W

    2008-09-25

    A synthesis of the novel tyrosine analogue (2 S)-2-methyl-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-carbamoylphenyl)propanoic acid [(2 S)-Mdcp] (15) was developed. In (2 S)-Mdcp, the amino and hydroxyl groups of 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine are replaced by a methyl and a carbamoyl group, respectively, and its substitution for Tyr (1) in opioid agonist peptides resulted in compounds showing antagonism at all three opioid receptors. The cyclic peptide (2 S)-Mdcp-c[D-Cys-Gly-Phe(pNO 2)-D-Cys]NH 2 (1) was a potent and selective mu antagonist, whereas (2 S)-Mdcp-c[D-Pen-Gly-Phe(pF)-Pen]-Phe-OH (3) showed subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and extraordinary delta selectivity.

  16. Γ-aminobutyric acid(C) (GABAC) selective antagonists derived from the bioisosteric modification of 4-aminocyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid: amides and hydroxamates.

    PubMed

    Locock, Katherine E S; Yamamoto, Izumi; Tran, Priscilla; Hanrahan, Jane R; Chebib, Mary; Johnston, Graham A R; Allan, Robin D

    2013-07-11

    Series of compounds were generated via the bioisosteric replacement of the carboxylate of 4-ACPCA (2) with hydroxamate or amide groups. All compounds from this study exhibited increased selectivity for GABAC, the most potent being 4-ACPHA (10a, IC50 = 13 μM) and 4-ACPAM (11a, IC50 = 10 μM). This provides evidence that a zwitterionic structure is not essential for GABAC antagonists, rather the emphasis lies in appropriate heteroatoms to participate in hydrogen bonding.

  17. Structure-activity relationships in a new series of insecticidally active dioxatricycloalkenes derived by structural comparison of the GABA (. gamma. -aminobutyric acid) antagonists bicycloorthocarboxylates and endosulfan

    SciTech Connect

    Ozoe, Yoshihisa; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Mochida, Kazuo; Nakamura, Toshiie ); Matsumura, Fumio )

    1990-05-01

    To study structural requirements for picrotoxinin-type GABA ({gamma}-aminobutyric acid) antagonists to interact with the receptor site, 5-substituted 4,6-dioxatricyclo(7.2.1.0{sup 2,8})dodec-10-enes and related compounds were prepared and examined for their insecticidal activity and potency in displacing ({sup 35}S)tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding. Compounds with high insecticidal activity possessed a phenyl group with an electron-withdrawing para substituent, a cycloalkyl group, or a C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} straight-chain alkyl group at the 5-position. The effect of the 5-substituents on insecticidal activity was very similar to that of the 1-substituents of the bicyloorthocarboxylate GABA antagonists. Representative dioxatricycloalkenes displaced the binding of the GABA antagonist ({sup 35}S)TBPS to housefly head membranes by 29-53% at 10 {mu}M. X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrated that this class of compounds had structures superimposable on those of 4-tert-butylbicycloorthocarboxylates. These findings indicate that the dioxatricycloalkenes and some other analogues occupy the picrotoxinin binding site in such a way that the fourth interacting subsite of the receptor site accommodates the 5-substituent.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of imidazole derivatives as novel NOP/ORL1 receptor antagonists: exploration and optimization of alternative pyrazole structure.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Asai, Masanori; Ohno, Akio; Yamada, Koji; Ozaki, Satoshi; Ohta, Hisashi; Okamoto, Osamu

    2009-08-15

    Nonpeptidic small-molecule NOP/ORL1 receptor antagonists with an imidazole scaffold were designed and synthesized to investigate alternatives to the pyrazole analog. Systematic modification of the original pyrazole lead [Kobayashi et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2009, 19, 3627; Kobayashi et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., in press] to change the heterocyclic core, substituted side chain, and pendant functional group demonstrated that examining the structure-activity relationship for novel templates allowed the identification of potent, fully substituted 4-aminomethyl-1H-imidazole and 2-aminomethyl-1H-imidazole. These compounds exhibited excellent potency for ORL1 receptor with minimal P-gp efflux and/or reduced hERG affinity.

  19. The computational design of test compounds with potentially specific biological activity: Histamine-H2 agonists derived from 5-HT/H2 antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topiol, Sid; Sabio, Michael

    1991-06-01

    The previously proposed models for the recognition and activation of 5-HT and histamine-H2 receptors, which were employed to explain the antagonist activity of LSD at both of these receptors, as well as the selective antagonism for H2 receptors by SKF-10856 and 9,10-dihydro-LSD, are used herein to design a compound to test the H2-receptor model. The design strategy attempts to construct a compound with potentially selective H2 agonism. The design scheme maintains features which were previously used to explain selective recognition of SKF-10856 and 9,10-dihydro-LSD as well as reintroduces the chemical features proposed to be responsible for H2 activation. The existence of the H2 recognition and activation features in the proposed compound is verified, in a previously proposed model, by computational studies of the molecular electrostatic potentials and shifts in the tautomeric preference.

  20. Synthesis and opioid receptor affinity of morphinan and benzomorphan derivatives: mixed kappa agonists and mu agonists/antagonists as potential pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, J L; Bidlack, J M; Zong, R; Bakthavachalam, V; Gao, P; Cohen, D J; Negus, S S; Mello, N K

    2000-01-13

    This report concerns the synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of a novel series of kappa agonists related to the morphinan (-)-cyclorphan (3a) and the benzomorphan (-)-cyclazocine (2) as potential agents for the pharmacotherapy of cocaine abuse. Recent evidence suggests that agonists acting at kappa opioid receptors may modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and alter the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine. We describe the synthesis and chemical characterization of a series of morphinans 3a-c, structural analogues of cyclorphan [(-)-3-hydroxy-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan S(+)-mandelate, 3a], the 10-ketomorphinans 4a,b, and the 8-ketobenzomorphan 1b. Binding experiments demonstrated that the cyclobutyl analogue 3b [(-)-3-hydroxy-N-cyclobutylmethylmorphinan S(+)-mandelate, 3b, MCL-101] of cyclorphan (3a) had a high affinity for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors in guinea pig brain membranes. Both 3a,b were approximately 2-fold more selective for the kappa receptor than for the mu receptor. However 3b (the cyclobutyl analogue) was 18-fold more selective for the kappa receptor in comparison to the delta receptor, while cyclorphan (3a) had only 4-fold greater affinity for the kappa receptor in comparison to the delta receptor. These findings were confirmed in the antinociceptive tests (tail-flick and acetic acid writhing) in mice, which demonstrated that cyclorphan (3a) produced antinociception that was mediated by the delta receptor while 3b did not produce agonist or antagonist effects at the delta receptor. Both 3a,b had comparable kappa agonist properties. 3a,b had opposing effects at the mu receptor: 3b was a mu agonist whereas 3a was a mu antagonist.

  1. Assessment in pig coronary artery of long-lasting and potent calcium antagonistic actions of the novel dihydropyridine derivative mepirodipine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, K; Kashiwabara, T; Yamada, S; Tanaka, Y

    1989-01-01

    Ca antagonistic properties of mepirodipine hydrochloride [+)-(3'S,4S)-3-(1'-benzyl-3'-pyrrolidinyl methyl 2,6-dimethyl-4- (m-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate hydrochloride, YM-09730-5) were assessed by studying the pharmacological actions and binding characteristics of the drug in the stem coronary artery. IC50 values of YM-09730-5 (3.5 x 10(-10) mol/l) and nifedipine (6.6 x 10(-9) mol/l) for 40 mmol/l K-induced tonic contraction of pig coronary artery indicated that YM-09730-5 was about 20 times more potent than nifedipine in Ca antagonistic action. However, YM-09730-5 showed an onset of inhibitory action 3 to 5 times slower than nifedipine. A 40-min preincubation of the target tissue with YM-09730-5 also inhibited the contractions produced by acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and high Ca, and pD2' values were between 8.0 and 7.0; while nifedipine was less potent. The specific binding of [3H]nitrendipine to the membrane of pig coronary artery was inhibited by YM-09730-5, thereby indicating that [3H]nitrendipine and YM-09730-5 compete for the similar receptor sites of dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca channels. Suppression of high K-, Ca- and agonist-induced contractions by YM-09730-5 (3 x 10(-9) mol/l-10(-7) mol/l) remained even after washings at 20-min intervals for more than 3 h; and, in particular at a high concentration of YM-09730-5, the suppression was slightly antagonized by excess Ca or a Ca-agonist. The contraction inhibited by nifedipine, on the other hand, was readily restored by several washings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline derivatives as sigma-1 (σ1) receptor antagonists for the treatment of pain.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu; Songyang, Yiyan; Zhang, Lingli; Peng, Yan; Song, Jinchun

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of new series of 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline derivatives as selective sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) antagonists are reported. The receptor affinities of new compounds were evaluated in vitro in σ1 and σ2 receptor binding assays. The structure-active relationship study leads us to the most promising compound: 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydroquinazoline (33). Compound 33 has exerted nanomolar affinity for σ1R (Kiσ1=15.6 nM) and high σ1/σ2 selectivity (Kiσ2 >2000 nM), and identified to be a σ1R antagonist. In animal model, compound 33 exhibited dose dependent anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test. These results suggest that compound 33 could be a potent analgesic for pain treatment.

  3. 7-Substituted-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives as antagonists of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel: a promising approach for treating pain and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Romagnoli, Romeo; Saponaro, Giulia; Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Stefania; Pedretti, Pamela; Fusi, Camilla; Nassini, Romina; Materazzi, Serena; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Preti, Delia

    2012-03-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is activated by a series of by-products of oxidative/nitrative stress, produced under inflammatory conditions or in the case of tissue damage, thus generating inflammatory and neuropathic pain and neurogenic inflammatory responses. These findings have identified TRPA1 as an emerging opportunity for the design and synthesis of selective inhibitors as potential analgesic and antiinflammatory agents. Herein we present the synthesis and functional evaluation of a new series of 7-substituted-1,3-dimethyl-1,5-dihydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives designed as TRPA1 antagonists. A small library of compounds has been built by the introduction of differently substituted N(7)-phenylacetamide or N(7)-[4-(substituted-phenyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-acetamide chains. All the synthesized compounds were assayed to evaluate their ability to block acrolein-mediated activation of native human and rat TRPA1 channels employing a fluorometric calcium imaging assay. Our study led us to the identification of compound 3h which showed considerably improved potency (IC(50)=400nM) against human TRPA1 with regard to some of the most representative antagonists previously reported and integrated in our screening program as reference compounds. In addition, 3h proved to maintain its efficacy toward rTRPA1, which designates it as a possible candidate for future evaluation of in vivo efficacy in rodent animal model of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

  4. Mixed kappa agonists and mu agonists/antagonists as potential pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine abuse: synthesis and opioid receptor binding affinity of N-substituted derivatives of morphinan.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, J L; Gu, X H; van Vliet, L A; DeNunzio, N J; Rusovici, D E; Cohen, D J; Negus, S S; Mello, N K; Bidlack, J M

    2001-10-22

    A series of new N-substituted derivatives of morphinan was synthesized and their binding affinity for the three opioid receptors (mu, delta, and kappa) was determined. A paradoxical effect of N-propargyl (MCL-117) and N-(3-iodoprop-(2E)-enyl) (MCL-118) substituents on the binding affinities for the mu and kappa opioid receptors was observed. All of these novel derivatives showed a preference for the mu and kappa versus delta binding.

  5. Timosaponin derivative YY-23 acts as a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist and exerts a rapid antidepressant-like effect in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Guo, Fei; Fu, Zhi-wen; Zhang, Bing; Huang, Cheng-gang; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor modulators have shown promising results as potential antidepressant agents, whereas timosaponins extracted from the Chinese herb Rhizoma Anemarrhenae exhibit antidepressant activities. In the present study we examined whether YY-23, a modified metabolite of timosaponin B-III, could affect NMDA receptors in rat hippocampal neurons in vitro, and evaluated its antidepressant-like effects in stressed mice. Methods: NMDA-induced currents were recorded in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal CA1 neurons using a whole-cell recording technique. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a 6-week chronic mild stress (CMS) or a 10-d chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). The stressed mice were treated with YY-23 (20 mg·kg−1·d−1) or a positive-control drug, fluoxetine (10 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 3 weeks. Behavioral assessments were carried out every week. Results: In acutely dissociated rat hippocampal CA1 neurons, YY-23 selectively and reversibly inhibited NMDA-induced currents with an EC50 value of 2.8 μmol/L. This inhibition of NMDA-induced currents by YY-23 was non-competitive, and had no features of voltage-dependency or use-dependency. Treatment of the stressed mice with YY-23 not only reversed CMS-induced deficiency of sucrose preference and immobility time, and CSDS-induced reduction of social interaction, but also had faster onset as compared to fluoxetine. Conclusion: YY-23 is a novel non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors with promising rapid antidepressant-like effects in mouse models of CMS and CSDS depression. PMID:26687936

  6. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of 5-oxo-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as AT1 antagonists with antihypertension activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weibo; Bao, Xiaolu; Ren, He; Liao, Pingyong; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Yijia; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhilong

    A series of new 5-oxo-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives with 1, 4-disubsituted or 1, 5-disubsituted indole group was designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically evaluated. These derivatives displayed high affinities to the AT1 receptor at the same order of magnitude to losartan. The methyl ester with 1, 4-disubsituted indole group, 1 (5.01 ± 1.67 nM) showed high antihypertension activity on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Its maximal response lowered 30 mmHg of mean blood pressure (MBP) at 10 mg/kg after oral administration, which was better than irbesartan, and the antihypertensive effect lasted beyond 24 h. These results made 1 deserve further investigation.

  7. Bile acids and their oxo derivatives: Potential inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I and II, androgen receptor antagonists and CYP3A4 substrates.

    PubMed

    Trifunović, Jovana; Borčić, Vladan; Mikov, Momir

    2017-05-01

    Some biological properties of bile acids and their oxo derivatives have not been sufficiently investigated, although the interest in bile acids as signaling molecules is rising. The aim of this work was to evaluate physico-chemical parametar b (slope) that represents the lipophilicity of the examined molecules and to investigate interactions of bile acids with carbonic anhydrase I, II, androgen receptor and CYP450s. Thirteen candidates were investigated using normal-phase thin-layer chromatography in two solvent systems. Retention parameters were used in further quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and docking studies to predict interactions and binding affinities of examined molecules with enzymes and receptors. Prediction of activity on androgen receptor showed that compounds 3α-hydroxy-12-oxo-5β-cholanoic and 3α-hydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholanoic acid have stronger antiandrogen activity than natural bile acids. The inhibitory potential for carbonic anhydrase I and II was tested and it was concluded that molecules 3α-hydroxy-12-oxo-5β-cholanoic, 3α-hydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholanoic, 3,7,12-trioxo-5β-cholanoic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid show the best results. Substrate behavior for CYP3A4 was confirmed for all investigated compounds. Oxo derivatives of bile acids show stronger interactions with enzymes and receptors as classical bile acids and lower membranolytic activity compared with them. These significant observations could be valuable in consideration of oxo derivatives as building blocks in medicinal chemistry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor proBDNF in the brain regions of a learned helplessness rat model and the antidepressant effects of a TrkB agonist and antagonist.

    PubMed

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Ji-chun; Ren, Qian; Yao, Wei; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling in a learned helplessness (LH) model of depression was investigated. LH rats showed a reduction of BDNF in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, whereas LH rats showed an increase in BDNF in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, levels of proBDNF, a BDNF precursor, were higher in the mPFC, but lower in the NAc, of LH rats. A single bilateral infusion of a TrkB agonist 7,8-DHF, but not a TrkB antagonist ANA-12, into the infralimbic (IL) of mPFC, DG, and CA3, but not the prelimbic (PrL) of mPFC, exerted antidepressant effects in LH rats. In contrast, a single bilateral infusion of ANA-12, but not 7,8-DHF, into the core and shell of NAc exerted antidepressant-like effects in LH rats, with more potent effects observed for the NAc core than for NAc shell. Interestingly, a single administration of 7,8-DHF (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved a decreased phosphorylation of TrkB in the mPFC, CA3, and DG of LH rats. Additionally, ANA-12 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved an increased phosphorylation of TrkB in the NAc of LH rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that LH causes depression-like behavior by altering BDNF in the brain regions, and that proBDNF-BDNF processing and transport may be altered in the mPFC-NAc circuit of LH rats. Therefore, TrkB agonists might exert antidepressant effects by stimulating TrkB in the IL, CA3, and DG, while TrkB antagonists might exert antidepressant effects by blocking TrkB in the NAc.

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of 5,6-Disubstituted Pyridin-2(1H)-one Derivatives as Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lingam, V S Prasadarao; Dahale, Dnyaneshwar H; Rathi, Vijay E; Shingote, Yogesh B; Thakur, Rajni R; Mindhe, Ajit S; Kummari, Srinivas; Khairatkar-Joshi, Neelima; Bajpai, Malini; Shah, Daisy M; Sapalya, Ratika S; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Gupta, Praveen K; Gudi, Girish S; Jadhav, Satyawan B; Pattem, Rambabu; Thomas, Abraham

    2015-10-22

    We report the design and synthesis of novel 5,6-diarylated pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives as pharmacophoric PDE10A inhibitors. This highly potent molecular scaffold was developed from an inactive diarylpyridine-2-amine derivative 3b by extensive and systematic analogue synthesis and SAR analysis. Further optimization of the scaffold resulted in identification of pyridin-2(1H)-one 18b as a lead compound with good potency (IC50 = 1.6 nM) and selectivity (>6000-fold) over other related PDEs but with a poor pharmacokinetic profile. Careful metabolite profiling of 18b revealed that poor systemic exposure in rats (Cmax = 44 ng/mL; AUC0-t = 359 ng · h/mL) at 10 mg/kg was due to the formation of O-glucuronide conjugate by phase 2 metabolism. The structure of the glucuronide metabolite was confirmed by retention time and LC-MS/MS fragmentation matching with the synthetic glucuronide 26. The problem of low exposure of 18b was effectively addressed by its conversion to an acetate prodrug 25b, which upon oral dosing resulted in an improved pharmacokinetic profile (Cmax = 359 ng.h/mL; AUC0-t = 2436 ng.h/mL) and a desirable brain to plasma ratio of 1.2. The prodrug 25b showed good efficacy in selected rodent models of psychosis.

  10. Phenylacetamides as selective alpha-1A adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Patane, M A; DiPardo, R M; Newton, R C; Price, R P; Broten, T P; Chang, R S; Ransom, R W; Di Salvo, J; Nagarathnam, D; Forray, C; Gluchowski, C; Bock, M G

    2000-08-07

    A novel class of potent and selective alpha-1a receptor antagonists has been identified. The structures of these antagonists were derived from truncating the 4-aryl dihydropyridine subunit present in known alpha-1a antagonists. The design principles which led to the discovery of substituted phenylacetamides, the synthesis and SAR of key analogues, and the results of select in vitro and in vivo studies are described.

  11. Design, synthesis, and biological activities of novel hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole derivatives as potent inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins antagonists with improved membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Shiokawa, Zenyu; Hashimoto, Kentaro; Saito, Bunnai; Oguro, Yuya; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Masato; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Kosugi, Yohei; Debori, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Nao; Dougan, Douglas R; Snell, Gyorgy P; Yoshida, Sei; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-12-15

    We previously reported octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivative 2 (T-3256336) as a potent antagonist for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Because compound 2 was susceptible to MDR1 mediated efflux, we developed another scaffold, hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole, using structure-based drug design. The fused benzene ring of this scaffold was aimed at increasing the lipophilicity and decreasing the basicity of the scaffold to improve the membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells. We established a chiral pool synthetic route to yield the desired tricyclic chiral isomers. Chemical modification of the core scaffold led to a representative compound 50, which showed strong inhibition of IAP binding (X chromosome-linked IAP [XIAP]: IC50 23 nM and cellular IAP [cIAP]: IC50 1.1 nM) and cell growth inhibition (MDA-MB-231 cells: GI50 2.8 nM) with high permeability and low potential of MDR1 substrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioisosteres of 9-carboxymethyl-4-oxo-imidazo[1,2-a]indeno-[1,2-e]pyrazin-2-carboxylic acid derivatives. Progress towards selective, potent in vivo AMPA antagonists with longer durations of action.

    PubMed

    Jimonet, P; Bohme, G A; Bouquerel, J; Boireau, A; Damour, D; Debono, M W; Genevois-Borella, A; Hardy, J C; Hubert, P; Manfré, F; Nemecek, P; Pratt, J; Randle, J C; Ribeill, Y; Stutzmann, J M; Vuilhorgne, M; Mignani, S

    2001-01-22

    A novel series of 2- and 9-disubstituted heterocyclic-fused 4-oxo-indeno[1,2-e]pyrazin derivatives was synthesized. One of them, the 9-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)-4-oxo-5,10-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]indeno[1,2-e]pyrazin-2-yl phosphonic acid 4i exhibited a strong and a selective binding affinity for the AMPA receptor (IC50 = 13 nM) and demonstrated potent antagonist activity (IC50 = 6nM) at the ionotropic AMPA receptor. This compound also displayed good anticonvulsant properties against electrically-induced convulsions after ip and iv administration with ED50 values between 0.8 and 1 mg/kg. Furthermore, a strong increase in potency was observed when given iv 3 h before test (ED50 = 3.5 instead of 25.6 mg/kg for the corresponding 9-carboxymethyl-2-carboxylic acid analogue). These data confirmed that there is an advantage in replacing the classical carboxy substituents by their bioisosteres such as tetrazole or phosphonic acid groups.

  13. Structural, conformational, biochemical, and pharmacological study of some amides derived from 3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo [3.3.1] nonan-9-amine as potential 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. J.; Huertas, R. M.; Gálvez, E.; Orjales, A.; Berisa, A.; Labeaga, L.; Garcia, A. G.; Uceda, G.; Server-Carrió, J.; Martinez-Ripoll, M.

    1995-12-01

    A series of amides derived from 3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo [3.3.1] nonan-9-amine have been synthesized and examined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of 9-(2,4,6-trichlorobenzamido)-3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1] nonane hydrochloride ( 4a·HCl) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. These compounds adopt an almost perfect chair-chair conformation with the NCH 3 groups in equatorial position. This conformation is nearly the same as that observed for compound 4a in the solid state. From binding studies of compounds 4a-c, compound 4b demonstrated the ability to efficiently displace [ 3H]GR65630 bound to bovine brain area postrema membranes to an extent comparable to MDL 72222. In the von Bezold-Jarish reflex, compound 4b showed significant results at a dose of 25 mg Kg -1. It is shown for the first time that a series of compounds with a bispidine skeleton linked through an amide moiety to several aromatic rings, shows 5-HT 3 antagonistic profiles.

  14. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma and appears to be the major reversible component of airway obstruction. Therefore, treatment with muscarinic receptor antagonists is an effective bronchodilator therapy in COPD and also in asthmatic patients. In recent years, the accumulating evidence that the cholinergic system controls not only contraction by airway smooth muscle but also the functions of inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells has suggested that muscarinic receptor antagonists could exert other effects that may be of clinical relevance when we must treat a patient suffering from COPD or asthma. There are currently six muscarinic receptor antagonists licenced for use in the treatment of COPD, the short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (SAMAs) ipratropium bromide and oxitropium bromide and the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) aclidinium bromide, tiotropium bromide, glycopyrronium bromide and umeclidinium bromide. Concerns have been raised about possible associations of muscarinic receptor antagonists with cardiovascular safety, but the most advanced compounds seem to have an improved safety profile. Further beneficial effects of SAMAs and LAMAs are seen when added to existing treatments, including LABAs, inhaled corticosteroids and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. The importance of tiotropium bromide in the maintenance treatment of COPD, and likely in asthma, has spurred further research to identify new LAMAs. There are a number of molecules that are being identified, but only few have reached the clinical development.

  15. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  16. Combining Elements from Two Antagonists of Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 Generates More Potent Peptidomimetic Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Holdfeldt, André; Nielsen, Christina; Hansen, Anna Mette; Perez-Gassol, Iris; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei; Franzyk, Henrik

    2017-08-24

    Structural optimization of a peptidomimetic antagonist of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) was explored by an approach involving combination of elements from the two most potent FPR2 antagonists described: a Rhodamine B-conjugated 10-residue gelsonin-derived peptide (i.e., PBP10, RhB-QRLFQVKGRR-OH) and the palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid Pam-(Lys-βNspe)6-NH2. This generated an array of hybrid compounds from which a new subclass of receptor-selective antagonists was identified. The most potent representatives displayed activity in the low nanomolar range. The resulting stable and potent FPR2-selective antagonists (i.e., RhB-(Lys-βNphe)n-NH2; n = 4-6) are expected to become valuable tools in further elucidation of the physiological role of FPR2 in health and disease.

  17. Studies on quinazolines. 5. 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline derivatives: a novel class of potent and selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists and antihypertensive agents.

    PubMed

    Chern, J W; Tao, P L; Yen, M H; Lu, G Y; Shiau, C Y; Lai, Y J; Chien, S L; Chan, C H

    1993-07-23

    A series of 2-[(substituted phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]- and 2-[(substituted phenylpiperidin-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2- c]quinazolin-5(6H)-ones or -5(6H)-thiones, and 3-[(substituted phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinaz oline derivatives were synthesized, as conformationally restricted analogues of SGB-1534 and ketanserin, for evaluation as alpha-antagonists and antihypertensive agents. Most compounds containing a (substituted phenylipiperazinyl)methyl side chain displayed high binding affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptor with no significant activity at alpha 2-sites. Compounds having a (substituted phenylpiperazinyl)methyl at the 3-position of 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-5(6H)-one ring system had a better activity than those with the same substituent at the 2-position. Structure-activity relationships for alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity are presented and indicate that compounds with substitution at the ortho position on the benzene ring of the phenylpiperazine side chain moiety are more potent than those without substitution and/or substitutions at the 3- and 4-positions. Computer-assisted superimposition of SGB-1534 and 20b showed little structural correspondence between the quinazolinone and 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline nucleus, and specific interactions of these molecular fragments with the receptor protein appear unlikely. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated via intravenous administration of each compound to spontaneously hypertensive rats, and compounds (16a, 16b, 20b, and 28b) illustrated similar efficacy to SGB-1534 when assessed after 6 h. The pA2 value for 16a against phenylephedrine in rat aorta was much higher than that of prazosin. On the basis of alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity/selectivity in vitro and duration of antihypertensive action in vivo, compounds 20b and 28b warrant further evaluation.

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3-oxo-4-oxa-5α-androst-17β-amide derivatives as dual 5α-reductase inhibitors and androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lao, Kejing; Sun, Jie; Wang, Chong; Wang, Ying; You, Qidong; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death in men. Recently, some researches have showed that 5α-reductase inhibitors were beneficial in PCa treatment as well. In this study, a series of novel 3-oxo-4-oxa-5α-androst-17β-amide derivatives have been designed and synthesized in a more simple and convenient method. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed good 5α-reductase inhibitory activities and androgen receptor binding affinities. Their anti-proliferation activities in PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines were also evaluated and the results indicated that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities. It is obvious that the androgen-dependent cell line LNCaP was much more sensitive than the androgen-independent cell line PC-3. Among all the synthesized compounds, 11d and 11k displayed the best inhibition activity with 4-fold more sensitive toward LNCaP than PC-3, which was consistent with their high affinities observed in AR binding assay. Molecular modeling studies suggested that 11k could bind to AR in a manner similar to the binding of dihydrotestosterone to AR. Compared to the finasteride, 11k showed a longer plasma half-life (4h) and a better bioavailability. Overall, based on biological activities data, compound 11d and 11k can be identified as potential dual 5α-reductase inhibitors and AR antagonists which might be of therapeutic importance for prostate cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CCR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Struthers, Mary; Pasternak, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of CCR2 has been considered as a target for multiple therapeutic diseases including autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, pain, and metabolic disease, based in part on the critical role this receptor plays on monocyte migration. Numerous companies have reported programs to identify CCR2 antagonists. Common challenges to the development of CCR2 agents have included poor activity at the rodent receptor and selectivity for both other chemokine receptors and ion channels. This review summarizes the rationale for targeting CCR2 in disease, the recent progress in the identification of potent and select CCR2 antagonists, and the current status of clinical trials for CCR2 agents.

  20. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  1. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  2. Synthetic peptide antagonists of glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Unson, C G; Andreu, D; Gurzenda, E M; Merrifield, R B

    1987-01-01

    Several glucagon analogs were synthesized in an effort to find derivatives that would bind with high affinity to the glucagon receptor of rat liver membranes but would not activate membrane-bound adenylate cyclase and, therefore, would serve as antagonists of the hormone. Measurements on a series of glucagon/secretin hybrids indicated that replacement of Asp9 in glucagon by Glu9, found in secretin, was the important sequence difference in the N terminus of the two hormones. Further deletion of His1 and introduction of a C-terminal amide resulted in des-His1-[Glu9]glucagon amide, which had a 40% binding affinity relative to that of native glucagon but caused no detectable adenylate cyclase activation in the rat liver membrane. This antagonist completely inhibited the effect of a concentration of glucagon that alone gave a full agonist response. It had an inhibition index of 12. The pA2 was 7.2. An attempt was made to relate conformation with receptor binding. The peptides were synthesized by solid-phase methods and purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C18-silica columns. PMID:3035568

  3. Advantages of an antagonist: bicuculline and other GABA antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Graham AR

    2013-01-01

    The convulsant alkaloid bicuculline continues to be investigated more than 40 years after the first publication of its action as an antagonist of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historical perspective highlights key aspects of the discovery of bicuculline as a GABA antagonist and the sustained interest in this and other GABA antagonists. The exciting advances in the molecular biology, pharmacology and physiology of GABA receptors provide a continuing stimulus for the discovery of new antagonists with increasing selectivity for the myriad of GABA receptor subclasses. Interesting GABA antagonists not structurally related to bicuculline include gabazine, salicylidene salicylhydrazide, RU5135 and 4-(3-biphenyl-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazole. Bicuculline became the benchmark antagonist for what became known as GABAA receptors, but not all ionotropic GABA receptors are susceptible to bicuculline. In addition, not all GABAA receptor antagonists are convulsants. Thus there are still surprises in store as the study of GABA receptors evolves. PMID:23425285

  4. Indications for Opioid Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Coppes, O J Michael; Sang, Christine N

    2017-06-01

    As opioids have become more common in clinical practice for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain, so too has the need for a deeper understanding of the clinical applications of opioid antagonists. The purpose of this review is to present both the longstanding and potential new indications for the use of drugs that block the effects of opioid receptors. There is a growing body of data demonstrating the modulation of pain by opioid antagonists. Additional clinical studies that show their direct antinociceptive effects and/or enhancement of the analgesic potency of opioid agonists are warranted. We briefly discuss the well-established role that these agents play in the reversal of life-threatening opioid toxicity and explore both existing and expanding clinical applications, including their apparent paradox that they may themselves be associated with analgesia.

  5. MOLECULAR PROBES FOR EXTRACELLULAR ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Ukena, Dieter; Padgett, William; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of adenosine receptor agonists (N6-phenyladenosines) and antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-phenylxanthines) bearing functionalized chains suitable for attachment to other molecules have been reported [Jacobson et al., J. med. Chem. 28, 1334 and 1341 (1985)]. The “functionalized congener” approach has been extended to the synthesis of spectroscopic and other probes for adenosine receptors that retain high affinity (Ki ~ 10−9 −10−8 M) in A1-receptor binding. The probes have been synthesized from an antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and an adenosine amine congener (ADAC). [3H]ADAC has been synthesized and found to bind highly specifically to A1-adenosine receptors of rat and calf cerebral cortical membranes with KD values of 1.4 and 0.34 nM respectively. The higher affinity in the bovine brain, seen also with many of the probes derived from ADAC and XAC, is associated with phenyl substituents. The spectroscopic probes contain a reporter group attached at a distal site of the functionalized chain. These bifunctional ligands may contain a spin label (e.g. the nitroxyl radical TEMPO) for electron spin resonance spectroscopy, or a fluorescent dye, including fluorescein and 4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), or labels for 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Potential applications of the spectroscopic probes in characterization of adenosine receptors are discussed. PMID:3036153

  6. alpha2-Adrenoreceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P; Imbert, T

    2001-06-01

    A review of the literature relating to the therapeutic potential of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists published between 1990 and 2000 is presented. Although extensively studied since the early 1970s in a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, the distinction of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes and some emerging evidence concerning new applications in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, obesity and schizophrenia, have refreshed an interest in this class of agents.

  7. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a new model of arylpiperazines. 5. Study of the physicochemical influence of the pharmacophore on 5-HT(1a)/alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor affinity: synthesis of a new derivative with mixed 5-HT(1a)/d(2) antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, M L; Morcillo, M J; Fernández, E; Porras, E; Orensanz, L; Beneytez, M E; Manzanares, J; Fuentes, J A

    2001-01-18

    In this paper we have designed and synthesized a test series of 32 amide arylpiperazine derivatives VI in order to gain insight into the physicochemical influence of the pharmacophores of 5-HT(1A) and alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. The training set was designed applying a fractional factorial design using six physicochemical descriptors. The amide moiety is a bicyclohydantoin or a diketopiperazine (X = -(CH(2))(3)-, -(CH(2))(4)-; m = 0, 1), the spacer length is 3 or 4 methylene units, which are the optimum values for both receptors, and the aromatic substituent R occupies the ortho- or meta-position and has been selected from a database of 387 substituents using the EDISFAR program. The 5-HT(1A) and alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor binding affinities of synthesized compounds VI (1-32) have been determined. This data set has been used to derive classical quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and neural networks models for both receptors (following paper). A comparison of these models gives information for the design of the new ligand EF-7412 (46) (5-HT(1A): K(i) = 27 nM; alpha(1): K(i) > 1000 nM). This derivative displays affinity for the dopamine D(2) receptor (K(i) = 22 nM) and is selective versus all other receptors examined (5-HT(2A), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4) and Bz; K(i) > 1000 nM). EF-7412 (46) acts as an antagonist in vivo in pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor sites and as an antagonist in the dopamine D(2) receptor. Thus, EF-7412 (46) is a derivative with mixed 5-HT(1A)/D(2) antagonist properties and this derivative could be useful as a pharmacological tool.

  8. Calcium antagonists and vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F B

    1990-04-01

    A critical review of the clinical data supports the conclusion that nimodipine decreases the severity of neurologic deficits and improves outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mechanisms by which mortality and morbidity are reduced are still controversial. First, the frequency of vasospasm is not altered (Figs. 5 and 6). Second, the consistent reversal of vasospasm once present has not been demonstrated either angiographically or by noninvasive cerebral blood flow studies. These observations suggest that there is either modification of microcirculatory flow (i.e., dilation of pial conducting vessels or decreased platelet aggregation) or a direct neuronal protective effect. As suggested previously, support for either mechanism is not resolute, and further investigation is necessary. Currently, nimodipine has been the most thoroughly investigated calcium antagonist both from an experimental and clinical perspective. Oral administration has had few reported complications. Therefore, the benefit/risk ratio clearly supports the prophylactic use of this calcium antagonist in patients of all clinical grades after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Evidence also indicates that starting nimodipine after the onset of delayed ischemic deficits is of benefit. Finally, it can be predicted that in the future additional calcium antagonists with more selective vascular or neuronal effects will be developed for use in neurologic disorders.

  9. Tetrahydroindolizinone NK1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianming; Lu, Huagang; Morriello, Gregori J; Carlson, Emma J; Wheeldon, Alan; Chicchi, Gary G; Kurtz, Marc M; Tsao, Kwei-Lan C; Zheng, Song; Tong, Xinchun; Mills, Sander G; DeVita, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    A new class of potent NK(1) receptor antagonists with a tetrahydroindolizinone core has been identified. This series of compounds demonstrated improved functional activities as compared to previously identified 5,5-fused pyrrolidine lead structures. SAR at the 7-position of the tetrahydroindolizinone core is discussed in detail. A number of compounds displayed high NK(1) receptor occupancy at both 1 h and 24 h in a gerbil foot tapping model. Compound 40 has high NK(1) binding affinity, good selectivity for other NK receptors and promising in vivo properties. It also has clean P(450) inhibition and hPXR induction profiles. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo

    2003-08-14

    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  11. Short-acting 5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one derivatives as orally-active calcium-sensing receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Didiuk, Mary T; Griffith, David A; Benbow, John W; Liu, Kevin K C; Walker, Daniel P; Bi, F Christopher; Morris, Joel; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Gao, Hua; Bechle, Bruce M; Kelley, Ryan M; Yang, Xiaojing; Dirico, Kenneth; Ahmed, Syed; Hungerford, William; DiBrinno, Joseph; Zawistoski, Michael P; Bagley, Scott W; Li, Jianke; Zeng, Yuan; Santucci, Stephanie; Oliver, Robert; Corbett, Matthew; Olson, Thanh; Chen, Chiliu; Li, Mei; Paralkar, Vishwas M; Riccardi, Keith A; Healy, David R; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Maurer, Tristan S; Nguyen, Hang T; Frederick, Kosea S

    2009-08-15

    Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on 5-trifluoromethylpyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones, a novel class of calcium receptor antagonists is described with particular emphasis on optimization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters required for a short duration of action compound. Orally-active compounds were identified which displayed the desired animal pharmacology (rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone) essential for bone anabolic effects.

  12. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan [Mystic, CT; Jancarik, Jarmila [Walnut Creek, CA; Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Koths, Kirston [El Cerrito, CA; Halenbeck, Robert [San Rafael, CA; Fear, Anna Lisa [Oakland, CA; Taylor, Eric [Oakland, CA; Yamamoto, Ralph [Martinez, CA; Bohm, Andrew [Armonk, NY

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  13. Small molecule antagonists for chemokine CCR3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Willems, Lianne I; Ijzerman, Ad P

    2010-09-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR3 is believed to play a role in the development of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. Despite the conflicting results that have been reported regarding the importance of eosinophils and CCR3 in allergic inflammation, inhibition of this receptor with small molecule antagonists is thought to provide a valuable approach for the treatment of these diseases. This review describes the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of small molecule CCR3 antagonists as reported in the scientific and patent literature. Various chemical classes of small molecule CCR3 antagonists have been described so far, including (bi)piperidine and piperazine derivatives, N-arylalkylpiperidine urea derivatives and (N-ureidoalkyl)benzylpiperidines, phenylalanine derivatives, morpholinyl derivatives, pyrrolidinohydroquinazolines, arylsulfonamides, amino-alkyl amides, imidazole- and pyrimidine-based antagonists, and bicyclic diamines. The (N-ureidoalkyl)benzylpiperidines are the best studied class in view of their generally high affinity and antagonizing potential. For many of these antagonists subnanomolar IC(50) values were reported for binding to CCR3 along with the ability to effectively inhibit intracellular calcium mobilization and eosinophil chemotaxis induced by CCR3 agonist ligands in vitro.

  14. Small Molecule CXCR3 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Stephen P; Cox, Rhona J

    2016-04-14

    Chemokines and their receptors are known to play important roles in disease. More than 40 chemokine ligands and 20 chemokine receptors have been identified, but, to date, only two small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists have been approved by the FDA. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was identified in 1996, and nearly 20 years later, new areas of CXCR3 disease biology continue to emerge. Several classes of small molecule CXCR3 antagonists have been developed, and two have shown efficacy in preclinical models of inflammatory disease. However, only one CXCR3 antagonist has been evaluated in clinical trials, and there remain many opportunities to further investigate known classes of CXCR3 antagonists and to identify new chemotypes. This Perspective reviews the known CXCR3 antagonists and considers future opportunities for the development of small molecules for clinical evaluation.

  15. Potent gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) antagonists derived from GRP (19-27) with a C-terminal DPro psi [CH2NH]Phe-NH2 and N-terminal aromatic residues.

    PubMed

    Leban, J J; Landavazo, A; McDermed, J D; Diliberto, E J; Jansen, M; Stockstill, B; Kull, F C

    1994-02-18

    We have previously reported that octapeptides with a -DPro psi[CH2NH]Phe- NH2 C-terminus are potent GRP antagonists and have greatly enhanced in vivo stability. Now we report the detailed syntheses of such peptides and additional attempts to further increase metabolic stability. Replacement of the -DPro psi[CH2NH]Phe-NH2 with a "-DPro-statine"-Phe-NH2 led to less potent antagonistic activity. The introduction of ThiAla and BzthAla, to replace His and Trp, respectively, did not increase activity. A series of analogs having different aromatic residues at the N-terminal, other than 3-phenylpropionic acid, are equally potent. These residues show increased activity when hydrophilic substitutions are added to the aromatic ring. Replacement of the C-terminal Phe by DPhe and D2Nal is tolerated. Even though none of these peptides have higher activity than the original lead peptide, they are potentially more metabolically stable.

  16. Recent advances in CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jos H M; Kruse, Chris G

    2004-07-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists are currently the subject of intensive research due to their highly promising therapeutic prospects. Novel chemical entities having CB1 antagonistic properties have recently been disclosed by several pharmaceutical companies and some academic research groups, some of which are close structural analogs of the leading compound rimonabant (SR-141716A; Sanofi-Synthélabo). A considerable number of these CB1 antagonists are bioisosteres that are derived from rimonabant by the replacement of the pyrazole moiety with an alternative heterocycle. As well as these achiral compounds, Solvay Pharmaceuticals have disclosed a novel class of chiral pyrazolines that are potent and CB1/CB2 subtype-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, in which the interactions with the CB1 receptor are highly stereoselective.

  17. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological opportunities, clinical experience, and translational prognosis.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-03-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (CB) (endocannabinoid) signaling system is involved in a variety of (patho)physiological processes, primarily by virtue of natural, arachidonic acid-derived lipids (endocannabinoids) that activate G protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors. A hyperactive endocannabinoid system appears to contribute to the etiology of several disease states that constitute significant global threats to human health. Consequently, mounting interest surrounds the design and profiling of receptor-targeted CB antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics that attenuate endocannabinoid transmission for salutary gain. Experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic potential of CB1 receptor antagonists to treat overweight/obesity, obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, and substance abuse. Laboratory data suggest that CB2 receptor antagonists might be effective immunomodulatory and, perhaps, anti-inflammatory drugs. One CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, has emerged as the first-in-class drug approved outside the United States for weight control. Select follow-on agents (taranabant, otenabant, surinabant, rosonabant, SLV-319, AVE1625, V24343) have also been studied in the clinic. However, rimonabant's market withdrawal in the European Union and suspension of rimonabant's, taranabant's, and otenabant's ongoing development programs have highlighted some adverse clinical side effects (especially nausea and psychiatric disturbances) of CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. Novel CB1 receptor ligands that are peripherally directed and/or exhibit neutral antagonism (the latter not affecting constitutive CB1 receptor signaling) may optimize the benefits of CB1 receptor antagonists while minimizing any risk. Indeed, CB1 receptor-neutral antagonists appear from preclinical data to offer efficacy comparable to or better than that of prototype CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists, with less propensity to induce nausea. Continued

  18. Tumor vasculature is regulated by FGF/FGFR signaling-mediated angiogenesis and bone marrow-derived cell recruitment: this mechanism is inhibited by SSR128129E, the first allosteric antagonist of FGFRs.

    PubMed

    Fons, Pierre; Gueguen-Dorbes, Geneviève; Herault, Jean-Pascal; Geronimi, Fabien; Tuyaret, Joël; Frédérique, Dol; Schaeffer, Paul; Volle-Challier, Cécile; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is accompanied by vasculogenesis, which is involved in the differentiation and mobilization of human bone marrow cells. In order to further characterize the role of vasculogenesis in the tumor growth process, the effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of human bone marrow AC133(+) cells (BM-AC133(+)) into vascular precursors were studied in vitro. FGF2, like VEGFA, induced progenitor cell differentiation into cell types with endothelial cell characteristics. SSR128129E, a newly discovered specific FGFR antagonist acting by allosteric interaction with FGFR, abrogated FGF2-induced endothelial cell differentiation, showing that FGFR signaling is essential during this process. To assess the involvement of the FGF/FRGR signaling in vivo, the pre-clinical model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LL2) in mice was used. Subcutaneous injection of LL2 cells into mice induced an increase of circulating EPCs from peripheral blood associated with tumor growth and an increase of intra-tumoral vascular index. Treatment with the FGFR antagonist SSR128129E strongly decreased LL2 tumor growth as well as the intra-tumoral vascular index (41% and 50% decrease vs. vehicle-treated mice respectively, P < 0.01). Interestingly, SSR128129E treatment significantly decreased the number of circulating EPCs from the peripheral blood (53% inhibition vs. vehicle-treated mice, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate for the first time that the blockade of the FGF/FGFR pathway by SSR128129E reduces EPC recruitment during angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. In this context, circulating EPCs could be a reliable surrogate marker for tumor growth and angiogenic activity.

