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Sample records for 8-week feeding trial

  1. An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-09-01

    Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

  2. Oral treatment of pressure ulcers with polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex): 8-week open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sakae, Kensaku; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) is a tablet commonly prescribed for gastric ulcers in Japan. Recently, we reported the effects of polaprezinc on pressure ulcer healing at 4-week follow-up. We aimed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of polaprezinc in 8-week treatment for chronic pressure ulcers. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcers for ≥ 8 weeks received 150 mg/day polaprezinc (containing 116 mg L-carnosine and 34 mg zinc) per os for a maximum of 8 weeks. We measured the severity of pressure ulcers weekly using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score and monitored blood biochemistry. Fourteen patients (nine men; 68.4 ± 11.8 years) were enrolled. Pressure ulcer stages were II (one patient; 7 %), III (nine; 64 %), and IV (four; 29 %). The PUSH score improved significantly from 8.1 [95 % CI, 6.0-10.3] at baseline to -1.4 [-4.0 to 1.1] after 8 weeks (P < 0.001). Differences from baseline were significant after 1 week (P < 0.05). The mean weekly improvement in PUSH score was 2.0. Eleven patients healed within 8 weeks and none dropped out. Serum zinc levels increased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas serum copper levels (P = 0.001) and copper/zinc ratios (P < 0.001) decreased significantly. In one patient, preexisting copper deficiency deteriorated. These preliminary data suggest that polaprezinc may be effective and well-tolerated in 8-week treatment of pressure ulcers and could be a candidate for their oral treatment. PMID:24691900

  3. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  4. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  5. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Ko-Hung; Huang, Hsin-Chia; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  6. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  7. Effects of 8 weeks of CPAP on lipid-based oxidative markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Sheila; Witting, Paul K; Hoyos, Camilla M; Maw, Aung M; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ronald R; Phillips, Craig L

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidaemia and increased oxidative stress have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea, and both may be related to the development of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown in a randomized crossover study in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea that therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 8 weeks improved postprandial triglycerides and total cholesterol when compared with sham continuous positive airway pressure. From this study we have now compared the effect of 8 weeks of therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure on oxidative lipid damage and plasma lipophilic antioxidant levels. Unesterified cholesterol, esterified unsaturated fatty acids (cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2; and cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4; the major unsaturated and oxidizable lipids in low-density lipoproteins), their corresponding oxidized products [cholesteryl ester-derived lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxides (CE-O(O)H)] and antioxidant vitamin E were assessed at 20:30 hours before sleep, and at 06:00 and 08:30 hours after sleep. Amongst the 29 patients completing the study, three had incomplete or missing [CE-O(O)H] data. The mean apnea -hypopnoea index, age and body mass index were 38 per hour, 49 years and 32 kg m(-2) , respectively. No differences in lipid-based oxidative markers or lipophilic antioxidant levels were observed between the continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure arms at any of the three time-points [unesterified cholesterol 0.01 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2 0.05 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4 0.02 mm, P = 0.05; CE-O(O)H 2.5 nm, P > 0.05; and lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E 0.03 μm, P > 0.05]. In this study, accumulating CE-O(O)H, a marker of lipid oxidation, does not appear to play a role in oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25533591

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Extended-Release Quetiapine Fumarate in Youth with Bipolar Depression: An 8 Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanjeev; Earley, Willie R; Liu, Sherry; DelBello, Melissa P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of adolescent schizophrenia and pediatric bipolar mania. Large, placebo-controlled studies of interventions in pediatric bipolar depression are lacking. The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine extended-release (XR) in patients 10–17 years of age, with acute bipolar depression. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated quetiapine XR (dose range, 150–300 mg/day) in pediatric outpatients with an American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (current or most recent episode depressed) treated for up to 8 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00811473). The primary study outcome was mean change in Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R) total score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included CDRS-R-based response and remission rates. Results: Of 193 patients randomized to treatment, 144 patients completed the study (75.3% of quetiapine XR group [n=70]; 74.0% of placebo group [n=74]). Least squares mean changes in CDRS-R total score at week 8 were: −29.6 (SE, 1.65) with quetiapine XR and −27.3 (SE, 1.60) with placebo, a between-treatment group difference of −2.29 (SE, 1.99; 95% CI, −6.22, 1.65; p=0.25; mixed-model for repeated measures analysis). Rates of response and remission did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The safety profile of quetiapine XR was broadly consistent with the profile reported previously in adult studies of quetiapine XR and pediatric studies of quetiapine immediate-release (IR). Potentially clinically significant elevations in clinical chemistry values included triglycerides (9.3%, quetiapine XR; 1.4%, placebo group) and thyroid stimulating hormone (4.7%, quetiapine XR; 0%, placebo group). An adverse event

  9. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  10. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  11. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry. PMID:26194655

  12. Diurnal Glycemic Patterns during an 8-Week Open-Label Proof-of-Concept Trial of Empagliflozin in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin A.; Partridge, Helen; Tschirhart, Holly; Zinman, Bernard; Mazze, Roger; Fagan, Nora; Kaspers, Stefan; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; Broedl, Uli C.; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently reported improved glycemic control with reduced insulin dose in subjects with type 1 diabetes treated with the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin. To further characterize the effects, we analyzed diurnal glycemic patterns by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods In an 8-week single-arm open-label pilot study of empagliflozin, we compared ambulatory glucose profiles produced from CGM data during 2-week intervals in a placebo run-in baseline period, end-of-treatment, and post-treatment. Change in glycemic exposure was evaluated by area under the median curve according to time of day (AUCTOTAL 12:00am-11:55pm; AUCDAY 7:05am-10:55pm, AUCNIGHT 11:00pm-7:00am), as well as glycemic variability, glycemic stability and time-in-target (≥70 to ≤140mg/dL). Results The 40 patients (26 on insulin pump) were aged 24±5 years and BMI 24.5±3.2 kg/m2. Consistent with the observed HbA1c decrease (8.0±0.9% to 7.6±0.9%, p<0.0001), normalized AUCTOTAL CGM decreased from 153.7±25.4 to 149.0±30.2mg/dL∙h at end-of-treatment (p = 0.31), and significantly increased post-treatment (164.1±29.5mg/dL∙h, p = 0.02). The numerical decrease in normalized AUCNIGHT (152.0±36.6 to 141.9±34.4mg/dL∙h, p = 0.13) exceeded AUCDAY (154.5±24.5 to 152.6±30.4mg/dL∙h, p = 0.65). Trends toward lower glycemic variability (83.1±18.9 to 75.6±28.6mg/dL, p = 0.06) and little change in glycemic stability (10.8±3.6 to 10.3±4.5mg/dL/h, p = 0.51) were observed. When empagliflozin was discontinued, these worsened relative to baseline (89.3±19.3mg/dL, p = 0.04 and 11.8±3.7mg/dL/hr, p = 0.08). Time-in-target numerically increased (40.2±11.9 to 43.1±13.5%, p = 0.69) at end-of-treatment but reversed post-treatment. Findings were similar on stratification of pump and MDI subjects. Conclusions We observed that empagliflozin was associated with patterns of improved nighttime glycemia more prominent than daytime. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials

  13. Effect of levan supplement in orange juice on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profile of healthy subjects: results of an 8-week clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Akiva, Ira; Rokhkind, Evgenia; Naor, Etty; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nachum

    2012-07-01

    Levan is a commonly used dietary fiber of the fructans group. Its impact on health remains undetermined. This double blind controlled study aimed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks' daily consumption of 500 mL of natural orange juice enriched with 11.25 g of levan compared to the same amount of natural orange juice without levan on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profiles of 48 healthy volunteers. The statistical analyses compared between- and within-group findings at baseline, 4 weeks and study closure. The compared parameters were: weight, blood pressure, blood laboratory tests, daily number of defecations, scores of stool consistency, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, dyspepsia, vomiting and heartburn. Despite a higher fiber level recorded in the study group, there was no significant difference in the effect of the two kinds of juices on the studied parameters. Both juices decreased systolic and diastolic pressures, increased sodium level (within normal range), stool number, and bloating scores, and decreased gas scores. In conclusion, levan itself had no effect on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms or metabolic profile of healthy volunteers. Its possible effect on obese, hypertensive or hyperlipidemic patients should be investigated in further studies. PMID:22852055

  14. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747. PMID:27563670

  15. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Qin, Liqiang; Luo, Li; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747. PMID:27563670

  16. An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of 3 Vilazodone Dose-Initiation Strategies Following Switch From SSRIs and SNRIs in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rele, Shilpa; Millet, Robert; Kim, Sungman; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Seonghwan; Masand, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vilazodone, a selective and potent 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, has been approved for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. The primary objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of switching to 3 different doses of vilazodone from an equivalent dose range of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in adult subjects with MDD. Method: This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 3-arm trial to compare vilazodone 10 mg/d, 20 mg/d, and 40 mg/d as starting doses. Data were collected from December 2012 to December 2013. There was no washout phase, prior medications were stopped at the baseline visit, and vilazodone was started the next day in adults with MDD (DSM-IV criteria). The 10-mg/d and 20-mg/d dose was increased to 40 mg/d by week 3 and week 1, respectively, and the 40-mg/d initiation dose continued unchanged. The primary efficacy measure was change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score between the 3 dose groups. The secondary efficacy measures were changes in Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S), CGI-Improvement (CGI-I), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) scores. Safety measures were obtained by spontaneously reported adverse events, vital signs recording, and laboratory tests. Multivariate tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Seventy subjects were randomized, and 60 subjects completed the study (n = 20 in each group). Overall, there was a significant reduction in MADRS score from baseline (26.08 ± 1.1) to week 8 (9.86 ± 1.2) in the entire sample (P < .001). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in CGI-S (P < .001), CGI-I (P < .001) and HDRS (P < .001) scores from baseline to the end of the trial. There were no significant differences between the 3 vilazodone dose-initiation groups in changes in MADRS scores (P = .95) or changes in CGI

  17. CA19-9 decrease at 8 weeks as a predictor of overall survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, E. G.; Von Hoff, D. D.; Reni, M.; Arena, F. P.; Infante, J. R.; Bathini, V. G.; Wood, T. E.; Mainwaring, P. N.; Muldoon, R. T.; Clingan, P. R.; Kunzmann, V.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Tabernero, J.; Goldstein, D.; McGovern, D.; Lu, B.; Ko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A phase I/II study and subsequent phase III study (MPACT) reported significant correlations between CA19-9 decreases and prolonged overall survival (OS) with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC). CA19-9 changes at week 8 and potential associations with efficacy were investigated as part of an exploratory analysis in the MPACT trial. Patients and methods Untreated patients with MPC (N = 861) received nab-P + Gem or Gem alone. CA19-9 was evaluated at baseline and every 8 weeks. Results Patients with baseline and week-8 CA19-9 measurements were analyzed (nab-P + Gem: 252; Gem: 202). In an analysis pooling the treatments, patients with any CA19-9 decline (80%) versus those without (20%) had improved OS (median 11.1 versus 8.0 months; P = 0.005). In the nab-P + Gem arm, patients with (n = 206) versus without (n = 46) any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) of 40% versus 13%, and a median OS of 13.2 versus 8.3 months (P = 0.001), respectively. In the Gem-alone arm, patients with (n = 159) versus without (n = 43) CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed ORR of 15% versus 5%, and a median OS of 9.4 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.404), respectively. In the nab-P + Gem and Gem-alone arms, by week 8, 16% (40/252) and 6% (13/202) of patients, respectively, had an unconfirmed radiologic response (median OS 13.7 and 14.7 months, respectively), and 79% and 84% of patients, respectively, had stable disease (SD) (median OS 11.1 and 9 months, respectively). Patients with SD and any CA19-9 decrease (158/199 and 133/170) had a median OS of 13.2 and 9.4 months, respectively. Conclusion This analysis demonstrated that, in patients with MPC, any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 can be an early marker for chemotherapy efficacy, including in those patients with SD. CA19-9 decrease identified more patients with survival benefit than radiologic response by week 8. PMID:26802160

  18. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool. PMID:26864127

  19. A new desensitizing dentifrice--an 8-week clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Sowinski, J A; Battista, G W; Petrone, M E; Chaknis, P; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    2000-01-01

    An 8-week, double-blind, three-way clinical trial compared the dentinal hypersensitivity-reducing effectiveness of a new dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate and 0.454% stannous fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength Toothpaste, Colgate-Palmolive Co.) with a commercially available desensitizing dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate and 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Sensodyne Fresh Mint Toothpaste, Block Drug Company, Inc.) and a nondesensitizing dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Winterfresh Gel, Colgate-Palmolive Co.). One hundred nine subjects were stratified into three balanced groups according to gender, age, mean baseline tactile (Yeaple Probe), and thermal (air blast) scores. The test products were randomly assigned to each group with instructions to brush twice daily. Oral examinations with tactile and thermal assessments were repeated after 4 and 8 weeks. The new dentifrice group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in tactile and thermal sensitivity over the two control groups. PMID:11908355

  20. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  1. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  2. ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

  3. Complementary feeding: a Global Network cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding are major factors contributing to excess morbidity and mortality in young children in low resource settings. Animal source foods in particular are cited as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements. The efficacy of the recommendation for regular meat consumption, however, has not been systematically evaluated. Methods/Design A cluster randomized efficacy trial was designed to test the hypothesis that 12 months of daily intake of beef added as a complementary food would result in greater linear growth velocity than a micronutrient fortified equi-caloric rice-soy cereal supplement. The study is being conducted in 4 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research located in Guatemala, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia in communities with toddler stunting rates of at least 20%. Five clusters per country were randomized to each of the food arms, with 30 infants in each cluster. The daily meat or cereal supplement was delivered to the home by community coordinators, starting when the infants were 6 months of age and continuing through 18 months. All participating mothers received nutrition education messages to enhance complementary feeding practices delivered by study coordinators and through posters at the local health center. Outcome measures, obtained at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months by a separate assessment team, included anthropometry; dietary variety and diversity scores; biomarkers of iron, zinc and Vitamin B12 status (18 months); neurocognitive development (12 and 18 months); and incidence of infectious morbidity throughout the trial. The trial was supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee provided oversight for the safety and conduct of the trial. Discussion Findings from this trial will test the efficacy of daily intake of meat commencing at age 6 months and, if beneficial, will provide a strong rationale

  4. The effects of 8-week balance training or weight training

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Roberto, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of participating in an 8-week physical training (ie: balance or weight training) on psychosocial outcomes for independently living healthy older adults. Eighteen older adults (65 years old or older) voluntarily participated for this study. Participants were randomly and evenly distributed in 3 different groups such as balance, weight, or control group; 6 participants each. Fear of falling and social activity levels were statistically tested by evaluating questionnaires validated in previous studies. Psychological factors improved in all groups after 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Social interaction level did not improve in any of the three groups, although all participants exhibited improvements in being physically independent (P < 0.05). Results suggested that being physically active as well as being socially active could result in being less fearful of falls, more confident of leaving residency, being more independent, and being more active. PMID:21394234

  5. Bioprocessing papaya processing waste for potential aquaculture feed supplement--economic and nutrient analysis with shrimp feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, H Y; Yang, P Y; Dominy, W G; Lee, C S

    2010-10-01

    Papaya processing waste (PPW), a major fruit processing waste in the Hawaii islands, served as substrate for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. The fermented PPW products containing nutrients of 45% crude protein and various fat, fiber, lignin, cellulose, and minerals were advantages to nutrients of yeast alone. Three experimental diets controlled at 35% protein formulation containing different levels of inclusion of PPW products and a commercial control diet were fed to shrimps for 8 weeks. The 50% inclusion of PPW diets were comparable to commercial feed in weight, growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate. Such bioprocess treatment system would be economically feasible with the control of annual cost and increase of the amount of PPW treated. The selling price of PPW products and annual operation and maintenance cost were the most influential factors to additional profits. This study presented a promising alternative for environmental-friendly treatment of organic wastes as well as the sustainability of local agriculture and aquaculture industries. PMID:20541398

  6. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  7. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  8. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square…

  9. Ondansetron or placebo in the augmentation of fluvoxamine response over 8 weeks in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Zarei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed M R; Taghvaei, Rheleh; Maleki, Haleh; Tabrizi, Mina; Fallah, Jalil; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six men and women, aged 18-60 years, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21 were recruited into the study. The patients randomly received either ondansetron (8 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. All patients received fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by 200 mg/day for the rest of the trial. The patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS and the adverse event checklists at baseline, and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth week. Forty-four patients completed the study. The Y-BOCS total score as well as the Y-BOCS obsession subscale score and compulsion subscale score showed significantly greater reduction in the ondansetron group than in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. In this 8-week double-blind randomized-controlled trial, ondansetron showed significant beneficial effect as an augmentative agent with fluvoxamine in patients with moderate to severe OCD and it was generally well tolerated. PMID:24850229

  10. A field trial of a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Feleke, Teshome; Sadler, Kate; Collins, Steve

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes in humanitarian emergencies. METHODS: The trial survey used a stratified design with strata that were defined using the centric systematic area sample method. Thirty 100 km2 quadrats were sampled. The communities located closest to the centre of each quadrat were sampled using a case-finding approach. FINDINGS: The method proved simple and rapid to implement and allowed overall and per-quadrat coverage to be estimated. Overall coverage was 20.0% (95% confidence intervals, 13.8-26.3%). Per-quadrat coverage ranged from zero (in nine quadrats) to 50% (in one quadrat). Coverage was highest in the quadrats closest to therapeutic feeding centres and in quadrats containing major roads leading to the towns in which therapeutic feeding centres were located. CONCLUSION: The method should be used, in preference to WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)-derived survey methods, for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes. Its use should also be considered when evaluating the coverage of other selective entry programmes or when coverage is likely to be spatially inhomogeneous. PMID:15682245

  11. Does choice of estimators influence conclusions from true metabolizable energy feeding trials?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.; Webb, K.E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    True metabolizable energy (TME) is a measure of avian dietary quality that accounts for metabolic fecal and endogenous urinary energy losses (EL) of non-dietary origin. The TME is calculated using a bird fed the test diet and an estimate of EL derived from another bird (Paired Bird Correction), the same bird (Self Correction), or several other birds (Group Mean Correction). We evaluated precision of these estimators by using each to calculate TME of three seed diets in blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The TME varied by <2% among estimators for all three diets, and Self Correction produced the least variable TMEs for each. The TME did not differ between estimators in nine paired comparisons within diets, but variation between estimators within individual birds was sufficient to be of practical consequence. Although differences in precision among methods were slight, Self Correction required the lowest sample size to achieve a given precision. Feeding trial methods that minimize variation among individuals have several desirable properties, including higher precision of TME estimates and more rigorous experimental control. Consequently, we believe that Self Correction is most likely to accurately represent nutritional value of food items and should be considered the standard method for TME feeding trials. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  12. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  13. Enteral feeding as sole treatment for Crohn's disease: controlled trial of whole protein v amino acid based feed and a case study of dietary challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Raouf, A H; Hildrey, V; Daniel, J; Walker, R J; Krasner, N; Elias, E; Rhodes, J M

    1991-01-01

    A controlled trial was performed to compare enteral feeding with either an amino acid based feed or a whole protein feed as sole treatment for active Crohn's disease. Twenty four patients were studied (nine with ileal, 11 with ileocolonic, and four with colonic disease). Both feeds proved effective; nine of 13 patients randomised to receive the amino acid based feed were in clinical remission within three weeks as defined by a simple activity index compared with eight of 11 treated with the whole protein feed. Patients in clinical remission were then crossed over onto the other feed. None of the six patients who were changed to the whole protein feed relapsed over the subsequent three week period compared with three of seven patients who were changed to the amino acid based feed. In responders the median serum C reactive protein concentration fell from 21 mg/l (range 9-82) on entry to 6 mg/l (range 3-19) at six weeks. Seven patients relapsed within eight months of starting solid food (mean 3.7 months), while nine were still in remission (follow up period 3-9 months, median six months). Detailed studies of staged reintroduction of food and permitted food additives were carried out over a four year period in a patient with extensive stricturing small bowel Crohn's disease who had been brought into remission by open treatment with enteral feeding. Carrageenan, other permitted emulsifiers, bread, meat, potatoes, oranges, refined sugar, dairy produce, flour, and rice were all reintroduced without any objective ill effect, but green vegetables provoked a clinical and biochemical relapse within one week of introduction. Remission was rapidly achieved by switching back to the enteral feed but reintroduction of the low residue diet that had been previously tolerated produced a brisk relapse. Clinical and biochemical remission was again achieved by a return to the enteral feed but relapse again occurred with reintroduction of the low residue diet. These studies confirm the

  14. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial): a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60%) of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100%) of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998 PMID:23057605

  15. Fitness Changes After an 8-Week Fitness Coaching Program at a Regional Youth Detention Facility.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, John; Kukay, Jake

    2016-01-01

    A Surgeon General's report states that there is a favorable relationship between exercise and chronic disease. Research suggests that exercise programs for elderly inmates may have a positive effect on the number of infirmary visits, which in turn may have a long-term effect on inmate health care costs. This exploratory descriptive double case study sought to add to the minimal information in peer-reviewed research journals by examining the effects of fitness coaching on two juveniles at a youth detention facility in Southwest Montana. The results showed that both participants made fitness improvements following the 8-week program and both perceived positive effects on self-concept and overall sense of well-being from participating in this program. PMID:26672121

  16. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  17. Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Iain M; Hartwell, Matthew

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive performance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed (CS) and driving distance (DD) before and after an 8-week training program. The control group (n = 5) continued their normal training, while the experimental group (n = 6) performed 2 sessions per week of weight training and plyometrics. Controls showed no significant (p > or = 0.05) changes, while experimental subjects showed a significant increase (p < or = 0.05) in CS and DD. The changes in golf drive performance were attributed to an increase in muscular force and an improvement in the sequential acceleration of body parts contributing to a greater final velocity being applied to the ball. It was concluded that specific combined weights and plyometrics training can help increase CS and DD in club golfers. PMID:14971982

  18. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  19. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. PMID:26602298

  20. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V.; Malaba, Thokozile R.; Majo, Florence D.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7–12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. PMID:26602298

  1. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  2. Medial orbital gyrus modulation during spatial perspective changes: Pre- vs. post-8 weeks mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation exercises the ability to shift to an "observer perspective". That means learning to observe internally and externally arising stimulations in a detached perspective. Both before and after attending a 8-weeks mindfulness training (MT) participants underwent an fMRI experiment (serving as their own internal control) and solved a own-body mental transformation task, which is used to investigate embodiment and perspective taking (and an non-bodily mental transformation task as control). We found a stimulus×time-points interaction: the own-body mental transformation task (vs. non-bodily) in the post (vs. pre-MT) significantly increased activations in the medial orbital gyrus. The signal change in the right medial orbital gyrus significantly correlated with changes in a self-maturity personality scale. A brief MT caused increased activation in areas involved in self related processing and person perspective changes, together with an increase in self-maturity, consistently with the aim of mindfulness meditation that is exercising change in self perspective. PMID:26821244

  3. Detection of surreptitious administration of analog insulin to an 8-week-old infant.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca P; Hollander, Abby S; Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2010-05-01

    An 8-week-old infant presented to the emergency department with lethargy, tachycardia, and a blood glucose concentration of 1.8 mmol/L. After admission, hypoglycemia recurred on 3 additional occasions. Initial urinalysis results were negative for ketones, and the results of additional laboratory tests did not support the diagnosis of cortisol or growth hormone deficiency, oral hypoglycemic ingestion, or an inborn error of metabolism. Difficulty restoring and maintaining glucose concentrations along with a transient response to glucagon during 1 hypoglycemic episode suggested hyperinsulinism. In 1 hypoglycemic episode, elevated insulin and low C-peptide concentrations suggested exogenous insulin administration, but 2 subsequent blood samples obtained during hypoglycemia contained appropriately decreased concentrations of insulin. The insulin immunoassay initially used in this case (Roche ElecSys/cobas [Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN]) was insensitive to insulin analogs. Two additional immunoassays, 1 with intermediate (Immulite [Siemens, Deerfield, IL]) and 1 with broad (radioimmunoassay [Millipore, Inc, Billerica, MA]) reactivity to insulin analogs were used to characterize insulin in each of the critical blood samples. Samples obtained during hypoglycemia displayed a graded reactivity similar to that observed in type 1 diabetic patients prescribed insulin analogs, whereas a sample obtained from the patient and a control subject during euglycemia showed equal reactivity among the 3 assays. These data suggested administration of insulin analog to the child, and further characterization of insulin by using tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of Humalog. The child was subsequently placed in foster care with no further recurrence of hypoglycemia. PMID:20385635

  4. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention. PMID:26332902

  5. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  6. Veterinary pharmaceuticals and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates in poultry litter from commercial farms and controlled feeding trials.