  19. A nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey N; Tyree, Curtis; Hu, Junlian; Berger, Elaine; Marschke, Keith; Nakane, Masaki; Coghlan, Michael J; Clemm, Dave; Lane, Ben; Rosen, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Selective intracellular receptor antagonists are used clinically to ameliorate hormone-dependent disease states. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have high levels of the glucocorticoid, cortisol, and suffer significant consequences from this overexposure. High levels of this hormone are also implicated in exacerbating diabetes and the stress response. Selectively inhibiting this hormone may have clinical benefit in these disease states. To this end, we have identified the first selective, nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. This compound is characterized by a tri-aryl methane core chemical structure. This GR-specific antagonist binds with nanomolar affinity to the GR and has no detectable binding affinity for the highly related receptors for mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We demonstrate that this antagonist inhibits glucocorticoid-mediated transcriptional regulation. This compound binds competitively with steroids, likely occupying a similar site within the ligand-binding domain. Once bound, however, the compound fails to induce critical conformational changes in the receptor necessary for agonist activity.

  20. Antiatherogenic properties of calcium antagonists. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, D B; Heider, J G

    1989-04-17

    Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease characterized by localized accumulation of collagen, elastin, lipids, and calcium at sites associated with macrophage infiltration and altered smooth muscle metabolism. Studies in several types of animal models, especially cholesterol-fed rabbits, have shown that calcium competitors, calcium chelators, anticalcifying agents, and calcium antagonists can reduce the accumulation of atherogenic lesion components and decrease the progression of lesions. Although there are some conflicting data in the animal model studies, it is now apparent that several classes of calcium antagonists inhibit the progression of early arterial lesions induced by cholesterol-feeding in animals. The dihydropyridine class of calcium antagonists may be more potent as anti-atherosclerotic agents than the other classes. Mechanisms involving regulation of endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, and macrophage metabolism may be responsible for the effects of calcium antagonists on early lesion progression. Recent studies in cell culture-model systems suggest that calcium antagonists may significantly alter activities that regulate lipoprotein-derived cholesterol accumulation by arterial wall cells. Some of these activities are independent of calcium flux across voltage-operated calcium channels. Thus, calcium antagonists may reduce the progression of atherogenic lesions by a combination of decreasing calcium accumulation within arterial wall cells and by altering calcium channel-independent metabolic activities, which affect lesion development.

  1. HIGH AFFINITY ACYLATING ANTAGONISTS FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Baumgold, Jesse; Karton, Yishai; Malka, Naftali; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine were derivitized as alkylamino derivatives at a site on the molecules corresponding to a region of bulk tolerance in receptor binding. The distal primary amino groups were coupled to the cross-linking reagent meta-phenylene diisothiocyanate, resulting in two isothiocyanate derivatives that were found to inhibit muscarinic receptors irreversibly and in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation of rat forebrain membranes with an isothiocyanate derivative followed by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine diminished the Bmax value, but did not affect the Kd value. The receptor binding site was not restored upon repeated washing, indicating that irreversible inhibition had occurred. IC50 values for the irreversible inhibition at rat forebrain muscarinic receptors were 0.15 nM and 0.19 nM, for derivatives of pirenzepine and telenzepine, respectively. The isothiocyanate derivative of pirenzepine was non-selective as an irreversible muscarinic inhibitor, and the corresponding derivative prepared from telenzepine was 5-fold selective for forebrain (mainly m1) vs. heart (m2) muscarinic receptors. PMID:1625525

  2. Discovery of indole alkaloids with cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Iwai, Masumi; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Iida, Mitsuru; Yabushita, Hisatoshi; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2011-04-01

    Three indole alkaloids, voacamine (1), 3,6-oxidovoacangine (2), and a new alkaloid, 5-hydroxy-3,6-oxidovoacangine (3), isolated from Voacanga africana were found to exhibit potent cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonistic activity. This is the first example of CB1 antagonists derived from natural alkaloids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Platelet-activating factor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Negro Alvarez, J M; Miralles López, J C; Ortiz Martínez, J L; Abellán Alemán, A; Rubio del Barrio, R

    1997-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine, exhibits potent proinflammatory properties. PAF is produced by numerous cell types, including endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils and mastocytes. Since the discovery and identification of the chemical structure of PAF, a large variety of specific PAF-receptor antagonists, both natural and synthetic compounds, have been described. Intensive research has been conducted and development programs set up by more 25 pharmaceutical companies world-wide, studying the therapeutic interest of more than 50 PAF-receptors antagonists in various pathophysiological conditions. Medline (1966-1996), Embase (Excerpta Medica; 1974-1996), and other biomedical and drug directory databases were searched to identify English-language articles (basic science, clinical trial research, and review articles) and abstracts of conference proceedings on PAF receptor antagonists and related terms. The most important PAF receptor antagonists are reviewed with their effectiveness in various experimental tests. Fundamentally, PAF antagonists may be divided in two groups: natural and synthetic compounds. Natural (Ginkgolides, Kadsurenone, Chantancin, Phomactin, Swietemohonin A, Prehispalone, THC-7-oic acid, Aglafoline, FR 900452, PCA 4248 and SCH 37370), and synthetic antagonists (CV-3988, CV-6209, SRI 63-072, SRI 63-441, UR-10324, UR-11353, E-5880, CL 184005, 6-Mono and Bis-aryl phosphate antagonists, TCV-309, Ro-74719, WEB 2086, Y 24180, BN 50726, BN 50727, BN 50730, BN 50739, Ro 24-4736, Ro 24-0238, RP 55778, RP 59227, RP 66681, YM 264, YM 461, SM 10661, SR 27417, UK 74505, BB 182, BB 823, BB 654, SDZ 64-412, SDZ 65-123, L 652731, L 659898, L 668750, L 671284, L680573, L 680574, CIS 19, ABT-299 and Pinusolide) have a great variability in their chemical structure that might have importance in their different pharmacological profile. The great majority of these

  4. Oxygen glucose deprivation causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cultivated rat hippocampal slices: protective effects of CsA, its immunosuppressive congener [D-Ser](8)CsA, the novel non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative Cs9, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801.

    PubMed

    Trumbeckaite, Sonata; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Arandarcikaite, Odeta; Röhnert, Peter; Vielhaber, Stefan; Malesevic, Miroslav; Fischer, Gunter; Seppet, Enn; Striggow, Frank; Gellerich, Frank Norbert

    2013-09-01

    We have introduced a sensitive method for studying oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced mitochondrial alterations in homogenates of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (slices) by high-resolution respirometry. Using this approach, we tested the neuroprotective potential of the novel non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin (CsA) derivative Cs9 in comparison with CsA, the immunosuppressive CsA analog [D-Ser](8)CsA, and MK 801, a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. OGD/reperfusion reduced the glutamate/malate dependent (and protein-related) state 3 respiration to 30% of its value under control conditions. All of the above drugs reversed this effect, with an increase to >88% of the value for control slices not exposed to OGD. We conclude that Cs9, [D-Ser](8)CsA, and MK 801, despite their different modes of action, protect mitochondria from OGD-induced damage.

  5. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a new series of 5,7-disubstituted-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine derivatives as adenosine receptor antagonists: A preliminary inspection of ligand–receptor recognition process

    PubMed Central

    Pastorin, Giorgia; Federico, Stephanie; Paoletta, Silvia; Corradino, Marta; Cateni, Francesca; Cacciari, Barbara; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Spalluto, Giampiero; Moro, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    A new series of triazolotriazines variously substituted at the C5 and N7 (5–25) positions was synthesized and fully characterized at the four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes. In particular, arylacetyl or arylcarbamoyl moieties were introduced at the N7 position, which enhanced affinity at the hA2B and hA3 ARs, respectively, when utilized on the pyrazolo-triazolopyrimidine nucleus as we reported in the past. In general, compounds with a free amino group at the 7 position (5, 6), showed good affinity at the rat (r) A2A AR (range 18.3–96.5 nM), while the introduction of a phenylcarbamoyl moiety at the N7 position (12, 19, 24) slightly increased the affinity at the hA3 AR (range 311–633 nM) with respect to the unsubstituted derivatives. The binding profiles of the synthesized analogues seemed to correlate with the substitutions at the C5 and N7 positions. At the hA2B AR, derivative 5, which contained a free amino group at the 7 position, was the most potent (EC50 3.42 μM) and could represent a starting point for searching new non-xanthine hA2B AR antagonists. Molecular models of the rA2A and hA3 ARs were constructed by homology to the recently reported crystallographic structure of the hA2A AR. A preliminary receptor-driven structure–activity relationship (SAR) based on the analysis of antagonist docking has been provided. PMID:20304654

  6. Distinct presynaptic metabotropic receptors for L-AP4 and CCG1 on GABAergic terminals: pharmacological evidence using novel alpha-methyl derivative mGluR antagonists, MAP4 and MCCG, in the rat thalamus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salt, T E; Eaton, S A

    1995-03-01

    A variety of metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors are present in the thalamus. We have investigated the possibility that some of these receptors may have presynaptic effects on GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the thalamus. Inhibitory responses in ventrobasal thalamic neurons of urethane-anaesthetized rats were evoked by either air-jet stimuli to the vibrissae or by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. Both intracellular and extracellular recording methods were used to reveal inhibitory responses, either as inhibitory postsynaptic potentials or inhibition of excitatory responses in a condition-test paradigm. The metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) and (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (CCG1), applied in the vicinity of the recording site by iontophoresis, were found to reduce the amplitudes of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (to 76% and 63% of control amplitudes, respectively) and inhibitions revealed by the condition-test paradigm (to 33% and 28% of control inhibitions, respectively). As the inhibitory responses arise from the neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami, some distance away from the site of recording and iontophoretic drug application, it is likely that the reduction of inhibition seen with L-AP4 and CCG1 is due to an action of these agonists on the terminals or axons of these inhibitory neurons. The novel antagonists of L-AP4 and CCG1, alpha-methyl-L-AP4 and alpha-methyl-CCG1, were found to block the disinhibitory actions of the agonists in a differential manner when applied iontophoretically. This suggests that there may be at least two types of receptor mediating the disinhibitory effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Novel morpholine scaffolds as selective dopamine (DA) D3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Cremonesi, Susanna; Semeraro, Teresa; Tarsi, Luca; Tomelleri, Silvia; Cavanni, Paolo; Oliosi, Beatrice; Perdonà, Elisabetta; Sava, Anna; Zonzini, Laura; Feriani, Aldo; Braggio, Simone; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-02-15

    A new series of morpholine derivatives has been identified as selective DA D3 receptor antagonists; their in vitro profile and pharmacokinetic data are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The antiatherogenic potential of calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, D B

    1988-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease characterized by focal accumulation of collagen, elastin, lipids, and calcium at sites associated with macrophage infiltration and altered smooth muscle metabolic function. Studies in several types of animal models, especially cholesterol-fed rabbits, have shown that calcium competitors, calcium chelators, anticalcifying agents, and calcium channel blockers can reduce the accumulation of atherogenic lesion components and thus apparently decrease the progression of lesions. Although there are some conflicting data in the animal model studies using calcium channel antagonists, as a result of differences in experimental designs, it is now apparent that several classes of calcium channel blockers inhibit the progression of early arterial lesions induced by cholesterol feeding. The dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers appear to be more potent antiatherosclerotic agents than other classes of calcium channel antagonists. Several mechanisms involving regulation of endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, and macrophage metabolic functions may be responsible for the calcium channel blocker effects on early lesion progression. For example, recent studies in cell culture model systems suggest that calcium channel blockers may significantly alter activities that regulate lipoprotein-derived cholesterol accumulation by cells. Some of these activities are independent of calcium flux across voltage-operated calcium channels. Thus, calcium channel blockers may reduce the progression of atherogenic lesions by a combination of decreasing calcium accumulation within arterial wall cells and by altering calcium-independent metabolic activities.

  9. Zebrafish phenotypic screen identifies novel Notch antagonists.

    PubMed

    Velaithan, Vithya; Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Ng, Mei Fong; Samat, Norazwana; Leong, Sze Wei; Faudzi, Siti Munirah Mohd; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Cheong, Sok Ching; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2017-04-01

    Zebrafish represents a powerful in vivo model for phenotype-based drug discovery to identify clinically relevant small molecules. By utilizing this model, we evaluated natural product derived compounds that could potentially modulate Notch signaling that is important in both zebrafish embryogenesis and pathogenic in human cancers. A total of 234 compounds were screened using zebrafish embryos and 3 were identified to be conferring phenotypic alterations similar to embryos treated with known Notch inhibitors. Subsequent secondary screens using HEK293T cells overexpressing truncated Notch1 (HEK293TΔE) identified 2 compounds, EDD3 and 3H4MB, to be potential Notch antagonists. Both compounds reduced protein expression of NOTCH1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in HEK293TΔE and downregulated Notch target genes. Importantly, EDD3 treatment of human oral cancer cell lines demonstrated reduction of Notch target proteins and genes. EDD3 also inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of ORL-150 cells through inducing p27(KIP1). Our data demonstrates the utility of the zebrafish phenotypic screen and identifying EDD3 as a promising Notch antagonist for further development as a novel therapeutic agent.

  10. Boosting Adaptive Immunity: A New Role for PAFR Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Marianna M.; Bizzarro, Bruna; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Rios, Francisco J.; Jancar, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor (PAFR) engagement in murine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) promotes a tolerogenic phenotype reversed by PAFR-antagonists treatment in vitro. Here, we investigated whether a PAFR antagonist would modulate the immune response in vivo. Mice were subcutaneously injected with OVA or OVA with PAFR-antagonist WEB2170 on days 0 and 7. On day 14, OVA–specific IgG2a and IgG1 were measured in the serum. The presence of WEB2170 during immunization significantly increased IgG2a without affecting IgG1 levels. When WEB2170 was added to OVA in complete Freund’s adjuvant, enhanced IgG2a but not IgG1 production was also observed, and CD4+ FoxP3+ T cell frequency in the spleen was reduced compared to mice immunized without the antagonist. Similar results were observed in PAFR-deficient mice, along with increased Tbet mRNA expression in the spleen. Additionally, bone marrow-derived DCs loaded with OVA were transferred into naïve mice and their splenocytes were co-cultured with fresh OVA-loaded DCs. CD4+ T cell proliferation was higher in the group transferred with DCs treated with the PAFR-antagonist. We propose that the activation of PAFR by ligands present in the site of immunization is able to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. PMID:27966635

  11. Potassium Channel Antagonists 4-Aminopyridine and the T-Butyl Carbamate Derivative of 4-Aminopyridine Improve Hind Limb Function in Chronically Non-Ambulatory Dogs; A Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hey; Muguet-Chanoit, Audrey C.; Smith, Daniel T.; Laber, Eric; Olby, Natasha J.

    2014-01-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) blocks voltage gated potassium channels, restoring conduction to demyelinated axons and improving function in demyelinating conditions, but its use is associated with adverse effects and benefit in spinal cord injury is limited. Derivatives of 4-AP have been developed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing toxicity. We compared the therapeutic effects of orally administered 4-AP and its t-butyl carbamate derivative (t-butyl) with placebo in dogs that had suffered an acute spinal cord injury that left them chronically paralyzed. Nineteen dogs were entered into the trial, conducted in two-week treatment blocks starting with placebo, followed by random assignment to 4-AP or t-butyl, a washout and then the opposite medication followed by placebo. Investigators and owners were blinded to treatment group. Primary outcome measures included open field gait score (OFS), and treadmill based stepping score and regularity index, with additional secondary measures also considered. Thirteen of 19 dogs completed the protocol. Two were euthanized due to unrelated heath problems, two developed side effects and two were unable to complete for unrelated reasons. Dogs showed significant improvement in supported stepping score (from 17.39 to 37.24% with 4-AP; 16.85 to 29.18% with t-butyl p<0.0001) and OFS (from 3.63 to 4.73 with 4-AP; 3.78 to 4.45 with t-butyl, p = 0.005). Response was individually variable and most dramatic in three dogs that were able to walk without support with treatment. No significant difference was found between 4-AP and t-butyl. No adverse effects were reported with t-butyl but gastrointestinal upset and seizures were observed in two dogs with 4-AP. In conclusion, both 4-AP and t-butyl significantly improved supported stepping ability in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury with no adverse effects noted with t-butyl. Drug response varied widely between individuals, highlighting the need to understand the factors that influence

  12. Pharmacophore generation, atom-based 3D-QSAR, HQSAR and activity cliff analyses of benzothiazine and deazaxanthine derivatives as dual A2A antagonists/MAO‑B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bhayye, S S; Roy, K; Saha, A

    2016-02-12

    Dual inhibition of A2A and MAO-B is an emerging strategy in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, atom-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR) models were generated with benzothiazine and deazaxanthine derivatives. Based on activity against A2A and MAO-B, two statistically significant 3D-QSAR models (r(2) = 0.96, q(2) = 0.76 and r(2) = 0.91, q(2) = 0.63) and HQSAR models (r(2) = 0.93, q(2) = 0.68 and r(2) = 0.97, q(2) = 0.58) were developed. In an activity cliff analysis, structural outliers were identified by calculating the Mahalanobis distance for a pair of compounds with A2A and MAO-B inhibitory activities. The generated 3D-QSAR and HQSAR models, activity cliff analysis, molecular docking and dynamic studies for dual target protein inhibitors provide key structural scaffolds that serve as building blocks in designing drug-like molecules for neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of antagonist and agonist interactions with dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Duarte, E P; Oliveira, C R; Carvalho, A P

    1988-03-01

    The binding of [3H]spiperone to dopamine D-2 receptors and its inhibition by antagonists and agonists were examined in microsomes derived from the sheep caudate nucleus, at temperatures between 37 and 1 degree C, and the thermodynamic parameters of the binding were evaluated. The affinity of the receptor for the antagonists, spiperone and (+)-butaclamol, decreased as the incubation temperature decreased; the affinity for haloperidol did not further decrease at temperatures below 15 degrees C. The binding of the antagonists was associated with very large increases in entropy, as expected for hydrophobic interactions. The enthalpy and entropy changes associated with haloperidol binding were dependent on temperature, in contrast to those associated with spiperone and (+)-butaclamol. The magnitude of the entropy increase associated with the specific binding of the antagonists did not correlate with the degree of lipophilicity of these drugs. The data suggest that, in addition to hydrophobic forces, other forces are also involved in the antagonist-dopamine receptor interactions, and that a conformational change of the receptor could occur when the antagonist binds. Agonist binding data are consistent with a two-state model of the receptor, a high-affinity state (RH) and a low-affinity state (RL). The affinity of dopamine binding to the RH decreased with decreasing temperatures below 20 degrees C, whereas the affinity for the RL increased at low temperatures. In contrast, the affinity of apomorphine for both states of receptor decreased as the temperature decreased from 30 to 8 degrees C. A clear distinction between the energetics of high-affinity and low-affinity agonist binding was observed. The formation of the high-affinity complex was associated with larger increases in enthalpy and entropy than the interaction with the low-affinity state was. The results suggest that the interaction of the receptor with the G-proteins, induced or stabilized by the binding of

  14. From Bioinactive ACTH to ACTH Antagonist: The Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghaddhab, Chiraz; Vuissoz, Jean-Marc; Deladoëy, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a pituitary hormone derived from a larger peptide, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), as are the MSHs (α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH) and the β-LPH-related polypeptides (Figure 1A). ACTH drives adrenal steroidogenesis and growth of the adrenal gland. ACTH is a 39 amino acid polypeptide that binds and activates its cognate receptor [melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)] through the two regions H6F7R8W9 and K15K16R17R18P19. Most POMC-derived polypeptides contain the H6F7R8W9 sequence that is conserved through evolution. This explains the difficulties in developing selective agonists or antagonists to the MCRs. In this review, we will discuss the clinical aspects of the role of ACTH in physiology and disease, and potential clinical use of selective ACTH antagonists. PMID:28228747

  15. Non-imidazole histamine NO-donor H3-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Cena, Clara; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Recently a series of H3-antagonists related to Imoproxifan was realised (I); in these products the oxime substructure of the lead was constrained in NO-donor furoxan systems and in the corresponding furazan derivatives. In this paper, a new series of compounds derived from I by substituting the imidazole ring with the ethoxycarbonylpiperazino moiety present in the non-imidazole H3-ligand A-923 is described. For all the products synthesis and preliminary pharmacological characterisation, as well as their hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, are reported. The imidazole ring replacement generally results in a decreased H3-antagonist activity with respect to the analogues of series I and, in some cases, induces relaxing effects on the electrically contracted guinea-pig ileum, probably due to increased affinity for other receptor systems.

  16. Human glucagon receptor antagonists based on alkylidene hydrazides.

    PubMed

    Ling, Anthony; Plewe, Michael; Gonzalez, Javier; Madsen, Peter; Sams, Christian K; Lau, Jesper; Gregor, Vlad; Murphy, Doug; Teston, Kimberly; Kuki, Atsuo; Shi, Shenghua; Truesdale, Larry; Kiel, Dan; May, John; Lakis, James; Anderes, Kenna; Iatsimirskaia, Eugenia; Sidelmann, Ulla G; Knudsen, Lotte B; Brand, Christian L; Polinsky, Alex

    2002-02-25

    A series of alkylidene hydrazide derivatives containing an alkoxyaryl moiety was optimized. The resulting hydrazide-ethers were competitive antagonists at the human glucagon receptor. Pharmacokinetic experiments showed fast clearance of most of the compounds tested. A representative compound [4-hydroxy-3-cyanobenzoic acid (4-isopropylbenzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxymethylene)hydrazide] with an IC50 value of 20 nM was shown to reduce blood glucose levels in fasted rats.

  17. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F; Evins, A. Eden; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Background The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be mediated through release of various neurotransmitters both centrally and systemically. People who smoke report positive effects such as pleasure, arousal, and relaxation as well as relief of negative affect, tension, and anxiety. Opioid (narcotic) antagonists are of particular interest to investigators as potential agents to attenuate the rewarding effects of cigarette smoking. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of opioid antagonists in promoting long-term smoking cessation. The drugs include naloxone and the longer-acting opioid antagonist naltrexone. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for trials of naloxone, naltrexone and other opioid antagonists and conducted an additional search of MEDLINE using ’Narcotic antagonists’ and smoking terms in April 2013. We also contacted investigators, when possible, for information on unpublished studies. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials comparing opioid antagonists to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We included in the meta-analysis only those trials which reported data on abstinence for a minimum of six months. We also reviewed, for descriptive purposes, results from short-term laboratory-based studies of opioid antagonists designed to evaluate psycho-biological mediating variables associated with nicotine dependence. Data collection and analysis We extracted data in duplicate on the study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. Abstinence at end of treatment was a secondary outcome. We extracted cotinine- or carbon monoxide-verified abstinence where available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis, pooling risk ratios using a Mantel

  18. Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists: Effects on Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many epithelial and endothelial cells express a cholinergic autocrine loop in which acetylcholine acts as a growth factor to stimulate cell growth. Cancers derived from these tissues similarly express a cholinergic autocrine loop and ACh secreted by the cancer or neighboring cells interacts with M3 muscarinic receptors expressed on the cancer cells to stimulate tumor growth. Primary proliferative pathways involve MAPK and Akt activation. The ability of muscarinic agonists to stimulate, and M3 antagonists to inhibit tumor growth has clearly been demonstrated for lung and colon cancer. The ability of muscarinic agonists to stimulate growth has been shown for melanoma, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, prostate and brain cancers, suggesting that M3 antagonists will also inhibit growth of these tumors as well. As yet no clinical trials have proven the efficacy of M3 antagonists as cancer therapeutics, though the widespread clinical use and low toxicity of M3 antagonists support the potential role of these drugs as adjuvants to current cancer therapies. PMID:22222710

  19. Mineralcorticoid antagonists in heart failure.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Emilia; Krum, Henry

    2014-10-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have become mandated therapy in patients with reduced ejection fraction (systolic) heart failure (HF) across all symptom classes. These agents should also be prescribed in the early post-myocardial infarction setting in those with reduced ejection fraction and either HF symptoms or diabetes. This article explores the pathophysiological role of aldosterone, an endogenous ligand for the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), and summarizes the clinical data supporting guideline recommendations for these agents in systolic HF. The use of MRAs in novel areas beyond systolic HF ejection is also explored. Finally, the current status of newer agents will be examined.

  20. NK-1 Antagonists and Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Luger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is an important mediator of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the skin. It targets multiple cells such as keratinocytes, mast cells, and fibroblasts which are involved in the cutaneous generation of pruritus. This suggests that SP is an interesting target for therapy. In fact, in recent case reports and case series, SP antagonists demonstrated a significant antipruritic effect in acute and chronic pruritus such as drug-induced pruritus, paraneoplastic pruritus, prurigo nodularis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and brachioradial pruritus.

  1. Heterocyclic 1,7-disubstituted indole sulfonamides are potent and selective human EP3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hategan, Georgeta; Polozov, Alexandre M; Zeller, Wayne; Cao, Hua; Mishra, Rama K; Kiselyov, Alex S; Ramirez, Jose; Halldorsdottir, Gudrún; Andrésson, Thornorkell; Gurney, Mark E; Singh, Jasbir

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a pharmacophore model for the EP(3) receptor antagonists based on its endogenous ligand PGE(2). This ligand-based design yielded a series of novel peri-substituted [4.3.0] bicyclic aromatics featuring 1-alklyaryl 7-heterocyclic sulfonamide substituents. The synthesized molecules are potent antagonists of human EP(3) receptor in vitro and show inhibition of rat platelets aggregation. Optimized derivatives display high selectivity over IP, FP, and other EP receptor panels.

  2. Vitamin K antagonists: beyond bleeding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Thilo; Floege, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in clinical use today. Indications range from prosthetic valve replacement to recurrent thromboembolic events due to antiphospholipid syndrome. In hemodialysis (HD) patients, warfarin use is even more frequent than in the nonrenal population due to increased cardiovascular comorbidities. The use of warfarin in dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation requires particular caution because side effects may outweigh the assumed benefit of reduced stroke rates. Besides increased bleeding risk, coumarins exert side effects which are not in the focus of clinical routine, yet they deserve special consideration in dialysis patients and should influence the decision of whether or not to prescribe vitamin K antagonists in cases lacking clear guidelines. Issues to be taken into consideration in HD patients are the induction or acceleration of cardiovascular calcifications, a 10-fold increased risk of calciphylaxis and problems related to maintaining a target INR range. New anticoagulants like direct thrombin inhibitors are promising but have not yet been approved for ESRD patients. Here, we summarize the nontraditional side effects of coumarins and give recommendations about the use of vitamin K antagonists in ESRD patients.

  3. Cholinergic antagonists in a solitary wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Piek, T; Mantel, P

    1986-01-01

    The venom of the solitary wasp Philanthus triangulum contains a cholinergic antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog, Xenopus laevis. The venom of African P. triangulum contains two different cholinergic factors, a competitive and a non-competitive antagonist. The venom of the European P. triangulum may not contain a competitive antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of X. laevis, but only a very strong non-competitive antagonist. The possible non-synonymity of both groups of P. triangulum is discussed.

  4. Antagonistic Coevolution of Marine Planktonic Viruses and Their Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Riemann, Lasse; Marston, Marcia F.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The potential for antagonistic coevolution between marine viruses and their (primarily bacterial) hosts is well documented, but our understanding of the consequences of this rapid evolution is in its infancy. Acquisition of resistance against co-occurring viruses and the subsequent evolution of virus host range in response have implications for bacterial mortality rates as well as for community composition and diversity. Drawing on examples from a range of environments, we consider the potential dynamics, underlying genetic mechanisms and fitness costs, and ecological impacts of virus-host coevolution in marine waters. Given that much of our knowledge is derived from laboratory experiments, we also discuss potential challenges and approaches in scaling up to diverse, complex networks of virus-host interactions. Finally, we note that a variety of novel approaches for characterizing virus-host interactions offer new hope for a mechanistic understanding of antagonistic coevolution in marine plankton.

  5. Antagonistic coevolution of marine planktonic viruses and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Jennifer B H; Riemann, Lasse; Marston, Marcia F; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The potential for antagonistic coevolution between marine viruses and their (primarily bacterial) hosts is well documented, but our understanding of the consequences of this rapid evolution is in its infancy. Acquisition of resistance against co-occurring viruses and the subsequent evolution of virus host range in response have implications for bacterial mortality rates as well as for community composition and diversity. Drawing on examples from a range of environments, we consider the potential dynamics, underlying genetic mechanisms and fitness costs, and ecological impacts of virus-host coevolution in marine waters. Given that much of our knowledge is derived from laboratory experiments, we also discuss potential challenges and approaches in scaling up to diverse, complex networks of virus-host interactions. Finally, we note that a variety of novel approaches for characterizing virus-host interactions offer new hope for a mechanistic understanding of antagonistic coevolution in marine plankton.

  6. A new alcohol antagonist: Phaclofen

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, A.M. ); Harris, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of the GABA{sub B} receptor antagonist, phaclofen to alter behavioral effects of ethanol was evaluated by loss of righting reflex (sleep time), motor incoordination (bar holding), spontaneous locomotion (open field activity) and hypothermia. Pretreatment with phaclofen significantly decreased the effects of ethanol on motor incoordination, locomotor activity and hypothermia. However, phaclofen had no effect on either pentobarbital- or diazepam-induced motor incoordination. Phaclofen slightly increased the ED{sub 50} for loss of the righting reflex but did not alter either the duration of reflex loss produced by ethanol or blood ethanol levels at awakening. Our results suggest phaclofen is rapidly inactivated resulting in difficulty in observing antagonism of long duration ethanol effects. These findings suggest that the GABA{sub B} system may play a role in mediating several important actions of ethanol.

  7. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of COPD pharmacological treatment. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a major class of inhaled bronchodilators. Some LAMA/device systems with different characteristics and dosing schedules are currently approved for maintenance therapy of COPD and a range of other products are being developed. They improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes and reduce acute bronchial exacerbations with good safety. LAMAs are used either alone or associated with long-acting β₂-agonists, eventually in fixed dose combinations. Long-acting β₂-agonist/LAMA combinations assure additional benefits over the individual components alone. The reader will obtain a view of the safety and efficacy of the different LAMA/device systems in COPD patients.

  8. Client Perceptions of Two Antagonist Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a questionnaire administered to participants in an antagonist drug outpatient clinic and an antagonist drug work-release program to obtain awareness of acceptance of the program participants. Naltrexone patients recommended an alternative method of administering the drug and changing the money system to award deserving inmates…

  9. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  10. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success.

  11. Antagonistic coevolution accelerates molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Steve; Vogwill, Tom; Buckling, Angus; Benmayor, Rebecca; Spiers, Andrew J.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Quail, Mike; Smith, Frances; Walker, Danielle; Libberton, Ben; Fenton, Andrew; Hall, Neil; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that coevolution of interacting species (such as hosts and parasites) should drive molecular evolution through continual natural selection for adaptation and counter-adaptation1–3. Although the divergence observed at some host-resistance4–6 and parasite-infectivity7–9 genes is consistent with this, the long time periods typically required to study coevolution have so far prevented any direct empirical test. Here we show, using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and its viral parasite, phage Φ2 (refs 10, 11), that the rate of molecular evolution in the phage was far higher when both bacterium and phage coevolved with each other than when phage evolved against a constant host genotype. Coevolution also resulted in far greater genetic divergence between replicate populations, which was correlated with the range of hosts that coevolved phage were able to infect. Consistent with this, the most rapidly evolving phage genes under coevolution were those involved in host infection. These results demonstrate, at both the genomic and phenotypic level, that antagonistic coevolution is a cause of rapid and divergent evolution, and is likely to be a major driver of evolutionary change within species. PMID:20182425

  12. Antianginal Actions of Beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Angina pectoris is usually the first clinical sign of underlying myocardial ischemia, which results from an imbalance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand in the heart. This report describes the pharmacology of β-adrenoceptor antagonists as it relates to the treatment of angina. The β-adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used in long-term maintenance therapy to prevent acute ischemic episodes in patients with chronic stable angina. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists competitively inhibit the binding of endogenous catecholamines to β1-adrenoceptors in the heart. Their anti-ischemic effects are due primarily to a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. By decreasing heart rate, myocardial contractility and afterload, β-adrenoceptor antagonists reduce myocardial workload and oxygen consumption at rest as well as during periods of exertion or stress. Predictable adverse effects include bradycardia and cardiac depression, both of which are a direct result of the blockade of cardiac β1-adrenoceptors, but adverse effects related to the central nervous system (eg, lethargy, sleep disturbances, and depression) may also be bothersome to some patients. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists must be used cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, and asthma or other obstructive airway diseases. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be used in combination with nitrates or calcium channel blockers, which takes advantage of the diverse mechanisms of action of drugs from each pharmacologic category. Moreover, concurrent use of β-adrenoceptor antagonists may alleviate the reflex tachycardia that sometimes occurs with other antianginal agents. PMID:17998992

  13. Affinity and selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wellstein, A.; Palm, D.; Belz, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The potency order of the catecholamines (-)-isoprenaline (Iso), (-)-noradrenaline (NA), and (-)-adrenaline (Adr) in competition for radiolabelled sites is used for their pharmacological classification. It is shown that the radioligand /sup 3/H-CGP 12177 exclusively labels beta 1-adrenoceptors in rat salivary gland membranes (Iso greater than NA greater than Adr), and beta 2-adrenoceptors in rat reticulocytes (Iso greater than Adr greater than or equal to NA). These models are then used to derive the subtype-selectivity of the classical beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (+/-)-propranolol (prop; twofold beta 2-selective) and (+/-)-atenolol (aten; 35-fold beta 1-selective), as well as of the newer antagonists (+/-)-betaxolol and (+/-)-bisoprolol (betax and biso; 35-fold and 75-fold beta 1-selective, respectively). The ligand with the highest selectivity is ICI 118,551 (ICI), with a 300-fold beta 2-subtype selectivity. For comparison with antagonistic effects in humans at given plasma concentrations, the equilibrium dissociation constants of the ligands are measured in the presence of native human plasma and yield values for the relative selectively labelled subtype in the mean (Ki-values in nmol/l): prop: 20, aten: 250, biso: 24, betax: 23, and ICI: 2.5.

  14. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Tolsma, Jochem; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Quillian, Lincoln

    2009-06-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermarriage by using diagonal mobility models. We test several hypotheses derived from ethnic competition theory and socialization theory with data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, waves 1995, 2000, and 2005) and The Netherlands Kinship and Panel Study (NKPS, wave 2002). We find that the relative influence of social origin and social destination depends on the specific origin and destination combination. If one moves to a more tolerant social destination position, the influence of the social origin position is negligible. If on the other hand, one is socially mobile to a less tolerant social position, the impact of the origin on antagonistic attitudes is substantial and may even exceed the impact of the destination category. This confirms our hypothesis that adaptation to more tolerant norms is easier than adaptation to less tolerant norms. We find only meagre evidence for the hypothesis that downward mobility leads to frustration and consequently to more antagonistic attitudes.

  15. Ago-antagonist theory in Darwinian evolution.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Armando; Freguglia, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a proposal on the essential structural aspects of Darwinian Evolution Theory. Using this point of view we apply a mathematical ago-antagonist theory inspired by Y. Cherruault's (1998) ideas, which we have extended. In the ago-antagonist model, the phenotype characters measure the individual propensity to perform an innovative x(t) (agonist) or conservative y(t) (antagonist) action with respect to mutation and to speciation process. We have mathematically introduced the conflict concept and we present a model that takes into account the environmental effects by means of a stochastic multiplicative process. We shortly discuss the properties of the related stochastic differential equations.

  16. Antagonists of the kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2014-05-01

    The research community has increasingly focused on the development of OPRK antagonists as pharmacotherapies for the treatment of depression, anxiety, addictive disorders and other psychiatric conditions produced or exacerbated by stress. Short-acting OPRK antagonists have been recently developed as a potential improvement over long-acting prototypic ligands including nor-BNI and JDTic. Remarkably the short-acting LY2456302 is undergoing phase II clinical trials for the augmentation of the antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression. This Letter reviews relevant chemical and pharmacological advances in the identification and development of OPRK antagonists.

  17. Plant Evolution: Evolving Antagonistic Gene Regulatory Networks.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Endymion D

    2016-06-20

    Developing a structurally complex phenotype requires a complex regulatory network. A new study shows how gene duplication provides a potential source of antagonistic interactions, an important component of gene regulatory networks.

  18. The Evolution of Sexually Antagonistic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Rowe, Locke

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs whenever there is sexually antagonistic selection on shared traits. When shared traits result from interactions (e.g., mating rate) and have a different genetic basis in each sex (i.e., interlocus conflict), then sex-specific traits that shift the value of these interaction traits toward the sex-specific optimum will be favored. Male traits can be favored that increase the fitness of their male bearers, but decrease the fitness of interacting females. Likewise, female traits that reduce the costs of interacting with harmful males may simultaneously impose costs on males. If the evolution of these antagonistic traits changes the nature of selection acting on the opposite sex, interesting coevolutionary dynamics will result. Here we examine three current issues in the study of sexually antagonistic interactions: the female side of sexual conflict, the ecological context of sexual conflict, and the strength of evidence for sexually antagonistic coevolution. PMID:26032715

  19. Emerging cardiovascular indications of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Yasir; Iqbal, Javaid; Pitt, Bertram; Adlam, David; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Zannad, Faiez

    2015-04-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism is a well-established treatment modality for patients with hypertension, heart failure, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) post-myocardial infarction (MI). There are emerging data showing potential benefits of MR antagonists in other cardiovascular conditions. Studies have shown association between MR activation and the development of myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review examines the preclinical and clinical data of MR antagonists for novel indications including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, valvular heart disease, metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and stroke. MR antagonists are not licensed for these conditions yet; however, emerging data suggest that indication for MR antagonists are likely to broaden; further studies are warranted.

  20. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist binding site. Part I: Active conformation of cyproheptadine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drooge, Marc J.; Donné-op den Kelder, Gabriëlle M.; Timmerman, Hendrik

    1991-08-01

    The active conformation of several histamine H1-antagonists is investigated. As a template molecule we used the antagonist cyproheptadine, which consists of a piperidylene ring connected to a tricyclic system. The piperidylene moiety is shown to be flexible. The global minimum is a chair conformation but, additionally, a second chair and various boat conformations have to be considered, as their energies are less than 5 kcal/mol above the energy of the global minimum. Two semi-rigid histamine H1-antagonists, phenindamine and triprolidine, were fitted onto the various conformations of cyproheptadine in order to derive the pharmacologically active conformation of cyproheptadine. At the same time, the active conformation of both phenindamine and triprolidine was derived. It is demonstrated that, within the receptor-bound conformation of cyproheptadine, the piperidylene ring most probably exists in a boat form.

  1. Macrophages: micromanagers of antagonistic signaling nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Christian; Davis, Simon J

    2017-04-03

    How cells integrate antagonistic receptor signaling events is enigmatic. Using superresolution optical microscopy, Lopes et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608094) demonstrate the nanometer-scale molecular reorganization of antagonistic signaling receptors in macrophages, after engagement by the receptors of activating and inhibitory ligands. They propose that large-scale rearrangements of this type underpin decision-making by these cells.

  2. Anticonvulsive effect of nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Kuder, Kamil; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Stark, Holger; Lażewska, Dorota; Adem, Abdu; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-06-01

    To determine the potential of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands as new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), aromatic ether, and diether derivatives (1-12) belonging to the nonimidazole class of ligands, with high in-vitro binding affinity at human H3R, were tested for their in-vivo anticonvulsive activity in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled seizure models in rats. The anticonvulsive effects of a systemic injection of 1-12 on MES-induced and PTZ-kindled seizures were evaluated against the reference AED phenytoin (PHT) and the structurally related H3R antagonist/inverse agonist pitolisant (PIT). Among the most promising ligands 2, 4, 5, and 11, there was a significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) in MES-induced seizure subsequent to administration of 4 and 5 [(5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. The protective effects observed for the 1-(3-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy)propyl)-3-methylpiperidine derivative 11 at 10 mg/kg, i.p. were significantly greater than those of PIT, and were reversed by pretreatment with the central nervous system penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the protective action of the reference AED PHT, at a dose of 5 mg/kg (without considerable protection in the MES model), was significantly augmented when coadministered with derivative 11 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Surprisingly, pretreatment with derivative 7 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), an ethylphenoxyhexyl-piperidine derivative without considerable protection in the MES model, potently altered PTZ-kindled seizure, significantly prolonged myoclonic latency time, and clearly shortened the total seizure time when compared with control, PHT, and PIT. These interesting results highlight the potential of H3R ligands as new AEDs or as adjuvants to available AED therapeutics.

  3. Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

  4. Calcium antagonists and atherosclerosis protection in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Rafael Hernández; Armas-Hernández, María José; Velasco, Manuel; Israili, Zafar H; Armas-Padilla, María Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Calcium antagonists are effective in hypertensive patients of all ethnic groups, irrespective of age, dietary salt intake, salt-sensitivity status or plasma renin activity profile. Some prospective studies show that the calcium antagonists, nifedipine GITS and nitrendipine, reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality at least to the same extent as the diuretics. Other prospective studies are in progress to evaluate the effect of calcium antagonists on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the progression of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients. Calcium antagonists, especially the highly lipophilic amlodipine, lacidipine and nisoldipine, are shown to possess antioxidant properties. These drugs reduce the oxidation of LDL and its influx into the arterial wall, and reduce atherosclerotic lesions in animals. Platelet production of malondialdehyde, a marker of oxygen free radical formation, is suppressed by amlodipine, lacidipine or nifedipine in hypertensive patients. New evidence from long-term clinical trials of calcium antagonists indicates that these drugs can reduce the rate of progression of atherosclerosis in hypertensive and coronary heart disease patients. In the Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study (REGRESS), co-administration of calcium antagonist, amlodipine or nifedipine with pravasatin caused a significant reduction in the appearance of new angiographic lesions. In the Verapamil in Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Study (VHAS), verapamil was more effective than chlorthalidone in promoting regression of thicker carotid lesions in parallel with a reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular events. In the Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Vascular Effects of Norvasc Trial (PREVENT), amlodipine slowed the progression of early coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. In a subprotocol of the Intervention as a Goal in the Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study, nifedipine GITS significantly decreased intima

  5. Embryo implantation and GnRH antagonists: embryo implantation: the Rubicon for GnRH antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, E R

    2000-06-01

    When gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was discovered, the agonist and antagonist of GnRH were developed to control the release of FSH and LH by the gonadotrophs. More than 10 years of research were needed to develop a GnRH antagonist free of histamine release. Recent studies have shown that these GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a rise in LH during ovarian stimulation in IVF. However, a decrease in ongoing pregnancies seems to suggest that implantation rates per transferred embryo are reduced in GnRH antagonist-stimulated cycles. In my opinion, these data highlight an area less well known to clinicians: the role of the GnRH antagonist at the cellular level in extrapituitary tissues. There are sufficient data in the literature suggesting that GnRH antagonist is an inhibitor of the cell cycle by decreasing the synthesis of growth factors. Given that, for folliculogenesis, blastomere formation and endometrium development, mitosis is everything; the interaction between the GnRH antagonist and the GnRH receptor (present in all these cells and tissues) may compromise the mitotic programme of these cells. This is the Rubicon for the GnRH antagonist: to demonstrate irrevocably that, at the minimal doses necessary to suppress LH release, it does not affect processes such as implantation, embryo development and folliculogenesis.

  6. Discovery of novel dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid based calcium sensing receptor antagonists for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gui-Bai; Zhou, Changyou; Huo, Xianghong; Wang, Hank; Yang, Xuelin; Huang, Shaoqiang; Wang, Haisheng; Wilkinson, Hilary; Luo, Lusong; Tang, Wei; Sutton, David; Li, Hong; Zaller, Dennis; Meinke, Peter T

    2016-08-15

    In a search for novel small molecule calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists as oral bone anabolic agents, we discovered dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid derivatives, such as 12f (IC50=27.6nM), are highly potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists. Studies in rats established that compound 12f stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) release in a fast-acting, pulsatile manner.

  7. [Antagonistic activity of novel green microalgae strain].

    PubMed

    Selivanova, E A; Ignatenko, M E; Nemtseva, N V

    2014-01-01

    Screening of novel microalgae strains for the presence of pronounced antagonistic (antibacterial) activity against opportunistic bacteria. 11 pure cultures of green unicellular algae isolated from fresh and salt basins of Orenburg region were studied for the presence of antagonistic activity against 4 test-strains of opportunistic bacteria by a photometric method. The effect of water extracts of microalgae Astermonas gracilis on the speed of self-purification of brine from Escherichia coli as well as antibacterial activity of peloid were evaluated under co-cultivation conditions. Pure cultures of green unicellular algae Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kütz, Scenedesmus magnus Meyen var. magnus, Pediastru duplex Meyen var. duplex, Chlorella vulgaris Bory, Monoraphidium arcuatum (Korschikov) Hindak (=Ankistrodesmus arcuatus Korschikov), Dictyosphaerium sp. had the most pronounced antagonistic activit against opportunistic bacteria. Water extract ofA. gracilis microalgae accelerated brine self-purification fro E. coli due to antibacterial effect. Peloid containing extracts of microorganism cells had a pronounced antibacterial effect against opportunistic bacteria. Antagonistic substances localized inside cells of microalgae increased the speed of allochthonic microorganism elimination that is one of the mechanisms of self-purification of a basin and antibacterial effect of peloid. The novel green microalgae strains studied due to the presence of pronounced antagonistic activity may have a wide practical application.

  8. Chemical communication in scarab beetles: reciprocal behavioral agonist-antagonist activities of chiral pheromones.

    PubMed Central

    Leal, W S

    1996-01-01

    A novel mechanism of reciprocal behavioral agonist-antagonist activities of enantiomeric pheromones plays a pivotal role in overcoming the signal-to-noise problem derived from the use of a single-constituent pheromone system in scarab beetles. Female Anomala osakana produce (S, Z)-5-(+)-(1-decenyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one, which is highly attractive to males; the response is completely inhibited even by 5% of its antipode. These two enantiomers have reverse roles in the Popillia japonica sex pheromone system. Chiral GC-electroantennographic detector experiments suggest that A. osakana and P. japonica have both R and S receptors that are responsible for behavioral agonist and antagonist responses. PMID:8901541

  9. Unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev from Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Kaneko, Masafumi; Shiomi, Atsushi; Yang, Guang-Ming; Yamaura, Toshiaki; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-03-15

    Bioassay-guided separation from the MeOH extract of the South American medicinal plant Sida cordifolia resulted in isolation of (10E,12Z)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (1) as an unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev. This mechanism of action was established by competitive experiment by the biotinylated probe derived from leptomycin B, the known NES antagonistic inhibitor. Additionally, structure-activity relationship analysis by use of the synthesized analogs clarified cooperation of several functionalities in the Rev-export inhibitory activity of 1.

  10. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. PMID:7568074

  11. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J; Spaltenstein, A

    1995-09-26

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats.

  12. Pharmacological analysis of CCK2 receptor antagonists using isolated rat stomach ECL cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Erik; Björkqvist, Maria; Håkanson, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    Gastrin stimulates rat stomach ECL cells to secrete histamine and pacreastatin, a chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptide. The present report describes the effect of nine cholecystokinin2 (CCK2) receptor antagonists and one CCK1 receptor antagonist on the gastrin-evoked secretion of pancreastatin from isolated ECL cells.The CCK2 receptor antagonists comprised three benzodiazepine derivatives L-740,093, YM022 and YF476, one ureidoacetamide compound RP73870, one benzimidazole compound JB 93182, one ureidoindoline compound AG041R and three tryptophan dipeptoids PD 134308 (CI988), PD135158 and PD 136450. The CCK1 receptor antagonist was devazepide.A preparation of well-functioning ECL cells (∼80% purity) was prepared from rat oxyntic mucosa using counter-flow elutriation. The cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1 nM gastrin; they were then washed and incubated with antagonist alone or with various concentrations of antagonist plus 10 nM gastrin (a maximally effective concentration) for 30 min. Gastrin dose-response curves were constructed in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of antagonist. The amount of pancreastatin secreted was determined by radioimmunoassay.The gastrin-evoked secretion of pancreastatin was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. YM022, AG041R and YF476 had IC50 values of 0.5, 2.2 and 2.7 nM respectively. L-740,093, JB93182 and RP73870 had IC50 values of 7.8, 9.3 and 9.8 nM, while PD135158, PD136450 and PD134308 had IC50 values of 76, 135 and 145 nM. The CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide was a poor CCK2 receptor antagonist with an IC50 of about 800 nM.YM022, YF476 and AG041R were chosen for further analysis. YM022 and YF476 shifted the gastrin dose-response curve to the right in a manner suggesting competitive antagonism, while the effects of AG041R could not be explained by simple competitive antagonism. pKB values were 11.3 for YM022, 10.8 for YF476 and the apparent pKB for AG041R was 10.4. PMID

  13. Functions of 5-HT2A receptor and its antagonists in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Takafumi; Rashid, Mamunur; Abul Muntasir, Habib; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2004-10-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have conventionally been divided into seven subfamilies, most of which have several subtypes. Among them, 5-HT(2A) receptor is associated with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and coronary artery spasms. Accordingly, selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists may have potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, has been introduced clinically as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic diseases associated with thrombosis. Molecular modeling studies also suggest that sarpogrelate is a 5-HT(2A) selective antagonist and is likely to have pharmacological effects beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review describes the above findings as well as the signaling linkages of the 5-HT(2A) receptors and the mode of agonist binding to 5-HT(2A) receptor using data derived from molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

  14. Development of selective agonists and antagonists of P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; de Castro, Sonia; Harden, T. Kendall; Ko, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Although elucidation of the medicinal chemistry of agonists and antagonists of the P2Y receptors has lagged behind that of many other members of group A G protein-coupled receptors, detailed qualitative and quantitative structure–activity relationships (SARs) were recently constructed for several of the subtypes. Agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors are now known. Selective nonnucleotide antagonists were reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, and P2Y13 receptors. At the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, nucleotide agonists (5′-diphosphate derivatives) were converted into antagonists of nanomolar affinity by altering the phosphate moieties, with a focus particularly on the ribose conformation and substitution pattern. Nucleotide analogues with conformationally constrained ribose-like rings were introduced as selective receptor probes for P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors. Screening chemically diverse compound libraries has begun to yield new lead compounds for the development of P2Y receptor antagonists, such as competitive P2Y12 receptor antagonists with antithrombotic activity. Selective agonists for the P2Y4, P2Y11, and P2Y13 receptors and selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors have not yet been identified. The P2Y14 receptor appears to be the most restrictive of the class with respect to modification of the nucleobase, ribose, and phosphate moieties. The continuing process of ligand design for the P2Y receptors will aid in the identification of new clinical targets. PMID:18600475

  15. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists as potent modulators of mammalian vestibular primary neuron excitability

    PubMed Central

    Desmadryl, G; Gaboyard-Niay, S; Brugeaud, A; Travo, C; Broussy, A; Saleur, A; Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, J; Wersinger, E; Chabbert, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Betahistine, the main histamine drug prescribed to treat vestibular disorders, is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Here, we explored the potential for modulation of the most recently cloned histamine receptor (H4 receptor) to influence vestibular system function, using a selective H4 receptor antagonist JNJ 7777120 and the derivate compound JNJ 10191584. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RT-PCR was used to assess the presence of H4 receptors in rat primary vestibular neurons. In vitro electrophysiological recordings and in vivo behavioural approaches using specific antagonists were employed to examine the effect of H4 receptor modulation in the rat vestibular system. KEY RESULTS The transcripts of H4 and H3 receptors were present in rat vestibular ganglia. Application of betahistine inhibited the evoked action potential firing starting at micromolar range, accompanied by subsequent strong neuronal depolarization at higher concentrations. Conversely, reversible inhibitory effects elicited by JNJ 10191584 and JNJ 7777120 began in the nanomolar range, without inducing neuronal depolarization. This effect was reversed by application of the selective H4 receptor agonist 4-methylhistamine. Thioperamide, a H3/H4 receptor antagonist, exerted effects similar to those of H3 and H4 receptor antagonists, namely inhibition of firing at nanomolar range and membrane depolarization above 100 µM. H4 receptor antagonists significantly alleviated the vestibular deficits induced in rats, while neither betahistine nor thioperamide had significant effects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H4 receptor antagonists have a pronounced inhibitory effect on vestibular neuron activity. This result highlights the potential role of H4 receptors as pharmacological targets for the treatment of vestibular disorders. PMID:22624822

  16. Antagonistic Interactions among Marine Pelagic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard A.; Azam, Farooq

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that bacterial abundance and species diversity in the ocean's water column are variable at the millimeter scale, apparently in response to the small-scale heterogeneity in the distribution of organic matter. We hypothesized that bacterium-bacterium antagonistic interactions may contribute to variations in community structure at the microscale. We examined each of the 86 isolates for their inhibition of growth of the remaining 85 isolates by the Burkholder agar diffusion assay. More than one-half of the isolates expressed antagonistic activity, and this trait was more common with particle-associated bacteria than with free-living bacteria. This was exemplified by members of the α subclass of the class Proteobacteria (α-proteobacteria), in which production of antagonistic molecules was dominated by attached bacteria. We found that γ-proteobacteria (members of the orders Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) are the most prolific producers of inhibitory materials and also the most resilient to them, while members of the Bacteriodetes were the organisms that were least productive and most sensitive to antagonistic interactions. Widespread interspecies growth inhibition is consistent with the role of this phenomenon in structuring bacterial communities at the microscale. Furthermore, our results suggest that bacteria from pelagic marine particles may be an underutilized source of novel antibiotics. PMID:11679315

  17. Topical interleukin-1 receptor antagonist inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration into the cornea.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, W Michael; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Medeiros, Fabricio W; Mohan, Rajiv R; Sinha, Sunilima; Wilson, Steven E

    2008-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1alpha and beta are important modulators of many functions of corneal epithelial and stromal cells that occur following injury to the cornea, including the influx of bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells into the stroma attracted by chemokines released from the stroma and epithelium. In this study, we examined the effect of topical soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist on bone marrow-derived cell influx following corneal epithelial scrape injury in a mouse model. C57BL/6 mice underwent corneal epithelial scrape followed by application of IL-1 receptor antagonist (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA) at a concentration of 20 mg/ml or vehicle for 24 h prior to immunocytochemical detection of marker CD11b-positive cells into the stroma. In two experiments, topical IL-1 receptor antagonist had a marked effect in blocking cell influx. For example, in experiment 1, topical IL-1 receptor antagonist markedly reduced detectible CD11b-positive cells into the corneal stroma at 24h after epithelial injury compared with the vehicle control (3.5+/-0.5 (standard error of the mean) cells/400x field and 13.9+/-1.2 cells/400x field, respectively, p<0.01). A second experiment with a different observer performing cell counting had the same result. Thus, the data demonstrate conclusively that topical IL-1 receptor antagonist markedly down-regulates CD-11b-positive monocytic cell appearance in the corneal stroma. Topical IL-1 receptor antagonist could be an effective adjuvant for clinical treatment of corneal conditions in which unwanted inflammation has a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  18. The evolution of histamine H₃ antagonists/inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Lebois, Evan P; Jones, Carrie K; Lindsley, Craig W

    2011-01-01

    This article describes our efforts along with recent advances in the development, biological evaluation and clinical proof of concept of small molecule histamine H₃ antagonists/inverse agonists. The H3 receptor is a presynaptic autoreceptor within the Class A GPCR family, but also functions as a heteroreceptor modulating levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate. Thus, H₃R has garnered a great deal of interest from the pharmaceutical industry for the possible treatment of obesity, epilepsy, sleep/wake, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain and ADHD. Within the two main classes of H₃ ligands, both imidazole and non-imidazole derived, have shown sufficient potency and specificity which culminated with efficacy in preclinical models for various CNS disorders. Importantly, conserved elements have been identified within the small molecule H₃ ligand scaffolds that resulted in a highly predictive pharmacophore model. Understanding of the pharmacophore model has allowed several groups to dial H₃R activity into scaffolds designed for other CNS targets, and engender directed polypharmacology. Moreover, Abbott, GSK, Pfizer and several others have reported positive Phase I and/or Phase II data with structurally diverse H₃R antagonists/inverse agonists.

  19. Quinidine as a muscarinic antagonist: a structural approach.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowicz-Rutkowska, M; Oleksyn, B J; Suszko-Purzycka, A; Lipińska, T

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characteristics, and single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of quitenidine methyl ester monohydrate, a derivative of the muscarinic antagonist quinidine, are presented. Quitenidine methyl ester monohydrate (C20H24N2O4.H2O) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 16.69(3) A, b = 12.46(2) A, c = 9.70(1) A, and Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a discrepancy factor (R) of 0.097. Substitution of the quinidine vinyl chain with a carboxymethyl group does not influence the conformation. The carboxymethyl group is positionally disordered, a fact that complicates refinement of the structure. The water molecule is bonded to the quinuclidine nitrogen atom, and the hydroxyl group forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the quinoline nitrogen atom. The molecular structure of the ester was compared with those of quinidine, quinine, and four other antimuscarinic agents. An approximately linear relationship between the distance from the nonaromatic nitrogen to the plane of the aromatic part of the molecules and the blocking potency of these agents was noted; the greater this distance, the more potent is the antagonist.

  20. Synthesis and biological activities of dynorphin A analogues with opioid antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Gairin, J E; Mazarguil, H; Alvinerie, P; Saint-Pierre, S; Meunier, J C; Cros, J

    1986-10-01

    Dynorphin A, which displays a wide variety of physiological effects, binds to opioid receptors preferentially at the kappa receptor type. kappa-selective antagonists would be very useful as pharmacological and biochemical probes to study and better understand the action of dynorphin A at its preferred receptor. However, the development of such molecules has been elusive, and very few are known at this time. Taking these features into account, we have synthesized by the solid-phase procedure several analogues of dynorphin A containing various D-amino acid substitutions. The binding properties of the peptides have been examined at three main opioid binding sites (mu, delta, and kappa) and their kappa selectivity determined. Their biological activities have been tested in three specific pharmacological assays for agonist and/or antagonist properties. Introduction of D-Trp substitution leads to analogues, in particular [D- Trp2,8,D-Pro10]-, [D-Trp5,8,D-Pro10]-, and [D-Trp2,4,8,D-Pro10]dynorphin(1-11), showing antagonist properties in the isolated rabbit vas deferens preparation, a kappa specific bioassay. The antagonism against dynorphin A is weak, as indicated by the observed Ke values (433, 199, and 293 nM, respectively), and not very selective (kappa vs. mu). Such peptide analogues derived from the endogenous ligand and endowed with antagonist properties are the first ones reported to date and could open a promising way in designing more potent and selective kappa opioid antagonists.

  1. Characterization of a new CCK antagonist, L364,718: In vitro and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, D.S.; Liang, Jiang Ping; Owyang, Chung )

    1988-09-01

    In this study the authors examined a novel, orally effective, nonpeptidal cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, 3S(-)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-3-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (L364,718) on CCK-induced amylase release. They used isolated rat pancreatic acini and incubated them with CCK-8 with or without various CCK receptor antagonists. L364,718, proglumide, and the proglumide derivative CR1409 each caused a progressive rightward shift in the CCK-8-dose-response curve without a change in maximal amylase secretion. L364,718 was 600-fold more potent than CR1409 and 2,000,000-fold more potent than proglumide in inhibiting CCK-8-induced amylase release. Inhibition of {sup 125}I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK-8 binding to acini by these receptor antagonists had a similar rank potency. L364,718 was tested against other pancreatic exocrine secretagogues and was effective against agonists that only act through the CCK receptor. To verify that L364,718 is an effective receptor antagonists against the various molecular forms of CCK released endogenously in humans, postprandial plasma CCK was extracted and bioassayed using amylase release from isolated pancreatic acini. Thus L364,718 is the most potent, selective peripheral CCK receptor antagonist reported to data, and it is capable of antagonizing the stimulatory action of exogenously as well as endogenously released CCK to evoke amylase release from pancreatic acini.

  2. Therapeutic potential of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 antagonists as multifunctional agents.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ohashi, Nami; Masuno, Hiroyuki; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Hiramatsu, Kenichi; Araki, Takanobu; Ueda, Satoshi; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2007-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 possesses multiple critical functions in normal and pathologic physiology. CXCR4 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that transduces signals of its endogenous ligand, the chemokine CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1). The interaction between CXCL12 and CXCR4 plays an important role in the migration of progenitors during embryologic development of the cardiovascular, hemopoietic, central nervous systems, and so on. This interaction is also known to be involved in several intractable disease processes, including HIV infection, cancer cell metastasis, leukemia cell progression, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and pulmonary fibrosis. It is conjectured that this interaction may be a critical therapeutic target in all of these diseases, and several CXCR4 antagonists have been proposed as potential drugs. Fourteen-mer peptides, T140 and its analogues, were previously developed in our laboratory as specific CXCR4 antagonists that were identified as HIV-entry inhibitors, anti-cancer-metastatic agents, anti-chronic lymphocytic/acute lymphoblastic leukemia agents, and anti-RA agents. Cyclic pentapeptides, such as FC131 [cyclo(D-Tyr-Arg-Arg-L-3-(2-naphthyl)alanine-Gly)], were also previously found as CXCR4 antagonist leads based on pharmacophores of T140. This review article describes the elucidation of multiple functions of CXCR4 antagonists and the development of a number of low-molecular weight CXCR4 antagonists involving FC131 analogues and other compounds with different scaffolds including linear-type structures.

  3. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions among predators.

    PubMed

    Huxel, Gary R

    2007-08-01

    The structure and dynamics of food webs are largely dependent upon interactions among consumers and their resources. However, interspecific interactions such as intraguild predation and interference competition can also play a significant role in the stability of communities. The role of antagonistic/synergistic interactions among predators has been largely ignored in food web theory. These mechanisms influence predation rates, which is one of the key factors regulating food web structure and dynamics, thus ignoring them can potentially limit understanding of food webs. Using nonlinear models, it is shown that critical aspects of multiple predator food web dynamics are antagonistic/synergistic interactions among predators. The influence of antagonistic/synergistic interactions on coexistence of predators depended largely upon the parameter set used and the degree of feeding niche differentiation. In all cases when there was no effect of antagonism or synergism (a ( ij )=1.00), the predators coexisted. Using the stable parameter set, coexistence occurred across the range of antagonism/synergism used. However, using the chaotic parameter strong antagonism resulted in the extinction of one or both species, while strong synergism tended to coexistence. Whereas using the limit cycle parameter set, coexistence was strongly dependent on the degree of feeding niche overlap. Additionally increasing the degree of feeding specialization of the predators on the two prey species increased the amount of parameter space in which coexistence of the two predators occurred. Bifurcation analyses supported the general pattern of increased stability when the predator interaction was synergistic and decreased stability when it was antagonistic. Thus, synergistic interactions should be more common than antagonistic interactions in ecological systems.

  4. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  5. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  6. Progress in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 antagonist development

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists have been sought since the stress-secreted peptide was isolated in 1981. Although evidence suggests the limited efficacy of CRF1 antagonists as antidepressants, CRF1 antagonists might be novel pharmacotherapies for anxiety and addiction. Progress in understanding the two-domain model of ligand–receptor interactions for CRF family receptors might yield chemically novel CRF1 receptor antagonists, including peptide CRF1 antagonists, antagonists with signal transduction selectivity and nonpeptide CRF1 antagonists that act via the extracellular (rather than transmembrane) domains. Novel ligands that conform to prevalent pharmacophore and exhibit drug-like pharmacokinetic properties have been identified. The therapeutic utility of CRF1 antagonists should soon be clearer: several small molecules are currently in Phase II/III clinical trials for depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:20206287

  7. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphins are micro-opioid receptor antagonists lacking inverse agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Li, Tingyou; Bryant, Sharon D; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) binding assays and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cell membranes obtained from vehicle, morphine, and ethanol-treated SK-N-SH cells and brain membranes isolated from naive and morphine-dependent mice; their mode of action was compared with naloxone or naltrexone, which both are standard nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonists. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2 were neutral antagonists under all of the experimental conditions examined, in contrast to naloxone and naltrexone, which behave as neutral antagonists only in membranes from vehicle-treated cells and mice but act as inverse agonists in membranes from morphine- and ethanol-treated cells as well as morphine-treated mice. Both endomorphin analogs inhibited the naloxone- and naltrexone-elicited withdrawal syndromes from acute morphine dependence in mice. This suggests their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse without the adverse effects observed with inverse agonist alkaloid-derived compounds that produce severe withdrawal symptoms.

  8. Halogenation of a capsaicin analogue leads to novel vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Appendino, Giovanni; Harrison, Selena; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Trevisani, Marcello; Benvenuti, Francesca; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The C-5 halogenation of the vanillyl moiety of resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent agonist of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors, results in a potent antagonist for these receptors. Here, we have synthesized a series of halogenated derivatives of ‘synthetic capsaicin' (nonanoyl vanillamide=nordihydrocapsaicin) differing for the nature (iodine, bromine–chlorine) and the regiochemistry (C-5, C-6) of the halogenation.The activity of these compounds was investigated on recombinant human TRPV1 receptors overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. None of the six compounds exerted any significant agonist activity, as assessed by measuring their effect on TRPV1-mediated calcium mobilization. Instead, all compounds antagonized, to various extents, the effect of capsaicin in this assay.All 6-halo-nordihydrocapsaicins behaved as competitive antagonists against human TRPV1 according to the corresponding Schild's plots, and were more potent than the corresponding 5-halogenated analogues. The iodo-derivatives were more potent than the bromo- and chloro-derivatives.Using human recombinant TRPV1, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin (IC50=10 nM against 100 nM capsaicin) was about four times more potent than the prototypical TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and was tested against capsaicin also on native TRPV1 in: (i) rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture; (ii) guinea-pig urinary bladder; and (iii) guinea-pig bronchi. In all cases, except for the guinea-pig bronchi, the compound was significantly more potent than capsazepine as a TRPV1 antagonist.In conclusion, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin, a stable and easily prepared compound, is a potent TRPV1 antagonist and a convenient replacement for capsazepine in most of the in vitro preparations currently used to assess the activity of putative vanilloid receptor agonists. PMID:12922928

  9. High-Throughput Screening of Small Molecules Identifies Hepcidin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Eileen; Sugianto, Priscilla; Hsu, Jason; Damoiseaux, Robert; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Anemia of inflammation (AI) is common in patients with infection, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. Unless the underlying condition can be reversed, treatment options are limited to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents with or without intravenous iron therapy, modalities that are not always effective and can cause serious adverse effects. Hepcidin, the iron regulatory hormone, has been identified as a pathogenic factor in the development of AI. To explore new therapeutic options for AI and other iron-related disorders caused by hepcidin excess, we developed a cell-based screen to identify hepcidin antagonists. Of the 70,000 small molecules in the library, we identified 14 compounds that antagonized the hepcidin effect on ferroportin. One of these was fursultiamine, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved thiamine derivative. Fursultiamine directly interfered with hepcidin binding to its receptor, ferroportin, by blocking ferroportin C326 thiol residue essential for hepcidin binding. Consequently, fursultiamine prevented hepcidin-induced ferroportin ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in vitro and allowed continuous cellular iron export despite the presence of hepcidin, with IC50 in the submicromolar range. Thiamine, the fursultiamine metabolite, and benfotiamine, another thiamine derivative, did not interfere with the effect of hepcidin on ferroportin. Other FDA-approved thiol-reactive compounds were at least 1000-fold less potent than fursultiamine in antagonizing hepcidin. In vivo, fursultiamine did not reproducibly antagonize the effect of hepcidin on serum iron, likely because of its rapid conversion to inactive metabolites. Fursultiamine is a unique antagonist of hepcidin in vitro that could serve as a template for the development of drug candidates that inhibit the hepcidin-ferroportin interaction. PMID:23292796

  10. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to

  11. Novel benzimidazole-based MCH R1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Andrew J; Al-Barazanji, Kamal A; Barvian, Kevin K; Bishop, Michael J; Britt, Christy S; Cooper, Joel P; Goetz, Aaron S; Grizzle, Mary K; Hertzog, Donald L; Ignar, Diane M; Morgan, Ronda O; Peckham, Gregory E; Speake, Jason D; Swain, Will R

    2006-10-01

    The identification of an MCH R1 antagonist screening hit led to the optimization of a class of benzimidazole-based MCH R1 antagonists. Structure-activity relationships and efforts to optimize pharmacokinetic properties are detailed along with the demonstration of the effectiveness of an MCH R1 antagonist in an animal model of obesity.

  12. Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    a novel hypocretiniorexin antagonist, almorexant (ALM), to a standard hypnotic , zolpidem (ZOL), and placebo (PBO) on neurocognitive performance at...Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Parallel- Group Study Comparing the Effect of a Novel HypocretiniOrexin Antagonist (Almorexant) Versus a Standard Hypnotic ...Group Study Comparing the Effect of a Novel HypocretiniOrexin Antagonist (Almorexant) Versus a Standard Hypnotic (Zolpidem) and Placebo on

  13. SSTR-mediated Breast Cancer Imaging: Is There A Role For Radiolabeled SSTR Antagonists?

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Haeck, Joost; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; de Blois, Erik; de Jong, Marion; van Deurzen, Carolien

    2017-04-27

    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies showed enhanced tumor targeting by novel somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists compared to clinically widely used agonists. However, these results have mostly been obtained in neuroendocrine tumors and only limited data is available for cancer types with lower SSTR expression, including breast cancer (BC). To date, only two studies reported higher binding of the antagonist versus the agonist in BC, but in both studies a limited number of cases were evaluated. In this pre-clinical study, we further investigated whether the application of a SSTR antagonist could improve SSTR-mediated BC imaging in a large panel of BC specimens. We also generated an in vivo BC mouse model and performed single-photon emission computed tomography/Magnetic resonance imaging (SPECT/MRI) and biodistribution studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS:(111)In-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate (SSTR agonist) and (111)In-DOTA-JR11 (SSTR antagonist) binding to 40 human BC specimens was compared using in vitro autoradiography. SSTR2-immunostaining was performed to confirm SSTR2 expression of the tumor cells. Furthermore, binding of the radiolabeled SSTR agonist and antagonist was analyzed in tissue material from 6 patient derived xenografts (pdx's). One pdx, the estrogen receptor positive model T126, was chosen to generate in vivo mouse models containing orthotopic breast tumors for in vivo SPECT/MR imaging and biodistribution studies after injection with (177)Lu-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate or (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11. RESULTS:(111)In-DOTA-JR11 binding to human BC tissue was significantly higher than (111)In-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate binding (p<0.001). The median (interquartile range) ratio of the antagonist versus the agonist binding was 3.39 (2-5)). SSTR2-immunostaining confirmed SSTR2 expression in the tumor cells. SPECT/MR imaging performed in the mouse model resulted in better tumor visualization with the antagonist. This was in line with the significantly higher tumor uptake of the radiolabeled

  14. The treatment of hyponatraemia using vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Gross, P; Palm, C

    2000-03-01

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent electrolyte disorder. It is primarily attributable to vasopressin excess plus sustained fluid intake. Hyponatraemia causes CNS symptoms, especially during the first 2-4 days; these symptoms are related to brain swelling. Hyponatraemia occurs in the setting of liver cirrhosis and congestive cardiac failure, in which it is related to stimulation by low arterial blood pressure acting through baroreceptors. Hyponatraemia also occurs in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, usually from neoplasms releasing vasopressin. The conventional treatment of hyponatraemia used to be fluid restriction and treatment of the underlying disorder. This kind of treatment has been unreliable, cumbersome and difficult to comply with for the patient. In the future, effective vasopressin V2 antagonists will become available for clinical use in the treatment of hyponatraemia, and are expected to improve the management of hyponatraemia. Pharmacological characteristics and observations of biological effects of three antagonists are reported in the present article.

  15. Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

  16. [PAF antagonistic benzofuran neolignans from Piper kadsura].

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Han, G Q; Wang, Y Y

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing search for PAF antagonists, five benzofuran neolignans have been isolated from the aerial part of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, a Chinese traditional drug used for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatic conditions. The structure determination was based upon spectroscopic analysis. Two of the neolignans were found to have new structures and were named as (-)-denudatin B (the enantiomer of denudatin B, II) and kadsurenin M (7S,8S-3,4,3'-trimethoxy-7'-oxo-nor-8',9'-7.O. 4',8,5'-neolignan, V). The known compounds kadsurenon (I), (-)-acuminatin(III) and (+)-licarin A(IV) were also obtained from the same source. (-)-Denudatin B (II) showed potent PAF antagonistic activity in 3H-PAF receptor binding assay.

  17. Synthesis of Novel Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Using Metal-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions and Characterization of Their Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiang-Rong; Wang, Pan; Smith, Carolyn L.; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists are valuable in the treatment of ER-positive human breast cancer. In this study, we designed and synthesized nine new derivatives of 17β-estradiol (E2) with a bulky side chain attached to its C-7α position, and determined their ER antagonistic activity using in vitro bioassays. Four of the derivatives showed a strong inhibition of ERα transactivation activity in a luciferase reporter assay and blocked ERα interactions with coactivators. Similarly, these derivatives also strongly inhibited the growth of the ERα-positive human breast cancer cells. Computational docking analysis was conducted to model the interaction of these antagonists with the human ERα, and showed that they could tightly bind to the ERα in a similar manner as ICI-182,780, a pure ER antagonist. These results provide an example that attachment of a bulky side chain to the C-7α position of E2 can produce ER antagonists with comparable ER affinity as ICI-182,780. PMID:23448346

  18. Interactions of Freshwater Cyanobacteria with Bacterial Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sara; Grabherr, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1:1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes were highly expressed in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs in coculture expressed genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction, and putative lytic activity. l,d-Transpeptidase was the only significantly upregulated lytic gene in Stenotrophomonas rhizophila EK20. Heterotrophs also shifted their central metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the glyoxylate shunt. Concurrently, cyanobacteria clearly show contrasting antagonistic interactions with the four tested heterotrophic strains, which is also reflected in the physical attachment to their cells. In conclusion, antagonistic interactions with cyanobacteria were initiated within 24 h, and expression profiles suggest varied responses for the different cyanobacteria and studied cyanolytes. IMPORTANCE Here, we present how gene expression profiles can be used to reveal interactions between bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacteria and antagonistic heterotrophic bacteria. Species

  19. TRPV1 antagonists as potential antitussive agents.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Robbie L; Correll, Craig C; Jia, Yanlin; Anthes, John C

    2008-01-01

    Cough is an important defensive pulmonary reflex that removes irritants, fluids, or foreign materials from the airways. However, when cough is exceptionally intense or when it is chronic and/or nonproductive it may require pharmacologic suppression. For many patients, antitussive therapies consist of OTC products with inconsequential efficacies. On the other hand, the prescription antitussive market is dominated by older opioid drugs such as codeine. Unfortunately, "codeine-like" drugs suppress cough at equivalent doses that also often produce significant ancillary liabilities such as GI constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression. Thus, the discovery of a novel and effective antitussive drug with an improved side effect profile relative to codeine would fulfill an unmet clinical need in the treatment of cough. Afferent pulmonary nerves are endowed with a multitude of potential receptor targets, including TRPV1, that could act to attenuate cough. The evidence linking TRPV1 to cough is convincing. TRPV1 receptors are found on sensory respiratory nerves that are important in the generation of the cough reflex. Isolated pulmonary vagal afferent nerves are responsive to TRPV1 stimulation. In vivo, TRPV1 agonists such as capsaicin elicit cough when aerosolized and delivered to the lungs. Pertinent to the debate on the potential use of TRPV1 antagonist as antitussive agents are the observations that airway afferent nerves become hypersensitive in diseased and inflamed lungs. For example, the sensitivity of capsaicin-induced cough responses following upper respiratory tract infection and in airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma and COPD is increased relative to that of control responses. Indeed, we have demonstrated that TRPV1 antagonism can attenuate antigen-induced cough in the allergic guinea pig. However, it remains to be determined if the emerging pharmacologic profile of TRPV1 antagonists will translate into a novel human antitussive drug. Current

  20. Interactions of Freshwater Cyanobacteria with Bacterial Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Osman, Omneya Ahmed; Beier, Sara; Grabherr, Manfred; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1:1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes were highly expressed in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs in coculture expressed genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction, and putative lytic activity. l,d-Transpeptidase was the only significantly upregulated lytic gene in Stenotrophomonas rhizophila EK20. Heterotrophs also shifted their central metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the glyoxylate shunt. Concurrently, cyanobacteria clearly show contrasting antagonistic interactions with the four tested heterotrophic strains, which is also reflected in the physical attachment to their cells. In conclusion, antagonistic interactions with cyanobacteria were initiated within 24 h, and expression profiles suggest varied responses for the different cyanobacteria and studied cyanolytes.IMPORTANCE Here, we present how gene expression profiles can be used to reveal interactions between bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacteria and antagonistic heterotrophic bacteria. Species-specific responses in

  1. NMDA Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ates-Alagoz, Zeynep; Adejare, Adeboye

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Individuals battling this disorder commonly experience high rates of relapse, persistent residual symptoms, functional impairment, and diminished well-being. Medications have important utility in stabilizing moods and daily functions of many individuals. However, only one third of patients had considerable improvement with a standard antidepressant after 2 months and all patients had to deal with numerous side effects. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor family has received special attention because of its critical role in psychiatric disorders. Direct targeting of the NMDA receptor could result in more rapid antidepressant effects. Antidepressant-like effects of NMDA receptor antagonists have been demonstrated in different animal models. MK-801 (a use-dependent channel blocker), and CGP 37849 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) have shown antidepressant properties in preclinical studies, either alone or combined with traditional antidepressants. A recent development is use of ketamine clinically for refractory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine and analyze current literature on the role of NMDA receptor antagonists for treatment of depression and whether this is a feasible route in drug discovery. PMID:24276119

  2. Medicinal Chemistry of Competitive Kainate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1−5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure−activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  3. Medicinal chemistry of competitive kainate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann M; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-02-16

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1-5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure-activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field.

  4. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) (/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor.

  5. Identification of a GPER/GPR30 Antagonist with Improved Estrogen Receptor Counterselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Megan K.; Field, Angela S.; Burai, Ritwik; Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Petrie, Whitney K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Sklar, S. Larry A.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    GPER/GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor that regulates many aspects of mammalian biology and physiology. We have previously described both a GPER-selective agonist G-1 and antagonist G15 based on a tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline scaffold. The antagonist lacks an ethanone moiety that likely forms important hydrogen bonds involved in receptor activation. Computational docking studies suggested that the lack of the ethanone substituent in G15 could minimize key steric conflicts, present in G-1, that limit binding within the ERα ligand binding pocket. In this report, we identify low-affinity cross-reactivity of the GPER antagonist G15 to the classical estrogen receptor ERα. To generate an antagonist with enhanced selectivity, we therefore synthesized an isosteric G-1 derivative, G36, containing an isopropyl moiety in place of the ethanone moiety. We demonstrate that G36 shows decreased binding and activation of ERα, while maintaining its antagonist profile towards GPER. G36 selectively inhibits estrogen-mediated activation of PI3K by GPER but not ERα. It also inhibits estrogen- and G-1-mediated calcium mobilization as well as ERK1/2 activation, with no effect on EGF-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Similar to G15, G36 inhibits estrogen- and G-1-stimulated proliferation of uterine epithelial cells in vivo. The identification of G36 as a GPER antagonist with improved ER counterselectivity represents a significant step towards the development of new highly selective therapeutics for cancer and other diseases. PMID:21782022

  6. From the Cover: Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzeski, Wojciech; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2001-05-01

    Neuronal progenitors and tumor cells possess propensity to proliferate and to migrate. Glutamate regulates proliferation and migration of neurons during development, but it is not known whether it influences proliferation and migration of tumor cells. We demonstrate that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of human tumor cells. Colon adenocarcinoma, astrocytoma, and breast and lung carcinoma cells were most sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist dizocilpine, whereas breast and lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and neuroblastoma cells responded most favorably to the -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonist GYKI52466. The antiproliferative effect of glutamate antagonists was Ca2+ dependent and resulted from decreased cell division and increased cell death. Morphological alterations induced by glutamate antagonists in tumor cells consisted of reduced membrane ruffling and pseudopodial protrusions. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists decreased motility and invasive growth of tumor cells. These findings suggest anticancer potential of glutamate antagonists.

  7. Design and Synthesis of Potent and Highly Selective Orexin 1 Receptor Antagonists with a Morphinan Skeleton and Their Pharmacologies.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Yata, Masahiro; Ohrui, Sayaka; Okada, Takahiro; Saitoh, Tsuyoshi; Kutsumura, Noriki; Nagumo, Yasuyuki; Irukayama-Tomobe, Yoko; Ishikawa, Yukiko; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hirayama, Shigeto; Kuroda, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yurie; Gouda, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2017-02-09

    Nalfurafine, a κ-selective opioid receptor agonist, unexpectedly showed a selective antagonist activity toward the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) (Ki = 250 nM). Modification of the 17-amino side chain of the opioid ligand to an arylsulfonyl group and the 6-furan acrylamide chain to 2-pyridyl acrylamide led to compound 71 with improvement of the antagonist activity (OX1R, Ki = 1.36 nM; OX2R, not active) without any detectable affinity for the opioid receptor. The dihydrosulfate salt of 71, freely soluble in water, attenuated the physical dependence of morphine. Furthermore, all of the active nalfurafine derivatives in this study had almost no activity for OX2R, which led to high OX1R selectivity. These results suggest that nalfurafine derivatives could be a useful series of lead compounds to develop highly selective OX1R antagonists.

  8. 1,7-Disubstituted oxyindoles are potent and selective EP(3) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nian; Polozov, Alexandre M; O'Connell, Matthew; Burgeson, James; Yu, Peng; Zeller, Wayne; Zhang, Jun; Onua, Emmanuel; Ramirez, Jose; Palsdottir, Gudrun A; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun V; Andresson, Thorkell; Kiselyov, Alex S; Gurney, Mark; Singh, Jasbir

    2010-04-15

    A series of novel 1,7-disubstituted oxyindoles were shown to be potent and selective EP(3) receptor antagonists. Variation of substitution pattern at the C-3 position of indole enhanced in vitro metabolic stability of the resulting derivatives. Series 27a-c showed >1000-fold selectivity over a panel of prostanoid receptors including IP, FP, EP(1), EP(2) and EP(4). These agents also featured low CYP inhibition and good activity in the functional rat platelet aggregation assay.

  9. Discovery of Highly Potent Dual CysLT1 and CysLT2 Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The benzoxazine derivative, (2S)-4-(3-carboxypropyl)-8-{[4-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzoyl]amino}-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid (19, ONO-2050297), was identified as the first potent dual CysLT1 and CysLT2 antagonist with IC50 values of 0.017 μM (CysLT1) and 0.00087 μM (CysLT2), respectively. PMID:25408836

  10. 2-Amino-4-arylthiazole compounds as TRPA1 antagonists (WO 2012085662): a patent evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Schiano Moriello, Aniello

    2013-01-01

    The patent claims 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivative compounds as inhibitors of the TRPA1 (transient receptor potential ankyrin, member 1) receptor. These compounds are potent antagonists on the basis of the results of in vitro assays, and are expected to be useful for treating conditions and disorders associated with TRPA1 function such as pain, chronic pain, neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritic pain, osteoarthritic pain, diabetic neuropathy and inflammatory disorders.

  11. Medicinal chemistry of P2X receptors: agonists and orthosteric antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Catia; Dal Ben, Diego; Buccioni, Michela; Marucci, Gabriella; Thomas, Ajiroghene; Volpini, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have highlighted data reported in the literature trying to draw a complete picture of the structures and biological activity of agonists and orthosteric antagonists of P2X receptors. Actually, only few P2X receptor agonists have been found and most of them are derived from modification of the natural ligand ATP and they are P2X receptor subtype unselective. In particular, BzATP (9) is one of the most potent P2X receptor agonists with EC50 value in the nanomolar range at some subtypes. Differently from agonists, P2X receptor antagonists belong to different chemical classes such as high molecular weight aryl polysulfonate molecules like suramin and its simplified derivatives and anthraquinone compounds. All these molecules proved to be non selective at P2X receptors, and they are endowed with micromolar activity and not favourable pharmacokinetic properties due to the presence of several charged groups. Also modification of the natural ligand ATP led to the discovery of P2X receptor antagonists like TNP-ATP (29), which, although not selective, showed high potency at P2X1, P2X3 (IC50 of 0.006 µM and 0.001 µM, respectively), and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors. Also the dinucleotide inosine polyphosphate Ip5I (33) was found to be a potent and selective antagonist at P2X1 vs P2X3 receptors with IC50 = 0.003 µM. A significant improvement has been gained from the interest of pharmaceutical companies that in the last years discovered, through the use of high-throughput screening, potent and selective antagonists endowed with novel structures, some of which are currently in clinical trials for several therapeutic applications.

  12. Recent Patents on Novel P2X7 Receptor Antagonists and Their Potential for Reducing Central Nervous System Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Friedle, Scott A.; Curet, Marjorie A.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation arises in the CNS from a number of neurodegenerative and oncogenic disorders, as well as from ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. These pathologies give rise to increased levels of extracellular adenine nucleotides which, via activation of a variety of cell surface P2 purinergic receptors, influence the inflammatory activities of responding immune cells. One P2 receptor subtype in particular, the P2X7 receptor, potentiates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from macrophage-like cells. It is also thought to contribute to secondary brain injury by inducing neuronal cell death. Therefore, antagonism of this receptor could have significant therapeutic impact on all disorders, not just CNS, to which excessive inflammatory activities contribute. The use of currently available P2X7 receptor antagonists for the treatment of CNS inflammation has been limited to the generally non-selective antagonists PPADS, oxidized ATP, Brilliant Blue G, suramin, calmidizolium, and KN-62. However, the recent patents and development of novel P2X7 receptor antagonists, as discussed in this review, will provide new tools both for clinical and research purposes. Here we discuss compounds for which patents have been applied since 2006, from the following categories: benzamide inhibitors, bicycloheteroaryl compounds, acylhdranzine antagonists, biaromatic P2X7 antagonists, heterocyclic compounds and amide derivatives, and aromatic amine antagonists. PMID:19705995

  13. Investigation of orexin-2 selective receptor antagonists: Structural modifications resulting in dual orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Skudlarek, Jason W; DiMarco, Christina N; Babaoglu, Kerim; Roecker, Anthony J; Bruno, Joseph G; Pausch, Mark A; O'Brien, Julie A; Cabalu, Tamara D; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Wuelfing, W Peter; Garson, Susan L; Fox, Steven V; Savitz, Alan T; Harrell, Charles M; Gotter, Anthony L; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J

    2017-03-15

    In an ongoing effort to explore the use of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of insomnia, dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) were structurally modified, resulting in compounds selective for the OX2R subtype and culminating in the discovery of 23, a highly potent, OX2R-selective molecule that exhibited a promising in vivo profile. Further structural modification led to an unexpected restoration of OX1R antagonism. Herein, these changes are discussed and a rationale for selectivity based on computational modeling is proposed.

  14. Combination decongestion therapy in hospitalized heart failure: loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Mentz, Robert J; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Sato, Naoki; Nodari, Savina; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Congestion is the most common reason for admissions and readmissions for heart failure (HF). The vast majority of hospitalized HF patients appear to respond readily to loop diuretics, but available data suggest that a significant proportion are being discharged with persistent evidence of congestion. Although novel therapies targeting congestion should continue to be developed, currently available agents may be utilized more optimally to facilitate complete decongestion. The combination of loop diuretics, natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists represents a regimen of currently available therapies that affects early and persistent decongestion, while limiting the associated risks of electrolyte disturbances, hemodynamic fluctuations, renal dysfunction and mortality.