    PubMed

    Furtula, V; Farrell, E G; Diarrassouba, F; Rempel, H; Pritchard, J; Diarra, M S

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly used in poultry farming to prevent and treat microbial infections as well as to increase feed efficiency, but their use has created public and environmental health concerns. Poultry litter contains antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria; when applied as fertilizer, the level and effects of these pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the environment are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate poultry litter for veterinary pharmaceuticals and resistance patterns of Escherichia coli. Litter samples were collected from controlled feeding trials and from commercial farms. Feed additives bacitracin, chlortetracycline, monensin, narasin, nicarbazin, penicillin, salinomycin, and virginiamycin, which were present in the feed on commercial farms and added to the feed in the controlled trials, were extracted in methanol and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Sixty-nine E. coli were isolated and identified by API 20E. The susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics was determined using Avian plates and the Sensititer automated system. This study confirmed the presence of antimicrobial residues in broiler litter from controlled environments as well as commercial farms, ranging from 0.07 to 66 mg/L depending on the compound. Concentrations of individual residues were higher in litter from controlled feeding trials than those from commercial farms. All E. coli isolates from commercial farms were multiresistant to at least 7 antibiotics. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftiofur), tetracyclines, and sulfonamides was the most prevalent. This study concluded that broiler litter is a source of antimicrobial residues and represents a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli. PMID:20008817

  7. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita; Cuthbertson, David; Sorkio, Susa; Hyytinen, Mila; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Berseth, Carol; Salonen, Marja; Taback, Shayne; Franciscus, Margaret; González-Frutos, Teba; Korhonen, Tuuli E; Lawson, Margaret L; Becker, Dorothy J; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months. Subjects Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia. Results Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80% of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71% v. 44% at 6 months of age). Less than 2% of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. Conclusions Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation. PMID:23795865

  8. Varenicline Augmentation in Depressed Smokers: An 8-week, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Whiteley, Laura; Price, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess possible antidepressant effects of varenicline augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depressive disorders and nicotine dependence. Background Varenicline (Chantix) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 partial agonist and α7 full agonist approved for smoking cessation. Studies of similar compounds have suggested evidence of antidepressant effects. Methods Eighteen patients were recruited from a general psychiatric outpatient clinic. Inclusion criteria were 1) primary Axis I depressive disorder, 2) persistent depressive symptoms despite adequate treatment, and 3) current cigarette smoking with nicotine dependence. Patients received varenicline in addition to stable doses of their regular psychotropic medications. Depression symptoms, side effects, clinical global impressions, anhedonia, daily cigarette consumption, and vitals signs were assessed every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Baseline and endpoint ratings were compared, and the relationship between mood improvement and smoking cessation was examined. The primary outcome variable was mean improvement in depressive symptoms. Results Fourteen patients (78%) completed the study; 4 discontinued due to side effects, including gastrointestinal (n = 3) and worsened mood/irritability (n = 1). Patients demonstrated significant improvement in depression at endpoint (p < .001), with significant improvement as early as week 2. Eight (44%) patients met criteria for categorical response, and six (33%) reached remission criteria; the overall effect size was large. All patients were interested in smoking cessation, eight (44%) achieved abstinence, and nine (50%) had some reduction in smoking. Improvement in depressive symptoms was correlated with smoking cessation. There was no evidence of treatment-emergent suicidality. Conclusion Open-label varenicline augmentation was associated with significant improvement in mood in a small sample of outpatient smokers with persistent depressive symptoms

  9. Effect of Fructose on Established Lipid Targets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Wang, David D; Yu, Matthew; Carleton, Amanda J; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate over the role of fructose in mediating cardiovascular risk remains active. To update the evidence on the effect of fructose on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular disease (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL]-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), and metabolic syndrome (triglycerides and HDL-C), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 7, 2015 for controlled feeding trials with follow-up ≥7 days, which investigated the effect of oral fructose compared to a control carbohydrate on lipids (LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and HDL-C) in participants of all health backgrounds. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effects models and expressed as mean difference with 95% CI. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Eligibility criteria were met by 51 isocaloric trials (n=943), in which fructose was provided in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates, and 8 hypercaloric trials (n=125), in which fructose supplemented control diets with excess calories compared to the control diets alone without the excess calories. Fructose had no effect on LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL-C in isocaloric trials. However, in hypercaloric trials, fructose increased apolipoprotein B (n=2 trials; mean difference = 0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.30; P=0.005) and triglycerides (n=8 trials; mean difference = 0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.41; P<0.001). The study is limited by small sample sizes, limited follow-up, and low quality scores of the included trials. Conclusions Pooled analyses showed that fructose only had an adverse effect on established lipid targets when added to existing diets so as to provide excess calories (+21% to 35% energy

  10. Randomized Clinical Trial of Pre-operative Feeding to Evaluate Intestinal Barrier Function in Neonates Requiring Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Nietert, Paul J.; Graham, Eric M.; Taylor, Sarah N.; Atz, Andrew M.; Wagner, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intestinal barrier function in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery using lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio measurements and to determine correlations with early breast milk feeding. Study design This was a single-center, prospective, randomized pilot study of 27 term neonates (≥37 weeks gestation) requiring cardiac surgery who were randomized to one of two pre-operative feeding groups: 1) nil per os (NPO) vs. 2) trophic (10 cc/kg/day) breast milk feeds. At three time points (pre-op, post-op day 7, and post-op day 14), subjects were administered an oral lactulose/mannitol solution and subsequent L/M ratios were measured using gas chromatography, with higher ratios indicative of increased intestinal permeability. Trends over time in the mean urine L/M ratios for each group were estimated using a general linear mixed model. Results There were no adverse events related to pre-operative trophic feeding. In the NPO group (n=13), the mean urine L/M ratios at pre-op, post-op day 7, and post-op day 14 were 0.06, 0.12, and 0.17, respectively. In the trophic breast milk feeds group (n=14), the mean urine L/M ratios at pre-op, post-op day 7, and post-op day 14 were 0.09, 0.19, and 0.15, respectively. Both groups had significantly higher L/M ratios at post-op day 7 and 14 compared with pre-op (p<0.05). Conclusions Neonates have increased intestinal permeability after cardiac surgery extending to at least post-op day 14. This pilot study was not powered to detect differences in benefit or adverse events comparing NPO with breast milk feeds. Further studies to identify mechanisms of intestinal injury and therapeutic interventions are warranted. Trial registration Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01475357. PMID:25962930

  11. Investigation of the link between avian vacuolar myelinopathy and a novel species of cyanobacteria through laboratory feeding trials.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Faith E; Wilde, Susan B; Birrenkott, Anna H; Williams, Sarah K; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Bowerman, William W; Fischer, John R

    2007-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease affecting Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American Coots (Fulica americana), and other birds in the southeastern United States. The cause of the disease has not yet been determined, although it is generally thought to be a natural toxin. Previous studies have linked AVM to aquatic vegetation, and the current working hypothesis is that a species of cyanobacteria growing epiphytically on that vegetation is producing a toxin that causes AVM. Surveys of epiphytic communities have identified a novel species of cyanobacteria in the order Stigonematales as the most likely suspect. The purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between the suspect Stigonematales species and induction of AVM, by using animal feeding trials. Adult Mallards and domestic chickens were fed aquatic vegetation from two study sites containing the suspect cyanobacterial epiphyte, as well as a control site that did not contain the Stigonematales species. Two trials were conducted. The first trial used vegetation collected during mid-October 2003, and the second trial used vegetation collected during November and December 2003. Neither treatment nor control birds in the first trial developed AVM lesions. Ten of 12 treatment Mallards in the second trial were diagnosed with AVM, and control birds were not affected. This study provides further evidence that the novel Stigonematales species may be involved with AVM induction, or at the least it is a good predictor of AVM toxin presence in a system. The results also demonstrate the seasonal nature of AVM events. PMID:17699072

  12. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2...

  13. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  14. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  15. Pancreatitis, very early compared with normal start of enteral feeding (PYTHON trial): design and rationale of a randomised controlled multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In predicted severe acute pancreatitis, infections have a negative effect on clinical outcome. A start of enteral nutrition (EN) within 24 hours of onset may reduce the number of infections as compared to the current practice of starting an oral diet and EN if necessary at 3-4 days after admission. Methods/Design The PYTHON trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. Patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (Imrie-score ≥ 3 or APACHE-II score ≥ 8 or CRP > 150 mg/L) will be randomised to EN within 24 hours or an oral diet and EN if necessary, after 72 hours after hospital admission. During a 3-year period, 208 patients will be enrolled from 20 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite of mortality or infections (bacteraemia, infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis, pneumonia) during hospital stay or within 6 months following randomisation. Secondary endpoints include other major morbidity (e.g. new onset organ failure, need for intervention), intolerance of enteral feeding and total costs from a societal perspective. Discussion The PYTHON trial is designed to show that a very early (< 24 h) start of EN reduces the combined endpoint of mortality or infections as compared to the current practice of an oral diet and EN if necessary at around 72 hours after admission for predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN18170985 PMID:21392395

  16. Is early oral feeding safe after elective colorectal surgery? A prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed Central

    Reissman, P; Teoh, T A; Cohen, S M; Weiss, E G; Nogueras, J J; Wexner, S D

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The routine use of a nasogastric tube after elective colorectal surgery is no longer mandatory. More recently, early feeding after laparoscopic colectomy has been shown to be safe and well tolerated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to prospectively assess the safety and tolerability of early oral feeding after elective "open" abdominal colorectal operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent elective laparotomy with either colon or small bowel resection between November 1992 and April 1994 were prospectively randomized to one of the following two groups: group 1: early oral feeding--all patients received a clear liquid diet on the first postoperative day followed by a regular diet as tolerated; group 2: regular feeding--all patients were treated in the "traditional" way, with feeding only after the resolution of their postoperative ileus. The nasogastric tube was removed from all patients in both groups immediately after surgery. The patients were monitored for vomiting, bowel movements, nasogastric tube reinsertion, time of regular diet consumption, complications, and length of hospitalization. The nasogastric tube was reinserted if two or more episodes of vomiting of more than 100 mL occurred in the absence of bowel movement. Ileus was considered resolved after a bowel movement in the absence of abdominal distention or vomiting. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one consecutive patients were studied, 80 patients in group 1 (34 males and 46 females, mean age 51 years [range 16-82 years]), and 81 patients in group 2 (43 males and 38 females, mean age 56 years [range 20-90 years]). Sixty-three patients (79%) in the early feeding group tolerated the early feeding schedule and were advanced to regular diet within the next 24 to 48 hours. There were no significant differences between the early and regular feeding groups in the rate of vomiting (21% vs. 14%), nasogastric tube reinsertion (11% vs. 10%), length of ileus (3.8 +/- 0.1 days vs. 4

  17. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  18. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  19. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  20. Alterations of Muscular Strength and Left and Right Limb Balance in Weightlifters after an 8-week Balance Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Hwun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Kwi Baek; Lee, Sung Soo; Shin, Ki ok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters' balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes' sport performance. PMID:24259879

  1. Targeted plasma metabolome response to variations in dietary glycemic load in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Sally; Navarro, Sandi L.; Buas, Matthew F.; Y, Schwarz; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Daniel; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Low versus high glycemic load (GL) diet patterns are inversely associated with obesity and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These associations persist beyond the protection afforded by increased fiber alone, representing an important gap in our understanding of the metabolic effects of GL. We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial of two 28-day diet periods of high and low GL. Using LC-MS, targeted metabolomics analysis of 155 metabolites was performed on plasma samples from 19 healthy adults aged 18-45 years. Fourteen metabolites differed significantly between diets (P<0.05), with kynurenate remaining significant after Bonferroni correction (P<4×10-4). Metabolites with the largest difference in abundance were kynurenate and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), both significantly higher after consumption of the low GL diet. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed clear separation between the two diets; however no specific pathway was identified in pathway analyses. We found significant differences in 14 plasma metabolites suggesting a differing metabolic response to low and high GL diets. Kynurenate is associated with reduced inflammation, and may be one mechanism through which protective effects of a low GL diet are manifested and warrants further evaluation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661. PMID:26165375

  2. Targeted plasma metabolome response to variations in dietary glycemic load in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barton, Sally; Navarro, Sandi L; Buas, Matthew F; Schwarz, Yvonne; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Daniel; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2015-09-01

    Low versus high glycemic load (GL) diet patterns are inversely associated with obesity and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These associations persist beyond the protection afforded by increased fiber alone, representing an important gap in our understanding of the metabolic effects of GL. We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial of two 28-day diet periods of high and low GL. Using LC-MS, targeted metabolomics analysis of 155 metabolites was performed on plasma samples from 19 healthy adults aged 18-45 years. Fourteen metabolites differed significantly between diets (P < 0.05), with kynurenate remaining significant after Bonferroni correction (P < 4 × 10(-4)). Metabolites with the largest difference in abundance were kynurenate and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), both significantly higher after consumption of the low GL diet. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed clear separation between the two diets; however no specific pathway was identified in pathway analyses. We found significant differences in 14 plasma metabolites suggesting a differing metabolic response to low and high GL diets. Kynurenate is associated with reduced inflammation, and may be one mechanism through which protective effects of a low GL diet are manifested and warrants further evaluation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661. PMID:26165375

  3. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  4. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-jae; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Methods Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Results Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats. PMID:26566500

  5. Protein Supplementation Increases Postexercise Plasma Myostatin Concentration After 8 Weeks of Resistance Training in Young Physically Active Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pacelli, Quirico F.; Neri, Marco; Toniolo, Luana; Cancellara, Pasqua; Canato, Marta; Moro, Tatiana; Quadrelli, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Bianco, Antonino; Reggiani, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth even if some studies have shown a counterintuitive positive correlation between MSTN and muscle mass (MM). Our aim was to investigate the influence of 2 months of resistance training (RT) and diets with different protein contents on plasma MSTN, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided in two groups: high protein (HP) and normal protein (NP) groups. Different protein diet contents were 1.8 and 0.85 g of protein·kg bw−1·day−1 for HP and NP, respectively. Subjects underwent 8 weeks of standardized progressive RT. MSTN, IGF-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were analyzed before and after the first and the last training sessions. Lean body mass, MM, upper-limb muscle area, and strength were measured. Plasma MSTN showed a significant increase (P<.001) after the last training in the HP group compared with NP group and with starting value. IGF-1 plasma concentration showed a positive correlation with MSTN in HP after the last training (r2=0.6456; P=.0295). No significant differences were found between NP and HP for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and strength and MM or area. These findings suggest a “paradoxical” postexercise increase of plasma MSTN after 8 weeks of RT and HP diets. This MSTN elevation correlates positively with IGF-1 plasma level. This double increase of opposite (catabolic/anabolic) mediators could explain the substantial overlapping of MM increases in the two groups. PMID:25133710

  6. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Frost, DM, Bronson, S, Cronin, JB, and Newton, RU. Changes in maximal strength, velocity, and power after 8 weeks of training with pneumatic or free weight resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 934-944, 2016-Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands. PMID:26418368

  7. Change in diet and oral hygiene over an 8-week period: effects on oral health and oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Roth, Dominik; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Follo, Marie; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Deimling, Daniela; Hellwig, Elmar; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor changes in oral health and oral biofilm composition in vivo during an experiment simulating prehistoric lifestyle and diet and poor oral hygiene. Thirteen subjects lived for a period of 8 weeks under Neolithic conditions. The following clinical parameters were recorded before and after the project: gingival and plaque index (Löe and Silness, Acta Odontol Scand 21:533, 1963; Silness and Löe, Acta Odontol Scand 22:121-135, 1964), probing pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. In addition, supragingival plaque samples were collected both before and after the project and were analysed quantitatively using multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The following plaque bacteria were evaluated: Streptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii. The plaque index increased significantly from 1.12 up to 1.55 over the 8-week period (gingival index before, 0.46; after, 0.93; p < 0.05). A strong correlation of both indices was recorded before (r = 0.77) and after (r = 0.83) participation in the study. Each of the children in the study showed a progression of carious lesions and/or new areas of demineralisation. The probing pocket depth and bleeding upon probing were not affected. All subjects yielded an intra-individual shift in biofilm composition. The proportion of F. nucleatum decreased across all subjects. The proportion of Veillonella spp. increased among the children. Poor oral hygiene and change of diet lead to an increase in oral plaque and gingival inflammation. The inter-individual comparison indicated a shift in bacterial composition. PMID:19626350

  8. One year outcomes in patients with acute lung injury randomised to initial trophic or full enteral feeding: prospective follow-up of EDEN randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Wozniak, Amy W; Rice, Todd W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of initial low energy permissive underfeeding (“trophic feeding”) versus full energy enteral feeding (“full feeding”) on physical function and secondary outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Design Prospective longitudinal follow-up evaluation of the NHLBI ARDS Clinical Trials Network’s EDEN trial Setting 41hospitals in the United States. Participants 525 patients with acute lung injury. Interventions Randomised assignment to trophic or full feeding for up to six days; thereafter, all patients still receiving mechanical ventilation received full feeding. Measurements Blinded assessment of the age and sex adjusted physical function domain of the SF-36 instrument at 12 months after acute lung injury. Secondary outcome measures included survival; physical, psychological, and cognitive functioning; quality of life; and employment status at six and 12 months. Results After acute lung injury, patients had substantial physical, psychological, and cognitive impairments, reduced quality of life, and impaired return to work. Initial trophic versus full feeding did not affect mean SF-36 physical function at 12 months (55 (SD 33) v 55 (31), P=0.54), survival to 12 months (65% v 63%, P=0.63), or nearly all of the secondary outcomes. Conclusion In survivors of acute lung injury, there was no difference in physical function, survival, or multiple secondary outcomes at 6 and 12 month follow-up after initial trophic or full enteral feeding. Trial Registration NCT No 00719446 PMID:23512759

  9. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  10. The effects of 8 weeks of endurance running on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in female runners.

    PubMed

    Auersperger, Irena; Knap, Bojan; Jerin, Ales; Blagus, Rok; Lainscak, Mitja; Skitek, Milan; Skof, Branko

    2012-02-01

    Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week's recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p=.02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p<.001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p=.01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p<.001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p<.001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation. PMID:22248501

  11. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  12. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  13. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger. PMID:25595501

  14. Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top-level adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course of lower and upper limb plyometric training would enhance characteristics important to competition, including peak power output (Wpeak), jump performance, muscle volume, and ball throwing velocity. Study participants (23 men, age: 17.4 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 79.9 ± 11.5 kg, height: 1.79 ± 6.19 m, body fat: 13.8 ± 2.1%) were randomly assigned between controls (C; n = 11) and an experimental group (E, n = 12). Measures preintervention and postintervention included force-velocity ergometer tests for upper (Wupper peak) and lower limbs (Wlower peak), force platform determinations of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) characteristics (jump height, maximal force, initial velocity, and average power), video filming of sprint velocities (first step [V1S], first 5 m [V5m], and 25-30 m [Vmax]), and anthropometric estimates of leg muscle volume. E showed gains relative to C in Wupper peak and Wlower peak (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001), SJ (height p < 0.01; force p ≤ 0.05), CMJ (height p < 0.01; force p < 0.01 and relative power p ≤ 0.05), and sprint velocities (p < 0.001 for V1S, V5m, and Vmax). E also showed increases in leg and thigh muscle volumes (p < 0.001), but arm muscle volumes did not differ from control. We conclude that introduction of biweekly plyometric training into the standard regimen improved components important to handball performance, particularly explosive actions, such as sprinting, jumping, and ball throwing velocity. PMID:24149768

  15. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  16. Limited Amount of Formula May Facilitate Breastfeeding: Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Standard Clinical Practice versus Limited Supplemental Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Straňák, Zbyněk; Feyereislova, Simona; Černá, Marcela; Kollárová, Jana; Feyereisl, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age. Material and Methods We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing). Results Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants’ age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002). Conclusion The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183 PMID:26918700

  17. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P < 0·001). There were some differences in dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions. PMID:22040598

  18. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mollard, R C; Luhovyy, B L; Panahi, S; Nunez, M; Hanley, A; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low in energy density, supporting their inclusion in the diet for the management of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults. Body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood parameters and 24 h food intakes were measured at weeks 1, 4 and 8. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were measured after a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8. At week 8, both groups reported reductions in energy intake, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following the glucose load (P < 0·05). However, HDL, fasting C-peptide and insulin AUC responses were dependent on diet (P < 0·05). HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively, in the pulse group, but decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group. Insulin AUC decreased in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males (P < 0·05). In conclusion, frequent consumption of pulses in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetSyn and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction. PMID:22916807

  19. Colonization of 8-week-old conventionally reared goats by Escherichia coli O157 : H7 after oral inoculation.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, R M; Ahmed, N My; Best, A; Clifford, D; Weyer, U; Cooley, W A; Johnson, L; Pearson, G R; Woodward, M J

    2005-05-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 infections of man have been associated with consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk and direct contact with kid goats on petting farms, yet little is known about colonization of goats with this organism. To assess the contribution of flagella and intimin of E. coli O157 : H7 in colonization of the goat, 8-week-old conventionally reared goats were inoculated orally in separate experiments with 1x10(10) c.f.u. of a non-verotoxigenic strain of E. coli O157 : H7 (strain NCTC 12900 Nal(r)), an aflagellate derivative (DMB1) and an intimin-deficient derivative (DMB2). At 24 h after inoculation, the three E. coli O157 : H7 strains were shed at approximately 5x10(4) c.f.u. (g faeces)(-1) from all animals. Significantly fewer intimin-deficient bacteria were shed only on days 2 (P = 0.003) and 4 (P = 0.014), whereas from day 7 to 29 there were no differences. Tissues from three animals inoculated with wild-type E. coli O157 : H7 strain NCTC 12900 Nal(r) were sampled at 24, 48 and 96 h after inoculation and the organism was cultured from the large intestine of all three animals and from the duodenum and ileum of the animal examined at 96 h. Tissues were examined histologically but attaching-effacing (AE) lesions were not observed at any intestinal site of the animals examined at 24 or 48 h. However, the animal examined at 96 h, which had uniquely shed approximately 1x10(7) E. coli O157 : H7 (g faeces)(-1) for the preceding 3 days, showed a heavy, diffuse infection with cryptosporidia and abundant, multifocal AE lesions in the distal colon, rectum and at the recto-anal junction. These AE lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry to be associated with E. coli O157 : H7. PMID:15824429

  20. Effect of fructose on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, S; Sievenpiper, J L; de Souza, R J; Cozma, A I; Mirrahimi, A; Carleton, A J; Ha, V; Di Buono, M; Jenkins, A L; Leiter, L A; Wolever, T M S; Don-Wauchope, A C; Beyene, J; Kendall, C W C; Jenkins, D J A

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: In the absence of consistent clinical evidence, there are concerns that fructose contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine the effect of fructose on markers of NAFLD, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Subjects/Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 3 September 2013). We included relevant trials that involved a follow-up of ⩾7 days. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) for intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) and mean difference (MD) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Results: Eligibility criteria were met by eight reports containing 13 trials in 260 healthy participants: seven isocaloric trials, in which fructose was exchanged isocalorically for other carbohydrates, and six hypercaloric trials, in which the diet was supplemented with excess energy (+21–35% energy) from high-dose fructose (+104–220 g/day). Although there was no effect of fructose in isocaloric trials, fructose in hypercaloric trials increased both IHCL (SMD=0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.72)) and ALT (MD=4.94 U/l (95% CI: 0.03, 9.85)). Limitations: Few trials were available for inclusion, most of which were small, short (⩽4 weeks), and of poor quality. Conclusions: Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrates does not induce NAFLD changes in healthy participants. Fructose providing excess energy at extreme doses, however, does raise IHCL and ALT, an effect that may be more attributable to excess energy than fructose. Larger, longer and higher-quality trials of the effect of fructose on histopathological NAFLD changes are required. PMID:24569542

  1. Nutritional support of bone marrow transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing total parental nutrition to an enteral feeding program

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have been associated with nutritionally-depleting side effects. Total parental nutrition (TPN) has become the standard, but it has not been demonstrated that TPN is the appropriate method of nutritional support. Therefore, in a prospective, randomized clinical trial TPN and enteral feeding were compared for their effectiveness in maintaining the nutritional status of patients through the first 29 post-transplant days. Nutritional assessment included measurement of serum proteins, body weight, anthropometry and isotope dilution analysis of body composition. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular fluid (ECF) were quantified by standard radioisotope dilution techniques using tritiated water and /sup 169/ytterbium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, respectively as the tracers. Consenting patients 10-58 years of age were stratified by type of BMT (autologous or allogeneic) and randomized to either TPN plus ad libitum oral feeding or the individualized enteral feeding program (EFP), which included one-on-one counseling, meal-by-meal menu selection, special snacks and tube feeding. There were no differences in the rate of hematologic recovery, incidence of graft-versus-host disease, organ toxicity, length of hospitalization or survival. Therefore, the observed changes in body composition were not clinically significant. Even allowing for increased dietary service, the EFP was only half as expensive as TPN. It was concluded that TPN is not superior to the EFP and therefore, TPN should be reserved for patients who demonstrate intolerance to enteral feeding.

  2. Genetically modified crops in a 10-generation feeding trial on Japanese quails--Evaluation of its influence on birds' performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Sartowska, K E; Korwin-Kossakowska, A; Sender, G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) feed components comprising soya bean meal and maize on the performance indices (reproduction, survival rate, growth, egg production, relative weight of chosen internal organs, and basic chemical composition of breast muscle and egg yolk) of Japanese quails was investigated during a 10-generation trial. A total number of 8,438 healthy quail chicks were used in the course of the trial. In each generation, birds were maintained in 3 experimental groups differing in the main feed components, i.e. 1) GM soya (Roundup Ready) and non-GM maize, 2) GM maize (MON810) and non-GM soya, and 3) non-GM soya and maize. The different feeds used did not influence any of the biological hatch indices, survival rate, or BW of young or adult quails. With regard to egg-laying performance, the GM maize group showed a better laying percentage and a higher egg mass production compared to the other groups; the GM soya group showed reduced average egg mass compared to the other groups, whereas the overall egg production level was the same as in the control group. Results showed a higher relative weight of breast muscle and gizzard in birds fed GM maize compared to the control group, whereas live BW and the relative weights of liver and heart were not different among groups. Meat from the GM soya group showed higher protein and lower fat levels compared to the control group. In the case of egg yolk, its chemical composition in the experimental groups did not differ from the control group. Even though some differences were found among the feeding groups, none could be judged as a negative influence of GM maize or GM soya in feed on the birds or final consumer products over 10 generations of Japanese quails. PMID:26475068

  3. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition score<2.5 out of 5) produced less milk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM

  4. Nutritional support of bone marrow transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing total parenteral nutrition to an enteral feeding program.

    PubMed

    Szeluga, D J; Stuart, R K; Brookmeyer, R; Utermohlen, V; Santos, G W

    1987-06-15

    Although standard supportive care for bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients includes total parenteral nutrition (TPN), it has not been shown that this is the most appropriate method of nutritional support. To determine whether current BMT recipients require TPN during the early recovery period, we conducted a prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing TPN and an individualized enteral feeding program (counseling, high protein snacks and/or tube feeding). Nutritional assessment included measurement of serum proteins, anthropometry, and body composition analysis. For the latter, total body water and extracellular fluid were measured by standard radioisotope dilution techniques and used to quantitate body cell mass and body fat plus extracellular solids (FAT + ECS). In 27 TPN patients, body composition 28 days after BMT, expressed as a percentage of baseline, was body cell mass, 100%, extracellular fluid, 108%, FAT + ECS, 108%, and in 30 enteral feeding program patients, was body cell mass, 93%, extracellular fluid, 104%, and FAT + ECS, 94%. Only the difference in FAT + ECS was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Compared to the enteral feeding program, TPN was associated with more days of diuretic use, more frequent hyperglycemia, and more frequent catheter removal (prompted by catheter-related complications), but less frequent hypomagnesemia. There were no significant differences in the rate of hematopoietic recovery, length of hospitalization, or survival, but nutrition-related costs were 2.3 times greater in the TPN group. We conclude that TPN is not clearly superior to individualized enteral feeding and recommend that TPN be reserved for BMT patients who demonstrate intolerance to enteral feeding. PMID:3107808

  5. Risk Factors for Early and Late Transmission of HIV via Breast-Feeding among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Roger L.; Smeaton, Laura; Lockman, Shahin; Thior, lbou; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Wester, Carolyn; Stevens, Lisa; Moffat, Claire; Arimi, Peter; Ndase, Patrick; Asmelash, Aida; Leidner, Jean; Novitsky, Vladimir; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max

    2009-01-01

    Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month)P = .99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P = .45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. PMID:19090775

  6. Effect of Levan Supplement in Orange Juice on Weight, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Metabolic Profile of Healthy Subjects: Results of an 8-Week Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Akiva, Ira; Rokhkind, Evgenia; Naor, Etty; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nachum

    2012-01-01

    Levan is a commonly used dietary fiber of the fructans group. Its impact on health remains undetermined. This double blind controlled study aimed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks’ daily consumption of 500 mL of natural orange juice enriched with 11.25 g of levan compared to the same amount of natural orange juice without levan on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profiles of 48 healthy volunteers. The statistical analyses compared between- and within-group findings at baseline, 4 weeks and study closure. The compared parameters were: weight, blood pressure, blood laboratory tests, daily number of defecations, scores of stool consistency, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, dyspepsia, vomiting and heartburn. Despite a higher fiber level recorded in the study group, there was no significant difference in the effect of the two kinds of juices on the studied parameters. Both juices decreased systolic and diastolic pressures, increased sodium level (within normal range), stool number, and bloating scores, and decreased gas scores. In conclusion, levan itself had no effect on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms or metabolic profile of healthy volunteers. Its possible effect on obese, hypertensive or hyperlipidemic patients should be investigated in further studies. PMID:22852055

  7. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  8. Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: design of a randomised trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    process monitoring visits, spot checks and quarterly reporting will be undertaken as part of the regular programme monitoring activities. Evaluation surveys are planned for 2014. Discussion National governments in sub-Saharan Africa have demonstrated strong leadership in the response to the recent food and financial crises by scaling-up school feeding programmes. “Home-grown” school feeding programmes have the potential to link the increased demand for school feeding goods and services to community-based stakeholders, including small-holder farmers and women’s groups. Alongside assessing the more traditional benefits to school children, this evaluation will be the first to examine the impact of linking school food service provision to small-holder farmer income, as well as the link between community level engagement and programme performance. Trial registration ISRCTN76705891 PMID:23433395

  9. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  10. Physical and Cognitive Performance of Patients with Acute Lung Injury 1 Year after Initial Trophic versus Full Enteral Feeding. EDEN Trial Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D.; Morris, Peter E.; Jackson, James C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Wozniak, Amy W.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ely, E. Wesley; Rice, Todd W.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that providing patients with acute lung injury two different protein/calorie nutritional strategies in the intensive care unit may affect longer-term physical and cognitive performance. Objectives: To assess physical and cognitive performance 6 and 12 months after acute lung injury, and to evaluate the effect of trophic versus full enteral feeding, provided for the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation, on 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment, and secondary outcomes. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal ancillary study of the ARDS Network EDEN trial evaluating 174 consecutive survivors from 5 of 12 centers. Blinded assessments of patients’ arm anthropometrics, strength, pulmonary function, 6-minute-walk distance, and cognitive status (executive function, language, memory, verbal reasoning/concept formation, and attention) were performed. Measurements and Main Results: At 6 and 12 months, respectively, the mean (SD) percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance was 64% (22%) and 66% (25%) (P = 0.011 for difference between assessments), and 36 and 25% of survivors had cognitive impairment (P = 0.001). Patients performed below predicted values for secondary physical tests with small improvement from 6 to 12 months. There was no significant effect of initial trophic versus full feeding for the first 6 days after randomization on survivors’ percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment status, and all secondary outcomes. Conclusions: EDEN trial survivors performed below predicted values for physical and cognitive performance at 6 and 12 months, with some improvement over time. Initial trophic versus full enteral feeding for the first 6 days after randomization did not affect physical and cognitive performance. PMID:23805899

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  12. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B₁₂, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement. PMID:24168874

  13. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  14. Effects of Saturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Micha, Renata; Wu, Jason H. Y.; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis. Methods and Findings We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, BIOSIS, Web-of-Knowledge, CAB, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SIGLE, Faculty1000) for randomised controlled feeding trials published by 26 Nov 2015 that tested effects of macronutrient intake on blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in adults aged ≥18 years. We excluded trials with non-isocaloric comparisons and trials providing dietary advice or supplements rather than meals. Studies were reviewed and data extracted independently in duplicate. Among 6,124 abstracts, 102 trials, including 239 diet arms and 4,220 adults, met eligibility requirements. Using multiple-treatment meta-regression, we estimated dose-response effects of isocaloric replacements between SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and carbohydrate, adjusted for protein, trans fat, and dietary fibre. Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with SFA had no significant effect on fasting glucose (+0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.01, +0.04; n trials = 99), but lowered fasting insulin (-1.1 pmol/L; -1.7, -0.5; n = 90). Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c (-0.09%; -0.12, -0.05; n = 23), 2 h post-challenge insulin (-20.3 pmol/L; -32.2, -8.4; n = 11), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-2.4%; -4.6, -0.3; n = 30). Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.11%; -0.17, -0.05) and fasting insulin (-1.6 pmol/L; -2.8, -0.4). Replacing SFA with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Based on gold-standard acute insulin response in ten trials, PUFA significantly improved insulin secretion capacity (+0.5 pmol/L/min; 0.2, 0

  15. Frontal-Subcortical Volumetric Deficits in Single Episode, Medication-Naïve Depressed Patients and the Effects of 8 Weeks Fluoxetine Treatment: A VBM-DARTEL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingtao; Wu, Feng; Tang, Yanqing; Ren, Ling; Kong, Dongyan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. Methods 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC) acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV) difference between groups was examined. Results Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected). Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected). No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. Conclusions This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset. PMID:24427263

  16. The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

  17. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  18. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  19. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  20. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels. PMID:26571345

  1. Trial Development of a Mobile Feeding Assistive Robotic Arm for People with Physical Disabilities of the Extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hideyuki; Higa, Hiroki; Soken, Takashi; Namihira, Yoshinori

    A mobile feeding assistive robotic arm for people with physical disabilities of the extremities has been developed in this paper. This system is composed of a robotic arm, microcontroller, and its interface. The main unit of the robotic arm can be contained in a laptop computer's briefcase. Its weight is 5kg, including two 12-V lead acid rechargeable batteries. This robotic arm can be also mounted on a wheelchair. To verify performance of the mobile robotic arm system, drinking tea task was experimentally performed by two able-bodied subjects as well as three persons suffering from muscular dystrophy. From the experimental results, it was clear that they could smoothly carry out the drinking task, and that the robotic arm could firmly grasp a commercially available 500-ml plastic bottle. The eating task was also performed by the two able-bodied subjects. The experimental results showed that they could eat porridge by using a spoon without any difficulty.