  15. Inhibition of anti-tuberculosis T-lymphocyte function with tumour necrosis factor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Haïfa; Mariette, Xavier; Godot, Véronique; Weldingh, Karin; Hamid, Abdul Monem; Prejean, Maria-Victoria; Baron, Gabriel; Lemann, Marc; Puechal, Xavier; Breban, Maxime; Berenbaum, Francis; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Flipo, René-Marc; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Salmon, Dominique; Humbert, Marc; Emilie, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is a major complication of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha treatment, but its mechanism is not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of the TNF antagonists infliximab (Ifx), adalimumab (Ada) and etanercept (Eta) on anti-mycobacterial immune responses in two conditions: with ex vivo studies from patients treated with TNF antagonists and with the in vitro addition of TNF antagonists to cells stimulated with mycobacterial antigens. In both cases, we analysed the response of CD4+ T lymphocytes to purified protein derivative (PPD) and to culture filtrate protein (CFP)-10, an antigen restricted to Mtb. The tests performed were lymphoproliferation and immediate production of interferon (IFN)-gamma. In the 68 patients with inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathy or Crohn's disease), including 31 patients with a previous or latent tuberculosis (TB), 14 weeks of anti-TNF-alpha treatment had no effect on the proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, the number of IFN-gamma-releasing CD4+ T lymphocytes decreased for PPD (p < 0.005) and CFP-10 (p < 0.01) in patients with previous TB and for PPD (p < 0.05) in other patients (all vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin). Treatments with Ifx and with Eta affected IFN-gamma release to a similar extent. In vitro addition of TNF antagonists to CD4+ T lymphocytes stimulated with mycobacterial antigens inhibited their proliferation and their expression of membrane-bound TNF (mTNF). These effects occurred late in cultures, suggesting a direct effect of TNF antagonists on activated mTNF+ CD4+ T lymphocytes, and Ifx and Ada were more efficient than Eta. Therefore, TNF antagonists have a dual action on anti-mycobacterial CD4+ T lymphocytes. Administered in vivo, they decrease the frequency of the subpopulation of memory CD4+ T lymphocytes rapidly releasing IFN-gamma upon challenge with mycobacterial antigens. Added in vitro, they

  16. Evolution of the Bifunctional Lead μ Agonist / δ Antagonist Containing the Dmt-Tic Opioid Pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Trapella, Claudio; Knapp, Brian I; Bidlack, Jean M; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Peng, Xuemei; Neumeyer, John L

    2010-02-17

    Based on a renewed importance recently attributed to bi- or multifunctional opioids, we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some analogues derived from our lead μ agonist / δ antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Bzl. Our previous studies focused on the importance of the C-teminal benzyl function in the induction of such bifunctional activity. The introduction of some substituents in the para position of the phenyl ring (-Cl, -CH(3), partially -NO(2), inactive -NH(2)) was found to give a more potent μ agonist / antagonist effect associated with a relatively unmodified δ antagonist activity (pA(2) = 8.28-9.02). Increasing the steric hindrance of the benzyl group (using diphenylmethyl and tetrahydroisoquinoline functionalities) substantially maintained the μ agonist and δ antagonist activities of the lead compound. Finally and quite unexpectedly D-Tic2, considered as a wrong opioid message now; inserted into the reference compound in lieu of L-Tic, provided a μ agonist / δ agonist better than our reference ligand (H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph) and was endowed with the same pharmacological profile.

  17. 2-Aminothienopyridazines as Novel Adenosine A1 Receptor Allosteric Modulators and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gemma N.; Valant, Celine; Horne, James; Figler, Heidi; Flynn, Bernard L.; Linden, Joel; Chalmers, David K.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Scammells, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    A pharmacophore-based screen identified 32 compounds including ethyl 5-amino-3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]pyridazine-1-carboxylate (8) as a new allosteric modulator of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR). On the basis of this lead, various derivatives were prepared and evaluated for activity at the human A1AR. A number of the test compounds allosterically stabilized agonist-receptor-G protein ternary complexes in dissociation kinetic assays, but were found to be more potent as antagonists in subsequent functional assays of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additional experiments on the most potent antagonist, 13b, investigating A1AR-mediated [35S]GTPγS binding and [3H]CCPA equilibrium binding confirmed its antagonistic mode of action and also identified inverse agonism. This study has thus identified a new class of A1AR antagonists that can also recognize the receptor’s allosteric site with lower potency. PMID:18771255

  18. Exploratory studies on development of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 antagonists toward downsizing.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Hirokazu; Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Nomura, Wataru; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2008-02-10

    Seven transmembrane (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) families are important targets for drug discovery, and specific antagonists for GPCR can accelerate research in the field of medicinal chemistry. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a GPCR that possesses a unique ligand CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). The interaction between CXCL12 and CXCR4 is essential for the migration of progenitor cells during embryonic development of the cardiovascular, hemopoietic and central nervous systems, and also involved in several intractable disease processes, including HIV infection, cancer cell metastasis, progression of acute and chronic leukemias, rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, CXCR4 may be an important therapeutic target in all of these diseases, and various CXCR4 antagonists have been proposed as potential drugs. Fourteen-mer peptides, T140 and its analogs, and downsized cyclic pentapeptides have been developed by us as potent CXCR4 antagonists. This article describes the development of a number of specific CXCR4 antagonists in our laboratory, including downsizing.

  19. Antagonistic functional duality of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, A A; Vassetzky, Y S; Kavsan, V M

    2013-10-25

    Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "gene-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behavior was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and

  20. Neuromuscular adaptations following antagonist resisted training.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Sasho J; Rannelli, Luke A; Yurchevich, Jordan J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to assess a novel form of strength training, antagonist resisted training (ART), with potential use in microgravity and athletic rehabilitation settings. ART uses the force from antagonist muscles, during cocontractions, as the source of resistance for the agonists. Strength and electromyography (EMG) measurements were recorded before and after a 6-week training program during which participants trained the left arm while the right arm served as a control. Training was designed so that the elbow extensors (antagonists) served as resistance for the elbow flexors (agonists). Elbow flexor and extensor strengths were measured during maximal isometric contractions with the elbow fixed at 90 degrees. EMG was recorded from the biceps brachii and lateral head of the triceps brachii during all strength tests. EMG was also recorded from both muscles during a maximal isometric cocontraction of the elbow flexors and extensors. Elbow flexion strength increased significantly for the trained arm (5.8%) relative to the control (0.5%) (p = 0.003). Elbow extension strength of the trained limb also increased significantly (8.5%) relative to the control (4.5%) (p = 0.029). Biceps and triceps EMG, during maximum strength tests, increased significantly for the trained arm (18.5 and 18.6%) relative to the control (0.5 and -5.2%) (p = 0.035 and p = 0.01). Biceps and triceps EMG, during maximum cocontraction tests, increased significantly for the trained arm (30.1 and 61.1%) relative to the control (9.2 and 1.1%) (p = 0.042 and p = 0.0005). ART was found to increase strength and therefore could be an effective form of resistance training. Because it requires no equipment, ART may be especially applicable in microgravity environments, which have space and weight constraints.

  1. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  2. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Buels, Kalmia S.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma. PMID:22222705

  3. Azetidinones as Vasopressin V1a Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Christophe D.; Koppel, Gary A.; Brownstein, Michael J.; Chaney, Michael O.; Ferris, Craig F.; Lu, Shi-fang; Fabio, Karine M.; Miller, Marvin J.; Heindel, Ned D.; Hunden, David C.; Cooper, Robin D. G.; Kaldor, Stephen W.; Skelton, Jeffrey J.; Dressman, Bruce A.; Clay, Michael P.; Steinberg, Mitchell I.; Bruns, Robert F.; Simon, Neal G.

    2007-01-01

    The azetidinone LY307174 (1) was identified as a screening lead for the vasopressin V1a receptor (IC50 45 nM at the human V1a receptor) based on molecular similarity to ketoconazole (2), a known antagonist of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptor. Structure-activity relationships for the series were explored to optimize receptor affinity and pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in compounds with Ki values < 1 nM and brain levels after oral dosing ~100-fold higher than receptor affinities. PMID:17234419

  4. Endothelin antagonists: new bullets against lung injury?

    PubMed

    Leeman, Marc

    2005-06-01

    Acute lung injury is a syndrome of inflammation and of increased permeability of the blood-gas barrier. Endothelins are thought to exert proinflammatory effects. Kuklin and colleagues show that the endothelin receptor antagonist tezosentan reduces pulmonary edema in endotoxemic sheep, in parallel with a prevention of protein kinase C-alpha activation. In turn, the level of some cytokines increased after tezosentan treatment. Whether these contrasting effects of endothelin blockade on inflammatory mechanisms have clinical relevance and whether these agents might benefit patients with acute lung injury is unknown.

  5. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  6. Characterization of adenosine binding proteins in human placental membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized two adenosine binding proteins in human placenta. In membranes, one site is detected with ({sup 3}H) -N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). This site is similar to the adenosine A{sub 2} receptor. We call this site the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. In detergent extracts, the second site is detected and has the characteristics of an adenosine A{sub 1} receptor. The soluble adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site cannot be detected without a rapid assay. Binding to the adenosine A{sub 1} receptor with ({sup 3}H)-2-chloroadenosine and ({sup 3}H)NECA is time dependent, saturable, and reversible. Equilibrium displacement analysis with adenosine agonists reveals an A{sub 1} specificity: 2-chloroadenosine > R-phenylisopropyladenosine > 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. The antagonist potency order is 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine > isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline. Competition analysis of membranes with the A,-selective ligands ({sup 3}H)-cyclohexyladenosine ({sup 3}H) cylopentylxanthine revealed adenosine A{sub 1} agonist and antagonist potency orders. We have purified the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site is an ubiquitous major cellular protein. It is glycosylated, highly asymmetric, and acidic. The native protein is an homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 98 kDa. The sedimentation coefficient and partial specific volume of the binding complex are 6.9 s and 0.698 ml/g, respectively. The Stokes' radius is 70 {Angstrom}. The native molecular mass of the detergent-protein complex is 230 kDa. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site has an agonist potency order of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > 2-chloroadenosine >> R-phenylisopropyladenosine and an antagonist potency order of isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline >> 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine.

  7. Optimization of piperidin-4-yl-urea-containing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) antagonists: Reducing hERG-associated liabilities.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Susanne; Egner, Bryan J; Gradén, Henrik; Gradén, Joakim; Morgan, David G A; Inghardt, Tord; Giordanetto, Fabrizio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery and optimization of piperidin-4-yl-urea derivatives as MCH-R1 antagonists is herein described. Previous work around the piperidin-4-yl-amides led to the discovery of potent MCH-R1 antagonists. However, high affinity towards the hERG potassium channel proved to be an issue. Different strategies to increase hERG selectivity were implemented and resulted in the identification of piperidin-4-yl-urea compounds as potent MCH-R1 antagonists with minimized hERG inhibition.

  8. B-9972 (D-Arg-[Hyp3,Igl5,Oic7,Igl8]-bradykinin) is an inactivation-resistant agonist of the bradykinin B2 receptor derived from the peptide antagonist B-9430 (D-Arg-[Hyp3,Igl5,D-Igl7,Oic8]-bradykinin): pharmacologic profile and effective induction of receptor degradation.

    PubMed

    Bawolak, Marie-Thérèse; Gera, Lajos; Morissette, Guillaume; Stewart, John M; Marceau, François

    2007-11-01

    The bradykinin B(2) receptor is a heptahelical receptor regulated by a cycle of phosphorylation, endocytosis, and extensive recycling at the cell surface following agonist stimulation. B-9430 (d-Arg-[Hyp(3),Igl(5),D-Igl(7),Oic(8)]-bradykinin) is a second generation peptide antagonist found to be competitive at the human B(2) receptor and insurmountable at the rabbit B(2) receptor (contractility assays, isolated human umbilical and rabbit jugular veins). Two isomers of this peptide were prepared: B-10344 (D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Igl(5),Oic(7),D-Igl(8)]-bradykinin; inverted sequence Oic(7), D-Igl(8)) and B-9972 (D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Igl(5),Oic(7),Igl(8)]-bradykinin); they are low- and high-potency agonists, respectively, in vascular preparations. The potency gap between bradykinin and B-9972 is narrow in contractility assays, despite the fact that B-9972 affinity is 7-fold inferior at the rabbit B(2) receptor (radioligand binding competition assay). The effects of agonists on receptors were compared using two chimerical constructions based on rabbit B(2) receptors: conjugate of the B(2) receptor with green fluorescent protein (B(2)R-GFP) and the N-terminally tagged conjugate of the myc epitope with the B(2) receptor. Imaging and immunoblotting showed that B-9972 induced a persistent endocytosis of cell surface B(2) receptors in human embryonic kidney 293 cells with slow receptor degradation (weak after 3 h of treatment, important at 12 h) and B(2)R-GFP desensitization ([(3)H]bradykinin endocytosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation assays). Bradykinin was not active in this respect but when combined with captopril, induced some degradation. B-9430 reduced the endocytosis and degradation of B(2) receptors by the agonists. The results illustrate the agonist-antagonist transition in B(2) receptor peptide ligands with a constrained C-terminal structure, the importance of species in their pharmacological profile, and the possibility of selectively degrading

  9. New 1-arylindoles based serotonin 5-HT7 antagonists. Synthesis and binding evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Sagnes, Charlène; Fournet, Guy; Satala, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Joseph, Benoît

    2014-03-21

    Based on 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 ligand MR25003 scaffold, a new series of 1-aryl indole analogues were prepared and evaluated against 5-HT7 receptors. Modulations of aryl moieties provided a large number of new indolic derivatives. Most of compounds tested have displayed 5-HT7 affinity in the nanomolar range. Among them, 1-(naphthyl)indole derivative 3p (Ki (5-HT7) = 4.5 nM) showed also a good selectivity over 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT6 receptors. This compound was pharmacology characterized as an antagonist.

  10. Elucidating the `Jekyll and Hyde' Nature of PXR: The Case for Discovering Antagonists or Allosteric Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Arunima; Mani, Sridhar; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Li, Hao; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and is involved in the transcriptional control of numerous genes. It was originally thought that it was a xenobiotic sensor controlling detoxification pathways. Recent studies have shown an increasingly important role in inflammation and cancer, supporting its function in abrogating tissue damage. PXR orthologs and PXR-like pathways have been identified in several non-mammalian species which corroborate a conserved role for PXR in cellular detoxification. In summary, PXR has a multiplicity of roles in vivo and is being revealed as behaving like a “Jekyll and Hyde” nuclear hormone receptor. The importance of this review is to elucidate the need for discovery of antagonists of PXR to further probe its biology and therapeutic applications. Although several PXR agonists are already reported, virtually nothing is known about PXR antagonists. Here, we propose the development of PXR antagonists through chemical, genetic and molecular modeling approaches. Based on this review it will be clear that antagonists of PXR and PXR-like pathways will have widespread utility in PXR biology and therapeutics. PMID:19415465

  11. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  12. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  13. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits

    PubMed Central

    Ellner, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator–prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  15. D-Cycloserine: Agonist turned antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lanthorn, T H

    1994-10-01

    D-Cycloserine can enhance activation of the NMDA receptor complex and could enhance the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). In animals and humans, D-cycloserine can enhance performance in learning and memory tasks. This enhancing effect can disappear during repeated administration. The enhancing effects are also lost when higher doses are used, and replaced by behavioral and biochemical effects like those produced by NMDA antagonists. It has been reported that NMDA agonists, applied before or after tetanic stimulation, can block the induction of LTP. This may be the result of feedback inhibition of second messenger pathways stimulated by receptor activation. This may explain the antagonist-like effects of glycine partial agonists like D-cycloserine. In clinical trials of D-cycloserine in age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and Alzheimer's disease, chronic treatment provided few positive effects on learning and memory. This may be due to inhibition of second messenger pathways following chronic stimulation of the receptor complex.

  16. Hypocretin antagonists in insomnia treatment and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Chad; Cao, Michelle; Guilleminault, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep through stabilization of sleep promoting GABAergic and wake promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. Hypocretin also influences other physiologic processes such as metabolism, appetite, learning and memory, reward and addiction, and ventilatory drive. The discovery of hypocretin and its effect upon the sleep-wake cycle has led to the development of a new class of pharmacologic agents that antagonize the physiologic effects of hypocretin (i.e. hypocretin antagonists). Further investigation of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side-effect profile of currently available hypnotics (e.g. impaired cognition, confusional arousals, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle while also influencing non-sleep physiologic processes may create an entirely different but equally concerning side-effect profile such as transient loss of muscle tone (i.e. cataplexy) and a dampened respiratory drive. In this review, we will discuss the discovery of hypocretin and its receptors, hypocretin and the sleep-wake cycle, hypocretin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia, and other implicated functions of the hypocretin system.

  17. Antioxidant effects of calcium antagonists in rat brain homogenates.

    PubMed

    Yao, K; Ina, Y; Nagashima, K; Ohmori, K; Ohno, T

    2000-06-01

    We studied the antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists against autoxidation in rat brain homogenates. The homogenates were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with or without a calcium antagonist and subsequently assayed for lipid peroxide content. Percent inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was used as an index of the antioxidant effect. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists exhibited concentration-dependent (3-300 micromol/l) inhibitory effects against lipid peroxidation. The relative order of antioxidant potency and associated IC50 values (micromol/l) of the calcium antagonists for inhibition of the lipid peroxidation were as follows: nifedipine (51.5)>barnidipine (58.6)>benidipine (71.2)>nicardipine (129.3)>amlodipine (135.5)>nilvadipine (167.3)>nitrendipine (252.1)> diltiazem (>300)=verapamil (>300). These results suggest that some dihydropyridine calcium antagonists show antioxidant properties. The antioxidant effects of the calcium antagonists may contribute to their pharmacological actions.

  18. Synthesis of actively adjustable springs by antagonistic redundant actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung-Ju; Freeman, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for active spring generation is presented based on antagonistic redundant actuation. Antagonistic properties are characterized using an effective system stiffness. 'Antagonistic stiffness' is generated by preloading a closed-chain (parallel) linkage system. Internal load distribution is investigated along with the necessary conditions for spring synthesis. The performance and stability of a proposed active spring are shown by simulation, and applications are discussed.

  19. Development of a peptide antagonist against fsr quorum sensing of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Jiro; Yokohata, Ryoji; Sato, Mami; Suzuki, Takashi; Matsufuji, Takahisa; Nishiguchi, Kenzo; Kawai, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Yosuke; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-04-19

    Enterococcus faecalis fsr quorum sensing (QS) involves an 11-residue cyclic peptide named gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (GBAP) that autoinduces two pathogenicity-related extracellular proteases in a cell density-dependent fashion. To identify anti-pathogenic agents that target fsr QS signaling, peptide antagonists of GBAP were created by our unique drug design approach based on reverse alanine scanning. First of all, a receptor-binding scaffold (RBS), [Ala(4,5,6,8,9,11)]Z-GBAP, was created, in which all amino acids within the ring region of GBAP, except for two essential aromatic residues, were substituted to alanine. Next, the substituted alanine residues were changed back to the original amino acid one by one, permitting selection of those peptide combinations exhibiting increased antagonist activity. After three cycles of this reverse alanine scan, [Ala(5,9,11)]Z-GBAP was obtained as a maximally reverted peptide (MRP) holding the strongest antagonist activity. Then, the fifth residue in MRP, which is one of the critical residues to determine agonist/antagonist activity, was further modified by substituting with different types of amino acids including unnatural amino acids. As a result, [Tyr(Bzl)(5), Ala(9,11)]Z-GBAP, named ZBzl-YAA5911, showed the strongest antagonist activity [IC(50) = 26.2 nM and Kd against GBAP receptor (FsrC) = 39.4 nM]. In vivo efficacy of this peptide was assessed with an aphakic rabbit endophthalmitis model. ZBzl-YAA5911 suppressed the translocation of E. faecalis from the aqueous humor into the vitreous cavity by more than 1 order of magnitude and significantly reduced retinal damage. We propose that ZBzl-YAA5911 or its derivatives would be useful as anti-infective agents to attenuate virulence expression in this opportunistic pathogen.

  20. Evaluation of adenine as scaffold for the development of novel P2X3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Catia; Sundukova, Mayya; Kachare, Dhuldeo D; Panmand, Deepak S; Dal Ben, Diego; Buccioni, Michela; Marucci, Gabriella; Marchenkova, Anna; Thomas, Ajiroghene; Nistri, Andrea; Cristalli, Gloria; Volpini, Rosaria

    2013-07-01

    Ligands that selectively block P2X3 receptors localized on nociceptive sensory fibres may be useful for the treatment of chronic pain conditions including neuropathic pain, migraine, and inflammatory pain. With the aim at exploring the suitability of adenine moiety as a scaffold for the development of antagonists of this receptor, a series of 9-benzyl-2-aminoadenine derivatives were designed and synthesized. These new compounds were functionally evaluated at rat or human P2X3 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and on native P2X3 receptors from mouse trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons using patch clamp recording under voltage clamp configuration. The new molecules behaved as P2X3 antagonists, as they rapidly and reversibly inhibited (IC50 in the low micromolar range) the membrane currents induced via P2X3 receptor activation by the full agonist α,β-methyleneATP. Introduction of a small lipophilic methyl substituent at the 6-amino group enhanced the activity, in comparison to the corresponding unsubstituted derivative, resulting in the 9-(5-iodo-2-isopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)-N(6)-methyl-9H-purine-2,6-diamine (24), which appears to be a good antagonist on recombinant and native P2X3 receptors with IC50 = 1.74 ± 0.21 μM.

  1. Ligand-based molecular design of 4-benzylpiperidinealkylureas and amides as CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaibhav; Pandey, Ashish; Gupta, Shikhar; Mohan, C Gopi

    2010-04-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs. Clinical studies suggest that eotaxin and chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) play a primary role in the recruitment of eosinophils in allergic asthma. Development of novel and potent CCR3 antagonists could provide a novel mechanism for inhibition of this recruitment process, thereby preventing asthma. With the intention of designing new ligands with enhanced inhibitor potencies against CCR3, a 3D-QSAR CoMFA study was carried out on 41 4-benzylpiperidinealkylureas and amide derivatives. The best statistics of the developed CoMFA model were r (2) = 0.960, r(2)cv, n = 32 for the training set and r(2)pred, n = 9 for the test set. The generated 3D-QSAR contribution maps shed some light on the effects of the substitution pattern related to CCR3 antagonist activity.

  2. Assembly of high-affinity insulin receptor agonists and antagonists from peptide building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, Lauge; Brissette, Renee E.; Spetzler, Jane C.; Pillutla, Renuka C.; Østergaard, Søren; Lennick, Michael; Brandt, Jakob; Fletcher, Paul W.; Danielsen, Gillian M.; Hsiao, Ku-Chuan; Andersen, Asser S.; Dedova, Olga; Ribel, Ulla; Hoeg-Jensen, Thomas; Hertz Hansen, Per; Blume, Arthur J.; Markussen, Jan; Goldstein, Neil I.

    2003-04-01

    Insulin is thought to elicit its effects by crosslinking the two extracellular -subunits of its receptor, thereby inducing a conformational change in the receptor, which activates the intracellular tyrosine kinase signaling cascade. Previously we identified a series of peptides binding to two discrete hotspots on the insulin receptor. Here we show that covalent linkage of such peptides into homodimers or heterodimers results in insulin agonists or antagonists, depending on how the peptides are linked. An optimized agonist has been shown, both in vitro and in vivo, to have a potency close to that of insulin itself. The ability to construct such peptide derivatives may offer a path for developing agonists or antagonists for treatment of a wide variety of diseases.

  3. Metabolism-guided design of short-acting calcium-sensing receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Southers, James A; Bauman, Jonathan N; Price, David A; Humphries, Paul S; Balan, Gayatri; Sagal, John F; Maurer, Tristan S; Zhang, Yan; Oliver, Robert; Herr, Michael; Healy, David R; Li, Mei; Kapinos, Brendon; Fate, Gwendolyn D; Riccardi, Keith A; Paralkar, Vishwas M; Brown, Thomas A; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2010-08-12

    As part of a strategy to deliver short-acting calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists, the metabolically labile thiomethyl functionality was incorporated into the zwitterionic amino alcohol derivative 3 with the hope of increasing human clearance through oxidative metabolism, while delivering a pharmacologically inactive sulfoxide metabolite. The effort led to the identification of thioanisoles 22 and 23 as potent and orally active CaSR antagonists with a rapid onset of action and short pharmacokinetic half-lives, which led to a rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone in a dose-dependent fashion following oral administration to rats. On the basis of the balance between target pharmacology, safety, and human disposition profiles, 22 and 23 were advanced as clinical candidates for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  5. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  6. Drug effects: agonistic and antagonistic processes.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Magne Arve

    2009-12-01

    The research presented here has shown that tolerance to drugs can be accelerated by conditioning processes. Placebo effects may be considered the opposite of tolerance, and we have shown that placebo effects may be objectively recorded by physiological measures (electromyography, skin conductance responses, and event-related potentials), as well as by behavioral and subjective methods. The placebo response, or more precisely, the expectation of drug effects, can add to the effect of the drug. Drug antagonistic expectations can also reverse the effect of the drug. There is some evidence that placebo effects are strongest when expectations are reinforced by administration of an active drug. Expectations have graded effects and may affect symptoms to a smaller or larger degree. Although drug effects can be considered stimuli, the investigation of the role of classical conditioning in drug use and drug effects involves special issues that must be carefully considered.

  7. Antagonists of IAP proteins as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dynek, Jasmin N; Vucic, Domagoj

    2013-05-28

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins play pivotal roles in cellular survival by blocking apoptosis, modulating signal transduction, and affecting cellular proliferation. Through their interactions with inducers and effectors of apoptosis IAP proteins can effectively suppress apoptosis triggered by diverse stimuli including death receptor signaling, irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or growth factor withdrawal. Evasion of apoptosis, in part due to the action of IAP proteins, enhances resistance of cancer cells to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to tumor progression. Additionally, IAP genes are known to be subject to amplification, mutation, and chromosomal translocation in human malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In this review we will discuss the role of IAP proteins in cancer and the development of antagonists targeting IAP proteins for cancer treatment.

  8. Pervasive antagonistic interactions among hybrid incompatibility loci.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Rafael F; Muir, Christopher D; Josway, Sarah; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Species barriers, expressed as hybrid inviability and sterility, are often due to epistatic interactions between divergent loci from two lineages. Theoretical models indicate that the strength, direction, and complexity of these genetic interactions can strongly affect the expression of interspecific reproductive isolation and the rates at which new species evolve. Nonetheless, empirical analyses have not quantified the frequency with which loci are involved in interactions affecting hybrid fitness, and whether these loci predominantly interact synergistically or antagonistically, or preferentially involve loci that have strong individual effects on hybrid fitness. We systematically examined the prevalence of interactions between pairs of short chromosomal regions from one species (Solanum habrochaites) co-introgressed into a heterospecific genetic background (Solanum lycopersicum), using lines containing pairwise combinations of 15 chromosomal segments from S. habrochaites in the background of S. lycopersicum (i.e., 95 double introgression lines). We compared the strength of hybrid incompatibility (either pollen sterility or seed sterility) expressed in each double introgression line to the expected additive effect of its two component single introgressions. We found that epistasis was common among co-introgressed regions. Interactions for hybrid dysfunction were substantially more prevalent in pollen fertility compared to seed fertility phenotypes, and were overwhelmingly antagonistic (i.e., double hybrids were less unfit than expected from additive single introgression effects). This pervasive antagonism is expected to attenuate the rate at which hybrid infertility accumulates among lineages over time (i.e., giving diminishing returns as more reproductive isolation loci accumulate), as well as decouple patterns of accumulation of sterility loci and hybrid incompatibility phenotypes. This decoupling effect might explain observed differences between pollen and

  9. The effects of sigma ligands on protein release from lacrimal acinar cells: a potential agonist/antagonist assay.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, R D; Barfknecht, C F; Shirolkar, S; Xia, E

    1995-03-03

    Sigma receptor antagonists have been proposed as leading clinical candidates for use in various psychotic disorders. Prior to clinical testing, it is imperative that a new agent be correctly identified as an antagonist and not an agonist since the latter may worsen the psychosis. For sigma-ligands many behavioral and pharmacological assays have been developed in an attempt to classify agonist/antagonist activity. These assays evaluate a response or a behavior in an animal model that can be related to clinical efficacy. However, is the action by the presumed antagonist a consequence of sigma-receptor activity? Previously we have identified sigma-receptors in acinar cells of the main lacrimal gland of the New Zealand white rabbit and have measured protein release after the addition of various N,N-disubstituted phenylalkylamine derivatives known to be sigma-ligands by receptor binding studies. Although protein release from acinar cells has been attributed to either muscarinic or alpha-adrenergic stimulation, protein release from sigma-receptor stimulation was also confirmed. In the reported studies here, we isolated and incubated acinar cells with varying concentrations of known sigma-ligands and measured protein concentration. A knowledge of the receptor profile for the disubstituted phenylalkylamines permitted experiments to be designed in which various alpha, muscarinic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic antagonists could be added in equimolar concentrations. Under the conditions of these experiments, statistically significant increases in protein release for sigma-ligands could be attributed to stimulation of sigma-receptors. Haloperidol, an apparent sigma-antagonist, caused a statistically significant decrease in protein release and also inhibited protein release when tested with a known sigma-ligand, AF2975 [N,N-dimethyl-2-phenylethylamine]. In this system, stimulation and inhibition of protein release were defined as agonist and antagonist behavior, respectively

  10. Characterisation of the specific binding of the histamine H3 receptor antagonist radioligand [3H]GR168320.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; O'Shaughnessy, C T; Kilpatrick, G J; Scopes, D I; Beswick, P; Clitherow, J W; Barnes, J C

    1996-09-12

    We have examined the specific binding of the tritiated derivative of the potent histamine H3 receptor antagonist, [3,4-3H2]-cyclohex-yl-¿[4-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)-piperidin-l-yl] iminomethyl¿- amine ([3H]GR168320), to homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Specific binding of [3H]GR168320 at 37 degrees C associated and dissociated rapidly. Binding was saturable (Bmax 412 +/- 89 fmol/mg protein) and of high affinity (Kd 0.12 +/- 0.11 nM). Saturation studies suggested the involvement of a single site. Histamine H3 receptor agonists and antagonists inhibited [3H]GR168320 binding with high affinity. Agonist and antagonist affinities correlated when compared with affinities obtained using the tritiated histamine H3 agonist radioligand N alpha-methylhistamine.

  11. Design, synthesis and SAR analysis of novel potent and selective small molecule antagonists of NPBWR1 (GPR7).

    PubMed

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Zhao, Jian; Velaparthi, Subash; Saldanha, S Adrian; Chase, Peter; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Hodder, Peter; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Brown, Steven; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Novel small molecule antagonists of NPBWR1 (GPR7) are herein reported. A high-throughput screening (HTS) of the Molecular Libraries-Small Molecule Repository library identified 5-chloro-4-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-2-(p-tolyl)pyridazin-3(2H)-one as a NPBWR1 hit antagonist with micromolar activity. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships study of the HTS-derived hit led to the identification of 5-chloro-2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenoxy)pyridazin-3(2H)-one lead molecule with submicromolar antagonist activity at the target receptor and high selectivity against a panel of therapeutically relevant off-target proteins. This lead molecule may provide a pharmacological tool to clarify the molecular basis of the in vivo physiological function and therapeutic utility of NPBWR1 in diverse disease areas including inflammatory pain and eating disorders.

  12. Pharmacological and clinical importance of narcotic antagonists and mixed antagonists — use in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Coltart, D. John; Malcolm, Alasdair D.

    1979-01-01

    1 The treatment of pain of cardiac origin requires a knowledge of the haemodynamic action of the analgesic agents used. 2 The haemodynamic effects of morphine, diamorphine, pavaveretum, pethidine and pentazocine are reviewed. 3 Clinical experience with the new antagonist analgesic buprenorphine is reported. 4 These studies indicate that buprenorphine may be the agent of choice for the relief of severe pain in patients with unstable circulation. PMID:465292

  13. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse.

  14. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  15. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  16. [Effects of PAF antagonists in experimental models. Therapeutical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Desquand, S

    1993-01-01

    The discovery, during the last ten years, of Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) antagonists with different frameworks, but efficient on platelets tests, led the authors to study their activity in vivo against PAF-induced effects. These antagonists inhibit, with various potencies, the effects of PAF administration such as hypotension and bronchoconstriction in different animal species. Since PAF is assumed to play a central role in many diseases, effects of its antagonists have been studied in experimentally induced pathologies and in few clinical studies. We have been particularly interested in their effects on the first manifestation of asthma which is hypersensitivity. This manifestation is experimentally reproduced by anaphylactic bronchoconstriction, usually in the guinea-pig. Our results showed that different sensitization procedures may determine the relative efficiency of a PAF antagonist on subsequent antigen challenge. Indeed, the booster injection of antigen to a pre-sensitized animal could account for the refractoriness of anaphylactic bronchoconstriction to PAF antagonists. This booster injection mimics the clinical situation of atopic patients repeatedly exposed to allergen. Thus, it seems that immediate hypersensitivity could not be treated by the unique administration of a PAF antagonist. However, those antagonists may have more benefit in the clinical management of the late phase of asthma and of hyperreactivity and could thus provide anti-asthmatic drugs. PAF antagonists may have also therapeutical effects in septic shock, in myocardial ischemia and cardiac rhythm disturbances, in brain damage following cerebral ischemia and neurological trauma, in gastric and intestinal damages or in some inflammatory reactions.

  17. Microbial antagonists of Verticillium dahliae colonize cotton root system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt remains one of the most severe diseases affecting cotton production in Uzbekistan. We are investigating microbial antagonist to control this pathogen. To this end, we have identified several antagonists of Verticillium dahliae (Bacillus sp. 234, Bacillus sp. 3, Streptomyces roseofl...

  18. Identification of a sulfonamide series of CCR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Peace, Simon; Philp, Joanne; Brooks, Carl; Piercy, Val; Moores, Kitty; Smethurst, Chris; Watson, Steve; Gaines, Simon; Zippoli, Mara; Mookherjee, Claudette; Ife, Robert

    2010-07-01

    A series of sulfonamide CCR2 antagonists was identified by high-throughput screening. Management of molecular weight and physical properties, in particular moderation of lipophilicity and study of pK(a), yielded highly potent CCR2 antagonists exhibiting good pharmacokinetic properties and improved potency in the presence of human plasma.

  19. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  20. Functionalized Congener Approach to Muscarinic Antagonists: Analogues of Pirenzepine

    PubMed Central

    Karton, Yishai; Bradbury, Barton J.; Baumgold, Jesse; Paek, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine (5,11-dihydro-11-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was derivatized to explore points of attachment of functionalized side chains for the synthesis of receptor probes and ligands for affinity chromatography. The analogues prepared were evaluated in competitive binding assays versus [3H]-N-methylscopolamine at four muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1AChR-m4AChR) in membranes from rat heart tissue and transfected A9L cells. 9-(Hydroxymethyl)pirenzepine, 8-(methylthio)pirenzepine, and a series of 8-aminosulfonyl derivatives were synthesized. Several 5-substituted analogues of pirenzepine also were prepared. An alternate series of analogues substituted on the 4-position of the piperazine ring was prepared by reaction of 4-desmethylpirenzepine with various electrophiles. An N-chloroethyl analogue of pirenzepine was shown to form a reactive aziridine species in aqueous buffer yet failed to affinity label muscarinic receptors. Within a series of aminoalkyl analogues, the affinity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased. Shorter chain analogues were generally much less potent than pirenzepine, and longer analogues (7–10 carbons) were roughly as potent as pirenzepine at m1 receptors, but were nonselective. Depending on the methylene chain length, acylation or alkyl substitution of the terminal amine also influenced the affinity at muscarinic receptors. PMID:2066986

  1. Antagonistic autoregulation speeds up a homogeneous response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Bajic, Djordje; Elola, Ignacio; Poyatos, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    By integrating positive and negative feedback loops, biological systems establish intricate gene expression patterns linked to multistability, pulsing, and oscillations. This depends on the specific characteristics of each interlinked feedback, and thus one would expect additional expression programs to be found. Here, we investigate one such program associated with an antagonistic positive and negative transcriptional autoregulatory motif derived from the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) system of Escherichia coli. We studied the dynamics of the system by combining a predictive mathematical model with high-resolution experimental measures of the response both at the population and single-cell level. We show that in this motif the weak positive autoregulation does not slow down but rather enhances response speedup in combination with a strong negative feedback loop. This balance of feedback strengths anticipates a homogeneous population phenotype, which we corroborate experimentally. Theoretical analysis also emphasized the specific molecular properties that determine the dynamics of the mar phenotype. More broadly, response acceleration could provide a rationale for the presence of weak positive feedbacks in other biological scenarios exhibiting these interlinked regulatory architectures. PMID:27796341

  2. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  3. Identification of Thyroid Receptor Ant/Agonists in Water Sources Using Mass Balance Analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Hu, Xin-xin; Hu, Guan-jiu; Chen, Cu-lan; Wang, Xin-ru; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Hong-xia

    2013-01-01

    Some synthetic chemicals, which have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) function, have been detected in surface waters and people have the potential to be exposed through water-drinking. Here, the presence of thyroid-active chemicals and their toxic potential in drinking water sources in Yangtze River Delta were investigated by use of instrumental analysis combined with cell-based reporter gene assay. A novel approach was developed to use Monte Carlo simulation, for evaluation of the potential risks of measured concentrations of TH agonists and antagonists and to determine the major contributors to observed thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist potency. None of the extracts exhibited TR agonist potency, while 12 of 14 water samples exhibited TR antagonistic potency. The most probable observed antagonist equivalents ranged from 1.4 to 5.6 µg di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP)/L, which posed potential risk in water sources. Based on Monte Carlo simulation related mass balance analysis, DNBP accounted for 64.4% for the entire observed antagonist toxic unit in water sources, while diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) also contributed. The most probable observed equivalent and most probable relative potency (REP) derived from Monte Carlo simulation is useful for potency comparison and responsible chemicals screening. PMID:24204563

  4. Discovery tactics to mitigate toxicity risks due to reactive metabolite formation with 2-(2-hydroxyaryl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3h)-one derivatives, potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists and clinical candidate(s) for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kalgutkar, Amit S; Griffith, David A; Ryder, Tim; Sun, Hao; Miao, Zhuang; Bauman, Jonathan N; Didiuk, Mary T; Frederick, Kosea S; Zhao, Sabrina X; Prakash, Chandra; Soglia, John R; Bagley, Scott W; Bechle, Bruce M; Kelley, Ryan M; Dirico, Kenneth; Zawistoski, Michael; Li, Jianke; Oliver, Robert; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Liu, Kevin K C; Walker, Daniel P; Benbow, John W; Morris, Joel

    2010-06-21

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies on 5-trifluoromethylpyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as antagonists of the human calcium receptor (CaSR) have been recently disclosed [ Didiuk et al. ( 2009 ) Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19 , 4555 - 4559 ). On the basis of its pharmacology and disposition attributes, (R)-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(1-phenylpropan-2-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (1) was considered for rapid advancement to first-in-human (FIH) trials to mitigate uncertainty surrounding the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) predictions for a short-acting bone anabolic agent. During the course of metabolic profiling, however, glutathione (GSH) conjugates of 1 were detected in human liver microsomes in an NADPH-dependent fashion. Characterization of the GSH conjugate structures allowed insight(s) into the bioactivation pathway, which involved CYP3A4-mediated phenol ring oxidation to the catechol, followed by further oxidation to the electrophilic ortho-quinone species. While the reactive metabolite (RM) liability raised concerns around the likelihood of a potential toxicological outcome, a more immediate program goal was establishing confidence in human PK predictions in the FIH study. Furthermore, the availability of a clinical biomarker (serum parathyroid hormone) meant that PD could be assessed side by side with PK, an ideal scenario for a relatively unprecedented pharmacologic target. Consequently, progressing 1 into the clinic was given a high priority, provided the compound demonstrated an adequate safety profile to support FIH studies. Despite forming identical RMs in rat liver microsomes, no clinical or histopathological signs prototypical of target organ toxicity were observed with 1 in in vivo safety assessments in rats. Compound 1 was also devoid of metabolism-based mutagenicity in in vitro (e.g., Salmonella Ames) and in vivo assessments (micronuclei induction in bone marrow) in rats. Likewise, metabolism

  5. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  6. Dotarizine versus flunarizine as calcium antagonists in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, M; Gandía, L; Lara, B; Albillos, A; López, M G; García, A G

    1995-01-01

    1. Dotarizine is a novel piperazine derivative structurally related to flunarizine that is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for its antimigraine and antivertigo effects. This clinical profile may be related to its Ca2+ antagonist properties. Therefore, the actions of both compounds as calcium antagonists were compared in bovine chromaffin cells. 2. Dotarizine and flunarizine blocked 45Ca2+ uptake into K+ depolarized chromaffin cells (70 mM K+/0.5 mM Ca2+ for 60 s) in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50s of 4.8 and 6.7 microM, respectively. 3. Dotarizine and flunarizine also inhibited the whole-cell Ca2+ and Ba2+ currents (ICa, IBa) in voltage-clamped chromaffin cells, induced by depolarizing test pulses to 0 mV, during 50 ms, from a holding potential of -80 mV. Blockade exhibited IC50s of 4 microM for dotarizine and 2.2 microM for flunarizine. Dotarizine increased the rate of inactivation of ICa and IBa; inhibition of whole-cell currents was use-dependent. 4. Transient increases of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, produced by K+ stimulation (70 mM K+ for 5 s) of single fura-2-loaded chromaffin cells, were also inhibited by dotarizine and flunarizine with IC50s of 1.2 and 0.6 microM, respectively. Upon washout of dotarizine, the [Ca2+]i increases recovered fully after 5-10 min. In contrast, the responses remained largely inhibited 10 min after washing out flunarizine. 5. Catecholamine release induced by K+ stimulation (10-s pulses of 70 mM) was inhibited by dotarizine with an IC50 of 2.6 microM and by flunarizine with an IC50 of 1.2 microM. The blocking effects of both compounds developed slowly, and was fully established after 20-30 min of superfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7881736

  7. [3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidines containing furoxan moieties: a new class of H3-antagonists endowed with NO-donor properties.

    PubMed

    Bertinaria, Massimo; Stilo, Antonella Di; Tosco, Paolo; Sorba, Giovanni; Poli, Enzo; Pozzoli, Cristina; Coruzzi, Gabriella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2003-04-03

    Synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of a series of products obtained by coupling the H(3)-antagonist SKF 91486 through appropriate spacers with the NO-donor 3-phenylfuroxan-4-yloxy and 3-benzenesulfonylfuroxan-4-yloxy moieties, as well as with the corresponding furazan substructures, devoid of NO-donating properties, are reported. All the products were tested for their H(3)-antagonistic and H(2)-agonistic properties on electrically-stimulated guinea-pig ileum segments and guinea-pig papillary muscle, respectively. The whole series of compounds displayed good H(3)-antagonist behaviour and feeble partial H(2)-agonist activity. Among furoxan derivatives, the benzenesulfonyl hybrid 28, a good NO-donor, triggered a dual NO-dependent muscle relaxation and H(3)-antagonistic effect on guinea-pig intestine.

  8. Autoimmune encephalomyelitis ameliorated by AMPA antagonists.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Groom, A; Zhu, B; Turski, L

    2000-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system leading to progressive decline of motor and sensory functions and permanent disability. The therapy of multiple sclerosis is only partially effective, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppresive and immunomodulatory measures. White matter inflammation and loss of myelin, the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis, are thought to determine disease severity. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reproduces the features of multiple sclerosis in rodents and in nonhuman primates. The dominant early clinical symptom of acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis is progressive ascending muscle weakness. However, demyelination may not be profound and its extent may not correlate with severity of neurological decline, indicating that targets unrelated to myelin or oligodendrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here we report that within the spinal cord in the course of autoimmune encephalomyelitis not only myelin but also neurons are subject to lymphocyte attack and may degenerate. Blockade of glutamate AMPA receptors ameliorated the neurological sequelae of autoimmune encephalomyelitis, indicating the potential for AMPA antagonists in the therapy of multiple sclerosis.

  9. Antagonists of alcohol inhibition of cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Sebastian, Anita B.; Smith, Sherri A.; Charness, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alcohols act within specific binding pockets of selective neural proteins; however, antagonists at these sites have not been identified. 1-Alcohols from methanol through 1-butanol inhibit with increasing potency the cell–cell adhesion mediated by the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1. An abrupt cutoff exists after 1-butanol, with 1-pentanol and higher 1-alcohols showing no effect. Here, we demonstrate surprisingly strict structural requirements for alcohol inhibition of cell–cell adhesion in L1-transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and in NG108–15 neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cells treated with BMP-7, an inducer of L1 and neural cell adhesion molecule. The target site discriminates the tertiary structure of straight-chain and branched-chain alcohols and appears to comprise both a hydrophobic binding site and an adjacent hydrophilic allosteric site. Modifications to the 2- and 3-carbon positions of 1-butanol increased potency, whereas modifications that restrict movement about the 4-carbon abolished activity. The effects of ethanol and 1-butanol on cell–cell adhesion were antagonized by 1-pentanol (IC50 = 715 μM) and 1-octanol (IC50 = 3.6 μM). Antagonism by 1-octanol was complete, reversible, and noncompetitive. 1-Octanol also antagonized ethanol inhibition of BMP-7 morphogenesis in NG108–15 cells. 1-Octanol and related compounds may prove useful in dissecting the role of altered cell adhesion in ethanol-induced injury of the nervous system. PMID:10725368

  10. Noradrenergic antagonists mitigate amphetamine-induced recovery.

    PubMed

    Hylin, M J; Brenneman, M M; Corwin, J V

    2017-09-15

    Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or lead to the use of other methods that share the same pharmacological properties. One proposed mechanism is amphetamine's impact upon noradrenaline (NA). In the current, study noradrenergic antagonists were administered prior to amphetamine to pharmacologically block α- and β-adrenergic receptors. The results demonstrated that the blockade of these receptors disrupted amphetamines ability to induce recovery from hemispatial neglect using an established aspiration lesion model. This suggests that amphetamine's ability to ameliorate neglect deficits may be due in part to noradrenaline. These results further support the role of noradrenaline in functional recovery. Finally, the development of polytherapies and combined therapeutics, while promising, may need to consider the possibility that drug interactions can negate the effectiveness of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adrenergic antagonists restrict replication of Legionella.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher F; Kicka, Sébastien; Kranjc, Agata; Finsel, Ivo; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Soldati, Thierry; Scapozza, Leonardo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium, which upon inhalation can cause a potentially fatal pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The opportunistic pathogen grows in environmental amoebae and mammalian macrophages within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the 'Legionella-containing vacuole'. Bacteria are exposed to many environmental cues including small signalling molecules from eukaryotic cells. A number of pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to catecholamine hormones, such as adrenalin and noradrenalin, a process mediated via the QseBC two-component system in some bacteria. In this study, we examined the effect of adrenergic compounds on L. pneumophila, and discovered that the adrenergic receptor antagonists benoxathian, naftopidil, propranolol and labetalol, as well as the QseC sensor kinase inhibitor LED209, reduced the growth of L. pneumophila in broth or amoebae, while replication in macrophages was enhanced. Growth restriction was common to members of the genus Legionella and Mycobacterium, and was observed for L. pneumophila in the replicative but not stationary phase of the biphasic life cycle. Deletion of the L. pneumophila qseBC genes indicated that growth inhibition by adrenergics or LED209 is mediated only to a minor extent by this two-component system, implying the presence of other adrenergic sensing systems. This study identifies adrenergic molecules as novel inhibitors of extra- and intracellular growth of Legionella and reveals LED209 as a potential lead compound to combat infections with Legionella or Mycobacterium spp.

  12. Antagonistic interactions among coral-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rypien, Krystal L; Ward, Jessica R; Azam, Farooq

    2010-01-01

    Reef-building corals are comprised of close associations between the coral animal, symbiotic zooxanthellae, and a diversity of associated microbes (including Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi). Together, these comprise the coral holobiont - a paradigm that emphasizes the potential contributions of each component to the overall function and health of the coral. Little is known about the ecology of the coral-associated microbial community and its hypothesized role in coral health. We explored bacteria-bacteria antagonism among 67 bacterial isolates from the scleractinian coral Montastrea annularis at two temperatures using Burkholder agar diffusion assays. A majority of isolates exhibited inhibitory activity (69.6% of isolates at 25 degrees C, 52.2% at 31 degrees C), with members of the gamma-proteobacteria (Vibrionales and Alteromonadales) being especially antagonistic. Elevated temperatures generally reduced levels of antagonism, although the effects were complex. Several potential pathogens were observed in the microbial community of apparently healthy corals, and 11.6% of isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi at 25 degrees C. Overall, this study demonstrates that antagonism could be a structuring force in coral-associated microbial communities and may contribute to pathogenesis as well as disease resistance.

  13. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  14. TRPV1 Antagonist Suppresses Allergic Conjunctivitis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Young; Lee, Hyun Soo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-10-11

    To determine the immunologic functions of TRPA1 or TRPV1 in allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA), after which TRPA1 antagonist or TRPV1 antagonist was administered before topical OVA challenge. Expression of TRPV1 or TRPA1 in AC was examined by western blotting and multicolor immunofluorescence. Clinical signs, OVA-specific IgE, infiltration of inflammatory cells into conjunctivae (CJs), and Th2 cytokine in draining lymph nodes (LNs) were evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. TRPV1 expression was increased in CJs and LNs from AC mice, but TRPA1 expression was only increased in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist attenuated the clinical signs of AC and OVA-specific IgE in sera. TRPV1 antagonist furthermore inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into CJ and the production of Th2 cytokines in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist may ameliorate AC by suppressing the Th2 response in LNs.

  15. Molecular determinants of the species selectivity of neurokinin type 1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pradier, L; Habert-Ortoli, E; Emile, L; Le Guern, J; Loquet, I; Bock, M D; Clot, J; Mercken, L; Fardin, V; Garret, C

    1995-02-01

    Most nonpeptide neurokinin (NK)1 antagonists display a marked difference in affinity for rat versus human NK1 receptors. The molecular basis for the species selectivity of RP67580 and CP96,345 has been previously addressed [J. Biol. Chem. 267:25668-25671 (1992); J. Biol. Chem. 268:2319-2323 (1993)]. We are extending these previous results to additional NK1 antagonists, which are members of different chemical families. Included is a new perhydroisoindolol, RPR100893, which unlike its parent compound (RP67580) is human receptor selective. Chimeric rat/human NK1 receptors, as well as rat and human mutant NK1 receptors, were constructed and expressed in COS-1 cells, and affinities for substance P and the various antagonists were determined in binding studies. With human receptor-selective antagonists, the rat R290(S-->I) mutation was the most effective in increasing antagonist affinity (from 7- to 23-fold). Combination with the R116(L-->V) mutation led to an additional increase in affinity for trans-4-hydroxy-1-(1H-indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-L-prolyl-N- methyl-N-(phenylmethyl)-L-tyrosineamide (a derivative of FK888) and to nearly full human receptor affinity for RPR100893 and (+/-)-CP99,994. Based on the gains in affinities, these results confirm and extend the role of residues 116 and 290 of the NK1 receptor in the species selectivity of these three new human receptor-selective NK1 antagonists. In comparison, the affinity of RP67580, the least selective molecule, was most affected by changes at position 116, and combination with mutations at either position 97 (V-->E) or position 290 led to the human receptor phenotype. For the heterosteroid KAN610857, modifications of the rat receptor at positions 97 and 290, and to a lesser degree position 116, were the most effective in reducing affinity. Two double-mutants [R(97,290) and R(116,290)], although different from those identified for RP67580, also displayed human receptor-like affinity. Therefore, the molecular determinants of

  16. Investigation on quantitative structure activity relationships and pharmacophore modeling of a series of mGluR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Le; Li, Yan; Fan, Wen-Jia; Wang, Yong-Hua; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Ai, Chun-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydrobenzo[ b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different activities of the antagonists against rat mGluR2, which has been shown to be very similar to the human mGluR2, (activity I: inhibition of [(3)H]-LY354740; activity II: mGluR2 (1S,3R)-ACPD inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP.) were derived from datasets composed of 137 and 69 molecules respectively. For activity I study, the best predictive model obtained from CoMFA analysis yielded a Q(2) of 0.513, R(2) (ncv) of 0.868, R(2) (pred) = 0.876, while the CoMSIA model yielded a Q(2) of 0.450, R(2) (ncv) = 0.899, R(2) (pred) = 0.735. For activity II study, CoMFA model yielded statistics of Q(2) = 0.5, R(2) (ncv) = 0.715, R(2) (pred) = 0.723. These results prove the high predictability of the models. Furthermore, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps shows that: (1) Bulky substituents in R(7), R(3) and position A benefit activity I of the antagonists, but decrease it when projected in R(8) and position B; (2) Hydrophilic groups at position A and B increase both antagonistic activity I and II; (3) Electrostatic field plays an essential rule in the variance of activity II. In search for more potent mGluR2 antagonists, two pharmacophore models were developed separately for the two activities. The first model reveals six pharmacophoric features, namely an aromatic center, two hydrophobic centers, an H-donor atom, an H-acceptor atom and an H-donor site. The second model shares all features of the first one and has an additional acceptor site, a positive N and an aromatic center. These models can be used as guidance for the development of new mGluR2 antagonists of high activity and selectivity

  17. Generation of a highly diverse panel of antagonistic chicken monoclonal antibodies against the GIP receptor

    PubMed Central

    Könitzer, Jennifer D.; Pan, Qi; Augustin, Robert; Bandholtz, Sebastian; Harriman, William; Izquierdo, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raising functional antibodies against G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is challenging due to their low density expression, instability in the absence of the cell membrane's lipid bilayer and frequently short extracellular domains that can serve as antigens. In addition, a particular therapeutic concept may require an antibody to not just bind the receptor, but also act as a functional receptor agonist or antagonist. Antagonizing the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor may open up new therapeutic modalities in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. As such, a panel of monoclonal antagonistic antibodies would be a useful tool for in vitro and in vivo proof of concept studies. The receptor is highly conserved between rodents and humans, which has contributed to previous mouse and rat immunization campaigns generating very few usable antibodies. Switching the immunization host to chicken, which is phylogenetically distant from mammals, enabled the generation of a large and diverse panel of monoclonal antibodies containing 172 unique sequences. Three-quarters of all chicken-derived antibodies were functional antagonists, exhibited high-affinities to the receptor extracellular domain and sampled a broad epitope repertoire. For difficult targets, including GPCRs such as GIPR, chickens are emerging as valuable immunization hosts for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:28055305

  18. Identification of a pepducin acting as S1P3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Severino, Beatrice; Incisivo, Giuseppina Maria; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Bertolino, Antonio; Frecentese, Francesco; Barbato, Francesco; Manganelli, Serena; Maggioni, Giada; Capasso, Domenica; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Perissutti, Elisa

    2013-11-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid with key functions in the immune, inflammatory, and cardiovascular systems. S1P exerts its action through the interaction with a family of five known G protein-coupled receptors, named S1P(1-5). Among them, S1P(3) has been implicated in the pathological processes of a number of diseases, including sepsis and cancer. KRX-725 (compound 1) is a pepducin that mimics the effects of S1P by triggering specifically S1P(3). Here, aiming to identify novel S1P(3) antagonists, we carried out an alanine scanning analysis to address the contribution of the side chains of each amino acid residue to the peptide function. Then, deleted peptides from both the C- and N-terminus were prepared in order to determine the minimal sequence for activity and to identify the structural requirements for agonistic and, possibly, antagonistic behaviors. The pharmacological results of the Ala-scan derived compounds (2-10) suggested a high tolerance of the pepducin 1 to amino acid substitutions. Importantly, the deleted peptide 16 has the ability to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, both pepducin 1-induced vasorelaxation and fibroblast proliferation. Finally, a computational analysis was performed on the prepared compounds, showing that the supposed antagonists 16 and 17 appeared to be aligned with each other but not with the others. These results suggested a correlation between specific conformations and activities.

  19. Generation of a highly diverse panel of antagonistic chicken monoclonal antibodies against the GIP receptor.

    PubMed

    Könitzer, Jennifer D; Pramanick, Shreya; Pan, Qi; Augustin, Robert; Bandholtz, Sebastian; Harriman, William; Izquierdo, Shelley

    2017-01-05

    Raising functional antibodies against G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is challenging due to their low density expression, instability in the absence of the cell membrane's lipid bilayer and frequently short extracellular domains that can serve as antigens. In addition, a particular therapeutic concept may require an antibody to not just bind the receptor, but also act as a functional receptor agonist or antagonist. Antagonizing the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor may open up new therapeutic modalities in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. As such, a panel of monoclonal antagonistic antibodies would be a useful tool for in vitro and in vivo proof of concept studies. The receptor is highly conserved between rodents and humans, which has contributed to previous mouse and rat immunization campaigns generating very few usable antibodies. Switching the immunization host to chicken, which is phylogenetically distant from mammals, enabled the generation of a large and diverse panel of monoclonal antibodies containing 172 unique sequences. Three-quarters of all chicken-derived antibodies were functional antagonists, exhibited high-affinities to the receptor extracellular domain and sampled a broad epitope repertoire. For difficult targets, including GPCRs such as GIPR, chickens are emerging as valuable immunization hosts for therapeutic antibody discovery.

  20. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  1. Effects of opiates and opiate antagonists on the Straub tail reaction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, M. D.; McKean, Donna B.; Pearl, J.

    1969-01-01

    1. Subcutaneous injections of opiates produced the Straub tail reaction in mice. The potencies of the opiates in mice were consistent with previous estimates of the analgesic potencies in animals and in man. 2. The potencies of sixteen antagonists in counteracting the reaction were consistent with those previously obtained with the rat tail-flick test. 3. The (-) isomers of four benzomorphan derivatives were much more potent in counteracting the reaction than their (+) isomers and about twice as potent as their racemates. The activity of the isomers seemed to follow Pfeiffer's rule: the lower the effective dose of a drug, the greater the difference in the pharmacological effects of the optical isomers. One of the trans isomers acted like an opiate, while its cis isomer acted like an antagonist. 4. Naloxone and nalorphine fulfilled conventional criteria for competitive antagonism, whereas atropine and the (-) and the (+) isomers of pentazocine and of cyclazocine did not do so. 5. The Straub tail test seems to be useful for studying structure-activity relations among opiates and opiate antagonists. PMID:4389201

  2. Antagonistic Effect of Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 on
Foodborne Pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Belák, Ágnes; Maráz, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial isolates derived from food or raw food materials of animal origin were screened for potential antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. Using the agar spot method, ten out of the 94 tested bacteria showed antilisterial activity. All of the antagonistic isolates identified by sequence analysis as strains of the genus Pseudomonas were able to inhibit the growth of all the examined Listeria species including the ruminal pathogenic L. ivanovii and the opportunistic human pathogenic L. innocua. Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 had the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of different Listeria strains. Co-culturing studies revealed that the inhibition of L. monocytogenes could not be achieved efficiently. Although the population of the Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 strain increased by up to 10 orders of magnitude during 2 days of culturing period at 20 °C in the presence of L. monocytogenes, the cell count of the pathogen also increased by approx. 6 orders of magnitude. At the same time, appropriate inhibition of cell-free supernatants generated from 6-day-old cultures of Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 was observed. The inhibitory compound of this antagonistic strain is presumably a chromopeptide siderophore, whose activity and production can be affected by iron supplementation, and which had an absorption maximum typical of siderophores of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. Production of the antilisterial substance was influenced by the oxygen concentration, as in static cultures the concentration of the siderophore was higher than in shake flask cultures.

  3. Antagonistic Effect of Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 on
Foodborne Pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Maráz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacterial isolates derived from food or raw food materials of animal origin were screened for potential antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. Using the agar spot method, ten out of the 94 tested bacteria showed antilisterial activity. All of the antagonistic isolates identified by sequence analysis as strains of the genus Pseudomonas were able to inhibit the growth of all the examined Listeria species including the ruminal pathogenic L. ivanovii and the opportunistic human pathogenic L. innocua. Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 had the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of different Listeria strains. Co-culturing studies revealed that the inhibition of L. monocytogenes could not be achieved efficiently. Although the population of the Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 strain increased by up to 10 orders of magnitude during 2 days of culturing period at 20 °C in the presence of L. monocytogenes, the cell count of the pathogen also increased by approx. 6 orders of magnitude. At the same time, appropriate inhibition of cell-free supernatants generated from 6-day-old cultures of Pseudomonas sp. CMI-1 was observed. The inhibitory compound of this antagonistic strain is presumably a chromopeptide siderophore, whose activity and production can be affected by iron supplementation, and which had an absorption maximum typical of siderophores of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. Production of the antilisterial substance was influenced by the oxygen concentration, as in static cultures the concentration of the siderophore was higher than in shake flask cultures. PMID:27904352

  4. Single exposure of dopamine D1 antagonist prevents and D2 antagonist attenuates methylphenidate effect

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, Catherine M; Witte, Lindsey J; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is a readily prescribed drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moreover is used illicitly by youths for its cognitive-enhancing effects and recreation. MPD exposure in rodents elicits increased locomotor activity. Repetitive MPD exposure leads to further augmentation of their locomotor activity. This behavioral response is referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization is used as an experimental marker for a drug’s ability to elicit dependence. There is evidence that dopamine (DA) is a key player in the acute and chronic MPD effect; however, the role of DA in the effects elicited by MPD is still debated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of D1 and/or D2 DA receptors in the acute and chronic effect of MPD on locomotor activity. The study lasted for 12 consecutive days. Seven groups of male Sprague Dawley® rats were used. A single D1 or D2 antagonist was given before and after acute and chronic MPD administration. Single injection of D1 DA antagonist was able to significantly attenuate the locomotor activity when given prior to the initial MPD exposure and after repetitive MPD exposure, while the D2 DA antagonist partially attenuated the locomotor activity only when given before the second MPD exposure. The results show the role, at least in part, of the D1 DA receptor in the mechanism of behavioral sensitization, whereas the D2 DA receptor only partially modulates the response to acute and chronic MPD. PMID:27186140

  5. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects.

  6. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  7. Intractable pneumococcal meningoencephalitis associated with a TNF-α antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Jae; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Young Seo; Lee, Ha Neul; Kim, Hee Tae; Kim, Seung H

    2014-09-15

    A 34-year-old man was treated with a TNF-α antagonist for ankylosing spondylitis, and this subsequently developed a CNS infection. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse subcortical white matter lesions. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. The patient died of multifocal widespread brain damage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, despite intensive antibacterial medication. Pneumococcal meningoencephalitis can occur in association with TNF-α antagonists. Clinicians should be aware of both the risk of fatal bacterial meningoencephalitis associated with TNF-α antagonists and the possibility of an unusual presentation of bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures.

  9. [Research progress of selective mGluR1 antagonists].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-lei; Sun, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ye; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2011-10-01

    As an important member of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) plays an important role in the signal transduction of central nervous system. Selective mGluR1 antagonists can block the signaling pathway activated by mGluR1 and exert a series of physiological actions including analgesia, antianxiety, antidepression, etc. Currently, the discovery and modification of selective mGluR1 antagonists have become a hot research focus. This paper reviews the structural catalogs of selective mGluR1 antagonists and their structure-activity relationships in the last decade.

  10. Bipiperidinyl carboxylic acid amides as potent, selective, and functionally active CCR4 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Cyrille F; Bazin, Marc; Philippe, Laurence; Zhang, Jiansu; Tylaska, Laurie; Miret, Juan; Bauer, Paul H

    2007-09-01

    A cell-based assay for the chemokine G-protein-coupled receptor CCR4 was developed, and used to screen a small-molecule compound collection in a multiplex format. A series of bipiperidinyl carboxylic acid amides amenable to parallel chemistry were derived that were potent and selective antagonists of CCR4. One prototype compound was shown to be active in a functional model of chemotaxis, making it a useful chemical tool to explore the role of CCR4 in asthma, allergy, diabetes, and cancer.

  11. Methylnaltrexone, a novel peripheral opioid receptor antagonist for the treatment of opioid side effects.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Su; Israel, Robert J

    2006-05-01

    Methylnaltrexone is an investigational peripheral opioid receptor antagonist, a quaternary derivative of naltrexone. Methylnaltrexone has greater polarity and lower lipid solubility, thus it does not cross the blood-brain barrier in humans. Methylnaltrexone offers the therapeutic potential to block or reverse the undesired side effects of opioids that are mediated by receptors located in the periphery (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract), without affecting analgesia or precipitating the opioid withdrawal symptoms that are predominantly mediated by receptors in the CNS. This article reviews preclinical studies and clinical opioid bowel dysfunction trial data, and briefly discusses other potential roles of this compound in clinical practice.

  12. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  13. Interactions of organic calcium channel antagonists with calcium channels in single frog atrial cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Inhibition of whole-cell calcium currents in enzymatically dispersed frog atrial myocytes by D-600, diltiazem, and nifedipine was studied using a single-micropipette voltage-clamp technique. The objective of these experiments was to test the applicability of a modulated-receptor hypothesis similar to that proposed for local anesthetic interactions with sodium channels to account for the tonic and frequency-dependent interactions of these organic compounds with myocardial calcium channels. Data consistent with such a hypothesis include: (a) prominent use-dependent block of iCa by D-600 and diltiazem, which are predominantly charged at physiological pH; (b) iCa block by an externally applied, permanently charged dihydropyridine derivative is greatly attenuated; (c) all three antagonists produce large negative shifts in the voltage dependence of iCa availability; (d) block of iCa by these compounds is state-dependent; (e) reactivation of iCa in the presence of all three antagonists is biexponential, which suggests that drug-free channels recover with a normal time course and drug-bound channels recover more slowly; and (f) the kinetics of the drug-induced slow iCa recovery process may be determined largely by factors such as size and molecular weight, in addition to lipid solubility of the compounds. Experiments in which the pH was modified, however, reveal some important differences for the interaction of organic calcium antagonists with myocardial calcium channels. Acidification, in addition to changing the proportion of charged and neutral antagonist in solution, was found to selectively antagonize tonic inhibition of iCa by diltiazem and nifedipine, without changing the kinetics of the drug-induced slow iCa reactivation process. It is concluded that two distinct receptor sites may be involved in block of iCa by some of these compounds: a proton-accessible site and a proton-inaccessible site. PMID:2582076

  14. Identification and mechanism of action of the acylguanidine MRT-83, a novel potent Smoothened antagonist.

    PubMed

    Roudaut, Hermine; Traiffort, Elisabeth; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Vincent, Ludwig; Faure, Helene; Schoenfelder, Angele; Mann, Andre; Manetti, Fabrizio; Solinas, Antonio; Taddei, Maurizio; Ruat, Martial

    2011-03-01

    There is a clear need to develop novel pharmacological tools to improve our understanding of Smoothened (Smo) function in normal and pathological states. Here, we report the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the in vivo activity of N-(2-methyl-5-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)guanidino)phenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (MRT-83), a novel potent antagonist of Smo that belongs to the acylguanidine family of molecules. MRT-83 fits to a proposed pharmacophoric model for Smo antagonists with three hydrogen bond acceptor groups and three hydrophobic regions. MRT-83 blocks Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in various assays with an IC50 in the nanomolar range, showing greater potency than the reference Smo antagonist cyclopamine. MRT-83 inhibits Bodipy-cyclopamine binding to human and mouse Smo but does not modify Wnt signaling in human embryonic kidney 293 transiently transfected with a Tcf/Lef-dependent Firefly luciferase reporter together with a Renilla reniformis luciferase control reporter. MRT-83 abrogates the agonist-induced trafficking of endogenous mouse or human Smo to the primary cilium of C3H10T1/2 or NT2 cells that derive from a pluripotent testicular carcinoma. Stereotaxic injection into the lateral ventricle of adult mice of MRT-83 but not of a structurally related compound inactive at Smo abolished up-regulation of Patched transcription induced by Sonic Hedgehog in the neighboring subventricular zone. These data demonstrate that MRT-83 efficiently antagonizes Hh signaling in vivo. All together, these molecular, functional and biochemical studies provide evidence that MRT-83 interacts with Smo. Thus, this novel Smo antagonist will be useful for manipulating Hh signaling and may help develop new therapies against Hh-pathway related diseases.

  15. Characterization of a novel bivalent morphinan possessing kappa agonist and micro agonist/antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Jennifer L; Peng, Xuemei; Xiong, Wennan; Zhang, Ao; Negus, S Stevens; Neumeyer, John L; Bidlack, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    Previous research has shown that compounds with mixed kappa and mu activity may have utility for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. The present study characterizes the pharmacological profile of a bivalent morphinan that was shown to be a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor agonist/antagonist. MCL-145 [bis(N-cyclobutylmethylmorphinan) fumarate] is related to the morphinan cyclorphan and its N-cyclobutylmethyl derivative MCL-101 [3-hydroxy-N-cyclobutylmethyl morphinan S-(+)-mandelate]. MCL-145 consists of two morphinans connected by a spacer at the 3-hydroxy position. This compound had K(i) values of 0.078 and 0.20 nM for the kappa and mu opioid receptors, respectively, using radioligand binding assays as shown by Neumeyer et al. in 2003. In the guanosine 5'-O -(3-[(35) S]thiotriphosphate) binding assay, MCL-145 produced an E(max) value of 80% for the kappa opioid receptor and 42% for the mu opioid receptor. The EC(50) values obtained for this compound were 4.3 and 3.1 nM for the kappa and mu opioid receptors, respectively. In vivo MCL-145 produced a full dose-response curve in the 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test and was equipotent to morphine. The agonist properties of MCL-145 were antagonized by the mu-selective antagonist beta-funaltrexamine and the kappa-selective antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. MCL-145 also acted as a mu antagonist, as measured by the inhibition of morphine-induced antinociception.

  16. Anthropomorphic finger antagonistically actuated by SMA plates.

    PubMed

    Engeberg, Erik D; Dilibal, Savas; Vatani, Morteza; Choi, Jae-Won; Lavery, John

    2015-08-20

    Most robotic applications that contain shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators use the SMA in a linear or spring shape. In contrast, a novel robotic finger was designed in this paper using SMA plates that were thermomechanically trained to take the shape of a flexed human finger when Joule heated. This flexor actuator was placed in parallel with an extensor actuator that was designed to straighten when Joule heated. Thus, alternately heating and cooling the flexor and extensor actuators caused the finger to flex and extend. Three different NiTi based SMA plates were evaluated for their ability to apply forces to a rigid and compliant object. The best of these three SMAs was able to apply a maximum fingertip force of 9.01N on average. A 3D CAD model of a human finger was used to create a solid model for the mold of the finger covering skin. Using a 3D printer, inner and outer molds were fabricated to house the actuators and a position sensor, which were assembled using a multi-stage casting process. Next, a nonlinear antagonistic controller was developed using an outer position control loop with two inner MOSFET current control loops. Sine and square wave tracking experiments demonstrated minimal errors within the operational bounds of the finger. The ability of the finger to recover from unexpected disturbances was also shown along with the frequency response up to 7 rad s(-1). The closed loop bandwidth of the system was 6.4 rad s(-1) when operated intermittently and 1.8 rad s(-1) when operated continuously.

  17. Central effects of the calcium antagonist, nifedipine.

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, D G; Currie, D; Nicholson, A N; Wright, N A; Zetlein, M B

    1991-01-01

    1. Central effects of the calcium antagonist, nifedipine retard (10, 20 and 40 mg) and nifedipine capsules (10 mg) were studied in 14 healthy male subjects. Two placebos and an active control drug, oxazepam (15 mg), were included. Medication was administered double-blind at 10.00 h. The effects of drugs on performance and subjective feelings were assessed before and from 1.5-2.5 h and 3.5-4.5 h after ingestion, and recordings of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and body sway carried out. 2. Performance was assessed using digit symbol substitution, continuous attention, letter cancellation, choice reaction time, finger tapping, immediate and short-term memory, together with critical flicker fusion and two flash fusion. The EEG was recorded with eyes open while the subjects carried out a mental arithmetic task, and with eyes closed, when they were required to relax. Body sway was recorded with eyes open and with eyes closed. Subjects assessed their mood and well-being on a series of 12 visual analogue scales. 3. Nifedipine did not alter performance levels on any of the skills tested, while oxazepam (15 mg) increased the number of errors (P less than 0.01) and reduced accuracy at continuous attention (P less than 0.01). 4. Nifedipine (10 mg) reduced total power of the EEG in the frequency range (0.5-30 Hz), and nifedipine (20 mg) increased total alpha power (7.5-13 Hz) (P less than 0.05). Oxazepam reduced alpha and increased beta 1 power (13.5-21 Hz).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1954069

  18. Calmodulin antagonists inhibit secretion in Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Secretion in Paramecium is Ca2+-dependent and involves exocytic release of the content of the secretory organelle, known as the trichocyst. The content, called the trichocyst matrix, undergoes a Ca2+-induced reordering of its paracrystalline structure during release, and we have defined three stages in this expansion process. The stage I, or fully condensed trichocyst, is the 4 microns-long membrane-bounded form existing prior to stimulation. Stage II, the partially expanded trichocyst, we define as an intermediate stage in the transition, preceding stage III, the fully expanded extruded form which is a 20-40 microns-long needlelike structure. These stages have been used to assay the effects of trifluoperazine (TFP) and W-7, calmodulin (CaM) antagonists, on trichocyst matrix expansion in vivo. TFP and W-7 are shown to reversibly block matrix release induced by picric acid. Ultra- structural examination reveals that one effect of this inhibition is reflected in the organelles themselves, which are prevented from undergoing the stage I-stage II transition by preincubation in 14 microM TFP or 35 microM W-7 before fixation. This inhibition of expansion by TFP can be moderated but not abolished by high extracellular Ca2+ (5 mM). The moderation by high Ca2+ can be eliminated by raising TFP concentration to 20 microM. A possible explanation for the ability to titrate the inhibition in this manner is that TFP is acting to block expansion by binding to the Ca2+-CaM complex. Brief exposure of cells to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and 5 mM Ca2+ following TFP treatment promotes matrix expansion, although in 14 microM TFP a residual level of inhibition remains. These results suggest that, following stimulation, CaM regulates secretion in Paramecium, possibly by controlling the Ca2+-dependent matrix expansion which accompanies exocytosis in these cells. PMID:6403556

  19. The pharmacological properties of lipophilic calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, P A

    1998-01-01

    Several types of calcium antagonists (CA) (verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine and related drugs) may be used as antihypertensives. In practice, the dihydropyridines (nifedipine and related drugs) are the CA used most frequently as antihypertensives. Apart from the lowering of blood pressure CA may lead to other, theoretically beneficial, effects: regression of left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, renal protection, weak natriuretic, weak antiplatelet, anti-ischaemic and antiatherogenic activity. Several new dihydropyridine CA have been introduced in recent years. The advantages of the newer compounds, such as amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, lacidipine and lercanidipine, may include: vasoselectivity, hence little or no cardiodepressant activity; an improved kinetic profile, resulting in a slow onset and long duration of action, fewer side-effects such as reflex tachycardia and headache, owing to the slow onset of the antihypertensive action. For a few newer CA a predominant effect on specialized circulatory beds (renal, coronary and cerebral) has been claimed. The new CA, which are clearly lipophilic, deserve special attention. Owing to the lipophilic character of such compounds considerable concentration occurs in lipid-containing membrane depots. The CA thus concentrated are slowly released from these depots and, subsequently, reach their targets, the L-type calcium channels. This phenomenon explains both the slow onset and the long duration of action of these CA. Owing to the slow onset of action reflex tachycardia is virtually absent. The long duration of action allows satisfactory control of blood pressure in hypertensives by means of a single daily dose. A few lipophilic dihydropyridine CA are vasoselective. This property implies that at therapeutic, vasodilatory dosages no cardiodepressant activity occurs. Lercanidipine is a recently introduced example of a lipophilic and vasoselective dihydropyridine CA. It is an effective vasodilator

  20. [Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: different or equivalent?].

    PubMed

    Mounier-Vehier, C; Devos, P

    ARA-II: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II) belong to a recent class of antihypertensive drugs whose mechanism of action is similar to converting enzyme inhibitors (CEI). ARA-II are particularly interesting due to the excellent clinical and biological tolerance, similar to placebo, and their antihypertensive efficacy, comparable with classical drug classes. PUBLISHED TRIALS: A meta-analysis, published by Conlin in the American Journal of Hypertension, suggests that ARA-II, specifically losartan, valsartan, irbesartan and candesartan, have an equipotent blood pressure lowering effect. The careful lecture of this meta-analysis however discloses a faulty methodology from which no valid conclusion can be drawn. Since this early publication, several other comparative studies have been published. These multicentric, randomized double-blind studies enrolled a sufficient number of patients and demonstrated a clinical difference between certain ARA-II at usual dosages. CLINICAL PRACTICE: These studies do have an impact on everyday practice. For the practitioner, the goal is to obtain and then maintain a long-term and optimal reduction in the blood pressure level (reduction or prevention of target-organ disorders and cardiovascular complications of high blood pressure). This reduction in the cardiovascular risk will also depend directly on tolerance and compliance to the antihypertensive treatment. This element must also be considered in assessing treatment efficacy, independent of the blood pressure lowering effect. The results of several other studies will be published in 2001-2003. These large-scale studies on ARA-II related morbidity and mortality will be most useful in determining the role of these drugs in different therapeutic strategies compared with other drug classes.

  1. Design and synthesis of an androgen receptor pure antagonist (CH5137291) for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hitoshi; Sato, Haruhiko; Shiraishi, Takuya; Tachibana, Kazutaka; Emura, Takashi; Honma, Akie; Ishikura, Nobuyuki; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Miho; Nishimoto, Ayako; Nakamura, Ryo; Nakagawa, Toshito; Ohta, Masateru; Takata, Noriyuki; Furumoto, Kentaro; Kimura, Kazuya; Kawata, Hiromitsu

    2010-12-01

    A series of 5,5-dimethylthiohydantoin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for androgen receptor pure antagonistic activities for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Since CH4933468, which we reported previously, had a problem with agonist metabolites, novel thiohydantoin derivatives were identified by applying two strategies. One was the replacement of the alkylsulfonamide moiety by a phenylsulfonamide to avoid the production of agonist metabolites. The other was the replacement of the phenyl ring with a pyridine ring to improve in vivo potency and reduce hERG affinity. Pharmacological assays indicated that CH5137291 (17b) was a potent AR pure antagonist which did not produce the agonist metabolite. Moreover, CH5137291 completely inhibited in vivo tumor growth of LNCaP-BC2, a castration-resistant prostate cancer model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RS-1748, a novel CC chemokine receptor 4 antagonist, inhibits ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Yasuhiro; Kawase, Yumi; Yonekubo, Kazuki; Nosaka, Emi; Etori, Maki; Takahashi, Sakiko; Takagi, Nana; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kuribayashi, Takeshi; Nara, Futoshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is generally recognized as a preferential marker for T helper 2 cells, and we have previously reported morpholine-derivative CCR4 antagonists, RS-1154 and RS-1269. Here, we investigate the pharmacological profiles of a novel pyrimidine-derivative CCR4 antagonist, 2-{4-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]phenyl}-N-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)-5-fluoropyrimidin-4-amine (RS-1748), which showed potency to inhibit the bindings of [(125)I]CCL17 and [(35)S]GTPgammaS to human CCR4-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with IC(50) values of 59.9 nM and 18.4 nM, respectively. Furthermore, RS-1748 inhibited ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs at a dose of 10 mg/kg. These results indicate that RS-1748 would be a promising lead compound for developing a therapeutic agent against asthma.

  3. Complications of TNF-α antagonists and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TNF-α is a central regulator of inflammation and its blockade downregulates other proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Subsequently, TNF-α antagonists are currently used in treatment regimens directed toward several inflammatory diseases. Despite a beneficia...

  4. Antagonistic interactions of soil pseudomonads are structured in time.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne A; Soucy, Jean-Paul R; Kassen, Rees

    2017-04-06

    Social interactions have been invoked as potential major selective forces structuring natural microbial communities and thus may help explain the astonishing bacterial diversity of natural ecosystems. Here, we investigate the prevalence and structure of exotoxin-mediated antagonistic interactions among free-living soil Pseudomonas strains collected over the course of two years at distances of up to one kilometer. Unlike some previous studies on antagonistic interactions among natural isolates, we found the prevalence of exotoxin-mediated inhibitions to be relatively low. When present, antagonistic interactions show a weakly negative relationship with genetic relatedness and metabolic similarity. Intriguingly, isolates sampled from the same growing season were significantly more likely to inhibit each other than they were to inhibit isolates from different growing seasons. Exotoxin-mediated antagonistic interactions between soil pseudomonads thus seem to be structured in time but do not appear to be a major selective force structuring free-living soil bacterial communities of soil pseudomonads.

  5. Characterization and design of antagonistic shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, T.; Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.

    2012-03-01

    Antagonistic shape memory actuators use opposing shape memory alloy (SMA) elements to create devices capable of producing differential motion paths and two-way mechanical work in a very efficient manner. There is no requirement for additional bias elements to ‘re-arm’ the actuators and allow repetitive actuation. The work generation potential of antagonistic shape memory actuators is determined by specific SMA element characteristics and their assembly conditions. In this study, the selected SMA wires are assembled in antagonistic configuration and characterized using a dedicated test bench to evaluate their stress-strain characteristics as a function of the number of cycles. Using these functional characteristics, a so-called ‘working envelope’ is built to assist in the design of such an actuator. Finally, the test bench is used to simulate a real application of an antagonistic actuator (case study).

  6. Structure-based drug design identifies novel LPA3 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fells, James I.; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Liu, Jianxiong; Tigyi, Gabor; Parrill, Abby L.

    2009-01-01

    Compound 5 ([5-(3-nitrophenoxy)-1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2-isoindol-2-yl]acetic acid) was identified as a weak selective LPA3 antagonist (IC50=4504 nM) in a virtual screening effort to optimize a dual LPA2&3 antagonist. Structure-based drug design techniques were used to prioritize similarity search matches of compound 5. This strategy rapidly identified 10 novel antagonists. The two most efficacious compounds identified inhibit activation of the LPA3 receptor by 200 nM LPA with IC50 values of 752 nM and 2992 nM. These compounds additionally define changes to our previously reported pharmacophore that will improve its ability to identify more potent and selective LPA3 receptor antagonists. The results of the combined computational and experimental screening are reported. PMID:19800804

  7. Structure-based drug design identifies novel LPA3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fells, James I; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Liu, Jianxiong; Tigyi, Gabor; Parrill, Abby L

    2009-11-01

    Compound 5 ([5-(3-nitrophenoxy)-1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2-isoindol-2-yl]acetic acid) was identified as a weak selective LPA(3) antagonist (IC(50)=4504 nM) in a virtual screening effort to optimize a dual LPA(2 and 3) antagonist. Structure-based drug design techniques were used to prioritize similarity search matches of compound 5. This strategy rapidly identified 10 novel antagonists. The two most efficacious compounds identified inhibit activation of the LPA(3) receptor by 200 nM LPA with IC(50) values of 752 nM and 2992 nM. These compounds additionally define changes to our previously reported pharmacophore that will improve its ability to identify more potent and selective LPA(3) receptor antagonists. The results of the combined computational and experimental screening are reported.

  8. Assortative mating by fitness and sexually antagonistic genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2011-07-01

    Recent documentations of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in fitness have spurred an interest in the mechanisms that may act to maintain such variation in natural populations. Using individual-based simulations, I show that positive assortative mating by fitness increases the amount of sexually antagonistic genetic variance in fitness, primarily by elevating the equilibrium frequency of heterozygotes, over most of the range of sex-specific selection and dominance. Further, although the effects of assortative mating by fitness on the protection conditions of polymorphism in sexually antagonistic loci were relatively minor, it widens the protection conditions under most reasonable scenarios (e.g., under heterozygote superiority when fitness is averaged across the sexes) but can also somewhat narrow the protection conditions under other circumstances. The near-ubiquity of assortative mating in nature suggests that it may contribute to upholding standing sexually antagonistic genetic variation in fitness.

  9. Vasopressin-receptor antagonist therapy in patients with hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, Tushar; Vachharajani, Vidula

    2007-07-01

    Hyponatraemia often complicates the treatment of underlying conditions in patients who are seriously ill. Arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists block the action of arginine vasopressin and correct sodium and water imbalance in patients with euvolaemic or hypervolaemic hyponatraemia.

  10. Solution structures and molecular interactions of selective melanocortin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lim, Sung-Kil; Lee, Weontae

    2010-12-01

    The solution structures and inter-molecular interaction of the cyclic melanocortin antagonists SHU9119, JKC363, HS014, and HS024 with receptor molecules have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. While SHU9119 is known as a nonselective antagonist, JKC363, HS014, and HS024 are selective for the melanocortin subtype-4 receptor (MC4R) involved in modulation of food intake. Data from NMR and molecular dynamics suggest that the conformation of the Trp9 sidechain in the three MC4R-selective antagonists is quite different from that of SHU9119. This result strongly supports the concept that the spatial orientation of the hydrophobic aromatic residue is more important for determining selectivity than the presence of a basic, "arginine-like" moiety responsible for biological activity. We propose that the conformation of hydrophobic residues of MCR antagonists is critical for receptor-specific selectivity.

  11. Complications of TNF-α antagonists and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TNF-α is a central regulator of inflammation and its blockade downregulates other proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Subsequently, TNF-α antagonists are currently used in treatment regimens directed toward several inflammatory diseases. Despite a beneficia...

  12. Celiprolol, a potent cardioselective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist with mild alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P S; Pruss, T P; Rand, M J; Smith, R D; Mann, W S; Romano, D V

    1985-12-01

    Celiprolol is a cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, with interesting propranolol-insensitive cardiostimulatory, vasodilatory and bronchodilatory effects. Recent reports suggest that mild alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonism may contribute to these effects. The present investigation further explored the alpha 2 effects of celiprolol. In isolated electrically-stimulated rat atria celiprolol (1.0 and 10 mumol/l) significantly increased the release of [3H]-norepinephrine, consistent with the blockade of pre-junctional alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Evidence for post-synaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist activity was obtained in studies of the effects of celiprolol on the pressor response to clonidine and either phenylephrine or methoxamine in perfused hind-limbs of dogs (pretreated with mecamylamine and propranolol) and pithed rats. In the dog, celiprolol (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the vasoconstrictor response of clonidine while in the rat higher doses were required (> or = 12.5 mg/kg). Celiprolol did not affect the pressor response induced by alpha 1-agonists. We conclude that celiprolol possesses a mild alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking action which may contribute to its unconventional profile.

  13. Hemoglobin derivatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  14. Novel arylpiperazines as selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Murray, W V; Jolliffe, L; Pulito, V

    2000-05-15

    A novel series of arylpiperazines has been synthesized and identified as antagonists of alpha1a adrenergic receptor (alpha1a-AR) implicated in benign prostatic hyperplasia. These compounds selectively bind to membrane bound alpha1a-AR with K(i)s as low as 0.66 nM. As such, these potentially represent a viable treatment for BPH without the side effects associated with known alpha1-adrenergic antagonists.

  15. Discovery of Novel Triazole-Based Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Keenan, Susan M.; Peng, Youyi; Nair, Anil C.; Yu, Seong Jae; Howells, Richard D.; Welsh, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the computer-aided design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel family of δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonists containing a 1,2,4-triazole core structure that are structurally distinct from other known opioid receptor active ligands. Among those δ antagonists sharing this core structure, 8 exhibited strong binding affinity (Ki = 50 nM) for the DOR and appreciable selectivity for δ over μ and opioid receptors (δ/μ = 80; δ/κ > 200). PMID:16821764

  16. Structure-activity relationships of benzothiazole GPR35 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Abdalhameed, Manahil M.; Zhao, Pingwei; Hurst, Dow P.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Abood, Mary E.; Croatt, Mitchell P.