  2. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes. PMID:22692117

  3. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. PMID:26239913

  4. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  5. Feeding and Bleeding: The Institutional Banalization of Risk to Healthy Volunteers in Phase I Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans. The majority of these studies are conducted under controlled, inpatient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. This article draws on an ethnographic study of six phase I clinics in the United States, including 268 semistructured interviews with research staff and healthy volunteers. In it, I argue that an institutional banalization of risk structures the perceptions of research staff and healthy volunteers participating in the studies. For research staff, there are three mechanisms by which risk becomes banal: a perceived homogeneity of studies, Fordist work regimes, and data-centric discourse. For healthy volunteers, repeat study participation contributes to the institutional banalization of risk both through the process of desensitization to risk and the formation of trust in the clinics. I argue that the institutional banalization of risk also renders invisible ethical concerns about exploitation of underprivileged groups in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25914430

  6. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. Methods/design The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)- provided home visits, using an intervention created through community-based participatory research, to standard care received through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) office visits in preventing the development of overweight (weight/length ≥85th percentile) and obesity (weight/length ≥95th percentile) in infants during their first 3 years of life. One hundred forty pregnant women in their third trimester (30–36 weeks) will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life. Trial registration Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072 PMID:24063435

  7. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  8. Changes in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor at 8 weeks after sorafenib administration as predictors of survival for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Shuya; Muraoka, Masaru; Nakata, Toru; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Yasui, Yutaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Hosokawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Takashi; Ueda, Ken; Kuzuya, Teiji; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2014-01-01

    Background A new predictive biomarker for determining prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who receive sorafenib is required, because achieving a reduction in tumor size with sorafenib is rare, even in patients who have a favorable prognosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a sorafenib target. In the current study, the authors examined changes in plasma VEGF concentrations during sorafenib treatment and determined the clinical significance of VEGF as a prognostic indicator in patients with HCC. Methods Plasma VEGF concentrations were serially measured in 63 patients with advanced HCC before and during sorafenib treatment. A plasma VEGF concentration that decreased >5% from the pretreatment level at 8 weeks was defined as a “VEGF decrease.” An objective tumor response was determined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1 month after the initiation of therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Results Patients who had a VEGF decrease at week 8 (n = 14) had a longer median survival than those who did not have a VEGF decrease (n = 49; 30.9 months vs 14.4 months; P = .038). All patients who had a VEGF decrease survived for >6 months, and the patients who had both a VEGF decrease and an α-fetoprotein response (n = 6) survived during the observation period (median, 19.7 months; range, 6.5-31.0 months). In univariate analyses, a VEGF decrease, radiologic findings classified as progressive disease, and major vascular invasion were associated significantly with 1-year survival; and, in multivariate analysis, a VEGF decrease was identified as an independent factor associated significantly with survival. Conclusions A plasma VEGF concentration decrease at 8 weeks after starting sorafenib treatment may predict favorable overall survival in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:24122122

  9. Aflatoxin B1-induced Hprt mutations in splenic lymphocytes of Fischer 344 rats. Results of an intermittent feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Morris, S M; Aidoo, A; Chen, J J; Chou, M W; Casciano, D A

    1999-01-25

    In a previous study, we found an increase in the mutant frequency at the Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in the splenic lymphocytes of Fischer 344 rats acutely exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Because an acute exposure may not reflect the exposure pattern of individuals whose diet may contain AFB1-contaminated foodstuffs, we sought to determine if the feeding regimen affected the induction of Hprt mutations in the rat splenic lymphocyte. Thus, Fischer 344 rats were fed either (A) a control diet, (B) various doses of AFB1 for three four-week periods interspersed with two four-week periods of the control diet, or (C) continuously fed 1.6 ppm of AFB1. Not only was a significant increase in the mutant frequency detected in the lymphocytes of rats fed a dose as low as 0. 01 ppm of AFB1, but the increase in the mutant frequency at the end of the 20-week experimental period was consistent with an accumulation of damage induced by AFB1. These results indicate that the rat lymphocyte/Hprt assay is useful for detecting chronic low level exposures. Further, these data suggest that an intermittent, low-level exposure to AFB1 may present a human health risk. PMID:10029671

  10. CYP1A2, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and diet effects on CYP1A2 activity in a crossover feeding trial*

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sabrina; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; King, Irena B.; Chen, Chu; Eaton, David L.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is a biotransformation enzyme that activates several procarcinogens. CYP1A2 is induced by cruciferous and inhibited by apiaceous vegetable intake. Using a randomized, cross-over feeding trial in humans, we investigated dose effects of cruciferous vegetables and effects of any interaction between cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables on CYP1A2 activity. We also investigated whether response varied by CYP1A2*1F, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes (glutathione S-transferases that metabolize crucifer constituents) and whether CYP1A2 activity rebounds after apiaceous vegetables are removed from the diet. Participants (N = 73), recruited based on genotypes, consumed four diets for two weeks each: low-phytochemical diet (basal), basal plus single dose of cruciferous (1C), basal plus double dose of cruciferous (2C), and basal plus single dose of cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables (1C+A). CYP1A2 activity was determined by urine caffeine tests administered at baseline and the end of each feeding period. Compared with basal diet, the 1C diet increased CYP1A2 activity (P < 0.0001) and the 2C diet resulted in further increases (P < 0.0001) with men experiencing greater dose-response than women. The 1C+A diet decreased CYP1A2 activity compared to the 1C and 2C diets (P < 0.0001 for both). Although there was no overall effect of CYP1A2*1F or GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null genotypes or genotype-by-diet interactions, there were significant diet response differences within each genotype. Additionally, CYP1A2 activity recovered modestly one day after the removal of apiaceous vegetables. These results suggest complex interactions among dietary patterns, genetic variation, and modulation of biotransformation that may not be apparent in observational studies. PMID:19843669

  11. Urodynamic parameters and plasma LH/FSH in spayed Beagle bitches before and 8 weeks after GnRH depot analogue treatment.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Barth, Andrea; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2006-12-01

    The pathophysiology of urinary incontinence due to spaying remains unknown. Incontinent bitches can be treated successfully with depot preparations of GnRH-analogues and there are differences in plasma gonadotropin levels between continent and incontinent spayed bitches. It is therefore assumed that the supraordinated hormones, GnRH, FSH, and/or LH, have an effect on the urodynamic parameters. In this study, the potential influence of these hormones on the lower urinary tract was investigated by measuring urethral pressure profiles and cystometry. Simultaneously, plasma concentrations in 10 spayed Beagle bitches were determined 5 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after treatment with the GnRH analogue leuprolide. Within 1 week of GnRH analogue administration, plasma FSH and LH levels decreased from 72.5 and 7.7 to 7.75 and 0.72ng/mL, respectively. These plasma gonadotropin levels correspond with those of intact bitches during anoestrus. Urethral pressure profiles indicated that the treatment had no significant effect on maximum urethral closure pressure, functional and total length of the urethra, or area of the closure pressure curve. The data obtained by cystometry regarding mean bladder threshold volume showed a significant increase from 109 to 172mL. The improvement in bladder function after the application of GnRH-application is presumably a direct effect of the GnRH as a relationship between the plasma gonadotropin levels and the urodynamic parameters could not demonstrated. PMID:16876857

  12. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. PMID:26720411

  13. Response of BAX, Bcl-2 Proteins, and SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA Expression to 8-Week Treadmill Running in the Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Hui; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Yan-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise training on Bax and Bcl-2 protein content and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aging rats. Eight 18 months old male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 5 days weekly for 8 weeks on a treadmill, and eight sedentary rats served as controls. Gastrocnemius muscles were dissected 2 days after the last training session. The mRNA content of PGC-1α, caspase-3, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2, and SIRT1 was estimated by RT-PCR with GAPDH used as an internal control. The protein expression of BAX and Bcl-2 was assessed by Western immunoblot. After training, significant (p < 0.05) increases were noted for the gastrocnemius muscle weights, the gastrocnemius mass/body mass ratio, the bcl-2/BAX ratio, the Bcl-2 protein and the SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2 mRNA content in the trained gastrocnemius, relative to the control samples. No difference was found in the BAX protein between control and trained muscles, whereas the caspase-3 mRNA content decreased by 50 %, in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained animals. Exercise training may inhibit age-induced myonuclear apoptosis by stimulating SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA expression, thereby preventing sarcopenia in aging rat. PMID:27526155

  14. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke. PMID:27184585

  15. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  16. N-Acetylaspartate Reduction in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Following 8 weeks of Risperidone Treatment in First-Episode Drug-Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xiaofen; Hu, Maolin; Li, Zongchang; Cao, Hongbao; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Zhou, Jun; Sang, Deen; Zhao, Hongzeng; Tang, Jinsong; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA) depletions documented in schizophrenia patients might be due to the disease progression or medications. Here we investigated longitudinal NAA changes in drug-naïve first-episode patients (FEP) who are relatively free from chronicity. Forty-two drug-naïve FEP and 38 controls were enrolled in this study to explore the effect of 8-week risperidone monotherapy on NAA. All spectra were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on a 3.0 T MRI and analyzed with LCModel. At baseline, patients presented no significant differences in NAA (P = 0.084) or NAA/Cr + Pcr (P = 0.500) compared to controls; NAA levels were negatively correlated with PANSS total scores (P = 0.001) and WCST-PE (P = 0.041). After treatment, patients demonstrated significant reductions of NAA (P < 0.001) and NAA/Cr + Pcr (P < 0.001), and significant improvement in PANSS-P (P < 0.001) and PANSS-G (P < 0.001) symptoms. We detected no significant correlations between NAA alterations and PANSS-P (P = 0.679) or PANSS-G (P = 0.668) symptom changes; nor did NAA/Cr + Pcr changes with alterations in PANSS-P (P = 0.677) and PANSS-G (P = 0.616). This is the first evidence that short-term risperidone treatment induces an acute reduction of MPFC NAA during the early phase of schizophrenia, which may be a previously unavailable biomarker to indicate risperidone with a similar pharmacological mechanism, although the functional significance is still unclear. PMID:25778460

  17. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD. PMID:26579947

  18. Efficacy of clorsulon for treatment of mature naturally acquired and 8-week-old experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Ramsey, R T; Loyacano, A F

    1984-05-01

    In a dose-titration study against experimentally induced 8-week-old Fasciola hepatica infection (study A), 20 calves were allotted to 5 groups, each of 4 calves, and treated with different doses of an injectable formulation of clorsulon or its vehicle: group 1--controls, no drug; group 2--2 mg of clorsulon /kg; group 3--4 mg of drug/kg; group 4--8 mg/kg; and group 5--16 mg/kg. Mean numbers of flukes recovered from 4 calves in each treatment group were as follows: group 1--112.2, group 2--42, group 3--4.8, group 4--3.0, and group 5--0.2. Percentages of fluke reductions for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 ( clorsulon -treated) calves were 62.6%, 95.7%, 97.3%, and 99.8%, respectively. Against naturally acquired mature (greater than 14-week-old) F hepatica infections (study B), a total of 161 flukes were recovered from 7 vehicle-treated control calves (group 6; mean fluke recovery = 23) and no flukes were recovered from 9 calves (group 7) given orally a formulation containing 7 mg of clorsulon /kg of body weight. Eggs were not found in the feces of clorsulon -treated calves at 20 to 21 days after treatment as compared with a mean of 7.4 eggs per gram (epg) in group 6 (control) calves. Mean bile egg recoveries were 13,532 (456 to 66,861) from group 6 calves as compared to recovery of a total of 162 (0 to 160) eggs from 3 of the 9 treated calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6732013

  19. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement. PMID:21869628

  20. Efficacy of glutamine-enriched enteral feeding formulae in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Azadeh; Yeganeh, Maryam Zarif; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Jambarsang, Sara; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Critically ill patients usually suffer from catabolic stress that could lead to malnutrition and nutritional support therefore is essential to maintain lean body mass, improve metabolic and immune response and decrease rate of mortality and comorbidity in these patients. This meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate effect of glutamineenriched enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. In order to obtain randomized clinical trial studies (RCTs), international databases including MEDLINE and Google scholar and also electronic resources in Iran, including IRAN MEDEX, IRAN DOC, SID, Magiran were systematically searched without language and publication restriction before December 2014. The final included number of studies for meta-analysis was 10. The methodological quality of eligible studies was assessed by four investigators using the Jadad 5-point scale, a scale containing three items describing randomization, blinding and fate of participants. We analyzed data from the included studies using STATA version 12.0, and calculated a pooled odds ratio for dichotomous data and mean differences for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no significant difference in mortality in elevated pooled odds ratios (p-value=0.070). A funnel plot was drawn for evaluation of publication bias, but none was found. The fixed effect model shows significant reduction in gut permeability in who received enteral feeding enriched with glutamine (-0.84, 95% CI=-1.25 to -0.44), moreover the funnel plot did not show publication bias. Based on the available data, our meta-analysis showed that enteral glutamine (Gln) supplementation increased mortality rate, though non-significantly, but decreased gut permeability significantly. PMID:27440684

  1. Stable isotope and pen feeding trial studies confirm the value of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs to spring migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Link, W.A.; Osenton, P.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Weber, R.G.; Clark, N.A.; Teece, M.A.; Mizrahi, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable isotope (SI) methods in combination with pen feeding trials to determine the importance of eggs of the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus to migratory fattening of red knots Calidris canutus rufa and ruddy turnstones Arenaria interpres morinella during spring stopover in Delaware Bay. By manifesting measurable fractionation (ca +3?) and rapid turnover, blood plasma *15 nitrogen proved a functional marker for SI diet tracking during the short 3-week stopover. Blood samples from free-ranging knots (3 data sets) and turnstones (1 data set) produced similar convergence of plasma *15 N signatures with increasing body mass that indicated highly similar diets. Asymptotes deviated slightly (0.3? to 0.7?) from that of captive shorebirds fed a diet of only crab eggs during stopover, thus confirming a strong crab egg-shorebird linkage. The plasma *15N crab-egg diet asymptote was enriched ca +4.5? and therefore readily discriminated from that of either blue mussels Mytilus edulis or coquina clams Donax variabilis, the most likely alternative prey of knots in Delaware Bay. Crab eggs were highly palatable to captive knots and turnstones which achieved rates of mass gain (3?11 g/d) comparable to that of free-ranging birds. Peak consumption rates during hyperphagic events were 23,940 and 19,360 eggs/bird/d, respectively. The empirical conversions of eggs consumed to body mass gained (5,017 eggs/g for knots and 4,320 eggs/g for turnstones) indicate the large quantities of crab eggs required for the maintenance of these shorebird populations during stopover.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid constituents collected at the atlanto-occipital site of xylazine hydrochloride sedated, healthy 8-week-old Holstein calves.

    PubMed Central

    St Jean, G; Yvorchuk-St Jean, K; Anderson, D E; Moore, W E

    1997-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported

  3. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  4. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner. PMID:25471318

  5. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  6. Efficacy of in-service nutrition training for mid-level providers to improve feeding practices among HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Feeding practices and child undernutrition can be improved when trained health workers provide proper nutrition counseling to caregivers. However, this important management component is difficult to achieve in countries where trained health workers are limited; Tanzania is no exception. In rural and semi-urban areas, mid-level providers (MLPs) are left to manage diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Training health workers in nutrition has been shown to be an effective intervention among HIV-negative children elsewhere, but no studies have been conducted among HIV-positive children. Furthermore, in Tanzania and other countries with MLPs, no evidence currently exists demonstrating an improvement in nutrition among children who receive health services given by MLPs. This study thus aims to examine the efficacy of nutrition training of MLPs on feeding practices and the nutrition status of HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial in care and treatment centers (CTCs) in Tanga, Tanzania. The CTCs will be the unit of randomization. We will select 16 CTCs out of 32 for this study, of which we will randomly assign 8 to the intervention arm and 8 to the control arm by coin flipping. From the selected CTCs we will attempt to recruit a total of 800 HIV-positive children aged 6 months to 14 years, half of whom will be receiving care and/or treatment in the CTCs of the intervention arm, and the other half of whom will be receiving care and/or treatment in the CTCs of the control arm (400 children in each condition). We will provide nutrition training to MLPs of the CTCs selected for the intervention arm. In this intervention, we will use the World Health Organization guidelines on nutrition training of health workers for HIV-positive children aged 6 months to 14 years. The trained MLPs will then provide tailored nutrition counseling to caregivers of children being treated at the 8 CTCs of the intervention arm

  7. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  8. Supplementary feeding with either ready-to-use fortified spread or corn-soy blend in wasted adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: Randomised, Investigator Blinded, Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the effect of two different food supplements on body mass index (BMI) in wasted Malawian adults with HIV who were starting antiretroviral therapy. A randomised, investigator blinded, controlled trial was used in a large, public clinic associated with a referral hospital in Blantyre, M...

  9. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  10. Red Light Stimulates Feeding Motivation in Fish but Does Not Improve Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bovi, Thais S.; de Freitas, Renato H. A.; da Silva, Danielle F.; Delicio, Helton C.; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2013-01-01

    Nile tilapia fish were individually reared under similar light levels for 8 weeks under five colored light spectra (maximum wavelength absorbance): white (full light spectrum), blue (∼452 nm), green (∼516 nm), yellow (∼520 nm) or red (∼628 nm). The effects of light on feeding, latency to begin feeding, growth and feed conversion were measured during the last 4 weeks of the study (i.e., after acclimation). We found that red light stimulates feeding, as in humans, most likely by affecting central control centers, but the extra feeding is not converted into growth. PMID:23516606

  11. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It has been suggested that perturbations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism are associated with insulin resistance and contribute to elevated systemic BCAAs. Evidence in rodents suggests dietary protein rich in BCAAs can increase BCAA catabolism, but there is limited evidence...

  12. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are correlated with insulin resistance. Reduction in the activity of branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activity and impaired complete mitochondrial BCAA catabolism may contribute to this phenoty...

  13. Recruitment and retention of minority participants in the DASH controlled feeding trial. DASH Collaborative Research Group. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, W M; Svetkey, L P; Appel, L J; Obarzanek, E; Reams, P; Kennedy, B; Aicher, K; Charleston, J; Conlin, P R; Evans, M; Harsha, D; Hertert, S

    1998-01-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute multicenter trial that compared the impact of three dietary patterns on blood pressure (BP) among adults with high normal blood pressure or mild (Stage I) hypertension. DASH's high minority representation (two-thirds of the 459 randomized participants came from minority populations, and 60% of the cohort were African American) offered a valuable opportunity to assess factors affecting minority enrollment and retention in clinical trials of lifestyle modification. Recruitment strategies included targeted mailings to specific groups, mass mailings, community and worksite screenings, and mass media advertising; the four DASH clinical centers also reimbursed participants from $150 to $160. The most productive recruitment strategies tended to be mass mailings directed at a broad audience that was weighted toward, but not limited to, minority participants. DASH's African-American participants overwhelmingly (89%) cited health and dietary factors, such as learning more about blood pressure and healthy eating habits, as their primary reason for participating, while only six percent listed the financial incentives as their primary reason for participating. Eighty-eight percent of African-American respondents reported they would participate again in a similar study. The insights from DASH should help inform future efforts to recruit minority participants. PMID:9681285

  14. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  15. Effects of preoperative feeding with a whey protein plus carbohydrate drink on the acute phase response and insulin resistance. A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged preoperative fasting increases insulin resistance and current evidence recommends carbohydrate (CHO) drinks 2 hours before surgery. Our hypothesis is that the addition of whey protein to a CHO-based drink not only reduces the inflammatory response but also diminish insulin resistance. Methods Seventeen patients scheduled to cholecystectomy or inguinal herniorraphy were randomized and given 474 ml and 237 ml of water (CO group) or a drink containing CHO and milk whey protein (CHO-P group) respectively, 6 and 3 hours before operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery and 24 hours afterwards for biochemical assays. The endpoints of the study were the insulin resistance (IR), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio. A 5% level for significance was established. Results There were no anesthetic or postoperative complications. The post-operative IR was lower in the CHO-P group when compared with the CO group (2.75 ± 0.72 vs 5.74 ± 1.16; p = 0.03). There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the PINI. The CHO-P group showed a decrease in the both CRP elevation and CRP/albumin ratio (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients who showed CRP/albumin ratio considered normal was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the CHO-P group (87.5%) than in the CO group (33.3%). Conclusions Shortening the pre-operative fasting using CHO and whey protein is safe and reduces insulin resistance and postoperative acute phase response in elective moderate operations. Trial registration ClinicalTrail.gov NCT01354249 PMID:21668975

  16. Clinical Trial of Erythropoietin in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kye Hee; Min, Kyunghoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, SunHee; An, SeongSoo A; Kim, MinYoung

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in young children with cerebral palsy aged between 6 months and 3 years. All participants received subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin and 8 weeks of rehabilitation therapy. Adverse events, changes of vital signs, and hematologic tests were monitored up to 8 weeks postinjection. Functional measures of development at 4 and 8 weeks postinjection were compared with baseline values, and improvements were compared with those of an age-matched historical control group. Nine participants completed the trial from June 2012 to February 2015. No adverse events were related to recombinant human erythropoietin. Erythropoiesis was noted, although within normal range. Functional improvements were observed in all participants (P < .05) and increases in motor function were higher in recombinant human erythropoietin group than the control group. Accordingly, recombinant human erythropoietin administration was safe without any significant adverse events and improved the functional outcomes in young children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27233796

  17. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  18. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  19. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  20. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  1. A Single-Center, Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Effects of Poly-Gamma-Glutamate on Human NK Cell Activity after an 8-Week Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ-PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ-PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ-PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  2. A single-center, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of poly-gamma-glutamate on human NK cell activity after an 8-week oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly- γ -glutamate ( γ -PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ -PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ -PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ -PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  3. Molecular characterization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA in Megalobrama amblycephala and effects on its expression of feeding status and dietary lipid and berberine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang-Le; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Wang, Li-Na; Xu, Wei-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC 2.3.1.21) controls the main regulatory step of fatty acid oxidation, and hence studies of its molecular characterization are useful to understand lipid metabolism in cultured fish. Here, a full-length cDNA coding CPT I was cloned from liver of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. This cDNA obtained covered 2499bp with an open reading frame of 2181bp encoding 726 amino acids. This CPT I mRNA predominantly expressed in heart and white muscle, while little in eye and spleen. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of sequence alignments among several vertebrate species suggests that this blunt snout bream CPT I sequence belongs to the CPT IA family. In order to investigate the characterization of CPT IA mRNA expression, post-prandial experiment and feeding trial were conducted. The results showed that CPT IA mRNA expression was unchanged from 2 to 12h, and then significantly increased at 24h post-feeding in liver and heart. Berberine, an alkaloid, was identified as a promising lipid-lowering drug. In order to elucidate the effect of berberine on CPT I expression, fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets (low-fat diet (LFD, 5% fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15% fat), and berberine-supplemented diet (BSD, 15% fat). The results showed that HFD could decrease the expression of CPT IA and PPARα, while BSD increased those expressions. PMID:26342959

  4. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp. PMID:26150295

  5. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  6. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers. PMID:23960108

  7. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  8. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  9. Extension trial of qigong for fibromyalgia: a quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, Jana; Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

  10. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

  11. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  12. Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

  13. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…

  14. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: Long-term follow-up of a randomized multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Burks, A. Wesley; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Fleischer, David M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Vickery, Brian P.; Liu, Andrew H.; Henning, Alice K.; Lindblad, Robert; Dawson, Peter; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported initial results of the first multi-center randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of peanut sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), observing a favorable safety profile associated with modest clinical and immunologic effects in the first year. Objective To provide long-term (3-year) clinical and immunologic outcomes for our peanut SLIT trial. Key endpoints: (1) percentage of responders at 2 years (could consume 5g of peanut powder or a 10-fold increase from baseline), 2) percentage reaching desensitization at 3 years, (3) percentage attaining sustained unresponsiveness after 3 years, (4) immunologic endpoints and (5) assessment of safety parameters. Methods Response to treatment was evaluated in 40 subjects aged 12-40 years by performing a 10g peanut powder oral food challenge (OFC) following 2 and 3 years of daily peanut SLIT therapy. At 3 years, SLIT was discontinued for 8 weeks followed by another 10g OFC, and an open feeding of peanut butter to assess sustained unresponsiveness. Results Approximately 98% of the 18,165 doses were tolerated without adverse reactions beyond the oropharynx, with no severe symptoms or uses of epinephrine. A high rate (>50%) discontinued therapy. By study end, 4/37 (10.8%) of SLIT treated participants were fully desensitized to 10g of peanut powder, and all 4 achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Responders at 2 years showed a significant decrease in peanut-specific basophil activation and skin prick test titration compared to non-responders. Conclusions Peanut SLIT induced a modest level of desensitization, decreased immunologic activity over 3 years in responders, and had an excellent long-term safety profile. However, most patients discontinued therapy by the end of year 3, and only 10.8% of subjects achieved sustained unresponsiveness. PMID:25656999

  15. Effects of temperature and feeding frequency on ingestion and growth for rare minnow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Benli; Luo, Si; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-03-01

    Water temperature and feeding frequency are two important components in feeding strategy that directly affect the growth and physiology of fishes. The rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) has been cultured for decades in the laboratory as an experimental fish and is widely used in environmental science research. An 8-week factorial feeding experiment was conducted on juvenile rare minnows to investigate the interaction between water temperature (ambient, 20, 24, 28°C) and feeding frequency (one, two, three meals per day) on growth performance, feed utilization, gut evacuation and adaptability to variable environmental conditions. Groups fed three times a day at 28°C attained the maximum final body weight, followed by those fed two times a day at 24°C. There was an obvious curvilinear relationship between specific growth rate and temperature. Increased temperature significantly promoted food consumption and growth rate, but there were no benefits on growth by feeding multiple times at temperatures of 18°C or lower. Temperature and feeding frequency also affected gut evacuation rates: high temperature and frequency lead to fast evacuation. These results show that the optimal temperature and feeding frequency for rare minnow is 24°C and two meals a day for maximal growth, feeding efficiency, and daily management. The findings also suggest that the rare minnow has the ability to rapidly adapt to changing culture conditions by adjusting physiological activities in the short term. PMID:25542891

  16. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  17. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  18. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  19. Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  20. Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to ...