    2017-01-01

    The first structure-activity relationships for a benzothiazole scaffold acting as an antagonist at GPR35 is presented. Analogues were designed based on a lead compound that was previously determined to have selective activity as a GPR35 antagonist. The synthetic route was modular in nature to independently explore the role of the middle and both ends of the scaffold. The activities of the analogues illustrate the importance of all three segments of the compound. PMID:27989666

  17. Structure-activity relationships of benzothiazole GPR35 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Abdalhameed, Manahil M; Zhao, Pingwei; Hurst, Dow P; Reggio, Patricia H; Abood, Mary E; Croatt, Mitchell P

    2017-02-01

    The first structure-activity relationships for a benzothiazole scaffold acting as an antagonist at GPR35 is presented. Analogues were designed based on a lead compound that was previously determined to have selective activity as a GPR35 antagonist. The synthetic route was modular in nature to independently explore the role of the middle and both ends of the scaffold. The activities of the analogues illustrate the importance of all three segments of the compound.

  18. Pediatric heart failure therapy with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Susan R; Canter, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Management of chronic heart failure in pediatrics has been altered by the adult literature showing improvements in mortality and hospitalization rates with the use of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) for routine therapy of all classes of ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure. Many pediatric heart failure specialists have incorporated these agents into their routine management of pediatric heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy or ventricular dysfunction in association with congenital heart disease. Retrospective and small prospective case series have shown encouraging improvements in cardiac function and symptoms, but interpretation has been complicated by the high rate of spontaneous recovery in pediatric patients. A recently completed pediatric double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial showed no difference between placebo and two doses of carvedilol over a 6-month period of follow-up, with significant improvement of all three groups over the course of evaluation. Experience with adults has suggested that only certain beta-blockers, including carvedilol, bisoprolol, nebivolol, and metoprolol succinate, should be used in the treatment of heart failure and that patients with high-grade heart failure may derive the most benefit. Other studies surmise that early or prophylactic use of these medications may alter the risk of disease progression in some high-risk subsets, such as patients receiving anthracyclines or those with muscular dystrophy. This article reviews these topics using experience as well as data from all the recent pediatric studies on the use of beta-blockers to treat congestive heart failure, especially when related to systolic ventricular dysfunction.

  19. Discovery and optimization of potent and selective functional antagonists of the human adenosine A2B receptor.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Simon T; Benwell, Karen R; Brooks, Teresa; Chen, Ijen; Comer, Mike; Dugdale, Sarah; Haymes, Tim; Jordan, Allan M; Kennett, Guy A; Knight, Anthony R; Klenke, Burkhard; LeStrat, Loic; Merrett, Angela; Misra, Anil; Lightowler, Sean; Padfield, Anthony; Poullennec, Karine; Reece, Mark; Simmonite, Heather; Wong, Melanie; Yule, Ian A

    2009-10-15

    We herein report the discovery of a novel class of antagonists of the human adenosine A2B receptor. This low molecular weight scaffold has been optimized to offer derivatives with potential utility for the alleviation of conditions associated with this receptor subtype, such as nociception, diabetes, asthma and COPD. Furthermore, preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis has revealed compounds with profiles suitable for either inhaled or systemic routes of administration.

  20. Neuronal death enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Stefovska, Vanya; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate promotes neuronal survival during brain development and destroys neurons after injuries in the mature brain. Glutamate antagonists are in human clinical trials aiming to demonstrate limitation of neuronal injury after head trauma, which consists of both rapid and slowly progressing neurodegeneration. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists are considered for neuroprotection in chronic neurodegenerative disorders with slowly progressing cell death only. Therefore, humans suffering from Huntington's disease, characterized by slowly progressing neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia, are subjected to trials with glutamate antagonists. Here we demonstrate that progressive neurodegeneration in the basal ganglia induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionate or in the hippocampus by traumatic brain injury is enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists but ameliorated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonists. These observations reveal that N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists may increase neurodestruction in mature brain undergoing slowly progressing neurodegeneration, whereas blockade of the action of glutamate at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors may be neuroprotective. PMID:11058158

  1. CXCR2 receptor antagonists: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Michael P; Yu, Younong

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated leukocyte recruitment is believed to be a key contributor to various acute and chronic inflammatory disorders which can lead to serious pathological consequences. Chemokines are small molecular weight proteins that have been shown to be imperative in the direction of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation. In humans, several of these chemokines (CXCL8 and CXCL1) are elevated in inflammatory disorders such as asthma, arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These chemokines modulate their downstream effects thru G-protein coupled receptors, such as CXCR2, making the identification of small-molecule antagonists of this receptor attractive towards developing novel therapies to treat inflammatory conditions. Since the first report of a CXCR2 receptor antagonist in 1998, there has been a considerable effort conducted mainly in the pharmaceutical industry to identify novel classes of CXCR2 receptor antagonists. Over a dozen distinct classes of CXCR2 receptor antagonists have been reported in the literature to date with a number of these compounds having reached mid-stage clinical trials. This review will provide a broad overview the medicinal chemistry efforts over the past 15 years towards the identification of CXCR2 receptor antagonists. The discussion will focus upon the early preclinical space covering the structure activity relationships (SAR), pharmacology, as well in preclinical in vivo evaluation for the different series of CXCR2 receptor antagonists. In addition, the available clinical data for the most advanced compounds in the clinic will be discussed and along with a perspective of the area moving forward.

  2. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on isoprenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, soleus muscle contractility and airways function in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, L. G.; Richardson, D. P.; Temple, D. M.; Williams, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist of propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol and butoxamine in anaesthetized cats has been measured and compared with the activity of four synthetic phenylethanolamine derivatives. The effects of isoprenaline on four parameters in the anaesthetized cat: heart rate, blood pressure, soleus muscle contractility and airway reactance, were measured and the modification of the isoprenaline dose-response relation by each of the antagonist drugs assessed. Parallel shifts in log dose-response curves for isoprenaline were caused by propranolol for all parameters, by metoprolol and atenolol for each parameter except blood pressure, and butoxamine for each except soleus muscle and heart rate. Selectivity of action of the antagonists between different organs was measured by comparing DR10 values, computed from isoprenaline dose-ratios. Propranolol was the most potent antagonist and showed slight selectivity of action on soleus muscle compared with heart. Atenolol and metoprolol were approximately equipotent and were cardioselective at low doses only. Butoxamine was the least potent antagonist and possessed non-beta-adrenoceptor effects on the parameters measured. Each of the new compounds, 4'-bromo-2'-methoxy-N-isopropyl phenylethanolamine, the 4'-chloro- and 4'-methyl analogues, and 4'-methoxy-N-t-butyl phenylethanolamine, was a potent antagonist but did not exhibit any selectivity of action. The results suggest no clear separation of beta-adrenoceptors into beta 1- and beta 2-subclasses in organs of the cat. There is no apparent separation of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated effects on skeletal muscle and airways. PMID:6140058

  3. Compartmentalization of bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists in lymphoid progenitors and supporting microenvironments and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Passa, Ourania; Tsalavos, Sotiris; Belyaev, Nikolai N; Petryk, Anna; Potocnik, Alexandre J; Graf, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling regulates lymphopoiesis in bone marrow and thymus via the interaction of haemato-lymphoid progenitors with the stroma microenvironment. Despite increasing functional evidence for the role of BMP signalling in lymphopoiesis, little is known of the spatial distribution of BMP/BMP antagonists in the thymus and of how BMP signals exert specific functions in developing lymphocytes. We analysed expression of BMP/BMP antagonists in the thymus and bone marrow and determined the topology of BMP/BMP antagonist expression using lacZ reporter mice. Bmp4, Bmp7, Gremlin and Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1) are all expressed in the thymus and expression was clearly different for each gene investigated. Expression was seen both in cortical and medullary regions suggesting that BMP signals regulate all stages of T-cell development. Two genes in particular, Bmp7 and Twsg1, were dynamically expressed in developing T and B lymphocytes. Their conditional ablation in all haematopoietic cells surprisingly did not affect the steady state of B-cell and T-cell development. This indicates that both lymphoid cell-derived BMP7 and TWSG1 are dispensable for normal lymphopoiesis and that bone-marrow stroma-derived TWSG1 is responsible for the lymphoid defects observed in Twsg1 null mice. In summary our data demonstrate a complex network of lymphoid and stroma derived BMP signals involved in the orchestration of lymphopoiesis in both bone marrow and thymus. PMID:21978004

  4. Identification and characterization of MEL-3, a novel AR antagonist that suppresses prostate cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Christine; Marchand, Arnaud; Chaltin, Patrick; Munck, Sebastian; Voet, Arnout; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Claessens, Frank

    2012-06-01

    Antiandrogens are an important component of prostate cancer therapy as the androgen receptor (AR) is the key regulator of prostate cancer growth and survival. Current AR antagonists, such as bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide, have a low affinity for the AR and as a result block AR signaling insufficiently. Moreover, many patients develop a resistance for bicalutamide or hydroxyflutamide during therapy or show a clinical improvement after withdrawal of the antiandrogen. New and more effective AR antagonists are needed to ensure follow-up of these patients. We therefore developed a screening system to identify novel AR antagonists from a collection of compounds. MEL-3 [8-(propan-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrazino[3,2,1-jk]carbazole] was selected as potent inhibitor of the AR and was further characterized in vitro. On different prostate cancer cell lines MEL-3 displayed an improved therapeutic profile compared with bicalutamide. Not only cell growth was inhibited but also the expression of androgen-regulated genes: PSA and FKBP5. Prostate cancer is often associated with mutated ARs that respond to a broadened spectrum of ligands including the current antiandrogens used in the clinic, hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide. The activity of two mutant receptors (AR T877A and AR W741C) was shown to be reduced in presence of MEL-3, providing evidence that MEL-3 can potentially be a follow-up treatment for bicalutamide- and hydroxyflutamide-resistant patients. The mechanism of action of MEL-3 on the molecular level was further explored by comparing the structure-activity relationship of different chemical derivatives of MEL-3 with the in silico docking of MEL-3 derivatives in the binding pocket of the AR. ©2012 AACR

  5. Improved Muscarinic Antagonists as Anticholinesterase Antidotes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    carboxylates in the Mouse .................................................. 2-4 v 4 In vitro Data for Quaternary salts of NN-dialkylaminoethyl Benzilic...compounds containing aryl, hydroxyl-containing carboxylic acids linked to choline derivatives. Many compounds that fall into this group have been...the carboxylic acid moiety, and in the structure of the aromatic ring. Our in vitro results to date (under Contract No. DAMD17-83-C-3109) following

  6. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on the glucocorticoid receptor antagonistic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Luo, Y; Fu, J; Zhou, J; Kyzas, G Z

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonistic activities of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) were recently characterised. To further explore the interactions between HO-PCBs and the GR, and to elucidate structural characteristics that influence the GR antagonistic activity of HO-PCBs, molecular docking and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed. Comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed using both ligand- and receptor-based alignment schemes. Results generated from the receptor-based model were found to be more satisfactory, with q(2) of 0.632 and r(2) of 0.931 compared with those from the ligand-based model. Some internal validation strategies (e.g. cross-validation analysis, bootstrapping analysis and Y-randomisation) and an external validation method were used respectively to further assess the stability and predictive ability of the derived model. Graphical interpretation of the model provided some insights into the structural features that affected the GR antagonistic activity of HO-PCBs. Molecular docking studies revealed that some key residues were critical for ligand-receptor interactions by forming hydrogen bonds (Glu540) and hydrophobic interactions with ligands (Ile539, Val543 and Trp577). Although CoMSIA sometimes depends on the alignment of the molecules, the information provided is beneficial for predicting the GR antagonistic activities of HO-PCB homologues and is helpful for understanding the binding mechanisms of HO-PCBs to GR.

  7. Structure-activity relationships of novel non-competitive mGluR1 antagonists: a potential treatment for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Owen, Dafydd R; Dodd, Peter G; Gayton, Simon; Greener, Ben S; Harbottle, Gareth W; Mantell, Simon J; Maw, Graham N; Osborne, Simon A; Rees, Huw; Ringer, Tracy J; Rodriguez-Lens, Margarita; Smith, Graham F

    2007-01-15

    A series of novel mGluR1 antagonists have been prepared. Incorporation of fragments derived from weak lead matter into a library led to enhanced potency in a new chemical series. A chemistry driven second library iteration, covering a greatly enhanced area of chemical space, maintained good potency and introduced metabolic stability.

  8. Determination of a PAF antagonist pharmacophore using combined Molecular Electrostatic Potential and Molecular Lipophilicity Potential.

    PubMed

    Le Solleu, H; Langlois, M H; Kummer, E; Dubost, J P

    1994-11-01

    PAF is a potent lipid mediator involved in many pathological disorders, such as platelet aggregation, immuno-inflammatory reactions, vascular disorders, septic shock and bronchoconstriction. We chose to study the electronic and lipophilic properties of eleven PAF antagonists, comprising five tetrahydrofuran derivatives, four hetrazepines, the ginkgolide BN-52021 and the pyrrolo-thiazole derivative RP-59227. A Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) contour drawn at -25 kCal/Mol shows three electronegative areas in most compounds. Two areas can be considered as analogous to those described in the so-called "Cache-Oreille" (Earmuff) Model. Molecular Lipophilicity Potential (MLP) analysis allows us to characterise one hydrophilic area, localised at the same place as one of the electronegative areas, and two lipophilic areas, of which the biggest draws a typical "sock" contour. These three areas represent the minimal requirements for a high affinity to the PAF receptor. MEP and MLP results are here combined to propose a pharmacophore for PAF antagonists, including two lipophilic areas, two hydrophilic and electronegative areas and an electronegative zone with no particular hydrophilic behaviour.

  9. Triazole RGD antagonist reverts TGFβ1-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endothelial precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Francesca; Peppicelli, Silvia; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Biagioni, Alessio; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Menchi, Gloria; Calorini, Lido; Pupi, Alberto; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident. In this study, we present a class of triazole-derived RGD antagonists that interact with αvβ3 integrin. Above different compounds, the RGD-2 specifically interferes with integrin-dependent TGFβ1 EndoMT in Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECPCs) derived from circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells (ECPCs). The RGD-2 decreases the amount of membrane-associated TGFβ1, and reduces both ALK5/TGFβ1 type I receptor expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in ECPCs. We found that RGD-2 antagonist reverts EndoMT, reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression in differentiated ECPCs. Our results outline the critical role of integrin in fibrosis progression and account for the opportunity of using integrins as target for anti-fibrotic therapeutic treatment.

  10. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-08-02

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR.

  11. New adenosine A2A receptor antagonists: actions on Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Volpini, Rosaria; Cristalli, Gloria; Morelli, Micaela

    2005-04-11

    The 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives: 8-bromo-9-ethyladenine (ANR 82), 8-ethoxy- 9-ethyladenine (ANR 94), and 8-furyl-9-ethyladenine (ANR 152) have been characterized in vitro as adenosine receptor antagonists. Adenosine is deeply involved in the control of motor behaviour and substantial evidences indicate that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists improve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease. On this basis, the efficacy of ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152 in rat models of Parkinson's disease was evaluated. All compounds tested reversed the catalepsy induced by haloperidol. However, in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, only ANR 94 and ANR 152 potentiated l-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) effect on turning behaviour and induced contralateral turning behaviour in rats sensitised to l-DOPA. Taken together the results of this study indicate that some 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives ameliorate motor deficits in rat models of Parkinson's disease, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of these compounds.

  12. NK-1 receptor antagonists: a new paradigm in pharmacological therapy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Coveñas, R

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) shows a widespread distribution in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and it is known that after binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, SP regulates many biological functions in the central nervous system such as emotional behaviour, stress, depression, anxiety, emesis, migraine, alcohol addiction and neurodegeneration. SP has been also implicated in pain, inflammation, hepatotoxicity and in virus proliferation, and it plays an important role in cancer (e.g., tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and the migration of tumour cells for invasion and metastasis). By contrast, it is known that after binding to NK-1 receptors, NK-1 receptor antagonists specifically inhibit the above-mentioned biological functions mediated by SP. Thus, these antagonists exert an anxyolitic, antidepressant, antiemetic, antimigraine, antialcohol addiction or neuroprotector effect in the central nervous system, and they play a role in analgesic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotector processes and in antivirus proliferation. Regarding cancer, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert an antitumour action (inducing tumour cell death by apoptosis), and induce antiangiogenesis and inhibit the migration of tumour cells. It is also known that NK-1 receptors have a widespread distribution and that they are overexpressed in tumour cells. Thus, NK-1 receptor antagonists are molecularly targeted agents. In general, current drugs have a single therapeutic effect, although less commonly they may exert several. However, the data reported above indicate that NK-1 receptor antagonists are promising drugs, exerting many therapeutic effects (the action of such antagonists is dose-dependent and, depending on the concentration, has more positive effects). In this review, we update the multiple therapeutic effects exerted by NK-1 receptor antagonists.

  13. 4-(Phenylsulfonyl)piperidines: novel, selective, and bioavailable 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephen R; Burkamp, Frank; Blurton, Peter; Cheng, Susan K F; Clarkson, Robert; O'Connor, Desmond; Spinks, Daniel; Tudge, Matthew; van Niel, Monique B; Patel, Smita; Chapman, Kerry; Marwood, Rose; Shepheard, Sara; Bentley, Graham; Cook, Gina P; Bristow, Linda J; Castro, Jose L; Hutson, Peter H; MacLeod, Angus M

    2002-01-17

    On the basis of a spirocyclic ether screening lead, a series of acyclic sulfones have been identified as high-affinity, selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists. Bioavailability lacking in the parent, 1-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)ethyl)-4-(phenylsulfonyl)piperidine (12), was introduced by using stability toward rat liver microsomes as a predictor of bioavailability. By this means, the 4-cyano- and 4-carboxamidophenylsulfonyl derivatives 26 and 31 were identified as orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant analogues suitable for evaluation in animal models. Bioavailability was also attainable by N substitution leading to the N-phenacyl derivative 35. IKr activity detected through counterscreening was reduced to insignificant levels in vivo with the latter compound.

  14. A new series of photoactivatable and iodinatable linear vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Carnazzi, E; Aumelas, A; Barberis, C; Guillon, G; Seyer, R

    1994-06-10

    A series of new linear photoactivatable and iodinatable antagonists of the neuropeptidic hormone vasopressin was designed and synthesized by a combination of PyBOP-mediated Boc/solid-phase peptide synthesis and solution synthesis approaches. These were based on modifications of a previously reported potent and selective antagonist of the vasopressor response (V1a receptor) to [arginine]vasopressin, phenylacetyl-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2. (Azidophenyl)alkyl substitutions, of the general structure N3-C6H4(CH2)nCO (n = 0, 1, 2, or 3), were employed in position 1. The seven new analogues are 4-N3-C6H4CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (3), 3-N3-C6H4CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (12), 4-N3-C6H4CH2-CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (13), 3-N3-C6H4CH2CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (14), 4-N3-C6H4(CH2)2CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (15), 3-N3-C6H4(CH2)2CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (16), 4-N3-C6H4-(CH2)3CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (17). All analogues were tested for their affinity of the rat hepatic V1a receptor. Analogues 3 and 12 have a low affinity (Ki approximately 20 nM) and analogues 13-17 show a high affinity (Ki between 0.04 and 0.3 nM). The affinity values appear to be mainly a function of the alkyl chain length and to a lesser extent of the meta or para position of the azido group on the aromatic ring. Analogues 13-17 were iodinated on the Tyr-9 residue, giving compounds 18-22. All these five iodinated derivatives exhibited Ki values of 0.2-1 nM for rat liver membranes. Their affinities for oxytocin and renal V2 vasopressin receptors were much lower. Moreover, all analogues completely antagonized the vasopressin-stimulated inositol phosphates production in WRK1 cells and were devoided of any agonistic potency. Preliminary covalent binding studies showed improved covalent yields as compared to any previously reported results. They are very promising

  15. Endothelin receptor antagonists for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Shi, Zhenghong; Yang, Kehu; Tian, Jin Hui; Jiang, Lei

    2012-09-12

    A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition where blood leaks out of blood vessels over the surface of the brain. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) and the related feature of vasospasm, where patients experience a delayed deterioration, have long been recognized as the leading potentially treatable cause of death and disability in patients with SAH. Endothelin is a potent, long-lasting endogenous vasoconstrictor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DIND. Therefore, endothelin receptor antagonists (ETAs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic option for SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of ETAs for SAH. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (1946 to December 2011) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to December 2011). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched additional Chinese databases, ongoing trials registers, Google Scholar and Medical Matrix, handsearched journals, scanned reference lists, and contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies. We only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ETA with placebo for SAH in adult (18 years of age or older) patients who met the diagnostic criteria for SAH based on clinical symptoms, with confirmation on computerized tomography scan results or angiography. Two review authors independently selected RCTs according to the inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently selected relevant articles and assessed their eligibility according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We used the random-effects model and expressed the results as

  16. Antagonists of the human CCR5 receptor as anti-HIV-1 agents. Part 3: a proposed pharmacophore model for 1-[N-(methyl)-N-(phenylsulfonyl)amino]-2-(phenyl)-4-[4-(substituted)piperidin-1-yl]butanes.

    PubMed

    Finke, P E; Meurer, L C; Oates, B; Shah, S K; Loebach, J L; Mills, S G; MacCoss, M; Castonguay, L; Malkowitz, L; Springer, M S; Gould, S L; DeMartino, J A

    2001-09-17

    Structure-activity relationship studies directed toward the optimization of (2S)-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-[N-(methyl)-N-(phenylsulfonyl)amino]-4-[4-(substituted)piperidin-1-yl]butanes as CCR5 antagonists resulted in the synthesis of the spiro-indanone derivative 8c (IC50=5 nM). These and previous results are summarized in a proposed pharmacophore model for this class of CCR5 antagonist.

  17. A highly toxic morphine-3-glucuronide derivative.

    PubMed

    Salvatella, Mariona; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Raquel E

    2004-02-23

    By the coupling of octylamine to the uronic acid function of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) a new glycoconjugate (morphine-3-octylglucuronamide, M3GOAM) was prepared. When assayed in both rats and mice up to ng/kg (i.p.) doses none of the animals survived. The aliphatic octyl chain may be the lethal factor since a closely related derivative (M3GNH2), was not toxic and showed similar opioid antagonist properties than naloxone.

  18. Pharmacophore development for antagonists at α1 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J. B.; Coban, B.; Griffith, R.

    1996-12-01

    Many receptors, including α1 adrenergic receptors, have a range of subtypes. This offers possibilities for the development of highly selective antagonists with potentially fewer detrimental effects. Antagonists developed for α1A receptors, for example, would have potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. As part of the molecular design process, structural features necessary for the selective affinity for α1A and α1B adrenergic receptors have been investigated. The molecular modelling software (particularly the Apex module) of Molecular Simulations, Inc. was used to develop pharmacophore models for these two subtypes. Low-energy conformations of a set of known antagonists were used as input, together with a classification of the receptor affinity data. The biophores proposed by the program were evaluated and pharmacophores were proposed. The pharmacophore models were validated by testing the fit of known antagonists, not included in the training set. The critical structural feature for selectivity between the α1A and α1B adrenergic receptor sites is the distance between the basic nitrogen atom and the centre of an aromatic ring system. This will be exploited in the design and synthesis of structurally new selective antagonists for these sites.

  19. GnRH antagonists may affect endometrial receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Rackow, Beth W.; Kliman, Harvey J.; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2009-01-01

    Study objective HOXA10 is an essential regulator of endometrial receptivity. To determine the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists on endometrial receptivity we assessed endometrial HOXA10 expression in GnRH antagonist, GnRH agonist, and natural cycles. Design Prospective case-control study Setting University academic medical center Patients Nineteen subjects were included: 12 subjects underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) and used either a GnRH antagonist or a GnRH agonist; 7 control subjects underwent natural cycles. Interventions Pipelle endometrial biopsies were obtained 11 days after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration or spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in untreated cycles, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HOXA10 protein expression in endometrial glands and stroma. Main outcome measure(s) Endometrial HOXA10 protein expression Results HOXA10 expression was significantly decreased in endometrial stromal cells in GnRH antagonist treated cycles compared with GnRH agonist treated cycles or natural cycle controls. There was no significant difference in glandular cell HOXA10 expression among the three groups. Conclusions Use of GnRH antagonists may be associated with impaired HOXA10 expression in endometrial stromal cells, and thus may affect endometrial receptivity. PMID:18410932

  20. Experimental evolution of a novel sexually antagonistic allele.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rebecca; Perry, Jennifer C; Pizzari, Tommaso; Mank, Judith E; Wigby, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary conflict permeates biological systems. In sexually reproducing organisms, sex-specific optima mean that the same allele can have sexually antagonistic expression, i.e. beneficial in one sex and detrimental in the other, a phenomenon known as intralocus sexual conflict. Intralocus sexual conflict is emerging as a potentially fundamental factor for the genetic architecture of fitness, with important consequences for evolutionary processes. However, no study to date has directly experimentally tested the evolutionary fate of a sexually antagonistic allele. Using genetic constructs to manipulate female fecundity and male mating success, we engineered a novel sexually antagonistic allele (SAA) in Drosophila melanogaster. The SAA is nearly twice as costly to females as it is beneficial to males, but the harmful effects to females are recessive and X-linked, and thus are rarely expressed when SAA occurs at low frequency. We experimentally show how the evolutionary dynamics of the novel SAA are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of population genetic models: SAA frequency decreases when common, but increases when rare, converging toward an equilibrium frequency of ∼8%. Furthermore, we show that persistence of the SAA requires the mating advantage it provides to males: the SAA frequency declines towards extinction when the male advantage is experimentally abolished. Our results empirically demonstrate the dynamics underlying the evolutionary fate of a sexually antagonistic allele, validating a central assumption of intralocus sexual conflict theory: that variation in fitness-related traits within populations can be maintained via sex-linked sexually antagonistic loci.

  1. Enhancer Responses to Similarly Distributed Antagonistic Gradients in Development

    PubMed Central

    Zinzen, Robert P; Papatsenko, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    Formation of spatial gene expression patterns in development depends on transcriptional responses mediated by gene control regions, enhancers. Here, we explore possible responses of enhancers to overlapping gradients of antagonistic transcriptional regulators in the Drosophila embryo. Using quantitative models based on enhancer structure, we demonstrate how a pair of antagonistic transcription factor gradients with similar or even identical spatial distributions can lead to the formation of distinct gene expression domains along the embryo axes. The described mechanisms are sufficient to explain the formation of the anterior and the posterior knirps expression, the posterior hunchback expression domain, and the lateral stripes of rhomboid expression and of other ventral neurogenic ectodermal genes. The considered principles of interaction between antagonistic gradients at the enhancer level can also be applied to diverse developmental processes, such as domain specification in imaginal discs, or even eyespot pattern formation in the butterfly wing. PMID:17500585

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Glutamate Antagonists and Extracellular Acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, David A.; Giffard, Rona G.; Choi, Dennis W.

    1993-06-01

    Glutamate antagonists protect neurons from hypoxic injury both in vivo and in vitro, but in vitro studies have not been done under the acidic conditions typical of hypoxia-ischemia in vivo. Consistent with glutamate receptor antagonism, extracellular acidity reduced neuronal death in murine cortical cultures that were deprived of oxygen and glucose. Under these acid conditions, N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isox-azolepropionate-kainate antagonists further reduced neuronal death, such that some neurons tolerated prolonged oxygen and glucose deprivation almost as well as did astrocytes. Neuroprotection induced by this combination exceeded that induced by glutamate antagonists alone, suggesting that extracellular acidity has beneficial effects beyond the attenuation of ionotropic glutamate receptor activation.

  3. Mixed antagonistic effects of bilobalide at rho1 GABAC receptor.

    PubMed

    Huang, S H; Duke, R K; Chebib, M; Sasaki, K; Wada, K; Johnston, G A R

    2006-01-01

    Bilobalide was found to be a moderately potent antagonist with a weak use-dependent effect at recombinant human rho(1) GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp methodology. Antagonism of bilobalide at homomeric rho(1) GABA(C) receptors appeared to be mixed. At low concentration, bilobalide (3 microM) caused a parallel right shift and surmountable GABA maximal response of the GABA dose-response curve characteristic of a competitive antagonist. At high concentrations, bilobalide (10-100 microM) caused nonparallel right shifts and reduced maximal GABA responses of GABA dose-response curves characteristic of a noncompetitive antagonist. The potency of bilobalide appears to be dependent on the concentrations of GABA and was more potent at lower GABA concentrations. The mechanism of action of bilobalide at rho(1) GABA(C) receptors appears to be similar to that of the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin.

  4. Discovery of the improved antagonistic prolactin variants by library screening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Gong, Wei; Breinholt, Jens; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Leif; Zhang, Jinchao; Ma, Qinhong; Chen, Jianhe; Panina, Svetlana; Guo, Wei; Li, Tengkun; Zhang, Jingyuan; Kong, Meng; Liu, Zibing; Mao, Jingjing; Christensen, Leif; Hu, Sean; Wang, Lingyun

    2011-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL), a potent growth stimulator of the mammary epithelium, has been suggested to be a factor contributing to the development and progression of breast and prostate cancer. Several PRL receptor (PRLR) antagonists have been identified in the past decades, but their in vivo growth inhibitory potency was restricted by low receptor affinity, rendering them pharmacologically unattractive for clinical treatment. Thus, higher receptor affinity is essential for the development of improved PRLR antagonistic variants with improved in vivo potency. In this study, we generated Site 1 focused protein libraries of human G129R-PRL mutants and screened for those with increased affinity to the human PRLR. By combining the mutations with enhanced affinities for PRLR, we identified a novel G129R-PRL variant with mutations at Site 1 that render nearly 50-fold increase in the antagonistic potency in vitro.

  5. Pituitary binding and internalization of radioiodinated gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and antagonist ligands in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, P.C.; Suarez-Quian, C.A.; Childs, G.V.; Catt, K.J.

    1986-10-01

    In rat pituitary gonadotrophs, the rates of binding and endocytosis of two GnRH superagonist analogs, (D-Ala6,Pro9-NEt)GnRH and (D-Lys6,Pro9-NEt)GnRH, were compared with those of the potent antagonist analog (N-acetyl-D-pCl-Phe1,2,D-Trp3,D-Lys6,D-Ala10)GnRH by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. In dispersed pituitary cells, the two agonist analogs showed similar binding kinetics and comparable degrees of sequestration, as measured by their resistance to dissociation by low pH buffer. However, quantification of silver grain localization suggested that cellular internalization of the (D-Ala6)GnRH agonist increased more rapidly than that of the (D-Lys6)GnRH analog. These discrepancies, and the finding that a larger amount of the specifically bound /sup 125/I-(D-Ala6)GnRH agonist was removed during glutaraldehyde fixation, indicated that the proportional internalization of this analog was over estimated by quantitative autoradiography owing to loss of cell surface-bound radioligand. We, therefore, employed radioiodinated D-Lys6-substituted analogs to analyze the receptor binding and cellular uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist derivatives in vivo. After iv injection, a high proportion of the /sup 125/I-(D-Lys6)GnRH agonist was translocated into pituitary gonadotrophs within 60 min, whereas the D-Lys6 antagonist was predominantly associated with the plasma membrane during that time. Four hours after injection of the antagonist, an appreciable proportion of silver grains was associated with intracellular organelles, and this trend increased progressively at later time points. The relatively prolonged cellular processing of the GnRH antagonist is consistent with in vivo binding kinetics, and its slower internalization may reflect the basal rate of GnRH receptor turnover in the cell membrane.

  6. Cancer in patients with rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Loreto; Abasolo, Lydia; Descalzo, Miguel A; Pérez-Zafrilla, Beatriz; Sellas, Agustí; de Abajo, Francisco; Gomez-Reino, Juan J

    2011-08-01

    To describe the risk of cancer in patients exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. The following 2 clinical cohorts were studied: (1) BIOBADASER 2.0: a registry of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists (2531 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 1488 spondyloarthropathies, and 675 other rheumatic conditions); and (2) EMECAR: a cohort of 789 RA patients not exposed to TNF antagonists. Cancer incidence rates (IR) per 1000 patient-years and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for BIOBADASER 2.0 and EMECAR patients. The IR over time in BIOBADASER 2.0 patients was analyzed by joinpoint regression. The IRR was estimated to compare cancer rates in exposed versus nonexposed RA patients. Standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR, SMR) were also estimated. Risk factors for cancer in patients exposed to TNF antagonists were investigated by generalized linear models. The SMR for cancer in BIODASER 2.0 was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.51-0.86), and the SIR was 0.1 (95% CI 0.03-0.23). The IR in RA patients exposed to TNF antagonists was 5.8 (95% CI: 4.4-7.6), and the adjusted IRR was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.09-2.45). The IR in patients with previous cancer was 26.4 (95% CI: 4.1-171.5). Age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and steroids were associated with a higher risk of developing cancer. The IR decreased after the first 4 months of exposure, without statistical significance. Overall cancer and mortality rates in patients with rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists are no higher than in the background Spanish population. However special attention should be paid to elderly patients, those with previous cancers, and patients treated with steroids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  8. Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz†, Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M.

    2010-08-12

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  9. Scaffold variations in amine warhead of histamine H₃ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wingen, Kerstin; Stark, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The histamine H₃ receptor (H₃R) is involved in numerous regulatory neurotransmission processes and there-fore, is a prominent target for centrally occurring disease with some promising clinical candidates. Previous research resulted in the identification of a core pharmacophore blueprint for H₃R antagonists/inverse agonists, which when inserted in a molecule, mostly ensures acceptable affinity. Nevertheless, variations of scaffold and peripheral areas can increase potency and pharmacokinetic profile of drug candidates. The variations in amine scaffolds of antagonists for this aminergic GPCR are of special importance.

  10. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  11. Barnidipine, a long-acting slow onset calcium antagonist.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, C

    2000-11-01

    Barnidipine is a stereochemically pure dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with a high potency. The drug showed a slow onset and long-lasting vasorelaxating effect in vitro, and strong antihypertensive activity in hypertension models. Barnidipine was shown to have a high vasoselectivity and offered protection in cardiac and renal ischaemia models. The in vitro drug:drug interaction profile suggests a low potential for clinically relevant interactions with concomitant medication. It can be anticipated that barnidipine is an attractive calcium antagonist, offering good blood pressure control without compensatory baroreflex activity.

  12. Relative binding affinities of integrin antagonists by equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tipping, William J; Tshuma, Nkazimulo; Adams, James; Haywood, Harvey T; Rowedder, James E; Fray, M Jonathan; McInally, Thomas; Macdonald, Simon J F; Oldham, Neil J

    2015-02-12

    The integrin αvβ6 is a potential target for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Equilibrium dialysis (ED) was investigated for its ability to report ligand binding in an αvβ6 inhibitor screening assay. As a preliminary experiment, an established peptidomimetic inhibitor of the integrin was dialyzed against αvβ6, and the fraction bound (f b) and percentage saturation determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Quantitation of the inhibitor in the two chambers of the ED cartridge revealed an uneven distribution in the presence of αvβ6, corresponding to near saturation binding to the protein (93 ± 3%), while the control (without integrin) showed an equal partitioning of the inhibitor on either side of the dialysis membrane. A competitive ED assay with a 12 component mixture of antagonists was conducted, and the results compared with an established cell adhesion assay for quantifying αvβ6 inhibition of individual antagonists. Compounds clustered into three groupings: those with pIC 50 values between ca. 5.0 and 5.5, which possessed ED f b values indistinguishable from the controls, those with pIC 50s of 6.5 ± 0.2, which exhibited detectable integrin binding (f b 13-25%) in the ED assay, and a single compound of pIC 50 7.2 possessing an f b value of 38%. A good correlation between ED-derived f b and pIC 50 was observed despite the two assays utilizing quite different outputs. These results demonstrate that ED with LC-MS detection shows promise as a rapid αvβ6 integrin antagonist screening assay for mixtures of putative ligands.

  13. Effects of adenosine agonists and an antagonist on excitatory transmitter release from the ischemic rabbit hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Tica, J F; Zornow, M H

    2000-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adenosine agonists and an antagonist on ischemia-induced extracellular glutamate concentrations in an animal model of transient cerebral ischemia using in vivo cerebral microdialysis. Fifty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of five groups (normothermia, hypothermia, cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), theophylline, or propentofylline). Microdialysis probes were stereotactically placed in the dorsal hippocampus. Twenty minutes before the onset of ischemia, either 1 mg/kg CPA, 5 mg/kg propentofylline, or 20 mg/kg theophylline were administered intravenously. Esophageal temperature was maintained at 38 degrees C, except in the hypothermic animals, which were cooled to 30 degrees C throughout the entire experiment. Two 12-min periods of cerebral ischemia, separated by a 105-min interval of reperfusion, were produced by inflating a neck tourniquet. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the glutamate concentration in the microdialysate. There were no significant increases in glutamate concentrations during the first ischemic period in any of the five groups. During the second ischemic episode, glutamate concentrations in the normothermic group peaked at levels approximately three times higher than the initial values. A similar pattern of changes in glutamate concentrations was observed in the CPA, propentofylline, and theophylline groups. In the hypothermic group, the concentrations of glutamate remained at baseline levels during the entire experiment. Contrary to expectations, neither the adenosine agonists (CPA, propentofylline) nor the antagonist (theophylline) had any effect on extracellular glutamate concentrations in the peri-ischemic period. Although adenosine and its analogs may be cerebroprotective agents, their mechanism of action is not fully understood. The data derived from this study indicates that the acute administration of such agents had no effect on ischemia

  14. Critical Evaluation of P2X7 Receptor Antagonists in Selected Seizure Models

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Müller, Heiko; Dinkel, Klaus; Lord, Brian; Letavic, Michael A.; Henshall, David C.; Engel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable P2X7R blocker (Brilliant Blue G, AFC-5128, JNJ-47965567) and a natural compound derivative (tanshinone IIA sulfonate) in four well-characterized animal seizure models. In the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test and the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold test in mice, none of the four compounds demonstrated anticonvulsant effects when given alone. Notably, in combination with carbamazepine, both AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 increased the threshold in the maximal electroshock seizure test. In the PTZ-kindling model in rats, useful for testing antiepileptogenic activities, Brilliant Blue G and tanshinone exhibited a moderate retarding effect, whereas the potent P2X7R blocker AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 showed a significant and long-lasting delay in kindling development. In fully kindled rats, the investigated compounds revealed modest effects to reduce the mean seizure stage. Furthermore, AFC-5128- and JNJ-47965567-treated animals displayed strongly reduced Iba 1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 region. In summary, our results show that P2X7R antagonists possess no remarkable anticonvulsant effects in the used acute screening tests, but can attenuate chemically-induced kindling. Further studies would be of interest to support the concept that P2X7R signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders. PMID:27281030

  15. Synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and molecular modeling investigation of benzenesulfonimide peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Carrieri, Antonio; Verginelli, Fabio; Bruno, Isabella; Carbonara, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Florio, Rosalba; Fracchiolla, Giuseppe; Giampietro, Letizia; Giancristofaro, Antonella; Maccallini, Cristina; Cama, Alessandro; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-05-23

    Recent evidences suggest a moderate activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) could be favorable in metabolic diseases, reducing side effects given from full agonists. PPAR partial agonists and antagonists represent, to date, interesting tools to better elucidate biological processes modulated by these receptors. In this work are reported new benzenesulfonimide compounds able to block PPARα, synthesized and tested by transactivation assays and gene expression analysis. Some of these compounds showed a dose-dependent antagonistic behavior on PPARα, submicromolar potency, different profiles of selectivity versus PPARγ, and a repressive effect on CPT1A expression. Dockings and molecular dynamics on properly selected benzenesulfonimide derivatives furnished fresh insights into the molecular determinant most likely responsible for PPARα antagonism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. 20-Aminosteroids as a novel class of selective and complete androgen receptor antagonists and inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Fousteris, Manolis A; Schubert, Undine; Roell, Daniela; Roediger, Julia; Bailis, Nikolaos; Nikolaropoulos, Sotiris S; Baniahmad, Aria; Giannis, Athanassios

    2010-10-01

    Here, the synthesis and the evaluation of novel 20-aminosteroids on androgen receptor (AR) activity is reported. Compounds 11 and 18 of the series inhibit both the wild type and the T877A mutant AR-mediated transactivation indicating AR antagonistic function. Interestingly, minor structural changes such as stereoisomers of the amino lactame moiety exhibit preferences for antagonism among wild type and mutant AR. Other tested nuclear receptors are only weakly or not affected. In line with this, the prostate cancer cell growth of androgen-dependent but not of cancer cells lacking expression of the AR is inhibited. Further, the expression of the prostate specific antigen used as a diagnostic marker is also repressed. Finally steroid 18 enhances cellular senescence that might explain in part the growth inhibition mediated by this derivative. Steroids 11 and 18 are the first steroids that act as complete AR antagonists and exhibit AR specificity.

  17. 1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-g]hexahydro-isoquinolines as selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonists with high functional activity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robin D; Ray, Nicholas C; Williams, Karen; Blaney, Paul; Ward, Stuart; Crackett, Peter H; Hurley, Christopher; Dyke, Hazel J; Clark, David E; Lockey, Peter; Devos, Rene; Wong, Melanie; Porres, Soraya S; Bright, Colin P; Jenkins, Robert E; Belanoff, Joseph

    2008-02-15

    Addition of the 4-fluorophenylpyrazole group to the previously described 2-azadecalin glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist 1 resulted in significantly enhanced functional activity. SAR of the bridgehead substituent indicated that whereas groups as small as methyl afforded high GR binding, GR functional activity was enhanced by larger groups such as benzyl, substituted ethers, and aminoalkyl derivatives. GR antagonists with binding and functional activity comparable to mifepristone were discovered (e.g., 52: GR binding K(i) 0.7 nM; GR reporter gene functional K(i) 0.6 nM) and found to be highly selective over other steroid receptors. Analogues 43 and 45 had >50% oral bioavailability in the dog.

  18. The ebolavirus VP24 interferon antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Adrianna P.P.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Liu, Tong; Woods, Jr, Virgil L.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2012-01-01

    Suppression during the early phases of the immune system often correlates directly with a fatal outcome for the host. The ebolaviruses, some of the most lethal viruses known, appear to cripple initial stages of the host defense network via multiple distinct paths. Two of the eight viral proteins are critical for immunosuppression. One of these proteins is VP35, which binds double-stranded RNA and antagonizes several antiviral signaling pathways.1,2 The other protein is VP24, which binds transporter molecules to prevent STAT1 translocation.3 A more recent discovery is that VP24 also binds STAT1 directly,4 suggesting that VP24 may operate in at least two separate branches of the interferon pathway. New crystal structures of VP24 derived from pathogenic and nonpathogenic ebolaviruses reveal its novel, pyramidal fold, upon which can be mapped sites required for virulence and for STAT1 binding. These structures of VP24, and new information about its direct binding to STAT1, provide avenues by which we may explore its many roles in the viral life cycle, and reasons for differences in pathogenesis among the ebolaviruses. PMID:23076242

  19. Novel neuromuscular blocking drugs and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Heerdt, Paul M; Sunaga, Hiroshi; Savarese, John J

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes recent progress in the development of new muscle relaxants that are inactivated by cysteine, and considers the evolving paradigm of selective relaxant binding or degrading agents that can reverse neuromuscular blockade at any time. The benzylisoquinoline compound gantacurium is a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant with an ultrashort duration largely determined by the rapid rate at which endogenous L-cysteine binds to, and permanently inactivates, the molecule. Although the clinical development of gantacurium has been hampered by modest histamine release, preclinical studies demonstrating that the drug can be rapidly reversed by injecting L-cysteine led to the development of CW002, an intermediate duration molecule that can also be reversed at any time by L-cysteine injection. Clinical trials with CW002 are now underway. The ability to reverse complete paralysis with cysteine dovetails with the established selective aminosteroid binding agent sugammadex, and the recently described universal relaxant binding agent calabadion. Taken together, the concept of rapid reversal at any time raises the question of whether an ultrashort nondepolarizing drug is needed if safe and cost-effective relaxant binding agents are available. The gantacurium derivative CW002 is an intermediate duration, nondepolarizing, cysteine-inactivated, neuromuscular blocking drug currently in clinical trials. Like sugammadex reversal of rocuronium, CW002 can be reversed at any time by cysteine injection.