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  3. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepesh Bharat; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Vinod; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Muneendra; Kushwaha, Raju; Vaswani, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental

  4. Sensitivity of the Modified Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale to Detect Change: Results from Two Multi-Site Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Anderberg, Emily; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Dziura, James; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James; Tierney, Elaine; Hallett, Victoria; Katz, Karol; Vitiello, Benedetto; McDougle, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. We used 8-week data from two federally funded, multi-site, randomized trials with risperidone conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network to evaluate the sensitivity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for autism…

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  6. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  7. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  8. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  9. Determinants of Retention in 8-Week-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Eleanor Vander; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eight-week-old infants learned to execute an operant footkick to produce crib mobile movement in one of two conditions: training duration on (1) varied within single session and (2) consistent across multiple sessions. Results, in contrast with data from 3-month-olds, demonstrated that conditions of original learning influence immediate and…

  10. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  11. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  12. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bingham, G M; Friend, T H; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E

    2009-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between RFI, feeding behavior, and other performance traits in growing heifers. Individual DMI was measured in Brangus heifers (n = 115) fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 2.0 Mcal/kg) for 70 d using Calan-gate feeders. Residual feed intake was computed as the residuals from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. Heifers with the greatest (least efficient, n = 18) and least (most efficient, n = 18) RFI were identified for quantification of feeding behavior traits. Continuous video recordings were obtained for all heifers during d 28 through d 56 of the 70-d feeding trial. Video data of 2 replications of four 24-h periods, 2 wk apart, were analyzed for the focal heifers. A head-down feeding event was defined as a heifer positioned in the feeder with her head lowered. A meal included all head-down feeding events that were separated by less than 300 s. The mean RFI for the high- and low-RFI heifers were 1.00 and -1.03 +/- 0.03 kg/d, respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 21.9% more (P < 0.0001) DM but had similar BW and ADG compared with low-RFI heifers. The high-RFI heifers spent less time in head-down feeding events per day (P < 0.0001; 124 vs. 152 +/- 4.3 min/d), consumed DM at a faster rate (99.6 vs. 62.8 +/- 3.3 g/min), and ate more often per day (119.1 vs. 90.5 +/- 3.9 head-down feeding events/d) compared with the low-RFI heifers; however, meal duration and frequency were not related to RFI. We conclude that feeding behavior related to head-down feeding events may be more useful as an indicator of RFI than the number of meal events. PMID:19395511

  13. Banana meal for feeding pigs: digestive utilization, growth performance and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Brochain, J; Giorgi, M; Bocage, B; Hery, M; Crantor, E; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Archimède, H

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of the present work was to determine the nutritional value and the strategies of using green banana meal (BM) in growing pigs. Two trials involving a total of 96 growing pigs were designed to study the effect of the harvest stage on the nutritional and energy values of BM (trial 1) and to evaluate the consequence of feeding gradual levels of BM on growth performance and feeding behavior in growing pigs (trial 2). In trial 1, the digestive utilization of three diets including 40% BM were compared with a control (C) soybean meal-corn diet in two batches of 12 pigs. BM was obtained from fruits harvested at 750 degrees-days (DD; early harvesting stage), 900 DD (normal harvesting stage) and 1150 DD (late harvesting stage). In trial 2, 72 Large White pigs were grouped in pens of nine animals and were given ad libitum access to one of the four dietary treatments (two pens/diet) differing from the rate of inclusion of 900 DD BM (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). The estimated energy apparent digestibility coefficients of BM increased with the harvest stage (75.5%, 80.7% and 83.2% for BM at 750, 900 and 1150 DD, respectively). Digestible energy and metabolizable energy values were higher for BM at 1150 DD (13.56 and 13.05 MJ/kg DM, respectively) than at 900 DD (13.11 and 12.75 MJ/kg DM, respectively) or at 750 DD (12.00 and 11.75 MJ/kg DM, respectively). In trial 2, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P>0.05) by the rate of BM inclusion (822 g/day and 2.75 kg/kg on average, respectively). Feed intake and feeding behavior parameters were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments except for the rate of feed ingestion with a lower value for the diet with 40% of BM (27.4 v. 32.2 g/min on average; P<0.01) when compared with the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the energy value of BM increases with the harvest stage and that BM can be incorporated up to 60% in growing finishing pig diets. PMID:24528838

  14. Towards an international standard for detection and typing botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia types A, B, E and F in food, feed and environmental samples: a European ring trial study to evaluate a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Fach, Patrick; van Rotterdam, Bart J; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Segerman, Bo; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Wielinga, Peter R; Woudstra, Cedric; Agren, Joakim; De Medici, Dario; Knutsson, Rickard

    2011-03-01

    A real-time PCR method for detection and typing of BoNT-producing Clostridia types A, B, E, and F was developed on the framework of the European Research Project "Biotracer". A primary evaluation was carried out using 104 strains and 17 clinical and food samples linked to botulism cases. Results showed 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative sensitivity, 100% relative specificity, and 100% selectivity (inclusivity on 73 strains and exclusivity on 31 strains) of the real-time PCR against the reference cultural method combined with the standard mouse bioassay. Furthermore, a ring trial study performed at four different European laboratories in Italy, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden was carried out using 47 strains, and 30 clinical and food samples linked to botulism cases. Results showed a concordance of 95.7% among the four laboratories. The reproducibility generated a relative standard deviation in the range of 2.18% to 13.61%. Considering the high level of agreement achieved between the laboratories, this real-time PCR is a suitable method for rapid detection and typing of BoNT-producing Clostridia in clinical, food and environmental samples and thus support the use of it as an international standard method. PMID:21353718

  15. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  16. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  17. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  18. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  19. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  20. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  1. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions. PMID:27352882

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  3. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong).

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (-52.3% [2.8%] vs -0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was -51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: -59.8% to -43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (-10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was -10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: -14.1 to -6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large pill burden. PMID

  4. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (−52.3% [2.8%] vs −0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was −51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: −59.8% to −43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (−10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was −10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: −14.1 to −6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large

  5. Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... of visits, and any adjustments to treatment. (back) Requirements for Participation Admission into a clinical trial is based on a rigid set of requirements. You must be diagnosed with the illness that ...

  6. Effects of whole and refined grains in a weight-loss diet on markers of metabolic syndrome in individuals with increased waist circumference: a randomized controlled-feeding trial123

    PubMed Central

    Harris Jackson, Kristina; West, Sheila G; Vanden Heuvel, John P; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Ross, Alastair B; Hill, Alison M; Grieger, Jessica A; Lemieux, Susan K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    AT loss and has modest effects on markers of MetS. WGs appear to be effective at normalizing blood glucose concentrations, especially in those individuals with prediabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00924521. PMID:24944054

  7. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  8. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  9. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  10. Responsive feeding: implications for policy and program implementation.

    PubMed

    Engle, Patrice L; Pelto, Gretel H

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  11. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  12. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  13. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  14. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  15. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  16. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  17. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  18. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  19. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  20. Evaluation of commercial marine fish feeds for production of juvenile cobia in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of feeding three commercially available diets manufactured by three U.S. feed companies on production characteristics and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was evaluated in a 57 d growth trial. Juvenile cobia (26.7 +...

  1. [Supplementation of swine feed rations with zeolite during cage rearing].

    PubMed

    Bartko, P; Chabada, J; Vrzgula, L; Solár, I; Blazovský, J

    1983-07-01

    The effect of the addition of zeolite to pig feed ration was studied in the cage rearing system under production conditions. Zeolite was mixed in the COS I and COS II feed mixtures directly in the feed plant, the mixing ratio being 100 kg feed mixture + 5 kg zeolite. The feed mixture was administered in granular form ad libitum. The test group had 648 weanlings and the control group 674 weanlings; the piglets, kept in two-story cages in four sections, were arranged so that the test group could be a mirror-like reflection of the control group. The trial lasted 45 days. The piglets given the fortified feed ration had daily weight gains higher by 0.017 kg and feed consumption lower by 0.234 kg per 1 kg of gain, as compared with the control animals. The costs of the feed ration required for producing a kilogram of gain were 8.55 Cz. crowns in the zeolite group and 9.422 crowns in the control group. PMID:6312666

  2. The Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jen

    2004-01-01

    Growing up in Flemington, New Jersey, put Jen Bryant in the heart of the lore behind the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Family stories of the events of the day and extensive research led to "The Trial," a novel in verse. The first several parts of this novel are included here.

  3. Variation in Feeding Practices Following the Norwood Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Pike, Nancy A.; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Zak, Victor; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Young-Borkowski, Lisa; Clabby, Martha L.; Nelson, Kathryn N.; Ohye, Richard G.; Trainor, Bethany; Uzark, Karen; Rudd, Nancy; Bannister, Louise; Korsin, Rosalind; Cooper, David S.; Pizarro, Christian; Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Bartle, Bronwyn H.; Williams, Richard V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess variation in feeding practice at Norwood discharge, factors associated with tube feeding, and associations between site, feeding mode, and growth prior to stage II. Study design From May 2005 to July 2008, 555 subjects from 15 centers were enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial; 432 survivors with Norwood discharge feeding data were analyzed. Results Demographic and clinical variables were compared among 4 feeding modes: oral only (n=140), oral/tube (n=195), nasogastric tube (N-tube) only (n=40), and gastrostomy tube (G-tube) only (n=57). There was significant variation in feeding mode among sites (oral only 0–81% and G-tube only 0–56%, p<0.01). After adjusting for site, multivariable modeling showed G-tube feeding at discharge was associated with longer hospitalization, and N-tube feeding was associated with greater number of discharge medications (R2=0.65, p<0.01). After adjusting for site, mean pre-stage II weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was significantly higher in the oral only group (−1.4) vs. the N-tube only (−2.2) and G-tube only (−2.1) groups (p=0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Feeding mode at Norwood discharge varied among sites. Prolonged hospitalization and greater number of medications at the time of Norwood discharge were associated with tube feeding. Infants exclusively fed orally had a higher WAZ pre-stage II than those fed exclusively by tube. Exploring strategies to prevent morbidities and promote oral feeding in this highest risk population is warranted. PMID:24210923

  4. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  5. Developing a trial burn plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter S.; Wong, Tony; Williams, Gary L.; Brintle, David G.

    1991-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to ensure that incineration facilities which treat hazardous wastes operate in an environmentally responsible manner. Under the requirements of RCRA, a trial burn must be conducted in order to obtain a fmalized operating permit. A trial burn is a test which determines whether an incinerator is capable of meeting or exceeding RCRA performance standards. If the standards are met, then the trial burn should identify the operating conditions necessary to ensure the incinerator's ability to meet or exceed the performance standards throughout the life of the permit. Development of the trial burn must incorporate interests of both the permit writer and the applicant. The permit writer wishes to obtain sufficient data necessary to establish the final permit conditions. The applicant wishes to obtain a final permit which allows the greatest flexibility of incinerator operating parameters. The areas of interest to be discussed, which allow the applicant and permit writer to achieve their goals, include understanding the problem, selecting a waste feed, choosing the principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), determining operating conditions, choosing appropriate sampling methods, and obtaining representative samples (QAIQC). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of what is required to develop a trial burn plan.

  6. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  7. Breast-feeding influences on later life--cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Leon, D A; Ronalds, G

    2009-01-01

    Current evidence, almost exclusively from observational studies, provides a rather mixed picture. From the few studies that have been able to look at fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events, there is little indication that breast-feeding is associated with either an increased or decreased risk. With respect to blood pressure, the meta-analyses suggest a small but statistically significant lowering of around 1 mmHg SBP associated with having been breast-fed in infancy. However, there is a strong indication from the meta-analyses that even this small effect may partly be accounted for by publication bias. The strongest evidence for an effect of breast-feeding reviewed in this chapter is for serum lipids, where there is good evidence that being breast-fed is associated with an increase in serum total cholesterol in infancy. In childhood there appears to be no association, while in adults there is some indication of breast-feeding being associated with a small decline in total cholesterol levels. As already outlined at the start of the chapter, this whole area of research is made particularly difficult by the fact that breast-feeding can be defined in many different ways. Some studies use definitions that are equivalent to exclusive breast-feeding prior to weaning, while others define it as having ever been breast-fed. This problem of classification is likely to dilute any real associations that may exist. The other major problem is one of interpretation. A result implying that breast-feeding is a "good thing" for cardiovascular health could equally be construed as evidence for a "bad" effect of bottle-feeding. From these data alone, we cannot convincingly determine which conclusion is correct. This is not simply a philosophical debating point. As discussed above in relation to the interpretation of results from the randomised trial of infant feeding, the issue has implications for all research on this topic. Some progress in this area will be made if studies are

  8. The Benefits of Breast Feeding.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Raanan

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is considered as the gold standard for infant feeding. Breastfeeding advantages extend beyond the properties of human milk itself. A complex of nutritional, environmental, socioeconomic, psychological as well as genetic interactions establish a massive list of benefits of breastfeeding to the health outcomes of the breastfed infant and to the breastfeeding mother. For this reason, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for about 6 months and should be continued as long as mutually desired by mother and child. The evidence in the literature on the effect of breastfeeding on health outcomes is based on observational studies due to the fact that it is unethical and practically impossible to randomize children to be breastfed or not. As such, multiple confounders cloud the evidence and one must base conclusions on the accumulating evidence when not contradictory and on the only intervention study, PROBIT (Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial). This review highlights some of the health outcomes related to breastfeeding such as the prevention of infections, the effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopmental outcome, obesity, allergy and celiac disease. Available evidence as well as some of the contradictory results is discussed. PMID:27336781

  9. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The long-established notion that apoptosis would be immunologically silent, and hence it would go unnoticed by the immune system, if not tolerogenic, and hence it would actively suppress immune responses, has recently been revisited. In some instances, indeed, cancer cells undergo apoptosis while emitting a spatiotemporally-defined combination of signals that renders them capable of eliciting a long-term protective antitumor immune response. Importantly, only a few anticancer agents can stimulate such an immunogenic cell death. These include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin, which are currently approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as mitoxantrone, which is being used in cancer therapy and against multiple sclerosis. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the progress of recent (initiated after January 2008) clinical trials evaluating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone. PMID:22720239

  10. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  11. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  12. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  13. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  14. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  15. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of hybridoma technology, dating back to 1975, monoclonal antibodies have become an irreplaceable diagnostic and therapeutic tool for a wide array of human diseases. During the last 15 years, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved by FDA for cancer therapy. These mAbs are designed to (1) activate the immune system against tumor cells, (2) inhibit cancer cell-intrinsic signaling pathways, (3) bring toxins in the close proximity of cancer cells, or (4) interfere with the tumor-stroma interaction. More recently, major efforts have been made for the development of immunostimulatory mAbs that either enhance cancer-directed immune responses or limit tumor- (or therapy-) driven immunosuppression. Some of these antibodies, which are thought to facilitate tumor eradication by initiating or sustaining a tumor-specific immune response, have already entered clinical trials. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the clinical progress of the most important mAbs that are have entered clinical trials after January 2008. PMID:22720209

  16. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Somdat; Baer, David J; Johnson, Laura L; Dorgan, Joanne F; Campbell, William; Brown, Ellen; Hartman, Terryl J; Clevidence, Beverly; Albanes, Demetrius; Judd, Joseph T; Taylor, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d) for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels. Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion. PMID:15353002

  17. Have Recent Vertebroplasty Trials Changed the Indications for Vertebroplasty?

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi, Afshin; Clark, William A.

    2010-08-15

    Two different investigators in the New England Journal of Medicine recently published two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of vertebroplasty for painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In their results, both investigators concluded that there was no significant difference in pain relief between the vertebroplasty group and control group 1 month after treatment. The trials described a different patient cohort from the one we treat with vertebroplasty. Both enrolled patients had back pain for {<=}12 months. This duration of pain was far too long for a vertebroplasty trial, resulting in parallel trials of vertebroplasty on healed fractures. Where a study is needed, it should be comprised of patients with acute osteoporotic compression fractures, particularly those who are hospitalized or bedridden because of the pain of such fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging was not systematically performed before vertebroplasty, and inpatients were excluded. Inpatients with acute fracture pain are the group most likely to respond well to vertebroplasty. Enrolment was a problem in both trials. Randomization in both RCTs took >4 years for completion. We advise that vertebroplasty be offered to patients with recent fractures <8 weeks old who have uncontrolled pain as well as patients progressing to osteonecrosis and the intravertebral vacuum phenomenon (Kummels disease). The availability of recent MRI scanning is also critical to proper patient selection.

  18. Duration of luteal support (DOLS) with progesterone pessaries to improve the success rates in assisted conception: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Luteal support with progesterone is necessary for successful implantation of the embryo following egg collection and embryo transfer in an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Progesterone has been used for as little as 2 weeks and for as long as 12 weeks of gestation. The optimal length of treatment is unresolved at present and it remains unclear how long to treat women receiving luteal supplementation. Design The trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of the duration of luteal support with progesterone in IVF cycles. Following 2 weeks standard treatment and a positive biochemical pregnancy test, this randomized control trial will allocate women to a supplementary 8 weeks treatment with vaginal progesterone or 8 weeks placebo. Further studies would be required to investigate whether additional supplementation with progesterone is beneficial in early pregnancy. Discussion Currently at the Hewitt Centre, approximately 32.5% of women have a positive biochemical pregnancy test 2 weeks after embryo transfer. It is this population that is eligible for trial entry and randomization. Once the patient has confirmed a positive urinary pregnancy test they will be invited to join the trial. Once the consent form has been completed by the patient a trial prescription sheet will be sent to pharmacy with a stated collection time. The patient can then be randomized and the drugs dispensed according to pharmacy protocol. A blood sample will then be drawn for measurement of baseline hormone levels (progesterone, estradiol, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, Activin A, Inhibin A and Inhibin B). The primary outcome measure is the proportion of all randomized women that continue successfully to a viable pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart rate >100 beats/minute) on transabdominal/transvaginal ultrasound at 10 weeks post embryo transfer/12 weeks gestation

  19. Feeding Neonates by Cup: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Christy M; Glass, Robin P; Coffey, Patricia; Rue, Tessa; Vaughn, Matthew G; Cunningham, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Objective WHO and UNICEF recommend cup feeding for neonates unable to breastfeed in low-resource settings. In developed countries, cup feeding in lieu of bottle feeding in the neonatal period is hypothesized to improve breastfeeding outcomes for those initially unable to breastfeed. Our aim was to synthesize the entire body of evidence on cup feeding. Methods We searched domestic and international databases for original research. Our search criteria required original data on cup feeding in neonates published in English between January 1990 and December 2014. Results We identified 28 original research papers. Ten were randomized clinical trials, 7 non-randomized intervention studies, and 11 observational studies; 11 were conducted in developing country. Outcomes evaluated included physiologic stability, safety, intake, duration, spillage, weight gain, any and exclusive breastfeeding, length of hospital stay, compliance, and acceptability. Cup feeding appears to be safe though intake may be less and spillage greater relative to bottle or tube feeding. Overall, slightly higher proportions of cup fed versus bottle fed infants report any breastfeeding; a greater proportion of cup fed infants reported exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and beyond. Cup feeding increases breastfeeding in subgroups (e.g. those who intend to breastfeed or women who had a Caesarean section). Compliance and acceptability is problematic in certain settings. Conclusions Further research on long-term breastfeeding outcomes and in low-resource settings would be helpful. Research data on high risk infants (e.g. those with cleft palates) would be informative. Innovative cup feeding approaches to minimize spillage, optimize compliance, and increase breastfeeding feeding are needed. PMID:27016350

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F Versus Acitretin in Moderate to Severe Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Shu, Dan; Li, Feng; He, Chun-Xia; Qiao, Ju; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Ying; He, Yi-Bo; Liu, Tie-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) compared with acitretin in psoriasis. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of TwHF compared with acitretin in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris. Methods: Adults with Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score ≥ 10 and psoriasis-affected body surface area ≥ 10% were randomized into a TwHF (20 mg, 3 times a day) or acitretin group (30 mg, once a day). The treatment course lasted for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Laboratory tests were performed at baseline, week 4, and week 8. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: A total of 115 patients was enrolled (58 TwHF; 57 acitretin). The median PASI score improved in the TwHF group by 50.4% and in the acitretin group by 42.7%. There was no significant difference in median PASI improvement between two groups at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. There was also no significant difference in PASI 25, PASI 50, PASI 75, and PASI 90 response between the two groups at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. There was a significant increase in the level of aspartate transaminase and triglycerides in the TwHF group (P = 0.026 and P = 0.011, respectively). In the acitretin group, there was a significant increase in the level of alanine transaminase, cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.030, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the TwHF and acitretin groups within 8 weeks, but there were fewer treatment-related adverse events in the TwHF group. PMID:25673443

  1. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  2. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  3. Effectiveness of a nurse educational oral feeding programme on feeding outcomes in neonates: protocol for an interrupted time series design

    PubMed Central

    Touzet, Sandrine; Beissel, Anne; Denis, Angélique; Pillet, Fabienne; Gauthier-Moulinier, Hélène; Hommey, Sophie; Claris, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral feeding is a complex physiological process. Several scales have been developed to assess the ability of the neonate to begin suck feedings and assist caregivers in determining feeding advancement. However, feeding premature neonates remains an ongoing challenge and depends above all on caregivers' feeding expertise. We will evaluate the effect of a nurse training programme on the achievement of full oral feeding with premature neonates. Methods and analysis The study design will be an interrupted time series design with 3 phases: (1) A 6-month baseline period; (2) a 22-month intervention period and (3) a 6-month postintervention period. The intervention will consist of an educational programme, for nurses and assistant nurses, on feeding patterns in neonates. The training modules will be composed of a 2-day conference, 2 interactive multidisciplinary workshops, and routine practice nurse coaching. A total of 120 nurses and 12 assistant nurses, who work at the neonatal unit during the study period, will participate in the study. All premature neonates of <34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) will be included. The primary outcome will be the age of tube withdrawal PMA and chronological age are taken into account. The secondary outcomes will be the transition time, length of hospital stay, competent suckle feeding without cardiorespiratory compromise, rate of neonates presenting with feeding issues or feeding rejection signs, and current neonatal pathologies or deaths during hospital stay. A segmented regression analysis will be performed to assess the impact of the programme. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics Committee, and the Institutional Review Board, as well as the French Data Protection Agency. The findings from the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events. Trial registration number NCT02404272 (https

  4. Effects of predator fecal odors on feed selection by sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Müller-Schwarze, D; Balph, D F

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness of predator fecal odors in modifying feeding selection by sheep and cattle was investigated in two trials. In trial 1, animals could select from feed bins contaminated with coyote, fox, cougar, or bear fecal odor, and oil of wintergreen, or select the control feed. All odors were rejected (P<0.01) by sheep and cattle, except bear odors by sheep. In trial 2, animals could select feed during 10-min periods in an open 11-m × 16-m arena. Fecal odor did not influence approaches to feed bins, or head entries into bins. Only coyote fecal odor reduced (P<0.05) the time spent feeding in the contaminated bin, and increased (P<0.05) consumption from the control bin by both cattle and sheep. Some animals on some test days refused to feed from either feed bin, although cattle and sheep closely inspected bins. Results suggest that fecal odors may not prevent livestock from entering a treated area but may reduce the time spent grazing in such an area. PMID:24263512

  5. Influence of flavor on goat feeding preferences.

    PubMed

    De, Rosa G; Moio, L; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Gubitosi, L; Bordi, A

    2002-02-01

    Goat feeding preferences for straw pellets flavored with ryegrass (Lolium perenne, cv. Belida) or white clover (Trifolium repens, cv. Huia) aromatic extracts, obtained by means of a cold aromatic extraction method, were assessed with cafeteria trials. Prior to the trials, odor differences between the two plant species, the two aromatic extracts, and the straw pellets sprayed with the two aromatic extracts were verified using sensory analysis performed by 30 human panelists. Since odor differences observed among fresh samples were still detectable in aromatic extracts and moistened pellets, the extraction method was considered effective in reproducing plant odors. Straw pellets sprayed with either distilled water (W) or ryegrass (R) or clover (C) aromatic extracts were used to assess flavor preferences of 12 female Rossa Mediterranea goats. Sprayed pellet preference was evaluated in two sessions conducted in two consecutive weeks. Each session consisted of three two-choice presentations performed on three consecutive days. In both sessions, food intake, proportion of food intake, time spent feeding, and proportion of time spent feeding were significantly affected by pellet type (0.05 > P > 0.001). In particular, straw pellets sprayed with ryegrass extract were highly selected compared to those sprayed with clover (0.01 > P > 0.001) or water (0.01 > P > 0.001). In addition, in the second session, the clover extract was preferred to distilled water (0.05 > P > 0.01). The results of this study gave two main indications: first, goat selectivity for rye-grass against clover was consistent even when straw pellets sprayed with odors of these plants were offered, and secondly, the addition of aromatic extracts to straw pellets increased the preference for pellets. PMID:11925067

  6. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  7. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  8. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exert antineoplastic effects by eliciting a novel or reinstating a pre-existing antitumor immune response. Most often, immunostimulatory mAbs activate T lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells by inhibiting immunosuppressive receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1), or by engaging co-stimulatory receptors, like CD40, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4, best known as OX40) or TNFRSF18 (best known as GITR). The CTLA4-targeting mAb ipilimumab has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma in 2011. The therapeutic profile of ipilimumab other CTLA4-blocking mAbs, such as tremelimumab, is currently being assessed in subjects affected by a large panel of solid neoplasms. In the last few years, promising clinical results have also been obtained with nivolumab, a PD-1-targeting mAb formerly known as BMS-936558. Accordingly, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and other PD-1-blocking molecules are being actively investigated. Finally, various clinical trials are underway to test the therapeutic potential of OX40- and GITR-activating mAbs. Here, we summarize recent findings on the therapeutic profile of immunostimulatory mAbs and discuss clinical trials that have been launched in the last 14 months to assess the therapeutic profile of these immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:24701370

  9. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have first been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLRs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLR agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. Imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLR agonists as off-label medications for cancer therapy. PMID:23162757

  10. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, for the first time in history, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), i.e., the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of mAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has not stopped to expand, nowadays encompassing a stunning amount of 15 distinct molecules. This therapeutic armamentarium includes mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens, as well as molecules that interfere with tumor-stroma interactions or exert direct immunostimulatory effects. These three classes of mAbs exert antineoplastic activity via distinct mechanisms, which may or may not involve immune effectors other than the mAbs themselves. In previous issues of OncoImmunology, we provided a brief scientific background to the use of mAbs, all types confounded, in cancer therapy, and discussed the results of recent clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach. Here, we focus on mAbs that primarily target malignant cells or their interactions with stromal components, as opposed to mAbs that mediate antineoplastic effects by activating the immune system. In particular, we discuss relevant clinical findings that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of hitherto investigational tumor-targeting mAbs. PMID:24605265

  11. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    It is now clear that the immune system plays a critical role not only during oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also as established neoplastic lesions respond to therapy. Selected cytotoxic chemicals can indeed elicit immunogenic cell death, a functionally peculiar type of apoptosis that stimulates tumor-specific cognate immune responses. Such immunogenic chemotherapeutics include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin (which are approved by FDA for the treatment of various hematological and solid malignancies), mitoxantrone (which is currently employed both as an anticancer agent and against multiple sclerosis) and patupilone (a microtubular poison in clinical development). One year ago, in the second issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the scientific rationale behind immunogenic chemotherapy and reviewed the status of recent clinical trials investigating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this area of clinical research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of immunogenic chemotherapeutics. PMID:23687621

  12. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; p<0.05) and -2.84 mmHg (CI, -5.33 to -0.33 mmHg; p<0.05), respectively, after the 8-week intervention. The corresponding net change in renin activity was -1.17 ng/mL/h for the nattokinase group compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, nattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension. PMID:18971533

  13. Feeding kinematics, suction, and hydraulic jetting performance of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Wieskotten, Sven; Hanke, Wolf; Hanke, Frederike D; Marsh, Alyssa; Kot, Brian; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01) than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s). Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events) compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land). Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001) and gape angle (12.9±2.02°), pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm) and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001) and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their opportunistic

  14. Feeding Kinematics, Suction, and Hydraulic Jetting Performance of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Wieskotten, Sven; Hanke, Wolf; Hanke, Frederike D.; Marsh, Alyssa; Kot, Brian; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01) than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s). Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events) compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land). Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001) and gape angle (12.9±2.02°), pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm) and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001) and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their opportunistic

  15. Mortality in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or with purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Bennett, G A; Richard, J L; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1993-09-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight male chicks (Columbia x New Hampshire) were given feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum Containing fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and moniliformin in 3 separate feeding trials. Purified FB1 and moniliformin were given separately and in combination in a fourth feeding trial. Birds were given amended rations at day 1 (Trial 1 and 4), day 7 (Trial 2), and day 21 (Trial 3) and their respective ration was given for 28 days (Trial 1), 21 days (Trial 2), 7 days (Trial 3), and 14 days (Trial 4). FB1 concentrations were 546, 193, and 61 ppm; FB2 were 98, 38 and 14 ppm; and moniliformin were 367, 193, and 66 ppm in the first 3 feeding trial regimens. Chicks in Trial 4 were given dietary concentrations of purified FB1 at 274 and 125 ppm, and moniliformin at 154 and 27 ppm. FB1 and moniliformin, both alone and in combination, produced dose-responsive clinical signs, reduced weight gains and mortality in chicks. Age of birds given amended feeds had little difference in the clinical response; however, those given the rations from days 7 or 21 were slightly less susceptible than those given rations beginning at 1 day of age. Additive effects were noted when the toxins were given in combination. When toxins were given separately, adverse effects took longer to occur. A system to monitor pattern and rate of defecation (RD) was developed for assessing the chicks' approach to feed, water and heat source as illness progressed. Our results indicate that chicks fed corn heavily infected with F. proliferatum under field conditions could suffer acute death similar to that described for 'spiking mortality syndrome' during the first 3 weeks of age. PMID:8302366

  16. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  17. How Do Clinical Trials Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Clinical Trial Websites How Do Clinical Trials Work? If you take part in a clinical trial, ... kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial is led by a principal investigator ( ...

  18. Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial, N07C2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Safe, effective interventions to improve cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are needed because it remains a prevalent, distressing, and activity-limiting symptom. Based on pilot data, a phase III trial was developed to evaluate the efficacy of American ginseng on CRF. Methods A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the general subscale of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form (MFSI-SF) at 4 weeks. Changes from baseline at 4 and 8 weeks were evaluated between arms by a two-sided, two-sample t test. Toxicities were evaluated by self-report and the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) provider grading. Results Three hundred sixty-four participants were enrolled from 40 institutions. Changes from baseline in the general subscale of the MFSI-SF were 14.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 27.1) in the ginseng arm vs 8.2 (SD = 24.8) in the placebo arm at 4 weeks (P = .07). A statistically significant difference was seen at 8 weeks with a change score of 20 (SD = 27) for the ginseng group and 10.3 (SD = 26.1) for the placebo group (P = .003). Greater benefit was reported in patients receiving active cancer treatment vs those who had completed treatment. Toxicities per self-report and CTCAE grading did not differ statistically significantly between arms. Conclusions Data support the benefit of American ginseng, 2000mg daily, on CRF over an 8-week period. There were no discernible toxicities associated with the treatment. Studies to increase knowledge to guide the role of ginseng to improve CRF are needed. PMID:23853057

  19. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) represents a prominent form of immunotherapy against malignant diseases. ACT is conceptually distinct from dendritic cell-based approaches (which de facto constitute cellular vaccines) and allogeneic transplantation (which can be employed for the therapy of hematopoietic tumors) as it involves the isolation of autologous lymphocytes exhibiting antitumor activity, their expansion/activation ex vivo and their reintroduction into the patient. Re-infusion is most often performed in the context of lymphodepleting regimens (to minimize immunosuppression by host cells) and combined with immunostimulatory interventions, such as the administration of Toll-like receptor agonists. Autologous cells that are suitable for ACT protocols can be isolated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or generated by engineering their circulating counterparts for the expression of transgenic tumor-specific T-cell receptors. Importantly, lymphocytes can be genetically modified prior to re-infusion for increasing their persistence in vivo, boosting antitumor responses and minimizing side effects. Moreover, recent data indicate that exhausted antitumor T lymphocytes may be rejuvenated in vitro by exposing them to specific cytokine cocktails, a strategy that might considerably improve the clinical success of ACT. Following up the Trial Watch that we published on this topic in the third issue of OncoImmunology (May 2012), here we summarize the latest developments in ACT-related research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of this form of cellular immunotherapy. PMID:23762803

  20. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of several neoplasms. The term “oncolytic viruses” is generally employed to indicate naturally occurring or genetically engineered attenuated viral particles that cause the demise of malignant cells while sparing their non-transformed counterparts. From a conceptual standpoint, oncolytic viruses differ from so-called “oncotropic viruses” in that only the former are able to kill cancer cells, even though both display a preferential tropism for malignant tissues. Of note, such a specificity can originate at several different steps of the viral cycle, including the entry of virions (transductional specificity) as well as their intracellular survival and replication (post-transcriptional and transcriptional specificity). During the past two decades, a large array of replication-competent and replication-incompetent oncolytic viruses has been developed and engineered to express gene products that would specifically promote the death of infected (cancer) cells. However, contrarily to long-standing beliefs, the antineoplastic activity of oncolytic viruses is not a mere consequence of the cytopathic effect, i.e., the lethal outcome of an intense, productive viral infection, but rather involves the elicitation of an antitumor immune response. In line with this notion, oncolytic viruses genetically modified to drive the local production of immunostimulatory cytokines exert more robust therapeutic effects than their non-engineered counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is significantly improved by some extent of initial immunosuppression (facilitating viral replication and spread) followed by the administration of immunostimulatory molecules (boosting antitumor immune responses). In this Trial Watch, we will discuss the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and antineoplastic potential of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:23894720

  1. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner’s work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  2. Qigong and fibromyalgia: randomized controlled trials and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, Jana; Lynch, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Qigong is currently considered as meditative movement, mindful exercise, or complementary exercise and is being explored for relief of symptoms in fibromyalgia. Aim. This narrative review summarizes randomized controlled trials, as well as additional studies, of qigong published to the end of 2013 and discusses relevant methodological issues. Results. Controlled trials indicate regular qigong practice (daily, 6-8 weeks) produces improvements in core domains for fibromyalgia (pain, sleep, impact, and physical and mental function) that are maintained at 4-6 months compared to wait-list subjects or baselines. Comparisons with active controls show little difference, but compared to baseline there are significant and comparable effects in both groups. Open-label studies provide information that supports benefit but remain exploratory. An extension trial and case studies involving extended practice (daily, 6-12 months) indicate marked benefits but are limited by the number of participants. Benefit appears to be related to amount of practice. Conclusions. There is considerable potential for qigong to be a useful complementary practice for the management of fibromyalgia. However, there are unique methodological challenges, and exploration of its clinical potential will need to focus on pragmatic issues and consider a spectrum of trial designs. Mechanistic considerations need to consider both system-wide and more specific effects. PMID:25477991

  3. Hydrocracker feeds olefin unit

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, A.G.

    1986-11-01

    An ethylene plant integrated with a selective hydrocracker in a complex refinery can give an attractive payout, bearing in mind that results depend on the refinery's configuration and business environment. Feedstock and operating conditions are more flexible from only a moderate investment, particularly that to modify the steam cracker. Total product upgrading is high. Low grade vacuum-flashed distillates passed through a selective hydrocracker produce hydrogenated residue (hydrowax) having a value close to a naphtha as a feed to a steam cracker. The technology and economics of the concept are confirmed in a large industrial installations.

  4. Effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates’ weight gain and reaching full oral feeding time interval

    PubMed Central

    Marofi, Maryam; Abedini, Fatemeh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Talakoub, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature neonates’ feeding is of great importance due to its effective role in their growth. These neonates should reach an independent oral nutrition stage before being discharged from the Neonatal Intensive care Unit. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates’ weight gain and their reaching full oral feeding time interval. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial with a quantitative design conducted on 69 premature infants (gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks) who were assigned to cup (n = 34) and palady (n = 35) feeding groups through random allocation. The first feeding was administrated either by cup or palady method in each shift within seven sequential days (total of 21 cup and palady feedings). Then, the rest of feeding was administrated by gavage. Results: Mean hospitalization time (cup = 39.01 and palady = 30.4; P < 0.001) and mean time interval to reach full oral feeding (cup = 33.7 and palady = 24.1; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in palady group compared to cup group. Mean weight changes of neonates 7 weeks after the intervention compared to those in the beginning of the intervention were significantly more in palady group compared to the cup group (cup = 146.7 and palady = 198.8; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The neonates in palady group reached full oral feeding earlier than those of cup group. Subjects’ weight gain was also higher in palady group compared to the cup group. Premature neonates with over 30 weeks of gestational age and physiological stability can be fed by palady. PMID:27095996

  5. Study of therapeutic hypothermia (32 to 35°C) for intracranial pressure reduction after traumatic brain injury (the Eurotherm3235Trial): outcome of the pilot phase of the trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical trials in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are challenging. Previous trials of complex interventions were conducted in high-income countries, reported long lead times for site setup and low screened-to-recruitment rates. In this report we evaluate the internal pilot phase of an international, multicentre TBI trial of a complex intervention to assess: design and implementation of an online case report form; feasibility of recruitment (sites and patients); feasibility and effectiveness of delivery of the protocol. Methods All aspects of the pilot phase of the trial were conducted as for the main trial. The pilot phase had oversight by independent Steering and Data Monitoring committees. Results Forty sites across 12 countries gained ethical approval. Thirty seven of 40 sites were initiated for recruitment. Of these, 29 had screened patients and 21 randomized at least one patient. Lead times to ethics approval (6.8 weeks), hospital approval (18 weeks), interest to set up (61 weeks), set up to screening (11 weeks), and set up to randomization (31.6 weeks) are comparable with other international trials. Sixteen per cent of screened patients were eligible. We found 88% compliance rate with trial protocol. Conclusion The pilot data demonstrated good feasibility for this large international multicentre randomized controlled trial of hypothermia to control intracranial pressure. The sample size was reduced to 600 patients because of homogeneity of the patient group and we showed an optimized cooling intervention could be delivered. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN34555414. PMID:24004918

  6. Mitigation of methane production from cattle by feeding cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, T; Enishi, O; Mitsumori, M; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Takenaka, A; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Kobayashi, Y

    2012-09-01

    The effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) feeding on methane production and rumen fermentation were investigated by repeatedly using 3 Holstein nonlactating cows with rumen fistulas. The cows were fed a concentrate and hay diet (6:4 ratio) for 4 wk (control period) followed by the same diet with a CNSL-containing pellet for the next 3 wk (CNSL period). Two trials were conducted using CNSL pellets blended with only silica (trial 1) or with several other ingredients (trial 2). Each pellet type was fed to cows to allow CNSL intake at 4 g/100 kg of body weight per day. Methane production was measured in a respiration chamber system, and energy balance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen microbial changes were monitored. Methane production per unit of dry matter intake decreased by 38.3 and 19.3% in CNSL feeding trials 1 and 2, respectively. Energy loss as methane emission decreased from 9.7 to 6.1% (trial 1) and from 8.4 to 7.0% (trial 2) with CNSL feeding, whereas the loss to feces (trial 1) and heat production (trial 2) increased. Retained energy did not differ between the control and CNSL periods. Digestibility of dry matter and gross energy decreased with CNSL feeding in trial 1, but did not differ in trial 2. Feeding CNSL caused a decrease in acetate and total short-chain fatty acid levels and an increase in propionate proportion in both trials. Relative copy number of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene and its expression decreased with CNSL feeding. The relative abundance of fibrolytic or formate-producing species such as Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Treponema bryantii decreased, but species related to propionate production, including Prevotella ruminicolla, Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, increased. If used in a suitable formulation, CNSL acts as a potent methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent through the alteration of rumen microbiota without adversely

  7. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  8. Stroke Trials Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2011 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  9. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related tospontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure age on foaming characteristics. Animals were f...

  10. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure age on foaming characteristics. Animals were f...

  11. Effects of Aversive Stimuli beyond Defensive Neural Circuits: Reduced Excitability in an Identified Neuron Critical for Feeding in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields-Johnson, Maria E.; Hernandez, John S.; Torno, Cody; Adams, Katherine M.; Wainwright, Marcy L.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    In "Aplysia," repeated trials of aversive stimuli produce long-term sensitization (LTS) of defensive reflexes and suppression of feeding. Whereas the cellular underpinnings of LTS have been characterized, the mechanisms of feeding suppression remained unknown. Here, we report that LTS training induced a long-term decrease in the excitability of…

  12. Cognitive Stimulation in Patients with Dementia: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Daniela; Di Rosa, Elisa; Nocita, Rosaria; Sava, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study explores the effective outcomes of a structured cognitive stimulation treatment to improve cognition and behavioral symptoms in people with dementia (PWDs), using a randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods Thirty PWDs were divided into three groups: experimental (treated with cognitive stimulation), placebo (treated with occupational therapy), and control (continuing with the usual activities of the nursing home). Assessment, at baseline and after a period of 8 weeks, was performed using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, activities of daily living, Mini-Mental State Examination, Esame Neuropsicologico Breve 2, Geriatric Depression Scale and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Scale. Results Only the experimental group improved its performance in cognitive tests (p < 0.05) and showed a significant decrease in behavioral symptoms (p < 0.01) after the treatment. Conclusions The results suggest that a cognitive stimulation treatment for PWDs would improve not only their cognition, but also behavioral symptoms. PMID:24052800

  13. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David

    2012-02-29

    Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials. PMID:22276647

  14. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, dozens—if not hundreds—of monoclonal antibodies have been developed and characterized for their capacity to mediate antineoplastic effects, either as they activate/enhance tumor-specific immune responses, either as they interrupt cancer cell-intrinsic signal transduction cascades, either as they specifically delivery toxins to malignant cells or as they block the tumor-stroma interaction. Such an intense research effort has lead to the approval by FDA of no less than 14 distinct molecules for use in humans affected by hematological or solid malignancies. In the inaugural issue of OncoImmunology, we briefly described the scientific rationale behind the use of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy and discussed recent, ongoing clinical studies investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach in patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of clinical research, focusing on high impact studies that have been published during the last 15 months and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of promising, yet hitherto investigational, monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23482847

  15. Trial Watch:

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Cremer, Isabelle; Erbs, Philippe; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Preville, Xavier; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are natural or genetically modified viral species that selectively infect and kill neoplastic cells. Such an innate or exogenously conferred specificity has generated considerable interest around the possibility to employ oncolytic viruses as highly targeted agents that would mediate cancer cell-autonomous anticancer effects. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy is not a simple consequence of the cytopathic effect, but strongly relies on the induction of an endogenous immune response against transformed cells. In line with this notion, superior anticancer effects are being observed when oncolytic viruses are engineered to express (or co-administered with) immunostimulatory molecules. Although multiple studies have shown that oncolytic viruses are well tolerated by cancer patients, the full-blown therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy, especially when implemented in the absence of immunostimulatory interventions, remains unclear. Here, we cover the latest advances in this active area of translational investigation, summarizing high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and discussing clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy in oncological indications. PMID:25097804

  16. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Hervé Fridman, Wolf; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the possibility that preparations capable of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses would mediate robust therapeutic effects in cancer patients has received renovated interest. In this context, several approaches to vaccinate cancer patients against their own malignancies have been conceived, including the administration of DNA constructs coding for one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Such DNA-based vaccines conceptually differ from other types of gene therapy in that they are not devised to directly kill cancer cells or sensitize them to the cytotoxic activity of a drug, but rather to elicit a tumor-specific immune response. In spite of an intense wave of preclinical development, the introduction of this immunotherapeutic paradigm into the clinical practice is facing difficulties. Indeed, while most DNA-based anticancer vaccines are well tolerated by cancer patients, they often fail to generate therapeutically relevant clinical responses. In this Trial Watch, we discuss the latest advances on the use of DNA-based vaccines in cancer therapy, discussing the literature that has been produced around this topic during the last 13 months as well as clinical studies that have been launched in the same time frame to assess the actual therapeutic potential of this intervention. PMID:24800178

  17. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Michaela; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients affected by multiple myeloma (in combination with dexamethasone) and low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndromes that harbor 5q cytogenetic abnormalities. For illustrative purposes, the mechanism of action of lenalidomide can be subdivided into a cancer cell-intrinsic, a stromal, and an immunological component. Indeed, lenalidomide not only exerts direct cell cycle-arresting and pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells, but also interferes with their physical and functional interaction with the tumor microenvironment and mediates a robust, pleiotropic immunostimulatory activity. In particular, lenalidomide has been shown to stimulate the cytotoxic functions of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, to limit the immunosuppressive impact of regulatory T cells, and to modulate the secretion of a wide range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12. Throughout the last decade, the antineoplastic and immunostimulatory potential of lenalidomide has been investigated in patients affected by a wide variety of hematological and solid malignancies. Here, we discuss the results of these studies and review the status of clinical trials currently assessing the safety and efficacy of this potent immunomodulatory drug in oncological indications. PMID:24482747

  18. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Bloy, Norma; Pol, Jonathan; Manic, Gwenola; Vitale, Ilio; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, it has become increasingly clear that the antineoplastic effects of radiation therapy do not simply reflect the ability of X-, β- and γ-rays to damage transformed cells and directly cause their permanent proliferative arrest or demise, but also involve cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Indeed, among other activities, radiotherapy has been shown to favor the establishment of tumor-specific immune responses that operate systemically, underpinning the so-called ‘out-of-field’ or ‘abscopal’ effect. Thus, ionizing rays appear to elicit immunogenic cell death, a functionally peculiar variant of apoptosis associated with the emission of a particularly immunostimulatory combination of damage-associated molecular patterns. In line with this notion, radiation therapy fosters, and thus exacerbates, the antineoplastic effects of various treatment modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy and various immunotherapeutic agents. Here, we summarize recent advances in the use of ionizing rays as a means to induce or potentiate therapeutically relevant anticancer immune responses. In addition, we present clinical trials initiated during the past 12 months to test the actual benefit of radioimmunotherapy in cancer patients. PMID:25941606

  19. Intermittent feeding attenuates clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kafami, Laya; Raza, Mohsin; Razavi, Alireza; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Movahedian, Mansooreh; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory, demyelinating disease of human central nervous system. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the commonly used animal model of MS. Calorie restriction has been found to reduce inflammation and autoimmune responses and promote neuroprotection. In this study we evaluated the effects of intermittent feeding protocol of the calorie restriction in a mouse model of EAE. Fifty four female mice (C57BL/6) were used in this study. The animals were divided into two dietary groups: ad libitum (AL) (n = 29) with free access to food and water and intermittent feeding (IF) (n = 25) with access to food on alternate days. After 8 weeks, EAE was induced in animals by immunization with MOG antigen (Hooke labs, Lawrence, MA, USA) subcutaneously. AL and IF groups were then further divided into two groups each: AA (ad libitum until the end of study) (n = 16) and AI (subjected to intermittent feeding regimen after immunization day) (n = 13). The IF group was divided into II (continued intermittent feeding regimen until the end of study) (n = 13) and IA (changed to AL regimen after immunization day) (n = 12). All the animals were behaviorally monitored for 35 days after immunization and observed daily for the signs and severity of disease with EAE scoring scale [0-5] and cumulative disease index (CDI) score. Intermittent feeding significantly reduced the incidence of EAE in IF groups (AI 0%, II 18.5%, IA 22.2%, p < 0.05). In addition, intermittent feeding significantly delayed the onset of EAE in AI group (p < 0.05) and also, intermittent feeding significantly reduced the severity of disease in II and IA groups (AA vs. II, p < 0.05 & AA vs. IA p < 0.05) groups. The CDI was also significantly reduced in intermittent feeding fed groups [AI, II and IA compared to AA group (P < 0.05, <0.01, <0.05 respectively)]. Intermittent feeding regimen protocol of the calorie restriction significantly suppressed EAE incidence, induction

  20. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    % versus ↓12%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.081). Patterns of change in SF-36, systemic inflammation biomarkers, and the 6-minute walk test did not differ significantly between groups during the 8-week study Conclusions Results from this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled community trial support the use of the Instaflex™ dietary supplement in alleviating joint pain severity in middle-aged and older adults, with mitigation of difficulty performing daily activities most apparent in subjects with knee pain. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01956500 PMID:24274358

  1. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  2. Gastric versus post-pyloric feeding: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marik, Paul E; Zaloga, Gary P

    2003-01-01

    Background Our objective was to evaluate the impact of gastric versus post-pyloric feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, caloric intake, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and mortality in critically ill and injured ICU patients. Method Data sources were Medline, Embase, Healthstar, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, personal files, and contact with expert informants. From 122 articles screened, nine were identified as prospective randomized controlled trials (including a total of 522 patients) that compared gastric with post-pyloric feeding, and were included for data extraction. Descriptive and outcomes data were extracted from the papers by the two reviewers independently. Main outcome measures were the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, average caloric goal achieved, average daily caloric intake, time to the initiation of tube feeds, time to goal, ICU LOS, and mortality. The meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Results Only medical, neurosurgical and trauma patents were enrolled in the studies analyzed. There were no significant differences in the incidence of pneumonia, percentage of caloric goal achieved, mean total caloric intake, ICU LOS, or mortality between gastric and post-pyloric feeding groups. The time to initiation of enteral nutrition was significantly less in those patients randomized to gastric feeding. However, time to reach caloric goal did not differ between groups. Conclusion In this meta-analysis we were unable to demonstrate a clinical benefit from post-pyloric versus gastric tube feeding in a mixed group of critically ill patients, including medical, neurosurgical, and trauma ICU patients. The incidences of pneumonia, ICU LOS, and mortality were similar between groups. Because of the delay in achieving post-pyloric intubation, gastric feeding was initiated significantly sooner than was post-pyloric feeding. The present study, while providing the best current evidence regarding

  3. Artificial feeding of Simulium vectors of human and bovine onchocerciasis*

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, J. P.