  20. Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov., a marine sediment-derived bacterium with antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2015-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium designated KMM 9500(T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis affiliated strain KMM 9500(T) to the genus Pseudomonas as a distinct subline clustered with Pseudomonas marincola KMM 3042(T) and Pseudomonas segetis KCTC 12331(T) sharing the highest similarities of 98 and 97.9 %, respectively. Strain KMM 9500(T) was characterized by mainly possessing ubiquinone Q-9, and by the predominance of C18:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω7c, and C16:0 followed by C12:0 in its fatty acid profile. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, and unknown phospholipids. Strain KMM 9500(T) was found to inhibit growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive indicatory microorganisms. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and distinctive phenotypic characteristics, strain 9500(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain KMM 9500(T) (=NRIC 0939(T)).

  1. Characteristics of a Bacteriocin Derived from Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes Antagonistic to Diplococcus peumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Edward; Allerhand, Jona; Pisano, Michael A.

    1971-01-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain of Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes (E-1) was isolated from clinical material (conjunctiva). The active substance differed from bacteriocins described by other investigators primarily in its spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially by its marked inhibition of Diplococcus pneumoniae. The E-1 bacteriocin also inhibited nonhemolytic strains of enterococci as well as one-third of the Viridans group of streptococcal strains investigated. The degree of inhibition, however, as indicated by the size of the zones against the latter organisms, was significantly reduced. No activity was detected against any of the strains belonging to the following groups of bacteria: hemolytic enterococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, nonhemolytic streptococci, staphylococci, and various gram-negative species. Similarly, three strains each of Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes and one strain of Erysipelothrix insidiosa were not inhibited. The bacteriocin was able to diffuse through bacterial membranes as well as cellulose dialyzer tubing. It was inactivated by heating to 80 C for 20 min but resisted inactivation by either trypsin or chloroform. Images PMID:4398532

  2. Two 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives with potential calcium-channel antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anthony; Safak, Cihat; Simşek, Rahime; Gündüz, Miyase G

    2011-02-01

    The title compounds, benzyl 4-(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-5-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]pyridine-3-carboxylate, C(23)H(19)ClFNO(3), (I), and 3-pyridylmethyl 4-[2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2,6,6-trimethyl-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-3-carboxylate, C(26)H(24)F(4)N(2)O(3), (II), belong to a class of 1,4-dihydropyridines whose members sometimes display calcium modulatory properties. The 1,4-dihydropyridine ring in each structure has a shallower than usual shallow-boat conformation and is nearly planar in (I). In each structure, the halogen-substituted benzene ring is oriented such that the halogen substituents are in a synperiplanar orientation with respect to the 1,4-dihydropyridine ring plane. The oxocyclopentene ring in (I) is planar, while the oxocyclohexene ring in (II) has a half-chair conformation, which is less commonly observed than the envelope conformation usually found in related compounds. In (I), the frequently observed intermolecular N-H···O hydrogen bond between the amine group and the carbonyl O atom of the oxocyclopentene ring of a neighbouring molecule links the molecules into extended chains; there are no other significant intermolecular interactions. By contrast, the amine group in (II) forms an N-H···N hydrogen bond with the pyridine ring N atom of a neighbouring molecule. Additional C-H···O interactions complete a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. The halogen-substituted benzene ring has a weak intramolecular π-π interaction with the pyridine ring. A stronger π-π interaction occurs between the 1,4-dihydropyridine rings of centrosymmetrically related molecules.

  3. Evaluation of WO 2012/177618 A1 and US-2014/0179750 A1: Novel small molecule antagonists of PGE2 receptor EP2

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Thota

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies underscore that prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) exerts mostly proinflammatory effects in chronic CNS and peripheral disease models, mainly through a specific prostanoid receptor EP2. However, very few highly characterized EP2 receptor antagonists have been reported until recently, when Pfizer and Emory University published two distinct classes of EP2 antagonists with good potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate recently published patents WO 2012177618 A1 and US-2014/0179750 A1 from Emory, which describe a number of cinnamic amide- and amide-derivatives as a potent antagonists of EP2 receptor, and their neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in an in vivo model. A selected compound from this patent(s) also attenuates prostate cancer cell growth and invasion in vitro, suggesting these compounds should be developed for therapeutic use. PMID:25772215

  4. Evaluation of WO 2012/177618 A1 and US-2014/0179750 A1: novel small molecule antagonists of prostaglandin-E2 receptor EP2.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Thota

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies underscore that prostaglandin-E2 exerts mostly proinflammatory effects in chronic CNS and peripheral disease models, mainly through a specific prostanoid receptor EP2. However, very few highly characterized EP2 receptor antagonists have been reported until recently, when Pfizer and Emory University published two distinct classes of EP2 antagonists with good potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate recently published patents WO 2012/177618 A1 and US-2014/0179750 A1 from Emory, which describe a number of cinnamic amide- and amide-derivatives as a potent antagonists of EP2 receptor, and their neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in an in vivo model. A selected compound from this patent(s) also attenuates prostate cancer cell growth and invasion in vitro, suggesting these compounds should be developed for therapeutic use.

  5. Thiamine deficiency caused by thiamine antagonists triggers upregulation of apoptosis inducing factor gene expression and leads to caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in neuronally differentiated rat PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chornyy, Sergiy; Parkhomenko, Julia; Chorna, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that alterations in oxidative metabolism induced by thiamine deficiency lead to neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still under extensive investigation. Here, we report that rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells differentiated in the presence of NGF into neurons undergo apoptosis due to thiamine deficiency caused by antagonists of thiamine - amprolium, pyrithiamine and oxythiamine. Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy revealed that annexin V binds to PC-12 cells in presence of thiamine antagonists after 72 h incubation. Results also show that thiamine antagonists trigger upregulation of gene expression of mitochondrial-derived apoptosis inducing factor, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and translocation of active product to the nucleus. We therefore propose that apoptosis induced by amprolium, pyrithiamine or oxythiamine occurs via the mitochondria-dependent caspase 3-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, our data indicate that pyrithiamine and oxythiamine are more potent inducers of apoptosis than amprolium.

  6. Medium-Induced Antagonistic Behavior in Staphylococcus Aureus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Antagonism is the production of substances by microorganisms that inhibit or prevent the growth of other bacteria. This paper demonstrates the antagonistic behavior of gram-positive coccus on the B. subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis gram-positive microorganisms, showing that the process of antagonism is sometimes dependent on the nutritional…

  7. TRPV1 Antagonists and Chronic Pain: Beyond Thermal Perception

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Michael R.; Beyer, Chad E.; Stahl, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable evidence as accumulated to support the development of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists for the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. Whereas there is a widely accepted rationale for the development of TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of various inflammatory pain conditions, their development for indications of chronic pain, where conditions of tactical, mechanical and spontaneous pain predominate, is less clear. Preclinical localization and expression studies provide a firm foundation for the use of molecules targeting TRPV1 for conditions of bone pain, osteoarthritis and neuropathic pain. Selective TRPV1 antagonists weakly attenuate tactile and mechanical hypersensivity and are partially effective for behavioral and electrophysiological endpoints that incorporate aspects of spontaneous pain. While initial studies with TRPV1 antagonist in normal human subjects indicate a loss of warm thermal perception, clinical studies assessing allelic variants suggests that TRPV1 may mediate other sensory modalities under certain conditions. The focus of this review is to summarize the current perspectives of TRPV1 for the treatment of conditions beyond those with a primary thermal sensitivity. PMID:24288084

  8. Antagonistic dielectric elastomer actuator for biologically-inspired robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Andrew T.; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    For optimal performance, actuators designed for biologically-inspired robotics applications need to be capable of mimicking the key characteristics of natural musculoskeletal systems. These characteristics include a large output stroke, high energy density, antagonistic operation and passive compliance. The actuation properties of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) make them viable for use as an artificial muscle technology. However, much like the musculoskeletal system, rigid structures are needed to couple the compliant DEA layers to a load. In this paper, a cone DEA design is developed as an antagonistic, multi-DOF actuator, viable for a variety for biologically-inspired robotics applications. The design has the advantage of maintaining pre-strain through a support structure without substantially lowering the overall mass-specific power density. Prototype cone DEAs have been fabricated with VHB 4910 acrylic elastomer and have characteristic dimensions of 49mm (strut length) and 60mm (DEA diameter). Multi-DOF kinematical outputs of the cone DEAs were measured using a custom 3D motion tracking system. Experimental tests of the prototypes demonstrate antagonistic linear (+/-10mm), rotational (+/-25°) and combined multi-DOF strokes. Overall, antagonistic cone DEAs are shown to produce a complex multi-DOF output from a mass-efficient support structure and thus are well suited for being exploited in biologically-inspired robotics.

  9. Retention and Outcome in a Narcotic Antagonist Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Patients in an outpatient narcotic antagonist treatment program were followed through their course of treatment. Those who remained longer were found to enter treatment with more stable employment records and less recent opiate use. They also appeared more successful at termination, with better vocational stability, less extraneous drug use, and…

  10. Medium-Induced Antagonistic Behavior in Staphylococcus Aureus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Antagonism is the production of substances by microorganisms that inhibit or prevent the growth of other bacteria. This paper demonstrates the antagonistic behavior of gram-positive coccus on the B. subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis gram-positive microorganisms, showing that the process of antagonism is sometimes dependent on the nutritional…

  11. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Retention and Outcome in a Narcotic Antagonist Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Patients in an outpatient narcotic antagonist treatment program were followed through their course of treatment. Those who remained longer were found to enter treatment with more stable employment records and less recent opiate use. They also appeared more successful at termination, with better vocational stability, less extraneous drug use, and…

  13. Enhanced Chronic Pain Management Utilizing Chemokine Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation ; Chemokines; Chemokine receptor antagonists; Opioid analgesics; Animal models of pain...multiplex quantitative analysis of protein levels of these molecules. 2. KEYWORDS: Pain treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation ...with a circulating water bath (Model 9500, Fisher Scientific; Pittsburgh, PA). Rats were held over the bath with their tails submerged

  14. The Effect of Antagonist Muscle Sensory Input on Force Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Onushko, Tanya; Schmit, Brian D.; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how stretch-related sensory feedback from an antagonist muscle affects agonist muscle output at different contraction levels in healthy adults. Ten young (25.3 ± 2.4 years), healthy subjects performed constant isometric knee flexion contractions (agonist) at 6 torque levels: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of their maximal voluntary contraction. For half of the trials, subjects received patellar tendon taps (antagonist sensory feedback) during the contraction. We compared error in targeted knee flexion torque and hamstring muscle activity, with and without patellar tendon tapping, across the 6 torque levels. At lower torque levels (5%, 10%, and 15%), subjects produced greater knee torque error following tendon tapping compared with the same torque levels without tendon tapping. In contrast, we did not find any difference in torque output at higher target levels (20%, 30%, and 40%) between trials with and without tendon tapping. We also observed a load-dependent increase in the magnitude of agonist muscle activity after tendon taps, with no associated load-dependent increase in agonist and antagonist co-activation, or reflex inhibition from the antagonist tapping. The findings suggest that at relatively low muscle activity there is a deficiency in the ability to correct motor output after sensory disturbances, and cortical centers (versus sub-cortical) are likely involved. PMID:26186590

  15. Fine-Tuning Development Through Antagonistic Peptides: An Emerging Theme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Suk; De Smet, Ive

    2016-12-01

    Peptide ligand-receptor kinase interactions have emerged as a key component of plant growth and development. Now, highly related small signaling peptides have been shown to act antagonistically on the same receptor kinase, providing new insights into how plants optimize developmental processes using competitive peptides.

  16. Endothelin receptor antagonists and cardiovascular diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    Love, M P; McMurray, J J

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of the endothelin system in human cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has evolved very rapidly since the initial description of its constituent parts in 1988. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant endothelin isoform in the human cardiovascular system and has potent vasoconstrictor, mitogenic and antinatriuretic properties which have implicated it in the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of ET-1 have been shown to be mediated by 2 principal endothelin receptor subtypes: ET(A) and ET(B). The development of a range of peptidic and nonpeptidic endothelin receptor antagonists represents an exciting breakthrough in human cardiovascular therapeutics. Two main classes of endothelin receptor antagonist have been developed for possible human therapeutic use: ET(A)-selective and nonselective antagonists. Extensive laboratory and clinical research with these agents has highlighted their promise in various cardiovascular diseases. Randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials have yielded very encouraging results in patients with hypertension and chronic heart failure with more preliminary data suggesting a possible role in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and stroke. Much more research is needed, however, before endothelin receptor antagonists can be considered for clinical use.

  17. [Medical economics evaluation of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs].

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Junpei; Hirano, Shigeki; Fukui, Aiko; Funabashi, Kazuaki; Deguchi, Yuko; Yamada, Susumu; Naito, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    At Komaki City Hospital, the drug cost in connection with cancer chemotherapy was re-examined as part of improved management along with the introduction of DPC in July 2008. With due attention to the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, both the change from injections to oral drugs and the change from brand-name drugs to generic drugs were tried between July 2008 and June 2009. After that, in order to examine the economic impact of these changes, we investigated and analyzed the number of medications, the cost of medicine purchased, and the average drug cost per medication of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists between April 2008 and September 2009. As a result, the cost of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists purchased decreased greatly, and the impact of the improvement was mainly due to the change to oral drugs, and partially to the change to generic drugs. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital economic improvement in DPC, it was thought that the change to oral drugs(5-HT3 receptor antagonists)is given top priority.

  18. Novel benzopolycyclic amines with NMDA receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Elena; Sureda, Francesc X; Vázquez, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    A new series of benzopolycyclic amines active as NMDA receptor antagonists were synthesized. Most of them exhibited increased activity compared with related analogues previously published. All the tested compounds were more potent than clinically approved amantadine and one of them displayed a lower IC50 value than memantine, an anti-Alzheimer's approved drug.

  19. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  1. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function.

  2. Antagonistic interactions peak at intermediate genetic distance in clinical and laboratory strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria excrete costly toxins to defend their ecological niche. The evolution of such antagonistic interactions between individuals is expected to depend on both the social environment and the strength of resource competition. Antagonism is expected to be weak among highly similar genotypes because most individuals are immune to antagonistic agents and among dissimilar genotypes because these are unlikely to be competing for the same resources and antagonism should not yield much benefit. The strength of antagonism is therefore expected to peak at intermediate genetic distance. Results We studied the ability of laboratory strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to prevent growth of 55 different clinical P. aeruginosa isolates derived from cystic fibrosis patients. Genetic distance was determined using genetic fingerprints. We found that the strength of antagonism was maximal among genotypes of intermediate genetic distance and we show that genetic distance and resource use are linked. Conclusions Our results suggest that the importance of social interactions like antagonism may be modulated by the strength of resource competition. PMID:22439760

  3. Protective effect of CR 1409 (cholecystokinin antagonist) on experimental pancreatitis in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Makovec, F; Bani, M; Cereda, R; Chistè, R; Revel, L; Rovati, L C; Setnikar, I; Rovati, L A

    1986-01-01

    CR 1409, a glutaramic acid derivative with competitive cholecystokinin-antagonistic activity, was administered IP and evaluated in comparison with proglumide (the model CCK-receptor antagonist), gabexate (protease inhibitor) and PGE2 (cytoprotective) on two different models of experimental pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by six IP injections of 50 micrograms/kg caerulein at hourly intervals. The drugs were administered 30 minutes before each caerulein administration. Blood samples and pancreata were collected 3 hours after the last caerulein injection. In the second experiment, pancreatitis was induced in rats by injecting 0.3 ml 6% sodium taurocholate interstitially into the pancreas. The drugs were administered twice, 30 minutes before and 3 hours after taurocholate. The animals were killed 6 hours after laparotomy and blood samples and pancreata were collected. CR 1409 exhibited on both pancreatitis models a protective effect in a dose range of 0.3-10 mg/kg. Proglumide exhibited a protective activity at higher doses (200-400 mg/kg). Gabexate and PGE2 were effective only in pancreatitis induced by taurocholate in a dose range of 30-60 mg/kg and 60-130 micrograms/kg respectively. These results, showing a high protective effect of CR 1409 on different models of acute pancreatitis, suggest an important role of CCK in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

  4. Identification of a Potent and Selective Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Antagonist from Auxarthron reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Auxarthron reticulatum derived from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis produced the diketopiperazine alkaloid amauromine (1) and the quinolinone methyl-penicinoline (2). Compound 2 is identical to the reported methyl-marinamide, whose structure is herewith revised. In radioligand binding studies at human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, amauromine (1) was found to exhibit high affinity and selectivity for the CB1 receptor (Ki = 178 nM). The compound was shown to be a neutral CB1 antagonist with a Kb value of 66.6 nM determined in cAMP assays. Compound 2 exhibited only weak or no effects at CB receptors. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first fungal natural product that shows affinity for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Because of its high antagonistic potency and selectivity, it may have potential for use as a drug and/or serve as a lead structure for drug development. PMID:24900275

  5. Identification of a Potent and Selective Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Antagonist from Auxarthron reticulatum.

    PubMed

    Elsebai, Mahmoud Fahmi; Rempel, Viktor; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Kehraus, Stefan; Müller, Christa E; König, Gabriele M

    2011-11-10

    The fungus Auxarthron reticulatum derived from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis produced the diketopiperazine alkaloid amauromine (1) and the quinolinone methyl-penicinoline (2). Compound 2 is identical to the reported methyl-marinamide, whose structure is herewith revised. In radioligand binding studies at human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, amauromine (1) was found to exhibit high affinity and selectivity for the CB1 receptor (K i = 178 nM). The compound was shown to be a neutral CB1 antagonist with a K b value of 66.6 nM determined in cAMP assays. Compound 2 exhibited only weak or no effects at CB receptors. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first fungal natural product that shows affinity for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Because of its high antagonistic potency and selectivity, it may have potential for use as a drug and/or serve as a lead structure for drug development.

  6. Compensatory mutations cause excess of antagonistic epistasis in RNA secondary structure folding

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Claus O; Lenski, Richard E; Adami, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    Background The rate at which fitness declines as an organism's genome accumulates random mutations is an important variable in several evolutionary theories. At an intuitive level, it might seem natural that random mutations should tend to interact synergistically, such that the rate of mean fitness decline accelerates as the number of random mutations is increased. However, in a number of recent studies, a prevalence of antagonistic epistasis (the tendency of multiple mutations to have a mitigating rather than reinforcing effect) has been observed. Results We studied in silico the net amount and form of epistatic interactions in RNA secondary structure folding by measuring the fraction of neutral mutants as a function of mutational distance d. We found a clear prevalence of antagonistic epistasis in RNA secondary structure folding. By relating the fraction of neutral mutants at distance d to the average neutrality at distance d, we showed that this prevalence derives from the existence of many compensatory mutations at larger mutational distances. Conclusions Our findings imply that the average direction of epistasis in simple fitness landscapes is directly related to the density with which fitness peaks are distributed in these landscapes. PMID:12590655

  7. Compensatory mutations cause excess of antagonistic epistasis in RNA secondary structure folding.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Claus O; Lenski, Richard E; Adami, Christoph

    2003-02-05

    The rate at which fitness declines as an organism's genome accumulates random mutations is an important variable in several evolutionary theories. At an intuitive level, it might seem natural that random mutations should tend to interact synergistically, such that the rate of mean fitness decline accelerates as the number of random mutations is increased. However, in a number of recent studies, a prevalence of antagonistic epistasis (the tendency of multiple mutations to have a mitigating rather than reinforcing effect) has been observed. We studied in silico the net amount and form of epistatic interactions in RNA secondary structure folding by measuring the fraction of neutral mutants as a function of mutational distance d. We found a clear prevalence of antagonistic epistasis in RNA secondary structure folding. By relating the fraction of neutral mutants at distance d to the average neutrality at distance d, we showed that this prevalence derives from the existence of many compensatory mutations at larger mutational distances. Our findings imply that the average direction of epistasis in simple fitness landscapes is directly related to the density with which fitness peaks are distributed in these landscapes.

  8. Novel antagonists of serotonin-4 receptors: synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrrolothienopyrazines.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Stéphane; Lepailleur, Alban; Bureau, Ronan; Butt-Gueulle, Sabrina; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Duchatelle, Pascal; Boulouard, Michel; Dumuis, Aline; Daveu, Cyril; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Dauphin, François; Rault, Sylvain

    2009-03-15

    Based on the definition of a 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist pharmacophore, a series of pyrrolo[1,2-a]thieno[3,2-e] and pyrrolo[1,2-a]thieno[2,3-e] pyrazine derivatives were designed, prepared, and evaluated to determine the properties necessary for high-affinity binding to 5-HT(4) receptors. The compounds were synthesized by substituting the chlorine atom of the pyrazine ring with various N-alkyl-4-piperidinylmethanolates. They were evaluated in binding assays with [(3)H]GR113808 (1) as the 5-HT(4) receptor radioligand. The affinity values (K(i) or inhibition percentages) were affected by both the substituent on the aromatic ring and the substituent on the lateral piperidine chain. A methyl group on the tricyclic ring produced a marked increase in affinity while an N-propyl or N-butyl group gave compounds with nanomolar affinities. Among the most potent ligands, 34d was selected for further pharmacological studies and evaluated in vivo. This compound acts as an antagonist/weak partial agonist in COS-7 cells stably expressing the 5-HT(4(a)) receptor and is of great interest as a peripheral antinociceptive agent.

  9. A Molecular Basis for Selective Antagonist Destabilization of Dopamine D3 Receptor Quaternary Organization.

    PubMed

    Marsango, Sara; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Jiménez-Rosés, Mireia; Millan, Mark J; Pediani, John D; Ward, Richard J; Milligan, Graeme

    2017-05-18

    The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a molecular target for both first-generation and several recently-developed antipsychotic agents. Following stable expression of this mEGFP-tagged receptor, Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis indicated that a substantial proportion of the receptor was present within dimeric/oligomeric complexes and that increased expression levels of the receptor favored a greater dimer to monomer ratio. Addition of the antipsychotics, spiperone or haloperidol, resulted in re-organization of D3R quaternary structure to promote monomerization. This action was dependent on ligand concentration and reversed upon drug washout. By contrast, a number of other antagonists with high affinity at the D3R, did not alter the dimer/monomer ratio. Molecular dynamics simulations following docking of each of the ligands into a model of the D3R derived from the available atomic level structure, and comparisons to the receptor in the absence of ligand, were undertaken. They showed that, in contrast to the other antagonists, spiperone and haloperidol respectively increased the atomic distance between reference α carbon atoms of transmembrane domains IV and V and I and II, both of which provide key interfaces for D3R dimerization. These results offer a molecular explanation for the distinctive ability of spiperone and haloperidol to disrupt D3R dimerization.

  10. Effect of SDF-1/Cxcr4 Signaling Antagonist AMD3100 on Bone Mineralization in Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Chen, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jinfang; Kang, Qinglin; Ho, Kiwai; Chai, Yimin; Li, Gang

    2017-03-16

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a widely applied technique in orthopedics surgery, which involves rapid stem cell migration, homing, and differentiation. Interactions between the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 and its ligand, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), regulate hematopoietic stem cell trafficking to the ischemic area and induce their subsequent differentiation. Here, we examined SDF-1 expression and further investigated the role of SDF-1/Cxcr4 signaling antagonist AMD3100 during bone regeneration in rat DO model. The results showed that expression levels of SDF-1 and osteogenic genes were higher in DO zones than in the fracture zones, and SDF-1 expression level was the highest at the termination of the distraction phase. Radiological, mechanical, and histological analyses demonstrated that the local administration of AMD3100 (400 μM) to DO rats significantly inhibited new bone formation. In the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells culture, comparing to the group treated with osteogenic induction medium, AMD3100 supplement led to a considerable decrease in the expression of alkaline phosphatase and early osteogenic marker genes. However, the amount of calcium deposits in rat MSCs did not differ between the groups. Therefore, our study demonstrated that the DO process induced higher expression of SDF-1, which collated to rapid induction of callus formation. Local application of SDF-1/Cxcr4 signaling antagonist AMD3100 significantly inhibited bone mineralization and osteogenesis in DO, which may represent a potential therapeutic approach to the enhancement of bone consolidation in patients undergoing DO.

  11. Small-molecule MDM2 antagonists reveal aberrant p53 signaling in cancer: Implications for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Christian; Rosinski, James; Filipovic, Zoran; Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Hilton, Holly; Zhao, Xiaolan; Vu, Binh T.; Qing, Weiguo; Packman, Kathryn; Myklebost, Ola; Heimbrook, David C.; Vassilev, Lyubomir T.

    2006-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor retains its wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity in half of all human tumors, and its activation may offer a therapeutic benefit. However, p53 function could be compromised by defective signaling in the p53 pathway. Using a small-molecule MDM2 antagonist, nutlin-3, to probe downstream p53 signaling we find that the cell-cycle arrest function of the p53 pathway is preserved in multiple tumor-derived cell lines expressing wild-type p53, but many have a reduced ability to undergo p53-dependent apoptosis. Gene array analysis revealed attenuated expression of multiple apoptosis-related genes. Cancer cells with mdm2 gene amplification were most sensitive to nutlin-3 in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that MDM2 overexpression may be the only abnormality in the p53 pathway of these cells. Nutlin-3 also showed good efficacy against tumors with normal MDM2 expression, suggesting that many of the patients with wild-type p53 tumors may benefit from antagonists of the p53–MDM2 interaction. PMID:16443686

  12. Small-molecule MDM2 antagonists reveal aberrant p53 signaling in cancer: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Christian; Rosinski, James; Filipovic, Zoran; Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Hilton, Holly; Zhao, Xiaolan; Vu, Binh T; Qing, Weiguo; Packman, Kathryn; Myklebost, Ola; Heimbrook, David C; Vassilev, Lyubomir T

    2006-02-07

    The p53 tumor suppressor retains its wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity in half of all human tumors, and its activation may offer a therapeutic benefit. However, p53 function could be compromised by defective signaling in the p53 pathway. Using a small-molecule MDM2 antagonist, nutlin-3, to probe downstream p53 signaling we find that the cell-cycle arrest function of the p53 pathway is preserved in multiple tumor-derived cell lines expressing wild-type p53, but many have a reduced ability to undergo p53-dependent apoptosis. Gene array analysis revealed attenuated expression of multiple apoptosis-related genes. Cancer cells with mdm2 gene amplification were most sensitive to nutlin-3 in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that MDM2 overexpression may be the only abnormality in the p53 pathway of these cells. Nutlin-3 also showed good efficacy against tumors with normal MDM2 expression, suggesting that many of the patients with wild-type p53 tumors may benefit from antagonists of the p53-MDM2 interaction.

  13. Pharmacological properties of lorglumide as a member of a new class of cholecystokinin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Makovec, F; Bani, M; Cereda, R; Chisté, R; Pacini, M A; Revel, L; Rovati, L A; Rovati, L C; Setnikar, I

    1987-11-01

    Derivatives of 5-(dipentylamino)-5-oxo-pentanoic acid are a new class of non-peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonists. The most potent compound, D,L-4-(3,4-dichlorobenzoylamino)-5-(dipentylamino)-5-oxo-pen tanoic acid (lorglumide, CR 1409), has a great affinity for the pancreatic CCK receptors and is a competitive, specific and potent CCK antagonist on the smooth muscles of the gall bladder and ileum of the guinea pig and on the CCK-induced amylase secretion of isolated pancreatic acini. In vivo lorglumide antagonizes the contraction of the gall bladder of the guinea pig and of the dog provoked by i.v. CCK-8 or ceruletide (caerulein). It antagonizes the satiety effect of CCK-8 in the rat and is protective against ceruletide-, taurocholate- and diet-induced pancreatitis. Lorglumide is therefore a useful pharmacological tool to study the functions of CCK. For its pharmacological properties, its relatively low toxicity and because it is active also after oral administration, lorglumide is a candidate for diagnostic or therapeutic use in man when an involvement of CCK is suspected.

  14. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere.

  15. In vitro metabolism studies of new adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Gabriella; Finaurini, Sara; Buccioni, Michela; Lammi, Carmen; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram; Volpini, Rosaria; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Angeli, Piero; Commandeur, Jan N M; Cristalli, Gloria

    2008-12-01

    Evidence, obtained in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in preliminary clinical trials, indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might represent a promising non-dopaminergic therapeutic tool for the treatment of PD. Recently, we have reported the biological evaluation of 8-substituted 9-ethyladenines (ANR) as new A(2A) receptor antagonists, three of which (ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152) showed high efficacy in in vivo models for Parkinson's. Understanding the metabolic pathways of new drug candidates is an important aspect of drug discovery. The ANR compounds have been investigated in order to clarify their activity on rat liver microsomes, and more specifically on recombinant human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The metabolites of all three compounds were detected by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results indicate that this class of 9-ethyladenines is metabolized only to a fraction of 1.5-5%. These compounds also act as potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP450 and in particular of human isoform CYP2D6. Kinetic-analysis of enzyme inactivation was used to describe the effect of these time-dependent inhibitors and to derive the inhibition parameters K(inact) and K(i) defined with respect to the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan.

  16. Diversity, distribution, and antagonistic activities of rhizobacteria of Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ze-Yan; Miao, Cui-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Guo; Zheng, You-Kun; Chen, Hua-Hong; Chen, You-Wei; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Li-Xing; Guan, Hui-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. This study aimed to screen antagonistic bacteria and develop a biocontrol system for root rot complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods Pure-culture methods were used to isolate bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of notoginseng plants. The identification of isolates was based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. Results A total of 279 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soils of healthy and root-rot notoginseng plants, and uncultivated soil. Among all the isolates, 88 showed antagonistic activity to at least one of three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Phoma herbarum mainly causing root rot disease of P. notoginseng. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, the antagonistic bacteria were characterized into four clusters, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetesi. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently isolated, and Bacillus siamensis (Hs02), Bacillus atrophaeus (Hs09) showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogens. The distribution pattern differed in soil types, genera Achromobacter, Acidovorax, Brevibacterium, Brevundimonas, Flavimonas, and Streptomyces were only found in rhizosphere of healthy plants, while Delftia, Leclercia, Brevibacillus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Rhizobium, and Stenotrophomonas only exist in soil of diseased plant, and Acinetobacter only exist in uncultivated soil. Conclusion The results suggest that diverse bacteria exist in the P. notoginseng rhizosphere soil, with differences in community in the same field, and antagonistic isolates may be good potential biological control agent for the notoginseng root-rot diseases caused by F. oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Panax herbarum. PMID:27158229

  17. TNF Antagonist Responsiveness in a United States Rheumatoid Arthritis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Strand, Vibeke; Cohen, Stanley B.; Olenginski, Thomas P; Harrington, Thomas; Kafka, Shelly P.; Reed, George; Kremer, Joel M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate responsiveness according to whether patients satisfy eligibility criteria from randomized controlled trials of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists in a multi-centered United States cohort Methods Biologic-naïve rheumatoid arthritis patients prescribed TNF antagonists (n=465) in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America registry were included. Patients were stratified by whether they met eligibility criteria from 3 major TNF antagonist trials. Two cohorts were examined: cohort A (n=336) included patients with complete American College of Rheumatology response criteria except acute phase reactants; and cohort B (n=129) with the complete response criteria. Study outcomes included modified American College of Rheumatology 20% and 50% improvement responses (Cohort A) and standard American College of Rheumatology improvement (Cohort B). Results A minority of patients (5.4% to 19.4%) prescribed TNF antagonists met trial eligibility criteria, and predominantly had high disease activity (78.5% to 100%). In cohort A for patients who met eligibility criteria, rates of 20% improvement (52.3% to 63.6%) and 50% improvement (30.8% to 45.5%) were achieved. Among patients failing to meet eligibility criteria, rates of 20% improvement (16.2% to 20.4%) and 50% improvement (8.9% to 10.8%) were consistently inferior (p<0.05 all comparisons). For cohort B, similar differences were observed. Conclusion This multi-centered U.S. cohort study demonstrates that the majority of patients receiving TNF antagonists would not meet trial eligibility criteria and achieve lower clinical responses. These findings highlight the tradeoff between defining treatment responsive populations and achieving results that can be generalized for broader patient populations. PMID:18501236

  18. Diversity, distribution, and antagonistic activities of rhizobacteria of Panax notoginseng.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ze-Yan; Miao, Cui-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Guo; Zheng, You-Kun; Chen, Hua-Hong; Chen, You-Wei; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Li-Xing; Guan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. This study aimed to screen antagonistic bacteria and develop a biocontrol system for root rot complex of Panax notoginseng. Pure-culture methods were used to isolate bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of notoginseng plants. The identification of isolates was based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. A total of 279 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soils of healthy and root-rot notoginseng plants, and uncultivated soil. Among all the isolates, 88 showed antagonistic activity to at least one of three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Phoma herbarum mainly causing root rot disease of P. notoginseng. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, the antagonistic bacteria were characterized into four clusters, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetesi. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently isolated, and Bacillus siamensis (Hs02), Bacillus atrophaeus (Hs09) showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogens. The distribution pattern differed in soil types, genera Achromobacter, Acidovorax, Brevibacterium, Brevundimonas, Flavimonas, and Streptomyces were only found in rhizosphere of healthy plants, while Delftia, Leclercia, Brevibacillus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Rhizobium, and Stenotrophomonas only exist in soil of diseased plant, and Acinetobacter only exist in uncultivated soil. The results suggest that diverse bacteria exist in the P. notoginseng rhizosphere soil, with differences in community in the same field, and antagonistic isolates may be good potential biological control agent for the notoginseng root-rot diseases caused by F. oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Panax herbarum.

  19. Derivative chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  20. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  1. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of novel CCR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Shankaran; Donnely, Karla L; Butora, Gabor; Jiao, Richard; Pasternak, Alexander; Morriello, Gregori J; Goble, Stephen D; Zhou, Changyou; Mills, Sander G; Maccoss, Malcolm; Vicario, Pasquale P; Ayala, Julia M; Demartino, Julie A; Struthers, Mary; Cascieri, Margaret A; Yang, Lihu

    2009-03-15

    A series of novel 1-aminocyclopentyl-3-carboxyamides incorporating substituted tetrahydropyran moieties have been synthesized and subsequently evaluated for their antagonistic activity against the human CCR2 receptor. Among them analog 59 was found to posses potent antagonistic activity.

  2. Marching into battle: synchronized walking diminishes the conceptualized formidability of an antagonist in men

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling behaviours in other species, synchronized movement is central to institutionalized collective human activities thought to enhance cooperation, and experiments demonstrate that synchrony has this effect. The influence of synchrony on cooperation may derive from an evolutionary history wherein such actions served to signal coalitional strength to both participants and observers—including adversaries. If so, then synchronous movement should diminish individuals' estimations of a foe's formidability. Envisioned physical size and strength constitute the dimensions of a representation that summarizes relative fighting capacity. Experiencing synchrony should therefore lead individuals to conceptualize an antagonist as smaller and weaker. We found that men who walked synchronously with a male confederate indeed envisioned a purported criminal as less physically formidable than did men who engaged in this task without synchronizing. PMID:25165456

  3. pK(a) determination of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II) by spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Cagigal, E; González, L; Alonso, R M; Jiménez, R M

    2001-10-01

    The acid-base equilibrium constants of a new family of antihypertensive drugs, the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II), Losartan, Irbesartan, Valsartan, Candesartan cilexetil, its metabolite Candesartan M1 and Telmisartan were determined by spectrofluorimetry. Relative fluorescent intensity (I(F,rel))-pH data were treated by graphical (derivatives and curve-fitting) and numerical methods (LETAGROP SPEFO). The resultant pK(a) values at an ionic strength of 0.5 M were (3.15+/-0.07) for Losartan, (4.70+/-0.06) for Irbesartan, (4.90+/-0.09) for Valsartan, (6.0+/-0.1) for Candesartan cilexetil, (3.9+/-0.1) for Candesartan M1, and (4.45+/-0.09) for Telmisartan.

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneddon, Julie B.; Zhen, Hanson H.; Montgomery, Kelli; van de Rijn, Matt; Tward, Aaron D.; West, Robert; Gladstone, Hayes; Chang, Howard Y.; Morganroth, Greg S.; Oro, Anthony E.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2006-10-01

    Although tissue microenvironments play critical roles in epithelial development and tumorigenesis, the factors mediating these effects are poorly understood. In this work, we used a genomic approach to identify factors produced by cells in the microenvironment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, one of the most common human cancers. The global gene expression programs of stromal cell cultures derived from human BCCs showed consistent, systematic differences from those derived from nontumor skin. The gene most consistently expressed at a higher level in BCC tumor stromal cells compared with those from nontumor skin was GREMLIN 1, which encodes a secreted antagonist of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. BMPs and their antagonists are known to play a crucial role in stem and progenitor cell biology as regulators of the balance between expansion and differentiation. Consistent with the hypothesis that BMP antagonists might have a similar role in cancer, we found GREMLIN 1 expression in the stroma of human BCC tumors but not in normal skin in vivo. Furthermore, BMP 2 and 4 are expressed by BCC cells. Ex vivo, BMP inhibits, and Gremlin 1 promotes, proliferation of cultured BCC cells. We further found that GREMLIN 1 is expressed by stromal cells in many carcinomas but not in the corresponding normal tissue counterparts that we examined. Our data suggest that BMP antagonists may be important constituents of tumor stroma, providing a favorable microenvironment for cancer cell survival and expansion in many cancers. cancer biology | stem cell regulation | tissue microenvironment | tumor stroma

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Julie B; Zhen, Hanson H; Montgomery, Kelli; van de Rijn, Matt; Tward, Aaron D; West, Robert; Gladstone, Hayes; Chang, Howard Y; Morganroth, Greg S; Oro, Anthony E; Brown, Patrick O

    2006-10-03

    Although tissue microenvironments play critical roles in epithelial development and tumorigenesis, the factors mediating these effects are poorly understood. In this work, we used a genomic approach to identify factors produced by cells in the microenvironment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, one of the most common human cancers. The global gene expression programs of stromal cell cultures derived from human BCCs showed consistent, systematic differences from those derived from nontumor skin. The gene most consistently expressed at a higher level in BCC tumor stromal cells compared with those from nontumor skin was GREMLIN 1, which encodes a secreted antagonist of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. BMPs and their antagonists are known to play a crucial role in stem and progenitor cell biology as regulators of the balance between expansion and differentiation. Consistent with the hypothesis that BMP antagonists might have a similar role in cancer, we found GREMLIN 1 expression in the stroma of human BCC tumors but not in normal skin in vivo. Furthermore, BMP 2 and 4 are expressed by BCC cells. Ex vivo, BMP inhibits, and Gremlin 1 promotes, proliferation of cultured BCC cells. We further found that GREMLIN 1 is expressed by stromal cells in many carcinomas but not in the corresponding normal tissue counterparts that we examined. Our data suggest that BMP antagonists may be important constituents of tumor stroma, providing a favorable microenvironment for cancer cell survival and expansion in many cancers.

  6. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  7. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR. PMID:27490540

  8. Inhibition of establishment of primary and micrometastatic tumors by a urokinase plasminogen activator receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ignar, D M; Andrews, J L; Witherspoon, S M; Leray, J D; Clay, W C; Kilpatrick, K; Onori, J; Kost, T; Emerson, D L

    1998-01-01

    Tumor establishment and metastasis are dependent on extracellular matrix proteolysis, tumor cell migration, and angiogenesis. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor are essential mediators of these processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a recombinant human uPAR antagonist on growth, establishment, and metastasis of tumors derived from human cancer cell lines. A noncatalytic recombinant protein, consisting of amino acids 1-137 of human uPA and the CH2 and CH3 regions of mouse IgG1 (uPA-IgG), was expressed, purified, and shown to bind specifically to human uPAR and to saturate the surface of human tumor cells which express uPAR. Daily i.p. administration of uPA-IgG to nude mice extended latencies of unstaged tumors derived from Lox melanoma and SW48 colon carcinoma cells by 7.7 and 5.5 days, respectively. uPA-IgG treatment did not affect the growth of Lox or KB tumors staged to 200 mg before antagonist treatment commenced. The effect of uPA-IgG on the establishment of micrometastases was assessed in SCID mice. KB head/neck tumor cells were injected in the tail vein and allowed to seed for 48 h before initiation of daily i.p. injections of uPA-IgG for 24 days. The number of lung colonies ranged between 5 and 30% of vehicle-treated mice in two separate experiments. Furthermore, a single 800 microg dose of uPA-IgG administered 1 h prior to tail vein injection of KB cells reduced lung colony formation to just 3.5% of vehicle-treated SCID mice. These data demonstrate that antagonism of uPAR arrested metastasis and inhibited the establishment of primary tumors and micrometastases. Thus, small molecule uPAR antagonists may serve as useful adjuvant agents in combination with existing cancer chemotherapy.

  9. CCK2 receptor antagonists: pharmacological tools to study the gastrin-ECL cell-parietal cell axis.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, R; Ding, X Q; Norlén, P; Lindström, E

    1999-03-17

    Gastrin-recognizing CCK2 receptors are expressed in parietal cells and in so-called ECL cells in the acid-producing part of the stomach. ECL cells are endocrine/paracrine cells that produce and store histamine and chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptides, such as pancreastatin. The ECL cells are the principal cellular transducer of the gastrin-acid signal. Activation of the CCK2 receptor results in mobilization of histamine (and pancreastatin) from the ECL cells with consequent activation of the parietal cell histamine H2 receptor. Thus, release of ECL-cell histamine is a key event in the process of gastrin-stimulated acid secretion. The oxyntic mucosal histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity and the serum pancreastatin concentration are useful markers for the activity of the gastrin-ECL cell axis. Powerful and selective CCK2 receptor antagonits have been developed from a series of benzodiazepine compounds. These agents are useful tools to study how gastrin controls the ECL cells. Conversely, the close control of ECL cells by gastrin makes the gastrin-ECL cell axis well suited for evaluating the antagonistic potential of CCK2 receptor antagonists with the ECL-cell HDC activity as a notably sensitive and reliable parameter. The CCK2 receptor antagonists YF476, YM022, RP73870, JB93182 and AG041R were found to cause prompt inhibition of ECL-cell histamine and pancreastatin secretion and synthesis. The circulating pancreastatin concentration is raised, was lowered when the action of gastrin on the ECL cells was blocked by the CCK2 receptor antagonists. These effects were associated with inhibition of gastrin-stimulated acid secretion. In addition, sustained receptor blockade was manifested in permanently decreased oxyntic mucosal HDC activity, histamine concentration and HDC mRNA and CGA mRNA concentrations. CCK2 receptor blockade also induced hypergastrinemia, which probably reflects the impaired gastric acid secretion (no acid feedback inhibition of gastrin release

  10. Recent Progress in the Use of Glucagon and Glucagon Receptor Antago-nists in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Mohamed; Kalasz, Huba; Szalai, Gyorgy; Singh, Jaipaul; Adeghate, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon is an important pancreatic hormone, released into blood circulation by alpha cells of the islet of Langerhans. Glucagon induces gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in hepatocytes, leading to an increase in hepatic glucose production and subsequently hyperglycemia in susceptible individuals. Hyperglucagonemia is a constant feature in patients with T2DM. A number of bioactive agents that can block glucagon receptor have been identified. These glucagon receptor antagonists can reduce the hyperglycemia associated with exogenous glucagon administration in normal as well as diabetic subjects. Glucagon receptor antagonists include isoserine and beta-alanine derivatives, bicyclic 19-residue peptide BI-32169, Des-His1-[Glu9] glucagon amide and related compounds, 5-hydroxyalkyl-4-phenylpyridines, N-[3-cano-6- (1,1 dimethylpropyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothien-2-yl]-2-ethylbutamide, Skyrin and NNC 250926. The absorption, dosage, catabolism, excretion and medicinal chemistry of these agents are the subject of this review. It emphasizes the role of glucagon in glucose homeostasis and how it could be applied as a novel tool for the management of diabetes mellitus by blocking its receptors with either monoclonal antibodies, peptide and non-peptide antagonists or gene knockout techniques. PMID:25674162

  11. Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in severe traumatic brain injury: a phase II randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Adel; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Carpenter, Keri L H; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the commonest cause of death and disability in those aged under 40 years. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) is an endogenous competitive antagonist at the interleukin-1 type-1 receptor (IL-1R). Antagonism at the IL-1R confers neuroprotection in several rodent models of neuronal injury (i.e., trauma, stroke and excitotoxicity). We describe a single center, phase II, open label, randomized-control study of recombinant human IL1ra (rhIL1ra, anakinra) in severe TBI, at a dose of 100 mg subcutaneously once a day for 5 days in 20 patients randomized 1:1. We provide safety data (primary outcome) in this pathology, utilize cerebral microdialysis to directly determine brain extracellular concentrations of IL1ra and 41 cytokines and chemokines, and use principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the resultant cerebral cytokine profile. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was safe, penetrated into plasma and the brain extracellular fluid. The PCA showed a separation in cytokine profiles after IL1ra administration. A candidate cytokine from this analysis, macrophage-derived chemoattractant, was significantly lower in the rhIL1ra-treated group. Our results provide promising data for rhIL1ra as a therapeutic candidate by showing safety, brain penetration and a modification of the neuroinflammatory response to TBI by a putative neuroprotective agent in humans for the first time.

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Antagonist Noggin Promotes Skin Tumorigenesis via Stimulation of the Wnt and Shh Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Andrey A.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Grachtchouk, Marina; Atoyan, Ruzanna; Byers, H. Randolph; Seykora, John T.; Overbeek, Paul; Dlugosz, Andrzej; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of skin development. To study the role of BMPs in skin tumorigenesis, BMP antagonist noggin was used to generate keratin 14-targeted transgenic mice. In contrast to wild-type mice, transgenic mice developed spontaneous hair follicle-derived tumors, which resemble human trichofolliculoma. Global gene expression profiles revealed that in contrast to anagen hair follicles of wild-type mice, tumors of transgenic mice showed stage-dependent increases in the expression of genes encoding the selected components of Wnt and Shh pathways. Specifically, expression of the Wnt ligands increased at the initiation stage of tumor formation, whereas expression of the Wnt antagonist and tumor suppressor Wnt inhibitory factor-1 decreased, as compared with fully developed tumors. In contrast, expression of the components of Shh pathway increased in fully developed tumors, as compared with the tumor placodes. Consistent with the expression data, pharmacological treatment of transgenic mice with Wnt and Shh antagonists resulted in the stage-dependent inhibition of tumor initiation, and progression, respectively. Furthermore, BMP signaling stimulated Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression and promoter activity in cultured tumor cells and HaCaT keratinocytes, as well as inhibited Shh expression, as compared with the corresponding controls. Thus, tumor suppressor activity of the BMPs in skin epithelium depends on the local concentrations of noggin and is mediated at least in part via stage-dependent antagonizing of Wnt and Shh signaling pathways. PMID:19700758

  13. Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in severe traumatic brain injury: a phase II randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Adel; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Carpenter, Keri LH; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the commonest cause of death and disability in those aged under 40 years. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) is an endogenous competitive antagonist at the interleukin-1 type-1 receptor (IL-1R). Antagonism at the IL-1R confers neuroprotection in several rodent models of neuronal injury (i.e., trauma, stroke and excitotoxicity). We describe a single center, phase II, open label, randomized-control study of recombinant human IL1ra (rhIL1ra, anakinra) in severe TBI, at a dose of 100 mg subcutaneously once a day for 5 days in 20 patients randomized 1:1. We provide safety data (primary outcome) in this pathology, utilize cerebral microdialysis to directly determine brain extracellular concentrations of IL1ra and 41 cytokines and chemokines, and use principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the resultant cerebral cytokine profile. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was safe, penetrated into plasma and the brain extracellular fluid. The PCA showed a separation in cytokine profiles after IL1ra administration. A candidate cytokine from this analysis, macrophage-derived chemoattractant, was significantly lower in the rhIL1ra-treated group. Our results provide promising data for rhIL1ra as a therapeutic candidate by showing safety, brain penetration and a modification of the neuroinflammatory response to TBI by a putative neuroprotective agent in humans for the first time. PMID:24569690

  14. Zolantidine (SK&F 95282) is a potent selective brain-penetrating histamine H2-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Calcutt, C. R.; Ganellin, C. R.; Griffiths, R.; Leigh, B. K.; Maguire, J. P.; Mitchell, R. C.; Mylek, M. E.; Parsons, M. E.; Smith, I. R.; Young, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    1. The novel benzthiazole derivative zolantidine (SK&F 95282) is a potent antagonist of histamine at H2-receptors in guinea-pig atrium and rat uterus. Only apparent pA2 values of 7.46 and 7.26 respectively could be calculated since the slopes of the Schild plots were significantly less than unity. 2. Zolantidine is equally potent as an antagonist at histamine H2-receptors in guinea-pig brain. The compound inhibited histamine stimulated adenylate cyclase (pKi 7.3) and dimaprit stimulated adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation (approx pA2 7.63), and competed with [3H]-tiotidine binding (pKi 7.17). 3. Zolantidine is at least 30 fold more potent at H2-receptors than at other peripheral and central receptors investigated. 4. Infusion of zolantidine into rats produces a brain concentration greater than the plateau blood concentration (brain/blood ratio 1.45). 5. Zolantidine is thus characterized as a potent selective brain-penetrating H2-receptor antagonist, and will be a valuable pharmacological tool for investigating possible physiological and pathological roles for histamine in the central nervous system. PMID:2894879

  15. Antispasmodic activity on the gallbladder of the mouse of CR 1409 (lorglumide) a potent antagonist of peripheral CCK.

    PubMed

    Makovec, F; Bani, M; Cereda, R; Chistè, R; Pacini, M A; Revel, L; Rovati, L C

    1987-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormonal regulator of the motility of the gallbladder. CCK-8, i.e. the biologically active C-terminal octapeptide of the hormone, elicits contraction and emptying of the gallbladder. Endogenous CCK released by egg yolk or fatty acids in the duodenum gives the same results. CR 1409 (lorglumide), a glutaramic acid derivative with peripheric competitive CCK-antagonistic activity, was evaluated in comparison with proglumide (the model CCK-receptor antagonist) and other conventional antispasmodic drugs, for their ability to inhibit the emptying of the gallbladder induced in mice by CCK-8 or by lyophylized egg yolk. CR 1409 (1-10 mg/kg) prevented dose-dependently the emptying of the gallbladder in both experimental models; proglumide exhibited a comparable activity at much higher doses (200-800 mg/kg). On the contrary the anticholinergic drug atropine, the calcium-antagonist nifedipine, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor papaverine were almost ineffective. The present data support the hypothesis that the effects of CCK on gallbladder motility are mediated by a CCK-dependent specific mechanism.

  16. Recent Progress in the Use of Glucagon and Glucagon Receptor Antago-nists in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Mohamed; Kalasz, Huba; Szalai, Gyorgy; Singh, Jaipaul; Adeghate, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon is an important pancreatic hormone, released into blood circulation by alpha cells of the islet of Langerhans. Glucagon induces gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in hepatocytes, leading to an increase in hepatic glucose production and subsequently hyperglycemia in susceptible individuals. Hyperglucagonemia is a constant feature in patients with T2DM. A number of bioactive agents that can block glucagon receptor have been identified. These glucagon receptor antagonists can reduce the hyperglycemia associated with exogenous glucagon administration in normal as well as diabetic subjects. Glucagon receptor antagonists include isoserine and beta-alanine derivatives, bicyclic 19-residue peptide BI-32169, Des-His1-[Glu9] glucagon amide and related compounds, 5-hydroxyalkyl-4-phenylpyridines, N-[3-cano-6- (1,1 dimethylpropyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothien-2-yl]-2-ethylbutamide, Skyrin and NNC 250926. The absorption, dosage, catabolism, excretion and medicinal chemistry of these agents are the subject of this review. It emphasizes the role of glucagon in glucose homeostasis and how it could be applied as a novel tool for the management of diabetes mellitus by blocking its receptors with either monoclonal antibodies, peptide and non-peptide antagonists or gene knockout techniques.

  17. Investigation on Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships and Pharmacophore Modeling of a Series of mGluR2 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Le; Li, Yan; Fan, Wen-Jia; Wang, Yong-Hua; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Ai, Chun-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydrobenzo[ b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different activities of the antagonists against rat mGluR2, which has been shown to be very similar to the human mGluR2, (activity I: inhibition of [3H]-LY354740; activity II: mGluR2 (1S,3R)-ACPD inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP.) were derived from datasets composed of 137 and 69 molecules respectively. For activity I study, the best predictive model obtained from CoMFA analysis yielded a Q2 of 0.513, R2 ncv of 0.868, R2 pred = 0.876, while the CoMSIA model yielded a Q2 of 0.450, R2 ncv = 0.899, R2 pred = 0.735. For activity II study, CoMFA model yielded statistics of Q2 = 0.5, R2 ncv = 0.715, R2 pred = 0.723. These results prove the high predictability of the models. Furthermore, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps shows that: (1) Bulky substituents in R7, R3 and position A benefit activity I of the antagonists, but decrease it when projected in R8 and position B; (2) Hydrophilic groups at position A and B increase both antagonistic activity I and II; (3) Electrostatic field plays an essential rule in the variance of activity II. In search for more potent mGluR2 antagonists, two pharmacophore models were developed separately for the two activities. The first model reveals six pharmacophoric features, namely an aromatic center, two hydrophobic centers, an H-donor atom, an H-acceptor atom and an H-donor site. The second model shares all features of the first one and has an additional acceptor site, a positive N and an aromatic center. These models can be used as guidance for the development of new mGluR2 antagonists of high activity and selectivity. This work is the first report on 3

  18. Anti-antimicrobial peptides: folding-mediated host defense antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2013-07-12

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance.

  19. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  20. Lead Optimization Studies of Cinnamic Amide EP2 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prostanoid receptor EP2 can play a proinflammatory role, exacerbating disease pathology in a variety of central nervous system and peripheral diseases. A highly selective EP2 antagonist could be useful as a drug to mitigate the inflammatory consequences of EP2 activation. We recently identified a cinnamic amide class of EP2 antagonists. The lead compound in this class (5d) displays anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. However, this compound exhibited moderate selectivity to EP2 over the DP1 prostanoid receptor (∼10-fold) and low aqueous solubility. We now report compounds that display up to 180-fold selectivity against DP1 and up to 9-fold higher aqueous solubility than our previous lead. The newly developed compounds also display higher selectivity against EP4 and IP receptors and a comparable plasma pharmacokinetics. Thus, these compounds are useful for proof of concept studies in a variety of models where EP2 activation is playing a deleterious role. PMID:24773616

  1. Drug discovery and chemokine receptor antagonists: eppur si muove!

    PubMed

    Terricabras, Emma; Benjamim, Claudia; Godessart, Nuria

    2004-11-01

    The blockade of leukocyte migration has been demonstrated to be a valid option for the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Chemokines play an active role in regulating cell infiltration into inflammatory sites and disrupting chemokine-receptor interactions has emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach. Pharmaceutical companies have developed an intense activity in the drug discovery of chemokine receptor antagonists in the last 10 years. Potent and selective compounds have been obtained and some of them are currently being evaluated in the clinic. The success of these trials will demonstrate whether the blockade of a single receptor is of therapeutic benefit. Alternative approaches, such as pan-receptor antagonists or inhibitors of the signalling pathways evoked by chemokines, are also being explored. In the meantime, new relationships between chemokines and receptors will be revealed, increasing our knowledge of such a fascinating field.

  2. Antagonistic otolith-visual units in cat vestibular nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Christensen, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of neural coding of visual (Vis) and vestibular (Vst) information on translational motion in the region of the vestibular nuclei was investigated using extracellular single-unit recordings in alert adult cats. Responses were recorded and averaged over 60 cycles of stimulation in the vertical and horizontal planes, which included the Vst (movement of the animal in the dark), Vis (movement within lighted visual surround), and combined Vis and Vst (movement of the animal within the lighted stationary visual surround). Data are reported on responses to stimulations along the axis showing maximal sensitivity. A small number of units were identified that showed an antagonistic relationship between their Vis and Vst responses (since they were maximally excited by Vis and by Vst stimulations in the same direction). Results suggest that antagonistic units may belong to an infrequently encountered, but functionally distinct, class of neurons.

  3. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan.

    PubMed

    Sidharta, P N; Treiber, A; Dingemanse, J

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the lung vascular system, which leads to right-sided heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. Treatments to regulate the pulmonary vascular pressure target the prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and endothelin (ET) pathways. Macitentan, an oral, once-daily, dual ETA and ETB receptor antagonist with high affinity and sustained receptor binding is the first ET receptor antagonist to show significant reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality in PAH patients in a large-scale phase III study with a long-term outcome. Here we present a review of the available clinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, and drug-drug interaction data of macitentan in healthy subjects, patients with PAH, and in special populations.

  4. Design of anticancer lysophosphatidic acid agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Parrill, Abby L

    2014-05-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors, LPA1-6, are integral parts of signaling pathways involved in cellular proliferation, migration and survival. These signaling pathways are of therapeutic interest for the treatment of multiple types of cancer and to reduce cancer metastasis and side effects. Validated therapeutic potential of key receptors, as well as recent structure-activity relationships yielding compounds with low nanomolar potencies are exciting recent advances in the field. Some compounds have proven efficacious in vivo against tumor proliferation and metastasis, bone cancer pain and the pulmonary fibrosis that can result as a side effect of pulmonary cancer radiation treatment. However, recent studies have identified that LPA contributes through multiple pathways to the development of chemotherapeutic resistance suggesting new applications for LPA antagonists in cancer treatment. This review summarizes the roles of LPA signaling in cancer pathophysiology and recent progress in the design and evaluation of LPA agonists and antagonists.

  5. Agonist-antagonist combinations in opioid dependence: a translational approach

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The potential therapeutic benefits of co-administering opiate agonist and antagonist agents remain largely to be investigated. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of very low doses of naltrexone that help modulate the effects of methadone withdrawal and review pharmacological properties of the buprenorphine/naltrexone combination that support its clinical investigation. The bench-to-bedside development of the very low dose naltrexone treatment can serve as a translational paradigm to investigate and treat drug addiction. Further research on putative mechanisms elicited by the use of opioid agonist-antagonist combinations may lead to effective pharmacological alternatives to the gold standard methadone treatment, also useful for the management of the abuse of non opioid drugs and alcohol. PMID:22448305

  6. Lead optimization studies of cinnamic amide EP2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Thota; Jiang, Jianxiong; Yang, Myung-Soon; Dingledine, Ray

    2014-05-22

    Prostanoid receptor EP2 can play a proinflammatory role, exacerbating disease pathology in a variety of central nervous system and peripheral diseases. A highly selective EP2 antagonist could be useful as a drug to mitigate the inflammatory consequences of EP2 activation. We recently identified a cinnamic amide class of EP2 antagonists. The lead compound in this class (5d) displays anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. However, this compound exhibited moderate selectivity to EP2 over the DP1 prostanoid receptor (∼10-fold) and low aqueous solubility. We now report compounds that display up to 180-fold selectivity against DP1 and up to 9-fold higher aqueous solubility than our previous lead. The newly developed compounds also display higher selectivity against EP4 and IP receptors and a comparable plasma pharmacokinetics. Thus, these compounds are useful for proof of concept studies in a variety of models where EP2 activation is playing a deleterious role.

  7. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus.

    PubMed

    Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T

    1990-10-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare.

  8. Therapeutic antagonists and conformational regulation of integrin function.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-01

    Integrins are a structurally elaborate family of adhesion molecules that transmit signals bi-directionally across the plasma membrane by undergoing large-scale structural rearrangements. By regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, integrins participate in a wide range of biological processes, including development, tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation and haemostasis. From a therapeutic standpoint, integrins are probably the most important class of cell-adhesion receptors. Recent progress in the development of integrin antagonists has resulted in their clinical application and has shed new light on integrin biology. On the basis of their mechanism of action, small-molecule integrin antagonists fall into three different classes. Each of these classes affect the equilibria that relate integrin conformational states, but in different ways.

  9. Potential Clinical Implications of the Urotensin II Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Philip; Kane, Emilie; Giaid, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) binds to its receptor, UT, playing an important role in the heart, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal gland, and central nervous system. In the vasculature, it acts as a potent endothelium-independent vasoconstrictor and endothelium-dependent vasodilator. In disease states, however, this constriction-dilation equilibrium is disrupted. There is an upregulation of the UII system in heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and kidney failure. The increase in UII release and UT expression suggest that UII system may be implicated in the pathology and pathogenesis of these diseases by causing an increase in acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) activity leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and foam cell infiltration, insulin resistance (DMII), as well as inflammation, high blood pressure, and plaque formation. Recently, UT antagonists such as SB-611812, palosuran, and most recently a piperazino-isoindolinone based antagonist have been developed in the hope of better understanding the UII system and treating its associated diseases.

  10. An overview of cytokines and cytokine antagonists as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Raymond P; Young, Howard A; Rosenberg, Amy S

    2009-12-01

    Cytokine-based therapies have the potential to provide novel treatments for cancer, autoimmune diseases, and many types of infectious disease. However, to date, the full clinical potential of cytokines as drugs has been limited by a number of factors. To discuss these limitations and explore ways to overcome them, the FDA partnered with the New York Academy of Sciences in March 2009 to host a two-day forum to discuss more effective ways to harness the clinical potential of cytokines and cytokine antagonists as therapeutic agents. The first day was focused primarily on the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents for treatment of human diseases. The second day focused largely on the use of cytokine antagonists as therapeutic agents for treatment of human diseases. This issue of the Annals includes more than a dozen papers that summarize much of the information that was presented during this very informative two-day conference.

  11. Quantitation of in vitro α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist binding capacity to biologic melanin using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaynes, Jeffrey S; Micic, Cedomir; Gaynes, Bruce I; Borgia, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods to allow evaluation of the binding characteristics for a series of α-1 antagonists to biologically-derived melanin. Fresh bovine globes were used to obtain iridal and choroid/retinal pigment epithelial (CRPE) derived melanin. Binding characteristics of chloroquine, tamsulosin and doxazosin were then evaluated in vitro using tandem mass spectroscopy. Tandem mass spectrometry-based assays were developed for three α-1 antagonists that provided linear assay ranges which spanned (minimally) 0.01-10 µg/mL, while exhibiting excellent inter-assay precision and accuracy. When applied to the evaluation of binding characteristics for iridal melanin, mean chloroquine and tamsulosin fractions were found to be 41.9 ± 14.2 pmoles mg(-1) and 25.34 ± 6.186 pmoles mg(-1), respectively. Mean iridal doxazosin binding was found to be 6.36 ± 2.19 pmoles mg(-1). Interestingly, mean levels of tamsulosin, but not doxazosin found bound to choroid/CRPE derived melanin approached that of chloroquine (27.91 µg/mL, 25.68 µg/mL and 5.94 µg/mL for chloroquine, tamsulosin and doxazosin, respectively). One way ANOVA for binding affinity for chloroquine, tamsulosin and doxazosin was statistically significant for both iridal and CRPE-derived melanin (p = 0.0012 and 0.0023), respectively. A Bonferroni post-hoc analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the amount of binding between tamsulosin, doxazosin and chloroquine to iridal but not CRPE derived melanin (p < 0.05). Tamsulosin appears to demonstrate melanin binding affinity which approaches chloroquine and exceeds doxazosin for both iridal and CRPE-derived bovine melanin.

  12. Systemic Mineralocorticoid Antagonists in the Treatment of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Eliott, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a challenging disease characterized by subretinal serous fluid accumulation. The complex pathogenesis is still not fully understood, but is thought to be multifactorial and involves exogenous and endogenous factors affecting the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium. The involvement of corticosteroids is undisputed, while the contribution of mineralocorticoid pathways is under investigation. This review addresses the proposed pathogenesis models and the evidence for systemic treatment of CSCR with mineralocorticoid antagonists.

  13. Optimization of amide-based EP3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther C Y; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Arcari, Joel T; Bahnck, Kevin; Coffey, Steven B; Derksen, David R; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Loria, Paula M; Sharma, Raman

    2016-06-01

    Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 3 (EP3) antagonism may treat a variety of symptoms from inflammation to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, most EP3 antagonists were large acidic ligands that mimic the substrate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This manuscript describes the optimization of a neutral small molecule amide series with improved lipophilic efficiency (LipE) also known as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) ((a) Nat. Rev. Drug Disc.2007, 6, 881; (b) Annu. Rep. Med. Chem.2010, 45, 380).

  14. Calmodulin antagonists promote TRA-8 therapy of resistant pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaiyu; Yong, Sun; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Tong; McDonald, Jay M; Chen, Yabing

    2015-09-22

    Pancreatic cancer is highly malignant with limited therapy and a poor prognosis. TRAIL-activating therapy has been promising, however, clinical trials have shown resistance and limited responses of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the effects of calmodulin(CaM) antagonists, trifluoperazine(TFP) and tamoxifen(TMX), on TRA-8-induced apoptosis and tumorigenesis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, and underlying mechanisms. TFP or TMX alone did not induce apoptosis of resistant PANC-1 cells, while they dose-dependently enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis. TMX treatment enhanced efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. Analysis of TRA-8-induced death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC) identified recruitment of survival signals, CaM/Src, into DR5-associated DISC, which was inhibited by TMX/TFP. In contrast, TMX/TFP increased TRA-8-induced DISC recruitment/activation of caspase-8. Consistently, caspase-8 inhibition blocked the effects of TFP/TMX on TRA-8-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TFP/TMX induced DR5 expression. With a series of deletion/point mutants, we identified CaM antagonist-responsive region in the putative Sp1-binding domain between -295 to -300 base pairs of DR5 gene. Altogether, we have demonstrated that CaM antagonists enhance TRA-8-induced apoptosis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells by increasing DR5 expression and enhancing recruitment of apoptotic signal while decreasing survival signals in DR5-associated DISC. Our studies support the use of these readily available CaM antagonists combined with TRAIL-activating agents for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  15. Calmodulin antagonists promote TRA-8 therapy of resistant pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kaiyu; Yong, Sun; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Tong; McDonald, Jay M; Chen, Yabing

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly malignant with limited therapy and a poor prognosis. TRAIL-activating therapy has been promising, however, clinical trials have shown resistance and limited responses of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the effects of calmodulin(CaM) antagonists, trifluoperazine(TFP) and tamoxifen(TMX), on TRA-8-induced apoptosis and tumorigenesis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, and underlying mechanisms. TFP or TMX alone did not induce apoptosis of resistant PANC-1 cells, while they dose-dependently enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis. TMX treatment enhanced efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. Analysis of TRA-8-induced death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC) identified recruitment of survival signals, CaM/Src, into DR5-associated DISC, which was inhibited by TMX/TFP. In contrast, TMX/TFP increased TRA-8-induced DISC recruitment/activation of caspase-8. Consistently, caspase-8 inhibition blocked the effects of TFP/TMX on TRA-8-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TFP/TMX induced DR5 expression. With a series of deletion/point mutants, we identified CaM antagonist-responsive region in the putative Sp1-binding domain between −295 to −300 base pairs of DR5 gene. Altogether, we have demonstrated that CaM antagonists enhance TRA-8-induced apoptosis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells by increasing DR5 expression and enhancing recruitment of apoptotic signal while decreasing survival signals in DR5-associated DISC. Our studies support the use of these readily available CaM antagonists combined with TRAIL-activating agents for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:26320171

  16. Exploration of a new series of PAR1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Planty, Bruno; Pujol, Chantal; Lamothe, Marie; Maraval, Catherine; Horn, Clemens; Le Grand, Bruno; Perez, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Two series of new PAR1 antagonists have been identified. The first incorporates a cinnamoylpiperidine motif and the second a cinnamoylpyridine pattern. The synthesis, biological activity and structure-activity relationship of these compounds are presented. In each series, one analog showed potent in vivo antithrombotic activity in a rat AV shunt model, with up to 53% inhibition at 1.25mpk iv for compound 30.

  17. Potent and orally efficacious benzothiazole amides as TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Besidski, Yevgeni; Brown, William; Bylund, Johan; Dabrowski, Michael; Dautrey, Sophie; Harter, Magali; Horoszok, Lucy; Hu, Yin; Johnson, Dean; Johnstone, Shawn; Jones, Paul; Leclerc, Sandrine; Kolmodin, Karin; Kers, Inger; Labarre, Maryse; Labrecque, Denis; Laird, Jennifer; Lundström, Therese; Martino, John; Maudet, Mickaël; Munro, Alexander; Nylöf, Martin; Penwell, Andrea; Rotticci, Didier; Slaitas, Andis; Sundgren-Andersson, Anna; Svensson, Mats; Terp, Gitte; Villanueva, Huascar; Walpole, Christopher; Zemribo, Ronald; Griffin, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    Benzothiazole amides were identified as TRPV1 antagonists from high throughput screening using recombinant human TRPV1 receptor and structure-activity relationships were explored to pinpoint key pharmacophore interactions. By increasing aqueous solubility, through the attachment of polar groups to the benzothiazole core, and enhancing metabolic stability, by blocking metabolic sites, the drug-like properties and pharmokinetic profiles of benzothiazole compounds were sufficiently optimized such that their therapeutic potential could be verified in rat pharmacological models of pain.

  18. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  19. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Belichenko, Pavel V; Faizi, Mehrdad; Jacobs, Lucia F; Htun, Khin; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Mobley, William C

    2012-07-04

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABA(B) receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABA(B) receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABA(B) receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABA(B) receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS.

  20. Brain-Penetrant Tetrahydronaphthalene Thromboxane A2-Prostanoid (TP) Receptor Antagonists as Prototype Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark pathological feature of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain is the presence of senile plaques, which comprise amyloid β (Aβ) peptides that are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The plaque-containing AD brain is thought to be under oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased lipid oxidation products that include isoprostane-F2αIII (iPF2αIII). IPF2αIII can bind to and activate the thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptor, and TP receptor activation causes increased Aβ production through enhancement of APP mRNA stability. Moreover, TP receptor antagonists have been shown to block iPF2αIII-induced increases of Aβ secretion. Thus, the TP receptor may be a potential drug target for AD therapy. However, here we show that existing TP receptor antagonists have poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, likely due to the presence of a carboxylic acid moiety that is believed to be important for receptor interaction, but which may hamper passive diffusion across the BBB. We now report selected analogues of a known tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonist, wherein the carboxylic acid moiety has been replaced by heterocyclic bioisosteres. These heterocyclic analogues retained relatively high affinity for the mouse and human TP receptors, and, unlike the parent carboxylic acid compound, several examples freely diffused across the BBB into the brain upon administration to mice. These results reveal that brain-penetrant tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonists can be developed by substituting the carboxylic acid moiety with a suitable nonacidic bioisostere. Compounds of this type hold promise as potential lead structures to develop drug candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:23173073

  1. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kleschevnikov, A.M.; Belichenko, P.V.; Faizi, M.; Jacobs, L.F.; Htun, K.; Shamloo, M.; Mobley, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABAB receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABAB receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABAB receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABAB receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS. PMID:22764230

  2. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  3. Antagonistic interaction networks among bacteria from a cold soil environment.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sathish; Manasa, Poorna; Buddhi, Sailaja; Singh, Shiv Mohan; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2011-11-01

    Microbial antagonism in an Arctic soil habitat was demonstrated by assessing the inhibitory interactions between bacterial isolates from the same location. Of 139 isolates obtained from five soil samples, 20 antagonists belonging to the genera, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium were identified. Inter-genus, inter-species and inter-strain antagonism was observed between the interacting members. The extent of antagonism was temperature dependent. In some cases, antagonism was enhanced at 4 °C but suppressed at 18 °C while in some the reverse phenomenon was observed. To interpret antagonism from an ecological perspective, the interacting members were delineated according to their positional roles in a theoretical antagonistic network. When only one antimicrobial producer (P) was present, all the other members permitted grouping into either sensitive (S) or resistant (R). Composite interactive types such as PSR, PS, PR or SR could be designated only when at least two producers were present. Mapping of all possible antagonistic interaction networks based on the individual positional roles of the interactive types illustrates the existence of complex and interconnected networks among microbial communities.

  4. Discovery of new muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists from Scopolia tangutica

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nana; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Jixia; Zhao, Jianqiang; He, Jian; Zhou, Han; Mei, Lijuan; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-01-01

    Scopolia tangutica (S. tangutica) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for antispasmodics, anesthesia, analgesia and sedation. Its pharmacological activities are mostly associated with the antagonistic activity at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) of several known alkaloids such as atropine and scopolamine. With our recent identification of four hydroxycinnamic acid amides from S. tangutica, we hypothesized that this plant may contain previously unidentified alkaloids that may also contribute to its in vivo effect. Herein, we used a bioassay-guided multi-dimension separation strategy to discover novel mAchR antagonists from S. tangutica. The core of this approach is to use label-free cell phenotypic assay to first identify active fractions, and then to guide purification of active ligands. Besides four tropanes and six cinnamic acid amides that have been previously isolated from S. tangutica, we recently identified two new tropanes, one new cinnamic acid amide, and nine other compounds. Six tropane compounds purified from S. tangutica for the first time were confirmed to be competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptor 3 (M3), including the two new ones 8 and 12 with IC50 values of 1.97 μM and 4.47 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the cinnamic acid amide 17 displayed 15-fold selectivity for M1 over M3 receptors. These findings will be useful in designing lead compounds for mAchRs and elucidating mechanisms of action of S. tangutica. PMID:28387362

  5. The complex roles of Wnt antagonists in RCC.

    PubMed

    Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2011-10-25

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all the genitourinary cancers, as it is generally refractory to current treatment regimens, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies against critical signaling pathways associated with RCC pathogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor and mammalian target of rapamycin, have shown limited efficacy so far. Thus, Wnt signaling, which is known to be intricately involved in the pathogenesis of RCC, has attracted much interest. Several Wnt signaling components have been examined in RCC, and, while studies suggest that Wnt signaling is constitutively active in RCC, the molecular mechanisms differ considerably from other human carcinomas. Increasing evidence indicates that secreted Wnt antagonists have important roles in RCC pathogenesis. Considering these vital roles, it has been postulated--and supported by experimental evidence--that the functional loss of Wnt antagonists, for example by promoter hypermethylation, can contribute to constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway, resulting in carcinogenesis through dysregulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, subsequent functional studies of these Wnt antagonists have demonstrated the inherent complexities underlying their role in RCC pathogenesis.

  6. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscarinic agonists and antagonists: effects on the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Donna J; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2012-01-01

    Voiding of the bladder is the result of a parasympathetic muscarinic receptor activation of the detrusor smooth muscle. However, the maintenance of continence and a normal bladder micturition cycle involves a complex interaction of cholinergic, adrenergic, nitrergic and peptidergic systems that is currently little understood. The cholinergic component of bladder control involves two systems, acetylcholine (ACh) released from parasympathetic nerves and ACh from non-neuronal cells within the urothelium. The actions of ACh on the bladder depend on the presence of muscarinic receptors that are located on the detrusor smooth muscle, where they cause direct (M₃) and indirect (M₂) contraction; pre-junctional nerve terminals where they increase (M₁) or decrease (M₄) the release of ACh and noradrenaline (NA); sensory nerves where they influence afferent nerve activity; umbrella cells in the urothelium where they stimulate the release of ATP and NO; suburothelial interstitial cells with unknown function; and finally, other unidentified sites in the urothelium from where prostaglandins and inhibitory/relaxatory factors are released. Thus, the actions of muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists on the bladder may be very complex even when considering only local muscarinic actions. Clinically, muscarinic antagonists remain the mainstay of treatment for the overactive bladder (OAB), while muscarinic agonists have been used to treat hypoactive bladder. The antagonists are effective in treating OAB, but their precise mechanisms and sites of action (detrusor, urothelium, and nerves) have yet to be established. Potentially more selective agents may be developed when the cholinergic systems within the bladder are more fully understood.

  8. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:26888328

  9. Twisted Gastrulation, a BMP Antagonist, Exacerbates Podocyte Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Sachiko; Nakamura, Jin; Asada, Misako; Takase, Masayuki; Matsusaka, Taiji; Iguchi, Taku; Yamada, Ryo; Tanaka, Mari; Higashi, Atsuko Y.; Okuda, Tomohiko; Asada, Nariaki; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Graf, Daniel; Muso, Eri; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Pastan, Ira; Economides, Aris N.; Yanagita, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1), a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs) and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury. PMID:24586548

  10. Effects of two antagonistic ecosystem engineers on infaunal diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ortiz, V.; Alcazar, P.; Vergara, J. J.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. L.; Brun, F. G.

    2014-02-01

    The role of ecosystem engineers has been highlighted in recent decades because of their importance for ecosystem functioning, although the interaction between different antagonistic engineer species and their effects on ecosystems have been so far poorly investigated. Coastal areas are good natural laboratories to explore such interactions, since they are often inhabited by macrophyte beds (autogenic engineers) and bioturbator species (allogenic engineers) with antagonistic effects on ecosystem properties and processes (e.g. species diversity, nutrient fluxes, etc.). The main goal of this study was to determine how coexisting antagonistic ecosystem engineers could influence benthic diversity and available resources in soft-bottom areas. To achieve this goal, a two-month experiment was carried out in situ by introducing artificial seagrass patches in a soft-bottom area inhabited by the fiddler crab Uca tangeri. Both the experimental exclusion of burrows as well as the presence of artificial seagrass-like structures (mimics) resulted in higher macrobenthic density and species richness in the benthic community. Resource availability for organisms (sediment chlorophyll a and epiphytes) was also favoured by the presence of mimics. Therefore, the higher structural complexity (above- and below-ground) associated with seagrass mimics promoted positive effects for infauna such as creation of a new habitat ready to colonize, reduction of the crab burrowing activity and the enhancement of resource availability, which resulted in increased diversity in the benthic community.

  11. Investigational dopamine antagonists for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jun, Tae-Youn; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating illness with a chronic impact on social function and daily living. Although various antipsychotics are available, there are still many challenges and unmet needs. Thus, many compounds with diverse mechanisms have been investigated, but all approved antipsychotics still require interactions with dopamine D2 receptors. Areas covered: We searched for investigational drugs using the key words 'dopamine' and 'schizophrenia' in American and European clinical trial registers (clinicaltrials.gov; clinicaltrialsregister.eu). Published articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Library. Expert opinion: The prospect of developing a dopamine antagonist is hopeful. Brexpiprazole and cariprazine, which were agents listed as 'investigational dopamine antagonists,' just received FDA approval. Novel agents such as BL 1020, ITI-007, and JNJ-37822681 have solid published data available, and agents such as L-THP, Lu AF35700, S33138, and SB-773812 are under vigorous investigation. However, the expected benefits of the newly developed antagonists may not be great because they offer little enhanced efficacy for negative symptoms, cognition and functional outcomes.

  12. Synergistic and antagonistic drug combinations depend on network topology.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ning; Ma, Wenzhe; Pei, Jianfeng; Ouyang, Qi; Tang, Chao; Lai, Luhua

    2014-01-01

    Drug combinations may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects. Rational design of synergistic drug combinations remains a challenge despite active experimental and computational efforts. Because drugs manifest their action via their targets, the effects of drug combinations should depend on the interaction of their targets in a network manner. We therefore modeled the effects of drug combinations along with their targets interacting in a network, trying to elucidate the relationships between the network topology involving drug targets and drug combination effects. We used three-node enzymatic networks with various topologies and parameters to study two-drug combinations. These networks can be simplifications of more complex networks involving drug targets, or closely connected target networks themselves. We found that the effects of most of the combinations were not sensitive to parameter variation, indicating that drug combinational effects largely depend on network topology. We then identified and analyzed consistent synergistic or antagonistic drug combination motifs. Synergistic motifs encompass a diverse range of patterns, including both serial and parallel combinations, while antagonistic combinations are relatively less common and homogenous, mostly composed of a positive feedback loop and a downstream link. Overall our study indicated that designing novel synergistic drug combinations based on network topology could be promising, and the motifs we identified could be a useful catalog for rational drug combination design in enzymatic systems.

  13. [5-HT3 receptor antagonist als analgetics in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Fiebich, B L; Stratz, T

    2006-10-01

    Various rheumatic diseases like fibromyalgia, systemic inflammatory rheumatic disorders and localized diseases, such as arthritides and activated arthroses, tendinopathies and periarthropathies, as well as trigger points can be improved considerably by treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron. Particularly in the latter group of diseases, local injections have done surprisingly rapid analgesic action. This effect matches that of local anesthetics, but lasts considerably longer and is comparable to local injections of local anesthetics combined with corticosteroids. The action of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can be attributed to an antinociceptive effect that occurs at the same time as an antiphlogistic and probably also an immunosuppressive effect. Whereas an inhibited release of substance P from the nociceptors, and possibly some other neurokins as well, seems to be the most likely explanation for the antinociceptive action, the antiphlogistic effect is primarily due to an inhibited formation of various different phlogistic substances; in some conditions, like systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, for example, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may exert an immunosuppressive effect in addition to this.

  14. Newer calcium channel antagonists and the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D F

    1999-07-01

    Calcium channel antagonists have become popular medications for the management of hypertension. These agents belong to the diphenylalkylamine, benzothiazepine, dihydropyridine, or tetralol chemical classes. Although the medications share a common pharmacological mechanism in reducing peripheral vascular resistance, clinical differences between the sub-classes can be linked to structural profiles. This heterogeneity is manifested by differences in vascular selectivity, effects on cardiac conduction and adverse events. The lack of differentiation between calcium channel antagonists in clinical trials has contributed to uncertainty associated with their impact on morbidity and mortality. Data from more recent studies in specific patient populations underscores the importance of investigating these antihypertensives as individual agents. A proposed therapeutic classification system suggests that newer agents should share the slow onset and long-acting antihypertensive effect of amlodipine. Additionally, a favourable trough-to-peak ratio has been recommended as an objective measurement of efficacy. The newer drugs, barnidipine and lacidipine, have a therapeutic profile similar to amlodipine, but trough-to-peak ratios are not substantially greater than the recommended minimum of 0.50. Aranidipine, cilnidipine and efonidipine have unique pharmacological properties that distinguish them from traditional dihydropyridines. Although clinical significance is unconfirmed, these newer options may be beneficial for patients with co-morbid conditions that preclude use of older antagonists.

  15. Side-effects of mixed agonist-antagonist analgesics used in sequential anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Devaux, C.; Schoepffler, P.; Gauthier-Lafaye, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    1 Mixed agonist-antagonist analgesics have analgesic action but also possess a range of side-effects. 2 Narcotic antagonists do not reverse the non-specific effects of opiates. 3 Under certain circumstances the effects of agonists and mixed agonist-antagonists can be additive. 4 Chronic dosage of mixed agonist-antagonists leads to a lower level of dependence than that observed with the standard narcotics. 5 Mixed agonist-antagonists may not antagonize the respiratory effects of narcotics and may result in potentiation of such depression. PMID:465294

  16. The effects of histamine H3-receptor antagonists on amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, H; Ishizawa, K; Fukunaga, M; Fujii, Y; Kamei, C

    1998-07-15

    The effects of histamine H3-receptor antagonists, thioperamide, and clobenpropit on amygdaloid kindled seizures were investigated in rats. Both intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of H3-antagonists resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. An inhibition induced by thioperamide was antagonized by an H3-agonist [(R)-alpha-methylhistamine] and H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine). On the other hand, an H2-antagonist (cimetidine and ranitidine) caused no antagonistic effect. Metoprine, an inhibitor of N-methyltransferase was also effective in inhibiting amygdaloid kindled seizure, and this effect was augmented by thioperamide treatment.

  17. β-Adrenergic receptor antagonists inhibit vasculogenesis of embryonic stem cells by downregulation of nitric oxide generation and interference with VEGF signalling.

    PubMed

    Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Saliu, Fatjon; Bekhite, Mohamed M; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-01

    The β-adrenoceptor antagonist Propranolol has been successfully used to treat infantile hemangioma. However, its mechanism of action is so far unknown. The hypothesis of this research was that β-adrenoceptor antagonists may interfere with endothelial cell differentiation of stem cells. Specifically, the effects of the non-specific β-adrenergic receptor (β-adrenoceptor) antagonist Propranolol, the β1-adrenoceptor-specific antagonist Atenolol and the β2-adrenoceptor-specific antagonist ICI118,551 on vasculogenesis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were investigated. All three β-blockers dose-dependently downregulated formation of capillary structures in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies and decreased the expression of the vascular cell markers CD31 and VE-cadherin. Furthermore, β-blockers downregulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and phospho VEGF-R2, as well as neuropilin 1 (NRP1) and plexin-B1 which are essential modulators of embryonic angiogenesis with additional roles in vessel remodelling and arteriogenesis. Under conditions of β-adrenoceptor inhibition, the endogenous generation of nitric oxide (NO) as well as the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was decreased in embryoid bodies, whereas an increase in NO generation was observed with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP). Consequently, vasculogenesis of ES cells was restored upon treatment of differentiating ES cells with β-adrenoceptor antagonists in the presence of NO donor. In summary, our data suggest that β-blockers impair vasculogenesis of ES cells by interfering with NO generation which could be the explanation for their anti-angiogenic effects in infantile hemangioma.

  18. Can angiotensin receptor antagonists prevent restenosis after stent placement?

    PubMed

    Peters, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Restenosis rates after coronary stent implantation in complex lesions are between 30 and 50%. Neointimal hyperplasia promoted by complex interaction between cellular and acellular elements, such as cytokines and growth factors, is thought to be the primary process responsible for restenosis. The risk of in-stent restenosis is increased in patients with a history of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, in long lesions, in total occlusions, in patients with diabetes mellitus, in small vessels, in the proximal parts of the left anterior descending coronary artery and in cases of stent oversizing. In-stent restenosis represents a serious economic burden on society because treatment strategies include expensive approaches such as cutting-balloon angioplasty, rotational atherectomy and brachytherapy. A number of pharmacological agents, including ACE inhibitors, have been unsuccessful in preventing restenosis. Alternative procedures such as brachytherapy, radioactive stents and drug-eluting stents are under evaluation. Although sirolimus- or paclitaxel-eluting stents have been associated with very low restenosis rates over durations of 6 to 12 months, the long-term efficacy and tolerability of this approach is currently being investigated. Although ACE inhibitors have failed in reducing restenosis rates, the selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist valsartan has shown encouraging results in the single-center Valsartan for Prevention of Restenosis after Stenting of Type B2/C lesions trial (ValPREST). The ValPREST trial is the first randomized, placebo-controlled study to have evaluated the effect of an angiotensin receptor antagonist on in-stent restenosis in a moderate number of patients. Compared with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers exert additional effects on the pathophysiological processes which lead to restenosis. Angiotensin receptor antagonists may affect several mechanisms involved in neointimal

  19. Microbial Herd Protection Mediated by Antagonistic Interaction in Polymicrobial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Megan J. Q.; Liang, Xiaoye; Smart, Matt; Tang, Le; Moore, Richard; Ingalls, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In host and natural environments, microbes often exist in complex multispecies communities. The molecular mechanisms through which such communities develop and persist, despite significant antagonistic interactions between species, are not well understood. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon commonly employed by Gram-negative bacteria to inhibit neighboring species through the delivery of toxic effectors. It is well established that intraspecies protection is conferred by immunity proteins that neutralize effector toxicities. In contrast, the mechanisms for interspecies protection are not clear. Here we use two T6SS-active antagonistic bacterial species, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio cholerae, to demonstrate that interspecies protection is dependent on effectors. A. hydrophila and V. cholerae do not share conserved immunity genes but could coexist equally in a mixture. However, mutants lacking the T6SS or effectors were effectively eliminated by the competing wild-type strain. Time-lapse microscopic analyses showed that mutually lethal interactions drive the segregation of mixed species into distinct single-species clusters by eliminating interspersed single cells. Cluster formation provides herd protection by abolishing lethal interactions inside each cluster and restricting the interactions to the boundary. Using an agent-based modeling approach, we simulated the antagonistic interactions of two hypothetical species. The resulting simulations recapitulated our experimental observations. These results provide mechanistic insights regarding the general role of microbial weapons in determining the structures of complex multispecies communities. IMPORTANCE Investigating the warfare of microbes allows us to better understand the ecological relationships in complex microbial communities such as the human microbiota. Here we use the T6SS, a deadly bacterial weapon, as a model to demonstrate the importance of lethal interactions in

  20. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the