    1968-01-01

    A technique for feeding simuliids artificially in a feeding-tube containing blood covered by a membrane has been developed with a view to studying the development of Onchocerca volvulus of man and O. gutturosa of cattle in their respective vectors. A number of different kinds of membranes were tested, but skin from 2-day-old chicks was found to be most satisfactory. S. ornatum, the vector of O. gutturosa in England, fed readily on human and ox blood. The trials were carried out in a constant-temperature room with artificial lighting supplied by 60- or 100-watt clear blue-glass lamps illuminating the feeding-tube with 20 lumens per ft2. Ultraviolet illumination was not satisfactory but light filtered through coloured screens gave good results in the middle of the spectrum. The flies fed well up to a temperature of 21°C (70°F) and a relative humidity of 65%-75%. The over-all feeding rate was 24.5%. The work was extended to trials with the vectors of human onchocerciasis at Kumba in West Cameroon and Amani in Tanzania. Successful membrane-feeding was achieved with the anthropophilic strains of S. damnosum from West and East Africa and with S. woodi, the main vector of O. volvulus in the Amani region. S. vorax, which is a good laboratory host for O. volvulus also, fed readily. S. nyasalandicum could be induced, but not readily, to feed through membranes. Once again, skin from 2-day-old chicks was the best membrane and human or ox blood, defibrinated or heparinized, either fresh or deep-frozen, was accepted by the flies. Wild and laboratory-bred S. damnosum also fed on a chimpanzee in a dark-room with artificial illumination at Kumba. PMID:5303668

  4. Organic and Nonorganic Feeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is one of the most important interactions between caregiver and child in the first few years of life and even later on in handicapped children. Feeding disorders can present as food refusal or low quantity of food intake due to behavioral issues or underlying organic conditions. This situation concerns mostly infants and children below 6 years of age; however, feeding problems can appear also later on in life. Feeding disorders are a concern for over 10-25% of parents of otherwise healthy children below 3 years of age, but only 1-5% of infants and toddlers suffer from severe feeding problems resulting in failure to thrive. In case of premature infants or neurologically disabled children, this rate is much higher. Feeding disorders may appear as an isolated problem, mainly due to negative behaviors during feeding, or as a concomitant disorder with an underlying organic disease or structural anomaly. The newest classification also includes the feeding style presented by the caregiver (responsive, controlling, indulgent or neglectful) as a separate cause of feeding disorders. PMID:26226993

  5. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  6. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  7. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  8. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  9. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost. PMID:12348766

  10. Randomized trials of dichlorphenamide in the periodic paralyses. Working Group on Periodic Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tawil, R; McDermott, M P; Brown, R; Shapiro, B C; Ptacek, L J; McManis, P G; Dalakas, M C; Spector, S A; Mendell, J R; Hahn, A F; Griggs, R C

    2000-01-01

    Although the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been used in the treatment of the primary periodic paralyses (PPs), their efficacy has not been demonstrated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of dichlorphenamide (DCP; Daranide), a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in the treatment of episodic weakness in the primary PPs. We performed two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials, one involving 42 subjects with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) and the other involving 31 subjects with potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis (PSPP). In each trial, two 8-week treatment periods were separated by an active washout period of at least 9 weeks. The primary outcome variable in the HypoPP trial was the occurrence of an intolerable increase in attack severity or frequency (end point). The primary outcome variable in the PSPP trial was the number of attacks per week. In the HypoPP trial, there were 13 subjects who exhibited a preference (in terms of the end point) for either DCP or placebo, and 11 of these preferred DCP. In the PSPP trial, DCP significantly reduced attack rates relative to placebo. DCP also significantly reduced attack rates relative to placebo in the HypoPP subjects. We conclude that DCP is effective in the prevention of episodic weakness in both HypoPP and PSPP. PMID:10632100

  11. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Vitale, Ilio; Tartour, Eric; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has extensively been employed as a curative or palliative intervention against cancer throughout the last century, with a varying degree of success. For a long time, the antineoplastic activity of X- and γ-rays was entirely ascribed to their capacity of damaging macromolecules, in particular DNA, and hence triggering the (apoptotic) demise of malignant cells. However, accumulating evidence indicates that (at least part of) the clinical potential of radiotherapy stems from cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms, including the normalization of tumor vasculature as well as short- and long-range bystander effects. Local bystander effects involve either the direct transmission of lethal signals between cells connected by gap junctions or the production of diffusible cytotoxic mediators, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and cytokines. Conversely, long-range bystander effects, also known as out-of-field or abscopal effects, presumably reflect the elicitation of tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. Ionizing rays have indeed been shown to promote the immunogenic demise of malignant cells, a process that relies on the spatiotemporally defined emanation of specific damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Thus, irradiation reportedly improves the clinical efficacy of other treatment modalities such as surgery (both in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant settings) or chemotherapy. Moreover, at least under some circumstances, radiotherapy may potentiate anticancer immune responses as elicited by various immunotherapeutic agents, including (but presumably not limited to) immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies, cancer-specific vaccines, dendritic cell-based interventions and Toll-like receptor agonists. Here, we review the rationale of using radiotherapy, alone or combined with immunomodulatory agents, as a means to elicit or boost anticancer immune responses, and present recent clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of this approach in

  12. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the past 3 decades, along with the recognition that the immune system not only influences oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also determines how established neoplastic lesions respond therapy, renovated enthusiasm has gathered around the possibility of using vaccines as anticancer agents. Such an enthusiasm quickly tempered when it became clear that anticancer vaccines would have to be devised as therapeutic, rather than prophylactic, measures, and that malignant cells often fail to elicit (or actively suppress) innate and adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence indicates that a variety of anticancer vaccines, including cell-based, DNA-based, and purified component-based preparations, are capable of circumventing the poorly immunogenic and highly immunosuppressive nature of most tumors and elicit (at least under some circumstances) therapeutically relevant immune responses. Great efforts are currently being devoted to the identification of strategies that may provide anticancer vaccines with the capacity of breaking immunological tolerance and eliciting tumor-associated antigen-specific immunity in a majority of patients. In this sense, promising results have been obtained by combining anticancer vaccines with a relatively varied panels of adjuvants, including multiple immunostimulatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor agonists as well as inhibitors of immune checkpoints. One year ago, in the December issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the biological mechanisms that underlie the antineoplastic effects of peptide-based vaccines and presented an abundant literature demonstrating the prominent clinical potential of such an approach. Here, we review the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on high-profile studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to evaluate purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic anticancer agents. PMID:24498550

  13. A Social Media Peer Group Intervention for Mothers to Prevent Obesity and Promote Healthy Growth from Infancy: Development and Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gruver, Rachel S; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Lieberman, Alexandra; Gerdes, Marsha; Virudachalam, Senbagam; Suh, Andrew W; Kalra, Gurpreet K; Magge, Sheela N; Shults, Justine; Schreiner, Mark S; Power, Thomas J; Berkowitz, Robert I

    2016-01-01

    and safety plan that met the needs of participants as well as the requirements of the local institutional review board (IRB), which included use of a “secret” group and frequent screening of participant posts. Clinicians, 97% (29/30) women and 87% (26/30) pediatricians, preferred no direct involvement in the intervention, but were supportive of their patients’ participation. In our 8-week, single group pilot trial, all participants (mean BMI 35 kg/m2, all Medicaid-insured, mean age 28, all Black) viewed every weekly video post, and interacted frequently, with a weekly average of 4.4 posts/comments from each participant. All participant posts were related to parenting topics. Participants initiated conversations about behaviors related to healthy infant growth including solid food introduction, feeding volume, and managing stress. All 8 pilot group participants reported that they found the group helpful and would recommend it to others. Conclusions Our methodology was feasible and acceptable to low-income mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and could be adapted to implement peer groups through social media for underserved populations in varied settings. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01977105; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01977105 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6iMFfOBat) PMID:27485934

  14. Use of Mobile Devices and the Internet for Multimedia Informed Consent Delivery and Data Entry in a Pediatric Asthma Trial: Study Design and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Kathryn; Holbrook, Janet T.; Antal, Holly; Shade, David; Bunnell, H. Timothy; McCahan, Suzanne M.; Wise, Robert A.; Pennington, Chris; Garfinkel, Paul; Wysocki, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phase III / IV clinical trials are expensive and time consuming and often suffer from poor enrollment and retention rates. Pediatric trials are particularly difficult because scheduling around the parent, participant and potentially other sibling schedules can be burdensome. We are evaluating using the internet and mobile devices to conduct the consent process and study visits in a streamlined pediatric asthma trial. Our hypothesis is that these study processes will be noninferior and will be less expensive compared to a traditional pediatric asthma trial. Materials/Methods Parents and participants, aged 12 through 17 years, complete the informed consent process by viewing a multi-media website containing a consent video and study material in the streamlined trial. Participants are provided an iPad with WiFi and EasyOne spirometer for use during FaceTime visits and online twice daily symptom reporting during an 8-week run-in followed by 12-week study period. Outcomes are compared with participants completing a similarly designed traditional trial comparing the same treatments within the same pediatric health-system. After 8 weeks of open-label Advair 250/50 twice daily, participants in both trial types are randomized to Advair 250/50, Flovent 250, or Advair 100/50 given 1 inhalation twice daily. Study staff track time spent to determine study costs. Results Participants have been enrolled in the streamlined and traditional trials and recuitment is ongoing. Conclusions This project will provide important information on both clinical and economic outcomes for a novel method of conducting clinical trials. The results will be broadly applicable to trials of other diseases. PMID:25847579

  15. Mock Trials for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. Gail

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates how role-playing in a mock trial situation allows children to view critically both sides of an issue and introduce them to trial procedure. Offers pre-trial activities, ways to teach students to see both sides of a situation, themes for mock trials, and supporting resources. (GG)

  16. Discrete Trials Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghezzi, Patrick M.

    2007-01-01

    The advantages of emphasizing discrete trials "teaching" over discrete trials "training" are presented first, followed by a discussion of discrete trials as a method of teaching that emerged historically--and as a matter of necessity for difficult learners such as those with autism--from discrete trials as a method for laboratory research. The…

  17. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt. PMID:26123778

  18. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  19. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  20. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  1. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  2. Duration of Androgen Suppression Before Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Clinical Trial 9910

    PubMed Central

    Pisansky, Thomas M.; Hunt, Daniel; Gomella, Leonard G.; Amin, Mahul B.; Balogh, Alexander G.; Chinn, Daniel M.; Seider, Michael J.; Duclos, Marie; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Bauman, Glenn S.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Rotman, Marvin Z.; Lukka, Himanshu R.; Shipley, William U.; Dignam, James J.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether prolonged androgen suppression (AS) duration before radiotherapy improves survival and disease control in prostate cancer. Patients and Methods One thousand five hundred seventy-nine men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of AS followed by radiotherapy with an additional 8 weeks of concurrent AS (16 weeks total) or to 28 weeks of AS followed by radiotherapy with an additional 8 weeks of AS (36 weeks total). The trial sought primarily to detect a 33% reduction in the hazard of prostate cancer death in the 28-week assignment. Time-to-event end points are reported for up to 10 years of follow-up. Results There were no between-group differences in baseline characteristics of 1,489 eligible patients with follow-up. For the 8- and 28-week assignments, 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 95% (95% CI, 93.3% to 97.0%) and 96% (95% CI, 94.6% to 98.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; P = .45), respectively, and 10-year overall survival rates were 66% (95% CI, 62.0% to 69.9%) and 67% (95% CI, 63.0% to 70.8%; HR, 0.95; P = .62), respectively. For the 8- and 28-week assignments, 10-year cumulative incidences of locoregional progression were 6% (95% CI, 4.3% to 8.0%) and 4% (95% CI, 2.5% to 5.7%; HR, 0.65; P = .07), respectively; 10-year distant metastasis cumulative incidences were 6% (95% CI, 4.0% to 7.7%) and 6% (95% CI, 4.0% to 7.6%; HR, 1.07; P = .80), respectively; and 10-year prostate-specific antigen–based recurrence cumulative incidences were 27% (95% CI, 23.1% to 29.8%) and 27% (95% CI, 23.4% to 30.3%; HR, 0.97; P = .77), respectively. Conclusion Extending AS duration from 8 weeks to 28 weeks before radiotherapy did not improve outcomes. A lower than expected prostate cancer death rate reduced ability to detect a between-group difference in disease-specific survival. The schedule of 8 weeks of AS before radiotherapy plus 8 weeks of AS during radiotherapy remains a standard of care in intermediate

  3. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits. PMID:26812310

  4. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4–12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  5. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  6. Breast feeding: success or failure.

    PubMed

    Houston, M J

    1981-11-01

    Awareness of the important role of breast feeding in child health and the reproductive cycle, which is well documented elsewhere, necessitates an examination of the changing practice of breast feeding. This paper reviews these changing practices both in Western and developing societies, examines the problems which lead to lactation failure, and looks at factors related to success in breast feeding. In the light of the need for practical help for successful breast feeding. the present system of support both in hospital and at home is then discussed. An alternative system of structured home support for post-natal women, which has been shown to increase the success rate of breast feeding, is outlined. The way in which this system acts is discussed and the implications for both mothers and health staff are considered. PMID:6915047

  7. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  8. Feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities in bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted both on land and in water, and allowed a choice between suction and biting, but food was also presented that could be ingested by suction alone. Four feeding phases, preparatory, jaw opening, hyoid depression and jaw closing were observed; the mean feeding cycle duration was 0.54+/-0.22 s, regardless of feeding mode (P>0.05). Subjects feeding on land used biting and suction 89.3% and 10.7% of the time, respectively. Subjects feeding in water used suction and hydraulic jetting 96.3% and 3.7% of the time, respectively. No biting behavior was observed underwater. Suction feeding was characterized by a small gape (2.7+/-0.85 cm), small gape angle (24.4+/-8.13 degrees ), pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by large gape (7.3+/-2.2 cm), large gape angle (41.7+/-15.2 degrees ), and lip curling to expose the teeth. An excavation behavior in which suction and hydraulic jetting were alternated was used to extract food from recessed wells. The maximum subambient and suprambient pressures recorded were 91.2 and 53.4 kPa, respectively. The inclusion of suction data for phocids broadens the principle that suction feeding kinematics is conserved among aquatic vertebrates. Furthermore, bearded seals support predictions that mouth size, fluid flow speed, and elusiveness of prey consumed are among a suite of traits that determine the specific nature of suction feeding among species. PMID:18281332

  9. Effect of Feeding and Suction on Gastric Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Nohra E; Sánchez-Miranda, Gustavo; Sacristan, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    A specific device and system has been developed and tested for clinical monitoring of gastric mucosal reactance in the critically ill as an early warning of splanchnic hypoperfusion associated with shock and sepsis. This device has been proven effective in clinical trials and is expected to become commercially available next year. The system uses a combination nasogastric tube and impedance spectroscopy probe as a single catheter. Because this device has a double function, the question is: Does enteral feeding or suction affect the gastric reactance measurements? This study was designed to evaluate the effect of feeding and suction on the measurement of gastric impedance spectroscopy in healthy volunteers. Impedance spectra were obtained from the gastric wall epithelia of 18 subjects. The spectra were measured for each of the following conditions: postinsertion of gastric probe, during active suction, postactive suction, and during enteral feeding (236 ml of nutritional supplement). Impedance spectra were reproducible in all volunteers under all conditions tested. There was a slight increase in impedance parameters after suction, and a decrease in impedance after feeding; however, these observed differences were insignificant compared to patient-to-patient variability, and truly negligible compared with previously observed changes associated with splanchnic ischemia in critically ill patients. Our results demonstrate that suction or feeding when using the impedance spectro-metry probe/nasogastric tube does not significantly interfere with gastric impedance spectrometer measurements. PMID:26226020

  10. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  11. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  12. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to treat multiple chemical sensitivities: a randomized pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Skovbjerg, S; Hauge, C R; Rasmussen, A; Winkel, P; Elberling, J

    2012-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is a medically unexplained and socially disabling disorder characterized by negative health effects attributed to exposure to common airborne chemicals. Currently, there is no evidence-based treatment. The objectives of the study were to assess the feasibility of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program (MBCT) for adults with MCS and to evaluate possible effects on psychological distress and illness perception. The study design was a randomized clinical trial. The MBCT programme comprised 8 weekly sessions of 2½ hours. Forty-two adults were screened for eligibility and 37 were included. Mean age of the participants was 51.6 years, 35 (94.6%) were female and 21 (56.8%) were unemployed. Measures of psychological distress and illness perceptions were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and at 3 months follow-up. No significant differences in effect measures were found between the groups. However, those who completed the MBCT program generally reported benefiting in terms of improved coping strategies and sleep quality. The positive verbal feedback from the participants in the MBCT group suggests that a larger randomized clinical trial on the effect of MBCT for MCS could be considered. PMID:22530938

  13. Replicability of sight word training and phonics training in poor readers: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kohnen, S; Jones, K; Eve, P; Banales, E; Larsen, L; Castles, A

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of effective treatments for children with reading impairment, paired with growing concern about the lack of scientific replication in psychological science, the aim of this study was to replicate a quasi-randomised trial of sight word and phonics training using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. One group of poor readers (N = 41) did 8 weeks of phonics training (i.e., phonological decoding) and then 8 weeks of sight word training (i.e., whole-word recognition). A second group did the reverse order of training. Sight word and phonics training each had a large and significant valid treatment effect on trained irregular words and word reading fluency. In addition, combined sight word and phonics training had a moderate and significant valid treatment effect on nonword reading accuracy and fluency. These findings demonstrate the reliability of both phonics and sight word training in treating poor readers in an era where the importance of scientific reliability is under close scrutiny. PMID:26019992

  14. The effect of days on feed and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on feeding behavior and live growth performance of Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Walter, L-A J; McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2016-05-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effect of days on feed (d 225-533) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on Holstein steer ( = 110) performance and feeding behavior as part of a serial slaughter trial. Steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 11 harvest groups with 10 steers ( = 5 control and = 5 ZH; ZH at 8.33 mg/kg diet) harvested each 28 d. Steers were weighed every 28 d (d 225, 253, 281, 309, 337, 365, 393, 421, 449, 477, 505, and 533); individual daily meal consumption data for each steer were recorded using GrowSafe technology. In the pretreatment period, dry matter intake expressed a negative quadratic relationship with days on feed (DOF) {DMI = -5.7120 + (0.08370 x DOF)- (0.00011 x DOF); Adj. = 0.2574; RMSE = 0.25 75; 0.01}. A linear increase in BW ( < 0.01) occurred during the pretreatment 308 d period from 466 to 844 kg, {BWend = 137.61 + (1.4740 x DOF); Adj. = 0.8819; RMSE = 37.06; < 0.01}, whereas ADG and G:F decreased linearly. Dry matter intake per meal exhibited a quadratic relationship over days on feed and peaked ( < 0.01) during d 365 to 392 at 1.065 kg coinciding with the highest numerical daily DMI (11.19 kg). Daily consumption visit duration differed ( < 0.01) during the 308 d period, with a low of 52.29 min (d 337-364) and a high of 55.59 min (d 365-392). Consumption rate peaked at 714 g/min (d 337-364) and exhibited a quadratic relationship to DOF. The difference ( < 0.04) in DMI between control and ZH treated cattle across all 11 harvest groups averaged 0.575 kg. Moreover, ZH treatment resulted in decreased ( 0.01) DMI per meal event of 0.093 kg. Gain to feed tended to improve ( = 0.06) with ZH treatment by 0.017 kg gain per kg feed relative to the control cattle. Daily bunk, consumption, and meal visit durations were influenced by ZH during the 20 d treatment period ( = 0.01); the average difference between control and ZH supplemented cattle over the 308 d trial was 9.09, 8.71, and 11.39 min per d, respectively. The data

  15. Clinical trials of homoeopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To establish whether there is evidence of the efficacy of homoeopathy from controlled trials in humans. DESIGN--Criteria based meta-analysis. Assessment of the methodological quality of 107 controlled trials in 96 published reports found after an extensive search. Trials were scored using a list of predefined criteria of good methodology, and the outcome of the trials was interpreted in relation to their quality. SETTING--Controlled trials published world wide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of the trials with the best methodological quality. Trials of classical homoeopathy and several modern varieties were considered separately. RESULTS--In 14 trials some form of classical homoeopathy was tested and in 58 trials the same single homoeopathic treatment was given to patients with comparable conventional diagnosis. Combinations of several homoeopathic treatments were tested in 26 trials; isopathy was tested in nine trials. Most trials seemed to be of very low quality, but there were many exceptions. The results showed a positive trend regardless of the quality of the trial or the variety of homeopathy used. Overall, of the 105 trials with interpretable results, 81 trials indicated positive results whereas in 24 trials no positive effects of homoeopathy were found. The results of the review may be complicated by publication bias, especially in such a controversial subject as homoeopathy. CONCLUSIONS--At the moment the evidence of clinical trials is positive but not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions because most trials are of low methodological quality and because of the unknown role of publication bias. This indicates that there is a legitimate case for further evaluation of homoeopathy, but only by means of well performed trials. PMID:1825800

  16. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of N-Acetylcysteine added to risperidone for treating autistic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) augmentation for treating irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method Forty children and adolescents met diagnostic criteria for ASD according to DSM-IV. They were randomly allocated into one of the two groups of NAC (1200 mg/day)+risperidone or placebo+risperidone. NAC and placebo were administered in the form of effervescent and in two divided doses for 8 weeks. Irritability subscale score of Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was considered as the main outcome measure. Adverse effects were also checked. Results The mean score of irritability in the NAC+risperidone and placebo+risperidone groups at baseline was 13.2(5.3) and 16.7(7.8), respectively. The scores after 8 weeks were 9.7(4.1) and 15.1(7.8), respectively. Repeated measures of ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups after 8 weeks. The most common adverse effects in the NAC+risperidone group were constipation (16.1%), increased appetite (16.1%), fatigue (12.9%), nervousness (12.9%), and daytime drowsiness (12.9%). There was no fatal adverse effect. Conclusions Risperidone plus NAC more than risperidone plus placebo decreased irritability in children and adolescents with ASD. Meanwhile, it did not change the core symptoms of autism. Adverse effects were not common and NAC was generally tolerated well. Trial registration This trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir. The registration number of this trial was IRCT201106103930N6 PMID:23886027

  17. Initial Trophic vs Full Enteral Feeding in Patients With Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context The amount of enteral nutrition patients with acute lung injury need is unknown. Objective To determine if initial lower-volume trophic enteral feeding would increase ventilator-free days and decrease gastrointestinal intolerances compared with initial full enteral feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants The EDEN study, a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through April 12, 2011. Participants were 1000 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive either trophic or full enteral feeding for the first 6 days. After day 6, the care of all patients who were still receiving mechanical ventilation was managed according to the full feeding protocol. Main Outcome Measures Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the trophic-feeding (n=508) and full-feeding (n=492) groups. The full-feeding group received more enteral calories for the first 6 days, about 1300 kcal/d compared with 400 kcal/d (P<.001). Initial trophic feeding did not increase the number of ventilator-free days (14.9 [95% CI, 13.9 to 15.8] vs 15.0 [95% CI, 14.1 to 15.9]; difference, −0.1 [95% CI, −1.4 to 1.2]; P=.89) or reduce 60-day mortality (23.2% [95% CI, 19.6% to 26.9%] vs 22.2% [95% CI, 18.5% to 25.8%]; difference, 1.0% [95% CI, −4.1% to 6.3%]; P=77) compared with full feeding. There were no differences in infectious complications between the groups. Despite receiving more prokinetic agents, the full-feeding group experienced more vomiting (2.2% vs 1.7% of patient feeding days; P=.05), elevated gastric residual volumes (4.9% vs 2.2% of feeding days; P<.001), and constipation (3.1% vs 2.1% of feeding days; P=.003). Mean plasma glucose values and average hourly

  18. Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions

  19. Evaluation of Potential Factors Predicting Attainment of Full Gavage Feedings in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert J.; Ou, Ching-Nan; Smith, E. O'Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical measures of gastric residuals and abdominal distention are often used to guide feeding in preterm infants, but there are few data demonstrating their usefulness. Similarly, techniques are now available to investigate gastrointestinal (GI) function noninvasively and safely, but their ability to predict attainment of full gavage feedings and/or feeding volume in preterm infants is unclear. Objective: We sought to determine prospectively the potential relationships of attainment of full gavage feedings and feeding volume with clinical measures and noninvasive GI tests. Methods Fifty preterm infants were followed prospectively. Daily tally was taken of gavage feeding intake, gastric residual volumes (GRVs; milliliters per day, number of GRVs >50% of the previous feeding volume, and number of GRVs >2 ml/kg), and abdominal distention. Infants underwent repeated measurement of lactase activity, GI permeability, fecal calprotectin concentration, and gastric emptying. Results The number of GRVs >2 ml/kg tended to decrease with postnatal age (p = 0.06). Lactase activity and feeding volume in milliliters per kilogram per day prior to achieving full feedings were correlated (p = 0.007, β = 0.164). There was no correlation between feeding outcomes and GRV (ml/day), GRV >50%, GRV >2 ml/kg, small bowel, colonic, or whole bowel permeability, fecal calprotectin concentration, gastric emptying, or abdominal distention. Conclusions GRV is unreliable in predicting attainment of full gavage feeding. Lactase activity is related to feeding volume. However, other noninvasive GI tests utilized were not predictive. These data cast doubt upon the utility of GRV in guiding feeding therapy. Randomized trials of different GRV management protocols are needed. PMID:20588069

  20. Feeding the future.

    PubMed

    Bender, W; Smith, M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses the unequal distribution of food within and among countries of the world, poverty as the main cause of hunger, the patterns of population growth, and future prospects. The evidence reveals the potential for reaching limits of agricultural expansion. Widespread environmental destruction suggests that agricultural lands are declining. Current production patterns may not be sustainable. "Population growth is the single largest determinant of future needs." Farmers of the world's poorest regions must produce food to meet the needs of a doubled population by 2050. The 1996 World Food Summit urged that agricultural policies emphasize environmentally sustainable production methods and a wider variety of crops that would include sorghum and millet. In the early 1990s, 40% of Africa's population was food-energy deficient. Africa has some of the highest population growth rates. Fertility stands at about 6 children/woman. Even with reduced fertility, the African population is expected to double to 22% of world population by 2050. The East Asian population, which is dominated by China, is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2050. South Asia includes some of the poorest and most densely populated countries; its population is expected to reach 2.2-3.3 billion by 2050. 43% of the malnourished population during 1990-92 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% lived in South Asia, 16% lived in East and Southeast Asia, 15% lived in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12% lived in the Near East and North Africa. The proportions of underweight children included 58% in South Asia, 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in the Near East and North Africa, 24% in East and Southeast Asia, and 12% in Latin America and the Caribbean. If everyone adopted a vegetarian diet and no food were wasted, there would be enough food to feed 10 billion people. Malnourishment has the harshest effects on children, rural populations, the growing urban poor, and victims of natural disasters. PMID

  1. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  2. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  3. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  4. Managing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Barbara; Kenyon, Sara; Shakur, Haleema

    2010-01-01

    Managing clinical trials, of whatever size and complexity, requires efficient trial management. Trials fail because tried and tested systems handed down through apprenticeships have not been documented, evaluated or published to guide new trialists starting out in this important field. For the past three decades, trialists have invented and reinvented the trial management wheel. We suggest that to improve the successful, timely delivery of important clinical trials for patient benefit, it is time to produce standard trial management guidelines and develop robust methods of evaluation. PMID:20626885

  5. A Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Rifapentine plus Moxifloxacin-Based Regimen for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Marcus B.; Mello, Fernanda C. Q.; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Rolla, Valeria; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Loredo, Carla; Durovni, Betina; Armstrong, Derek T.; Efron, Anne; Barnes, Grace L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Savic, Radojka M.; Dooley, Kelly E.; Cohn, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Chaisson, Richard E.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The combination of rifapentine and moxifloxacin administered daily with other anti-tuberculosis drugs is highly active in mouse models of tuberculosis chemotherapy. The objective of this phase 2 clinical trial was to determine the bactericidal activity, safety, and tolerability of a regimen comprised of rifapentine, moxifloxacin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide administered daily during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomized to receive either rifapentine (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) plus moxifloxacin (investigational arm), or rifampin (approximately 10 mg/kg) plus ethambutol (control) daily for 8 weeks, along with isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The primary endpoint was sputum culture status at completion of 8 weeks of treatment. Results 121 participants (56% of accrual target) were enrolled. At completion of 8 weeks of treatment, negative cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium occurred in 47/60 (78%) participants in the investigational arm vs. 43/51 (84%, p = 0.47) in the control arm; negative cultures using liquid medium occurred in 37/47 (79%) in the investigational arm vs. 27/41 (66%, p = 0.23) in the control arm. Time to stable culture conversion was shorter for the investigational arm vs. the control arm using liquid culture medium (p = 0.03), but there was no difference using LJ medium. Median rifapentine area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) was 313 mcg*h/mL, similar to recent studies of rifapentine dosed at 450–600 mg daily. Median moxifloxacin AUC0-24 was 28.0 mcg*h/mL, much lower than in trials where rifapentine was given only intermittently with moxifloxacin. The proportion of participants discontinuing assigned treatment for reasons other than microbiological ineligibility was higher in the investigational arm vs. the control arm (11/62 [18%] vs. 3/59 [5%], p = 0.04) although the proportions of grade 3 or higher adverse events were

  6. Salivary FOXP2 expression and oral feeding success in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maki, Monika; Maron, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether salivary FOXP2 gene expression levels at the initiation of oral feeding attempts are predictive of oral feeding success in the premature newborn. In this prospective study, saliva samples from 21 premature infants (13 males; birth gestational age [GA]: 30–34 wk) were collected around the initiation of oral feeding trials. Total RNA was extracted and underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification for FOXP2. Oral feeding success was denoted by the days required to attain full oral feeds. A linear regression model, controlling for sex, birth GA, and weight at salivary collection, revealed that FOXP2 expression was significantly associated with oral feeding success (P = 0.002). The higher the expression level of FOXP2, the shorter the duration to feed. Salivary FOXP2 expression levels are significantly associated with oral feeding success in the preterm infant. FOXP2 may serve as a novel and informative biomarker to noninvasively assess infant feeding skills to reduce morbidities and length of stay. PMID:27148579

  7. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  8. Breast feeding pattern in neonates.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S P; Sharma, V K; Kumar, V

    1994-09-01

    The present study comprised 100 mothers of newborn babies with regard to their belief and practices about lactation. A vast majority (98.2%) of the mothers were breast feeding, 87.9% mothers used prelacteal feeds of one sort or the other. Only 0.5% breast fed their babies within 6 hours and nearly 50% started after 48 hours. Colostrum was discarded by 82.9% of mother and nearly 73% wanted to continue breast feeding beyond 1 year. The age of weaning preferred was after 1 year by 91%. Only 24.7% mothers had undergone antenatal check ups. Hence, much needs to be done with regards to proper antenatal care and advice to discourage wrong and harmful feeding practices. PMID:7883365

  9. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  10. Remune trial will stop; new trials planned.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-05-21

    A clinical trial using remune, the anti-HIV vaccine developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, has been ended. The study is a clinical-endpoint trial which looks for statistically significant differences in AIDS sickness or death between patients who add remune to their treatment regimens versus those who use a placebo. Agouron Pharmaceuticals and the Immune Response Corporation who were conducting the trial announced their decision to stop it after an analysis by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. No differences in clinical endpoints were found and it was projected that continuing the trial would likely not find any. The companies are now planning two new Phase III trials using viral load testing rather than clinical endpoints as study criteria. PMID:11366461

  11. Effect of probiotics on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Saman; Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Jayasinghe, Rohan

    2014-10-01

    Previous human clinical trials have shown that probiotic consumption may improve blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of the present systematic review was to clarify the effects of probiotics on BP using a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library (Central), Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Clinicaltrial.gov databases were searched until January 2014 to identify eligible articles. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was chosen to analyze the impact of combined trials. Nine trials were included. Probiotic consumption significantly changed systolic BP by -3.56 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -6.46 to -0.66) and diastolic BP by -2.38 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.38 to -0.93) compared with control groups. A greater reduction was found with multiple as compared with single species of probiotics, for both systolic and diastolic BP. Subgroup analysis of trials with baseline BP ≥130/85 mm Hg compared with <130/85 mm Hg found a more significant improvement in diastolic BP. Duration of intervention <8 weeks did not result in a significant reduction in systolic or diastolic BP. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of trials with daily dose of probiotics <10(11) colony-forming units did not result in a significant meta-analysis effect. The present meta-analysis suggests that consuming probiotics may improve BP by a modest degree, with a potentially greater effect when baseline BP is elevated, multiple species of probiotics are consumed, the duration of intervention is ≥8 weeks, or daily consumption dose is ≥10(11) colony-forming units. PMID:25047574

  12. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  13. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  14. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance. PMID:26759074

  15. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  16. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  17. Teaching Drama Via Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Wisam

    1998-01-01

    Suggests using a court trial as an activity for teaching drama to English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students. Describes use of a court trial for teaching Macbeth to EFL students in Jordan. (Author/VWL)

  18. Research Areas: Clinical Trials

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  19. Research Areas - Clinical Trials

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  20. ClinicalTrials.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of ... This Site ClinicalTrials.gov Background About the Results Database History, Policies, and Laws Media/Press Resources Linking ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  2. Field experience trials comparing narasin and monensin.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, T K; Tonkinson, L V; Camp, L J; Murphy, C N; Schlegel, B F; Snyder, D L; Young, D C

    1988-07-01

    Narasin is effective against all species of chicken coccidia when tested in battery cage and floor pen studies. To confirm the efficacy of narasin under practical broiler production conditions, the drug was fed at concentrations of 60 ppm or 80 ppm to broiler chickens being raised by six different commercial broiler producers in five different geographic areas. Monensin was fed in each trial at a concentration of 100 ppm or 121 ppm as a reference control. The usual management practices of each of the integrated broiler companies were followed throughout the respective trials. Nine trials were conducted and approximately 100,000 broilers were tested for each treatment. No adverse reactions attributable to treatments were observed in any of the trials, and performance results obtained with narasin-medicated birds were generally comparable with those obtained with monensin-medicated birds in the same trial. These findings support the conclusion that narasin at final feed concentrations in the range of 60 to 80 ppm can be safely and effectively used as an anticoccidial agent in commercial broiler production facilities. PMID:3222193

  3. Feeding response of sport fish after electrical immobilization, chemical sedation, or both

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Ambrose, Ryan D.; Jackan, Leanna M.; Wise, Jeremy K.

    2012-01-01

    Fishery managers frequently capture wild fish for a variety of fishery management activities. Though some activities can be accomplished without immobilizing the fish, others are accomplished more readily, humanely, and safely (for both the handler and the fish) when fish are immobilized by physical (e.g., electrical immobilization) or chemical sedation. A concern regarding the use of chemical sedatives is that chemical residues may remain in the fillet tissue after the fish recovers from sedation. If those residues are harmful to humans, there is some risk that a postsedated fish released to public waters may be caught and consumed by an angler. To characterize this risk, a series of four trials were conducted. Three trials assessed feeding activity after hatchery-reared fish were electrically immobilized, chemically sedated, or both, and one trial assessed the likelihood of an angler catching a wild fish that had been electrically immobilized and chemically sedated. Results from the first trial indicated that the feeding activity of laboratory habituated fish was variable among and within species after electrical immobilization, chemical sedation, or both. Results from the second trial indicated that the resumption of feeding activity was rapid after being mildly sedated for 45 min. Results from the third trial indicated that the feeding activity of outdoor, hatchery-reared fish was relatively aggressive after fish had been chemically sedated. Results from the fourth trial indicated that the probability of capturing wild fish in a more natural environment by angling after fish had been electrically immobilized and chemically sedated is not likely, i.e., in a group of five fish caught, 3 out of 100 times one would be a fish that had been sedated.

  4. Effects of feeding and stocking density on digestion of cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Zheng, Jimeng; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of feeding rate (0.8%, 1.0%, and 1.2% initial body weight/day), feeding frequency (two, three, and four times/day) and stocking density (10, 15, and 20 kg/m3) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on growth performance, digestion and waste generation of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) were investigated in an 8-week orthogonal experiment (L9(3)3) with a constant daily water renewal at 7.50% of total volume. No mortality occurred during the experimental period. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) varied from 0.90 to 1.13 and specific growth rate (SGR) ranged from 0.48% to 0.69%/day. SGR, thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and FCR were not significantly ( P>0.05) affected by the three factors, while net protein utilization (NPU) was significantly ( P<0.05) affected. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter in the present study were in the range 66.12%-73.55%. ADC in protein, lipid and energy were statistically different among all treatments and in the range of 90.07%-93.67%, 81.54%-89.15%, and 67.55%-71.87%, respectively. The proportion of mean total ammonia nitrogen excreted ranged from 1.37% to 1.64% of feed nitrogen at steady state, and the concentration of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds were differently correlated to the three factors. The results will provide valuable reference data for culture management decisions in the Atlantic salmon farming industry.

  5. Utah Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Linda, Comp.

    Background materials and guidelines for secondary students and educators in Utah who wish to participate in the state-wide mock trial competition are provided. Many parts of the publication can be used by educators in other states who are using mock trials in their classrooms or who are developing a state-wide mock trial competition. The manual…

  6. Salem Witch Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Explains that the first section of the lesson has students learn about the trials as described in the court records. The second section asks students to interpret various images of the trials. (CMK)

  7. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus

  8. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Doaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding) appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF) is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%). The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0%) and mother's/mother in law's advice (58.3%). The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father's education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education. PMID:24895560

  9. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  10. SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING WITH READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD IN MALAWIAN CHILDREN AT RISK OF MALNUTIRITON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was a controlled, comparative clinical effectiveness trial of two supplementary feeding regimens in children at risk of malnutrition from seven centres in rural Malawi. Being at risk of malnutrition was defined as weight-for-height <85%, but >80% of the international standard. A stepped-we...

  11. Feed intake and weight gain in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for individual feed intake and ADG for 42 d following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior ...

  12. SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING WITH READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD IN MALAWIAN CHILDREN AT RISK OF MALNUTIRITON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was a controlled, comparative clinical effectiveness trial of two supplementary feeding regimens in children at risk of malnutrition from seven centres in rural Malawi. Being at risk of malnutrition was defined as weight-for-height 80% of the international standard. A stepped-we...

  13. The effect of feeding different milk replacer programs on calf growth, health and serum glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty six (26) Holstein bull calves (x = 45.6 kg.) were employed in a 63-day trial to evaluate milk replacer (MR) feeding programs. Calves were allotted to treatment based upon weight and blood gamma globulin status. Calves were fed a conventional product (20% protein/20% fat) fed to provide 227 ...

  14. The Role of Feeding Regimens in Regulating Metabolism of Sexually Mature Broiler Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression on sexually mature broiler breeders. Cobb 500 birds were divided into two groups at 4 weeks of age and fed either everyday (ED) ...

  15. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  16. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. PMID:22748607

  17. Clinical Trials in Vision Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people who volunteer. ... about the treatment. How are clinical trials in vision different from other clinical trials? Eyes are one ...

  18. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Statistical and Data Management Center Glossaries Sites Clinical Trials About the Trial Process Trials Open to Enrollment Recent Study Results Access to Published Data Clinical Trials Resources Committees Executive Scientific Resource Community General Information ...

  19. Effect of feeding sodium butyrate in the late finishing period on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Leonard, Finola C; Grant, Jim; Yearsley, Dermot; Kelly, Sinead; Duffy, Geraldine; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2016-09-01

    Pork is an important source of human salmonellosis and low-cost on-farm control measures may provide a useful element in reducing the prevalence of this pathogen in food. This study investigated the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate administered to finisher pigs for ∼4-weeks prior to slaughter to control Salmonella shedding on highly contaminated farms. Two trials (A and B) were conducted on two commercial pig farms, which had a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. In both trials, pens (14 pens of 12 pigs/pen in Trial A and 12 pens of 12-17 pigs/pen in Trial B) were randomly assigned to a control (finisher feed without additive) or a treatment group (the same feed with 3kg sodium butyrate/t) for 24-28days, depending on the trial. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 12 and 24/28, and blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal/mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the slaughterhouse. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trials, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter. In Trial A, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group at the end of the trial (30% versus 57% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p<0.001). This reflected the serology results, with detection of a lower seroprevalence in the treatment compared to the control group using the 20% optical density cut-off (69.5% versus 89%; p=0.001). However, no effect on faecal shedding or seroprevalance was observed in Trial B, which may be explained by the detection of a concomitant infection with Lawsonia intracellularis. No significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes in either trial. Furthermore, feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ between groups (p>0.05) in either trial. Numerical improvements in weight gain and FCE were found with sodium butyrate treatment

  20. Feed your head: neurodevelopmental control of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel A; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  1. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  2. Effects of aversive stimuli beyond defensive neural circuits: reduced excitability in an identified neuron critical for feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Shields-Johnson, Maria E; Hernandez, John S; Torno, Cody; Adams, Katherine M; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    In Aplysia, repeated trials of aversive stimuli produce long-term sensitization (LTS) of defensive reflexes and suppression of feeding. Whereas the cellular underpinnings of LTS have been characterized, the mechanisms of feeding suppression remained unknown. Here, we report that LTS training induced a long-term decrease in the excitability of B51 (a decision-making neuron in the feeding circuit) that recovered at a time point in which LTS is no longer observed (72 h post-treatment). These findings indicate B51 as a locus of plasticity underlying feeding suppression. Finally, treatment with serotonin to induce LTS failed to alter feeding and B51 excitability, suggesting that serotonin does not mediate the effects of LTS training on the feeding circuit. PMID:23242417

  3. Comparison of propranolol and pregabalin for prophylaxis of childhood migraine: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bakhshandeh Bali, MohammadKazem; Rahbarimanesh, Ali Akbar; Sadeghi, Manelie; Sedighi, Mostafa; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Ghofrani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Migraine involves 5-10% of children and adolescents. Thirty percent of children with severe migraine attacks have school absence and reduced quality of life that need preventive therapy. The purpose of this randomised control trial study is to compare the effectiveness, safety and the tolerability of pregabalin toward Propranolol in migraine prophylaxis of children. From May 2011 to October 2012, 99 children 3-15 years referred to the neurology clinic of Mofid Children's Hospital with a diagnosis of migraine enrolled the study. Patients randomly divided into two groups (A&B). We treated children of group A with capsule of pregabalin as children of group B with tablet of propranolol for at least 8 weeks. In this study, 99 patients were examined that 91 children reached the last stage. The group A consistsed of 46 patients, 12(26.1%) girls, 34 (73.9%) boys and the group B consisted of 45 patients, 14(31.1%) girls, 31 (68.9%) boys. Basis of age, gender, headache onset, headache frequency, migraine type, triggering and relieving factors there was no significant difference among these groups (P>0.05). After 4 and 8 weeks of Pregabalin usage monthly headache frequency decreased to 2.2±4.5 and 1.76±6.2 respectively. Propranolol reduced monthly headache frequency up to 3.73±6.11 and 3.34±5.95 later 4 and 8 weeks respectively. There was a significant difference between these two groups according to headache frequency reduction (P=0.04). Pregabalin efficacy in reducing the frequency and duration of pediatric migraine headache is considerable in comparison with propranolol. PMID:26024701

  4. Prospective, comparative effectiveness trial of cow's milk elimination and swallowed fluticasone for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, P G; Russo, J M; Franciosi, J P; Varni, J W; Platts-Mills, T A E; Erwin, E A

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease in which food antigens play a key role. Current therapeutic options are limited to long-term steroid medication and dietary elimination of multiple foods, each of which is challenging. Our objective was to compare single food elimination of cow's milk to swallowed fluticasone in pediatric EoE patients. This is a prospective, comparative effectiveness trial of newly diagnosed EoE patients (ages 2-18 years) treated with swallowed fluticasone (n = 24) or elimination of cow's milk (n = 20). The dual outcome measures of repeat esophageal biopsy (6-8 weeks) and change in Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) EoE Module and Symptoms Scales were used to assess response to treatment. After 6-8 weeks of treatment, peak esophageal eosinophil counts decreased to below the threshold of 15 eosinophils/high-power field in 64% of patients treated with cow's milk elimination and 80% of patients treated with swallowed fluticasone (P = 0.4). Mean PedsQL EoE Module total scores (69 vs. 82; P < 0.005) and Total Symptoms scores (58 vs. 75; P = 0.001) showed significant improvement with cow's milk elimination. Among children treated with swallowed fluticasone, mean PedsQL EoE Module total scores (64 vs. 75; P < 0.05) and Total Symptoms scores (58 vs. 69; P < 0.01) were also significantly improved after 6-8 weeks of therapy. Removal of cow's milk from the diet is an effective single food elimination treatment for pediatric patients with EoE as assessed by statistically significant histologic and symptomatic improvement. Cow's milk elimination may be more desirable for EoE patients who do not want to take chronic, long-term steroid medications. PMID:25721813

  5. The convenience of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Tompson, M

    1971-08-01

    Immediately after delivery when the baby is put to breast, the simplicity of breast feeding becomes apparent. There is no concern about the milk not agreeing with the baby, and if he is kept with his mother so she can feed him on demand, the baby will probably gain more weight than if he were on formula. The mother's milk is always right and is always there. Traveling is convenient if clothes are worn that make discreet nursing possible; a 2-piece outfit such as a blouse and a skirt works well. A rest room or a dressing room can also be used for nursing privacy. A diaper or little blanket thrown over the baby can be a casual cover-up if needed. The nursing mother has no bottles to carry around and no fears of running out of supplies. A study by Spock found that mothers of twins who were breast feeding were better organized than those who were bottle feeding. Although the breast feeding mother is tied down to being a mother of her baby, she grows in discovery of her importance to her baby. Weaning is a gradual process. As the baby nurses less, the mother's milk supply decreases. Even after a baby has been weaned, he might need an occasional nursing to assuage a trying experience like a bump or an illness. PMID:4935488

  6. Reiki for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Assefi, Nassim; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Fibromyalgia is a common, chronic pain condition for which patients frequently use complementary and alternative medicine, including Reiki. Our objective was to determine whether Reiki is beneficial as an adjunctive fibromyalgia treatment. Design This was a factorial designed, randomized, sham-controlled trial in which participants, data collection staff, and data analysts were blinded to treatment group. Setting/location The study setting was private medical offices in the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. Subjects The subjects were comprised 100 adults with fibromyalgia. Intervention Four (4) groups received twice-weekly treatment for 8 weeks by either a Reiki master or actor randomized to use direct touch or no touch (distant therapy). Outcome measures The primary outcome was subjective pain as measured by visual analog scale at weeks 4, 8, and 20 (3 months following end of treatment). Secondary outcomes were physical and mental functioning, medication use, and health provider visits. Participant blinding and adverse effects were ascertained by selfreport. Improvement between groups was examined in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results Neither Reiki nor touch had any effect on pain or any of the secondary outcomes. All outcome measures were nearly identical among the 4 treatment groups during the course of the trial. Conclusion Neither Reiki nor touch improved the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Energy medicine modalities such as Reiki should be rigorously studied before being recommended to patients with chronic pain symptoms. PMID:18991519

  7. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  8. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  9. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  10. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  11. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  12. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  13. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  14. Elk (Cervus Canadensis) preference for feeds varying in selenium concentration.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Davis, T Z; Hall, J O; Stegelmeier, B L; Panter, K E

    2015-07-01

    Selenium-accumulator plants are reputed to be unpalatable to large ungulates. Elk (Cervus canadensis) populations in southeastern Idaho overlap with populations of Se-rich plants, but there is no information on the influence of plant Se concentration on elk dietary preferences. The objective of this study was to determine, under controlled conditions, the preference of elk for feeds varying in Se concentrations. Seven yearling female elk (128 ± 5 kg) were purchased from a commercial elk farm in southeastern Idaho and adapted to low-Se alfalfa pellets. Three feeding trials using pellets with predetermined Se concentrations were conducted. Alfalfa pellets were commercially made with the addition of Symphyotrichum ascendens (western aster) so that the pellets contained 0.4, 5, 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (DM basis) Se. In trial 1, 5 Se-containing alfalfa pellets (0.4, 5, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg Se) were offered for 10 d; trial 2 used 4 Se-containing alfalfa pellet choices (0.4, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and trial 3 used 3 pellet choices (0.4, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 6 d. In trial 1, consumption of the control pellets by elk was greater than each of the other pellet choices (P < 0.001). Similarly, consumption of the 5-mg/kg Se pellet differed from control pellet and all other Se-containing pellets (P < 0.0001). There were no differences (P > 0.50) in consumption of the 20-, 50-, or 100-mg/kg Se pellets. In trial 2, elk consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the control pellet than the 20-, 50-, and 100-mg/kg Se pellets. Similarly, elk consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the 20-mg/kg Se pellet than the 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets. There were no differences (P > 0.99) in elk consumption of the 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets. In trial 3, elk consumption of the control and 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets differed (P ≤ 0.03) from one another each day except that on d 1 and 2, where elk consumption of the 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets did not differ (P ≥ 0.32). Elk clearly discriminated against

  15. Breast Feeding in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M.; Back, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on 300 Kingston infants born at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The method of milk feeding and the reasons given by the mothers for beginning bottle feeding were recorded. Other factors influencing the incidence of breast feeding were examined. Complementing in hospital, maternal employment, improving socio-economic status, advertising, and general misinformation were considered important. A higher incidence of gastro-enteritis was found in the first 4 months of life among partly or wholly bottle-fed babies than among breast-fed babies. Weight increments were calculated for the first 3 months of life. A higher proportion of infants with increments in the lowest 25% were bottle fed than those infants with increments in the remaining 75%. PMID:5464065

  16. [Promotion program for breast feeding in Poland. II. Analysis of the breast feeding situation in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mikiel-Kostyra, K

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of breast-feeding situation in Poland was based on three kinds of nation-wide surveys conducted in 1988: newborn feeding and breast feeding routines in maternity wards epidemiology of breast-feeding and other feeding methods in first six months of infant life KAP study among MCH professionals The major findings of the surveys were: conflicting with lactation maternity wards routines especially: very initiation of breast-feeding, administration of liquids and formulas, rigid feeding schedule, separation of newborns from the mothers too early supplantation of breast-feeding lack of current breast-feeding knowledge among MCH professionals. PMID:8359714

  17. An Overview of the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Randomized Controlled Trial in African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Resnicow, Ken; Lee Van Horn, M.; St. George, Sara M.; Rebekah Siceloff, E.; Alia, Kassandra A.; McDaniel, Tyler; Heatley, VaShawn; Huffman, Lauren; Coulon, Sandra; Prinz, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background The Families Improving Together (FIT) randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of integrating cultural tailoring, positive parenting, and motivational strategies into a comprehensive curriculum for weight loss in African American adolescents. The overall goal of the FIT trial is to test the effects of an integrated intervention curriculum and the added effects of a tailored web-based intervention on reducing z-BMI in overweight African American adolescents. Design and setting The FIT trial is a randomized group cohort design the will involve 520 African American families with an overweight adolescent between the ages of 11–16 years. The trial tests the efficacy of an 8-week face-to-face group randomized program comparing M+FWL (Motivational Family Weight Loss) to a comprehensive health education program (CHE) and re-randomizes participants to either an 8-week on-line tailored intervention or control on-line program resulting in a 2 (M+FWL vs. CHE group) × 2 (on-line intervention vs. control on-line program) factorial design to test the effects of the intervention on reducing z-BMI at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Intervention The interventions for this trial are based on a theoretical framework that is novel and integrates elements from cultural tailoring, Family Systems Theory, Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. The intervention targets positive parenting skills (parenting style, monitoring, communication); cultural values; teaching parents to increase youth motivation by encouraging youth to have input and choice (autonomy-support); and provides a framework for building skills and self-efficacy through developing weight loss action plans that target goal setting, monitoring, and positive feedback. PMID:25835731

  18. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  19. Tissue-specific regulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis during fasting and re-feeding: Importance of muscle expression of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in the tilapia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bradley K; Breves, Jason P; Davis, Lori K; Pierce, Andrew L; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2010-05-01

    The effects of prolonged nutrient restriction (fasting) and subsequent restoration (re-feeding) on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis were investigated in the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Mean weight and specific growth rate declined within 1 week in fasted fish, and remained lower than controls throughout 4 weeks of fasting. Plasma levels of IGF-I were lower than fed controls during 4 weeks of fasting, suggesting a significant catabolic state. Following re-feeding, fasted fish gained weight continuously, but did not attain the weight of fed controls at 8 weeks after re-feeding. Specific growth rate increased above the continuously-fed controls during the first 6 weeks of re-feeding, clearly indicating a compensatory response. Plasma IGF-I levels increased after 1 week of re-feeding and levels were not otherwise different from fed controls. Plasma GH levels were unaffected by either fasting or re-feeding. No consistent effect of fasting or re-feeding was observed on liver expression of GH receptor (GH-R), somatolactin (SL) receptor (SL-R), IGF-I or IGF-II. In contrast, muscle expression of GH-R increased markedly during 4 weeks of fasting, and then declined below control levels upon re-feeding for weeks 1 and 2. Similarly, muscle expression of SL-R increased after 4 weeks of fasting, and reduced below control levels after 1 and 2 weeks of re-feeding. On the other hand, muscle expression of IGF-I was strongly reduced throughout the fasting period, and levels recovered 2 weeks after re-feeding. Muscle expression of IGF-II was not affected by fasting, but was reduced after 1 and 2 weeks of re-feeding. These results indicate that GH/IGF axis, particularly muscle expression of GH-R, SL-R and IGF-I and -II, is sensitive to nutritional status in the tilapia. PMID:19932110

  20. Promoting Healthy Weight With “Stability Skills First”: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Michaela; Brown, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Schleicher, Nina C.; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of “stability skills” before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals’ current satisfaction with lifestyle and self-regulatory habits while requiring the minimum effort and attention necessary. Methods Overweight/obese women (N = 267) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-month interventions and assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Maintenance First women participated first in an 8-week stability skills maintenance module, then in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program. Weight Loss First women participated first in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program, then in a standard 8-week problem-solving skills maintenance module. There was no intervention staff contact during the 12-month follow-up (6–18 months). Results As designed, Maintenance First participants lost the same percent of initial weight during the 6-month intervention period as Weight Loss First participants (M = −8.6%, SD = 5.7 vs. M = −9.1%, SD = 6.9, t = −0.6, p = .52). However, Maintenance First participants regained significantly less weight during the 12-month follow-up (6–18 months) than Weight Loss First participants (M = 3.2 lbs, SD = 10.4 vs. M = 7.3 lbs, SD = 9.9, t = 3.3, p = .001, d = 0.4). Conclusion Learning stability skills before losing weight was successful for maintaining weight loss without intervention staff contact during follow-up. These results can inform the study design of future innovative interventions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov-NCT00626457. PMID:23106759

  1. Threatened Caribbean Coral Is Able to Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Calcification by Increasing Feeding Rate

    PubMed Central

    Towle, Erica K.; Enochs, Ian C.; Langdon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C), enriched pCO2 (800 ppm), or both (30°C/800 ppm) as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm) for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content. PMID:25874963

  2. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    PubMed

    Towle, Erica K; Enochs, Ian C; Langdon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C), enriched pCO2 (800 ppm), or both (30°C/800 ppm) as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm) for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content. PMID:25874963

  3. Effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; design of a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Arts, Mark P; Koes, Bart W; Berg, Annette A van den; van Buchem, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background The usual surgical treatment of refractory sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation, is open discectomy. Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous therapies under local anesthesia, are increasingly gaining attention. One of these treatments is Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD). This treatment can be carried out in an outpatient setting and swift recovery and return to daily routine are suggested. Thus far, no randomized trial into cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus standard surgical procedure has been performed. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial, studying the cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus conventional open discectomy in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation. Methods/design The study is a randomized prospective multi-center trial, in which two treatment strategies are compared in a parallel group design. Patients (age 18–70 years) visiting the neurosurgery department of the participating hospitals, are considered for inclusion in the trial when sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation has lasted more than 8 weeks. Patients with disc herniation smaller than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, without concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eligible for participation, and are randomized into one of two treatment arms; either Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression or conventional discectomy. The functional outcome of the patient, as assessed by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 8 weeks and 1 year after treatment, is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome parameters are recovery as perceived by the patient, leg and back pain, incidence of re-intervention, complications, quality of life, medical consumption, absence of work and secondary costs. Discussion Open discectomy is still considered to be the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression has at least as much efficacy as the

  4. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p < .05) oxygen uptake (CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women. PMID:26402730

  5. Systematic review: The relation between nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia: randomized trials in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Objective To review the effect of enteral nutrition on nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients as summarized in randomized clinical trials. Study identification and selection Studies were identified through MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of primary and review articles, and personal files. Through duplicate independent review, we selected randomized trials evaluating approaches to nutrition and their relation to nosocomial pneumonia. Data abstraction In duplicate, independently, we abstracted key data on the design features, population, intervention and outcomes of the studies. Results We identified four trials of enteral vs total parenteral nutrition, one trial of early enteral nutrition vs delayed enteral nutrition, one trial of gastric vs jejunal tube feeding, one trial of intermittent vs continuous enteral feeding, and three trials evaluating different enteral feeding formulae. Sample sizes were small, pneumonia definitions were variable and blinded outcome assessment was infrequent. Randomized trial evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions about the relation between enteral nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia. Conclusions Nutritional interventions in critically ill patients appear to have a modest and inconsistent effect on nosocomial pneumonia. This body of evidence neither supports nor refutes the gastropulmonary route of infection. PMID:11094461

  6. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  7. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  8. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  9. Complete feeds-intensive systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercially cultivated fish are raised in high-density culture systems where the assumption is that the contribution of natural foods to the nutrition of the fish is insignificant. Thus, intensively cultured fish must be fed a nutritionally complete feed. A short section on the concept and im...

  10. Feeding DDGS to other animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is true that historically DDGS has primarily been fed to beef, dairy, swine, and poultry animals. It also appears to be a viable ingredient for aquafeeds. But it should be appropriate as a feed ingredient for other animals as well. To date, however, there have been only a few published studies...

  11. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    PubMed

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). PMID:26769506

  12. Should We Aim for Full Enteral Feeding in the First Week of Critical Illness?

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; Codner, Panna; Patel, Jayshil; Hurt, Ryan T; Allen, Karen; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Recent clinical trials have challenged the concept that aggressive full feeding as close to goal requirements as possible is necessary in the first week following admission to the intensive care unit. While the data suggesting that permissive underfeeding is better than full feeds are methodologically flawed, other data do indicate that in certain well-defined patient populations, outcomes may be similar. The most important issues for clinicians in determining optimal nutrition therapy for critically ill patients are to carefully determine nutrition risk and differentiate nutrition from nonnutrition benefits of early enteral feeding. Management decisions in the first week of hospitalization should be made in the context of both short- and long-term outcomes. Patients at highest nutrition risk may require advancement to goal feeds as soon as tolerated to maximize benefit from nutrition therapy. PMID:27317613

  13. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period: Part B.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M I; Millán, C; Sánchez, J; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Mayot, J; Carre, Y; Csorbai, A; Chemaly, M; Medel, P

    2016-04-01

    A total of 636 day-of-hatch Ross 308 broilers chicks were used in 4 independent trials carried out to screen the effect of 12 feed additives on reducing cecal colonization of Campylobacterin broilers. The tested additives were probiotics based on B. subtilis and S. cerevisae, a garlic extract, a blend of herbal substances and essential oils, two different combinations of essential oils and organic acids (OA), two mixtures of flavoring compounds, medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), monoglycerides (MG) of MCFA and MG-MCFA+OA. At 14 days of age, all the birds were orally infected with 0.1 mL of a bacterial suspension of C. jejuni ST-45 diluted at 10(5) cfu/mL in tryptone salt broth. In each trial, there was a positive control group and 2 (Trials 1 and 2) or 4 (Trials 3 and 4) additional treatment groups supplemented with additives, which were added to feed or water only to the finisher (21 to 42 d) diet (Trials 1 and 2) or to the starter (0 to 21 d) and finisher diets (Trials 3 and 4). Feed and water were available ad libitum. On days 35 and 42 of age in Trials 1 and 2, and on days 21, 35 and 42 of age in Trials 3 and 4, 10 (Trials 1 and 2) or 12 birds (Trials 3 and 4) per group were euthanized for cecal sampling. In Trial 1, birds fed with MCFA and MG-MCFA had a significant (P<0.05) reduction in cecal Campylobacter colonization compared to control at 35 d, but only the group treated with MG-MCFA maintained the reduction at 42 d. In Trials 2 to 4, no significant differences (P>0.05) in cecal Campylobacter counts were found between the treated and control animals. In conclusion, although none of the treatments were able to completely prevent the colonization of chickens with C. jejuni, MCFA and MG-MCFAs could reduce the pathogen counts when supplemented from 21 days onwards. PMID:26706354

  14. Design of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rollo, David; Machado, Sanjay; Ceschin, Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Clinical trial design for nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging radiopharmaceuticals must include a design for preclinical safety studies. These studies should establish that the investigational product (IP) does not have a toxic effect. As a further requirement, radiopharmaceutical clinical trials include a human study (phase 1) that provides biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and radiation dosimetry information. These studies demonstrate to the Food and Drug Administration that the IP either meets or exceeds the toxicology and radiation exposure safety limits. Satisfying this requirement can result in the Food and Drug Administration approving the performance of late-phase (phase 2/3) clinical trials that are designed to validate the clinical efficacy of the diagnostic imaging agent in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis for the intended application. Emphasis is placed on the most typical trial design for diagnostic imaging agents that use a comparator to demonstrate that the new IP is similar in efficacy to an established standard comparator. Such trials are called equivalence, or noninferiority, trials that attempt to show that the new IP is not less effective than the comparator by more than a statistically defined amount. Importantly, the trial design must not inappropriately favor one diagnostic imaging agent over the other. Bias is avoided by the use of a core laboratory with expert physicians who are not involved in the trial for interpreting and objectively scoring the image sets obtained at the clinical trial sites. Clinical trial design must also follow Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines. GCP stipulates the clinical trial process, including protocol and Case Report Form design, analyses planning, as well as analyzing and preparing interim and final clinical trial/study reports. PMID:20674592

  15. Prospective open-label pilot trial of mirtazapine in children and adolescents with social phobia.

    PubMed

    Mrakotsky, Christine; Masek, Bruce; Biederman, Joseph; Raches, Darcy; Hsin, Olivia; Forbes, Peter; de Moor, Carl; DeMaso, David Ray; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Mirtazapine is indicated for major depression and used for anxiety in adults; however, little is known about its application in pediatric populations. This is an 8-week open-label pilot study of mirtazapine in children with social phobia age 8-17 years. Primary outcomes were symptom improvement based on clinician rating and self-report, as well as tolerability based on rates of discontinuation due to adverse effects. Fifty-six percent (10/18) responded to treatment, 17% (3/18) achieved full remission. Social phobia symptoms improved significantly during the first 2 weeks of treatment, as did comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Eleven patients (61%) did not complete all 8 weeks of treatment; four patients (22%) discontinued due to adverse effects including fatigue and irritability. The others discontinued due to study burden (28%), insufficient response (6%), or to pursue herbal treatment (6%). Significant weight gain was observed. Larger controlled trials are needed to further evaluate efficacy and safety. PMID:17419001

  16. Effect of Feed Form and Whole Grain Feeding on Gastrointestinal Weight and the Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in Broilers Orally Infected.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Marta Isabel; Sánchez, Jaime; Millán, Carlos; Casabuena, Óscar; Vesseur, Peter; Martín, Ángel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Medel, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Two independent trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feed form, whole wheat (WW) and oat hulls (OH) addition on gastrointestinal (GIT) weight and Campylobacter jejuni colonization in orally infected birds. In Trial 1, there were six treatments factorially arranged with two feed forms (mash vs pellets), and three levels of WW from 1-21/22-42d: 0/0, 7.5/15%, 15/30%. Broilers were allocated in cages (3 birds/cage, 12 cages/treatment). In Trial 2, there were three treatments: a mash diet, a mash diet including WW (7.5% from 1-21 and 15% from 22-42d), and a third treatment including also 5%OH. Broilers were allocated in floor pens (1 pen with 30 birds/treatment). At 14d, all broilers in Trial 1 or 3 broilers/pen in Trial 2 were orally challenged with 1.5 x 105 cfu of C. jejuni ST-45 /. In Trial 1, birds fed pelleted diets consumed 13.5% more feed, gained 31% more weight, and presented 12.9% better feed conversion for the whole trial (P<0.05). Pelleting decreased the relative weight of GIT and gizzard and increased the relative weight of proventriculus (P<0.05). Mash diets decreased pH in the gizzard (P<0.05). Inclusion of WW decreased the relative weight of proventriculus, increased gizzard weight, and reduced pH in the gizzard (P<0.05). At 21d of age, mash tended to reduce C. jejuni compared to pellets (7.85 vs 8.27 log10cfu/g; P = 0.091) and WW inclusion at 7.5/15% reduced C. jejuni colonization when compared to lower and higher inclusion (P<0.05). In Trial 2, birds fed T3 (WW+OH) showed 1.38 log10cfu/g less than birds fed Control diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, despite of the clear morphological changes in the GIT derived of FF and WW inclusion, no clear reductions in C. jejuni populations in the ceca were observed. However, WW and OH inclusion to mash diets significantly reduced cecal C. jejuni colonization at 42 days. PMID:27500730

  17. Effect of Feed Form and Whole Grain Feeding on Gastrointestinal Weight and the Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in Broilers Orally Infected

    PubMed Central

    Gracia, Marta Isabel; Sánchez, Jaime; Millán, Carlos; Casabuena, Óscar; Vesseur, Peter; Martín, Ángel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Medel, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Two independent trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feed form, whole wheat (WW) and oat hulls (OH) addition on gastrointestinal (GIT) weight and Campylobacter jejuni colonization in orally infected birds. In Trial 1, there were six treatments factorially arranged with two feed forms (mash vs pellets), and three levels of WW from 1-21/22-42d: 0/0, 7.5/15%, 15/30%. Broilers were allocated in cages (3 birds/cage, 12 cages/treatment). In Trial 2, there were three treatments: a mash diet, a mash diet including WW (7.5% from 1–21 and 15% from 22-42d), and a third treatment including also 5%OH. Broilers were allocated in floor pens (1 pen with 30 birds/treatment). At 14d, all broilers in Trial 1 or 3 broilers/pen in Trial 2 were orally challenged with 1.5 x 105 cfu of C. jejuni ST-45 /. In Trial 1, birds fed pelleted diets consumed 13.5% more feed, gained 31% more weight, and presented 12.9% better feed conversion for the whole trial (P<0.05). Pelleting decreased the relative weight of GIT and gizzard and increased the relative weight of proventriculus (P<0.05). Mash diets decreased pH in the gizzard (P<0.05). Inclusion of WW decreased the relative weight of proventriculus, increased gizzard weight, and reduced pH in the gizzard (P<0.05). At 21d of age, mash tended to reduce C. jejuni compared to pellets (7.85 vs 8.27 log10cfu/g; P = 0.091) and WW inclusion at 7.5/15% reduced C. jejuni colonization when compared to lower and higher inclusion (P<0.05). In Trial 2, birds fed T3 (WW+OH) showed 1.38 log10cfu/g less than birds fed Control diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, despite of the clear morphological changes in the GIT derived of FF and WW inclusion, no clear reductions in C. jejuni populations in the ceca were observed. However, WW and OH inclusion to mash diets significantly reduced cecal C. jejuni colonization at 42 days. PMID:27500730

  18. Child feeding and human rights

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together. PMID:17176464

  19. Re-feeding evokes reproductive overcompensation of food-restricted Brandt's voles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuehui; Wen, Yilei; Niu, Hongxing; Shi, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-02-01

    In natural conditions, animals have to cope with fluctuations of food resources. Animals having experienced prolonged decrease in feeding opportunities may increase their reproductive success when meeting abundant food. Though food restriction is well known to reduce reproductive success of animals, it is not clear whether re-feeding can restore or even overcompensate the reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the differences in reproductive parameters between food-restricted and refed (FR-RF) group and control group of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). For 4 weeks, FR-RF voles were provided with 70% of their normal daily food intake and then they were fed ad libitum for the next 4 weeks. Voles of control group were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks. Females (FR-RF or control) were mated to non-littermate males of the same group (FR-RF or control), and we found that the mean litter size and survival rate of F1 pups of FR-RF group were significantly higher than those of control group. We also provided a field example showing that the litter size of Brandt's voles tended to be higher if they experienced two consecutive dry and wet months than that of voles didn't have this experience. Our results suggest that re-feeding may have evoked an overcompensatory mechanism of food-restricted voles in reproductive success. This may be an adaptive strategy for Brandt's voles (with oscillating populations) to cope with the fluctuating food resources in natural conditions by adjusting their reproductive success. PMID:22019786

  20. Modulation of the insulin-like growth factor system by chronic alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Lang, C H; Fan, J; Lipton, B P; Potter, B J; McDonough, K H

    1998-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a potent anabolic agent that plays an important role in regulating muscle protein balance. Alterations in one or more of the various components of the IGF system may be in part responsible for the muscle wasting that accompanies chronic alcohol consumption. The purpose of the present study was to characterize changes in the growth hormone-IGF axis produced by chronic alcohol consumption in rats. After 8 weeks of alcohol feeding, the IGF-I concentration was decreased in plasma (31%) as well as in the liver and skeletal muscle (40-50%), compared with pair-fed control animals. In addition, alcohol consumption decreased IGF-I mRNA abundance in liver and muscle (approximately 50%). IGF-I content in duodenum and kidney, however, was not altered by alcohol feeding. Concomitantly, the relative concentration of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 was increased in plasma, liver, and muscle of alcohol-fed rats, compared with control values. In contrast, no changes in the plasma concentrations of IGFBP-2, -3, or -4 were detected in alcohol-fed rats at this time point Previous studies have indicated that elevations in glucocorticoids or decreases in insulin or growth hormone might be responsible for the decrease in IGF-I and/or the increase in IGFBP-1 in other catabolic conditions. However, there was no difference in the plasma concentrations of these hormones between alcohol-fed and control animals in this study. These data indicate that chronic alcohol feeding in rats decreases IGF-I and increases IGFBP-1 in the circulation and in skeletal muscle and that these changes appear to be independent of changes in classical hormonal regulators of the IGF system. The observed alterations in the IGF system are consistent with a reduction in the anabolic actions of IGF-I induced by chronic alcohol consumption. PMID:9660307

  1. The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Markers of Blood Lipids, and Blood Pressure in Patients with Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobi, Sepideh; Iraj, Bijan; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Maayeshi, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prediabetes is a high-risk condition for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The growing prevalence of diabetes emphasizes on the necessity of concentrating on various strategies to prediabetes prevention and management. Probiotics as a group of functional foods might exert antidiabetic effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of probiotic administration on blood lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with prediabetes. Methods: This randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 prediabetic patients, aged 25-65 years old, that were randomly assigned to the intervention (receiving 500 mg probiotic capsules, n = 30) or control group (receiving placebo, n = 30) for 8-week period. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected at baseline. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline an after 8 weeks of intervention. Data regarding dietary intakes and physical activity were also collected during the study. We used SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) for data analyzing. Results: Probiotic supplementation did not contribute to significant changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), TG/LDL and LDL/HDL ratios, after 8 weeks. After adjusting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol reduced significantly in the placebo group compared with probiotic group. Percent change in systolic blood pressure was significantly different in the probiotic group in comparison with a placebo group (–3.10 ± 2.22 vs. 3.24 ± 1.96, P = 0.01), although this significance did not exist anymore after adjusting for confounders (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that probiotics did not have significant effects on lipid markers although they had positive effects on systolic blood pressure. PMID:25400881

  2. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  3. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  4. Feeding of Nigella sativa during neonatal and juvenile growth improves learning and memory of rats

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The positive roles of antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory have been suggested. Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This study was done to investigate the effects of feeding by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. The pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, they were randomly divided into four Groups including: (1) control; (2) NS 100 mg/kg (NS 100); (3) NS 200 mg/kg (NS 200); and (4) NS 400 mg/kg (NS 400). Rats in the control group (Group 1) received normal drinking water, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 received the same drinking water supplemented with the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) from the 1st day after birth through the first 8 weeks of life. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring from each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) test. Finally, the brains were removed and total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined. In the MWM, treatment by 400 mg/kg extract reduced both the time latency and the distance traveled to reach the platform compared to the control group (p < 0.05–p < 0.01). Both 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract increased the time spent in the target quadrant (p < 0.05–p < 0.01). In the PA test, the treatment of the animals by 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of NS extract significantly increased the time latency for entering the dark compartment (p < 0.05–p < 0.001). Pretreatment of the animals with 400 mg/kg of NS extract decreased the MDA concentration in hippocampal tissues whereas it increased the thiol content compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results allow us to propose that feeding of the rats by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory. The

  5. Feeding of Nigella sativa during neonatal and juvenile growth improves learning and memory of rats.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    The positive roles of antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory have been suggested. Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This study was done to investigate the effects of feeding by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. The pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, they were randomly divided into four Groups including: (1) control; (2) NS 100 mg/kg (NS 100); (3) NS 200 mg/kg (NS 200); and (4) NS 400 mg/kg (NS 400). Rats in the control group (Group 1) received normal drinking water, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 received the same drinking water supplemented with the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) from the 1st day after birth through the first 8 weeks of life. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring from each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) test. Finally, the brains were removed and total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined. In the MWM, treatment by 400 mg/kg extract reduced both the time latency and the distance traveled to reach the platform compared to the control group (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). Both 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract increased the time spent in the target quadrant (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). In the PA test, the treatment of the animals by 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of NS extract significantly increased the time latency for entering the dark compartment (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Pretreatment of the animals with 400 mg/kg of NS extract decreased the MDA concentration in hippocampal tissues whereas it increased the thiol content compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results allow us to propose that feeding of the rats by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory. The

  6. Unique purified hydrated-gelatin diet for feeding dietary fiber to Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    deBethizy, J D; Street, J C

    1984-02-01

    A purified hydrated gelatin diet was developed for feeding dietary fibers to Wistar rats. A dry fiber mix was prepared that consisted of 54.91 dextrose, 13.80 casein, 2.97 AIN mineral mix, 1.28 AIN vitamin mix, 0.17 dl-methionine, 6.80 lard and 5.10 gelatin (g/100g total dry feed). Either cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, or pectin (15 g/100 g total dry feed) was added to the hydrated dry fiber mix and blended until complete distribution and hydration of the fiber was achieved. After gelling, these hydrated diets were stable for up to 24 hours in environmental conditions commonly encountered in animal facilities. Gel weep was minimal thus permitting feed consumption to be monitored conveniently by weighing the residue in the feeders. In situ examination of stomach contents after feeding such hydrated diets to rats indicated that the gelatin gel was readily degraded and did not confound gel formation by fiber itself. Feed efficiency values (g gain/100 kcal digestible energy) for these diets following a 26-day feeding trial were as follows: no fiber, 6.21; cellulose, 6.38; hemicellulose, 6.23; lignin, 6.52; and pectin, 5.53. PMID:6325819

  7. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV

    EPA Science Inventory

    ClinicalTrials.gov provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases and conditions. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its National Library of Medi...

  8. Salmonella investigation in an Ontario feed mill.

    PubMed Central

    Hacking, W C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C

    1978-01-01

    The frequency of Salmonella contamination of feedstuffs and finished broiler chicken feeds at an Ontario feed mill were investigated over a four-month period. Samples of feed ingredients and finished pelleted feeds were collected at various points during manufacture and cultured in trypticase soy broth prior to selective enrichment for isolation of Salmonella. Salmonella contamination was found in 4.3% of 93 finished pelleted broiler feeds examined. The contamination appeared to result primarily from the incorporation of contaminated animal protein ingredients into the feed. Meatmeal and the broiler, premix, which contained meatmeal as a filler, were most frequently contaminated followed by feather meal. Pelleting failed to eliminate the Salmonellae from the feeds. The methods used failed to detect Salmonella in the environment of the feed mill or its delivery trucks. Recommendations for control are made. PMID:369663

  9. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  10. Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159339.html Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits Infants given the drugs were prone to infections ... use of antibiotics may dampen some of the benefits of breast-feeding, a new study suggests. Researchers ...

  11. Feeding and swimming of flagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doelger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a dominant role for small planktonic flagellates and shapes their survival strategies. The high diversity of beat patterns and arrangements of appendages indicates different strategies balancing the trade-offs between the general goals, i.e., energy-efficient swimming, feeding, and predator avoidance. One type of flagellated algae that we observe, are haptophytes, which possess two flagella for flow creation and one so-called haptonema, a long, rigid structure fixed on the cell body, which is used for prey capture. We present videos and flow fields obtained using velocimetry methods around freely swimming haptophytes and other flagellates, which we compare to analytical results obtained from point force models. The observed and modelled flows are used to analyse how different morphologies and beat patterns relate to different feeding or swimming strategies, such as the capture mechanism in haptophytes. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR center of excellence supported by the Villum foundation.

  12. Treatment of major depressive disorders with generic duloxetine and paroxetine: a multi-centered, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Zhiyang; XU, Xiufeng; TAN, Qingrong; LI, Keqing; MA, Cui; XIE, Shiping; GAO, Chengge; WANG, Gang; LI, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a pre-registration trial of generic duloxetine that was approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (approval number: 2006L01603). Aims Compare the treatment efficacy and safety of generic duloxetine to that of paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods This was a double-dummy, double-blind, multicenter, positive drug (paroxetine), parallel randomized controlled clinical trial. The 299 patients with MDD recruited for the study were randomly assigned to use duloxetine (n=149; 40–60 mg/d) or paroxetine (n=150; 20 mg/d) for 8 weeks. The Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD-17) was administered at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after starting treatment. Remission was defined as a HAMD-17 score below 8 at the end of the trial, and treatment effectiveness was defined as a decrease in baseline HAMD-17 score of at least 50% by the end of the trial. Safety was assessed based on the reported prevalence and severity of side effects and changes in laboratory and electrocardiographic findings. Three patients in the duloxetine group dropped out before starting medication, so results were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat (ITT) method with 146 in the experimental group and 150 in the control group. Results Both groups experienced 29 dropouts during the 8-week trial. HAMD-17 scores decreased significantly from baseline throughout the trial in both groups. Based on the ITT analysis, at the end of the trial there was no significant difference between the duloxetine group and the paroxetine group in effectiveness (67.1% v. 71.3%, X2=0.62 p=0.433), remission rate (41.1% v. 51.3%, X2=3.12, p=0.077), or in the incidence of side effects (56.8% v. 54.7%, X2=0.14, p=0.705). Conclusions Generic duloxetine is as effective and safe as paroxetine in the acute treatment of patients with MDD who seek care at psychiatric outpatient departments in China. PMID:26549959

  13. On the context-dependent scaling of consumer feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Barrios-O'Neill, Daniel; Kelly, Ruth; Dick, Jaimie T A; Ricciardi, Anthony; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Emmerson, Mark C

    2016-06-01

    The stability of consumer-resource systems can depend on the form of feeding interactions (i.e. functional responses). Size-based models predict interactions - and thus stability - based on consumer-resource size ratios. However, little is known about how interaction contexts (e.g. simple or complex habitats) might alter scaling relationships. Addressing this, we experimentally measured interactions between a large size range of aquatic predators (4-6400 mg over 1347 feeding trials) and an invasive prey that transitions among habitats: from the water column (3D interactions) to simple and complex benthic substrates (2D interactions). Simple and complex substrates mediated successive reductions in capture rates - particularly around the unimodal optimum - and promoted prey population stability in model simulations. Many real consumer-resource systems transition between 2D and 3D interactions, and along complexity gradients. Thus, Context-Dependent Scaling (CDS) of feeding interactions could represent an unrecognised aspect of food webs, and quantifying the extent of CDS might enhance predictive ecology. PMID:27094829

  14. Families and Pediatric Feeding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, Pamela; Bove, Kelly; Scarcelli, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    When a child is born with a feeding and/or swallowing problem, it affects the entire family. Parents, mothers specifically, internalize the problem and come to believe it is due to something they've done. Families are put on an emotional rollercoaster with the ups and downs being dependant on how much the child has eaten that day. In this article,…

  15. Menus for Feeding Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Black holes are the ultimate prisons of the Universe, regions of spacetime where the enormous gravity prohibits matter or even light to escape to infinity. Yet, matter falling toward the black holes may shine spectacularly, generating the strongest source of radiation. These sources provide us with astrophysical laboratories of extreme physical conditions that cannot be realized on Earth. This chapter offers a review of the basic menus for feeding matter onto black holes and discusses their observational implications.

  16. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  17. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. PMID:26174043

  18. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  19. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  20. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  1. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  2. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  3. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... pens are located. (b) Care should be taken to protect livestock unloaded en route at a point...

  4. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Josie A.; Jones, Darryl N.; Stanley, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species. PMID:25941361

  5. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  6. Caregivers feeding styles questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...

  7. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  8. Analysis shows revamp route to naphtha feed

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.; Ortiz, C.H.; Arzate, E. )

    1988-11-21

    An existing ethylene plant was studied, using a computer-simulated flexibility analysis, to determine the changes required to convert one of the cracking furnaces from ethane feed to naphtha feed. The simulation determined the changes in flow rate, operating temperature, and steam/hydrocarbon ratio that would result from the liquid feed.

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014. PMID:25229484

  10. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city. PMID:26432269

  11. A pilot trial of a videogame-based exercise program for methadone maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Christopher J; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Moore, Brent A; Ball, Samuel A; Beitel, Mark; Savant, Jonathan D; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Doucette, Christopher; Barry, Declan T

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have examined exercise as a substance use disorder treatment. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise intervention comprising the Wii Fit Plus™ and of a time-and-attention sedentary control comprising Wii™ videogames. We also explored their impact on physical activity levels, substance use, and psychological wellness. Twenty-nine methadone-maintained patients enrolled in an 8-week trial were randomly assigned to either Active Game Play (Wii Fit Plus™ videogames involving physical exertion) or Sedentary Game Play (Wii™ videogames played while sitting). Participants had high satisfaction and study completion rates. Active Game Play participants reported greater physical activity outside the intervention than Sedentary Game Play participants despite no such differences at baseline. Substance use decreased and stress and optimism improved in both conditions. Active Game Play is a feasible and acceptable exercise intervention, and Sedentary Game Play is a promising time-and-attention control. Further investigations of these interventions are warranted. PMID:25012555

  12. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for clinical perfectionism: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Caroline; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Shafran, Roz

    2007-01-01

    Perfectionism can be a problem in its own right and it can impede the progress of treatment of Axis I disorders. This study reports on a preliminary randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for “clinical perfectionism”. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to either immediate treatment (IT) (n=10) or a waitlist (NL) (n=10). Treatment consisted of ten sessions of CBT over eight weeks. Two participants did not complete the follow-up assessments (10%). Fifteen of the original 20 participants (75%) were clinically significantly improved after treatment and the effect size was large (1.8). Treatment gains were maintained at 8-week and 16-week follow-up. PMID:17275781

  13. A pilot trial of a videogame-based exercise program for methadone maintained patients

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Christopher J.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Moore, Brent A.; Ball, Samuel A.; Beitel, Mark; Savant, Jonathan D.; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Doucette, Christopher; Barry, Declan T.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined exercise as a substance use disorder treatment. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise intervention comprising the Wii Fit Plus™ and of a time-and-attention sedentary control comprising Wii™ videogames. We also explored their impact on physical activity levels, substance use, and psychological wellness. Twenty-nine methadone-maintained patients enrolled in an 8-week trial were randomly assigned to either Active Game Play (Wii Fit Plus™ videogames involving physical exertion) or Sedentary Game Play (Wii™ videogames played while sitting). Participants had high satisfaction and study completion rates. Active Game Play participants reported greater physical activity outside the intervention than Sedentary Game Play participants despite no such differences at baseline. Substance use decreased and stress and optimism improved in both conditions. Active Game Play is a feasible and acceptable exercise intervention, and Sedentary Game Play is a promising time-and-attention control. Further investigations of these interventions are warranted. PMID:25012555

  14. Feeding Students in School: Providing Guidelines and Information on Safe Feeding Practices for Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sandra; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines for safe feeding practices for students with disabilities in Oregon schools. Stressed is the importance of distinguishing between feeding for the maintenance of health and feeding for the acquisition of skills. Individual sections cover: definitions of feeding programs; the school district responsibility; risks;…

  15. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  16. Shuffling Adaptive Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sanjay G; Gokhale, Sankalp

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are interventional studies on human beings, designed to test the hypothesis for diagnostic techniques, treatments, and disease preventions. Any novel medical technology should be evaluated for its efficacy and safety by clinical trials. The costs associated with developing drugs have increased dramatically over the past decade, and fewer drugs are obtaining regulatory approval. Because of this, the pharmaceutical industry is continually exploring new ways of improving drug developments, and one area of focus is adaptive clinical trial designs. Adaptive designs, which allow for some types of prospectively planned mid-study changes, can improve the efficiency of a trial and maximize the chance of success without undermining validity and integrity of the trial. However it is felt that in adaptive trials; perhaps by using accrued data the actual patient population after the adaptations could deviate from the originally target patient population and so to overcome this drawback; special methods like Bayesian Statistics, predicted probability are used to deduce data-analysis. Here, in this study, mathematical model of a new adaptive design (shuffling adaptive trial) is suggested which uses real-time data, and because there is no gap between expected and observed data, statistical modifications are not needed. Results are obviously clinically relevant. PMID:23751329

  17. Taurine supplementation to alternative dietary proteins used in fish meal replacement enhances growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate 8 week feeding trials were conducted to examine the impacts of fish meal replacement with an organically certifiable yeast-based protein source with and without supplementation of methionine, tryptophan, and taurine to diets for juvenile cobia. In the first trial, diets were formulated ...

  18. Chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and transfers during duck pellet feed processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wei, Wei; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agricultural crops (including food) and animal feeds in China, resulting in heavy contamination. Many studies have focused on the food-processing effects on chlorpyrifos removal, but sufficient information is not observed for feed-processing steps. Here, chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and its transfers in duck pellet feed-processing steps were evaluated. In field trials, the highest residues for rice grain, shelled corn, and soybean seed were 12.0, 0.605, and 0.220 mg/kg, respectively. Residues of all rice grain and about half of shelled corn exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China, and five soybean seeds exceeded the MRL of China. Chlorpyrifos residue was reduced 38.2% in brown rice after the raw rice grain was hulled. The residue in bran increased 71.2% after milling from brown rice. During the squashing step, the residue reduced 73.8% in soybean meal. The residues reduced significantly (23.7-36.8%) during the process of granulating for rice, maize, and soybean products. Comparatively, the grinding process showed only limited influence on chlorpyrifos removal (<10%). The residues of duck pellet feeds produced from highly contaminated raw materials of this study were 1.01 mg/kg (maize-soybean feed) and 3.20 mg/kg (rice-soybean feed), which were much higher than the generally accepted value (>0.1 mg/kg) for animal feeding. Chlorpyrifos residues were removed significantly by processing steps of pellet feeds, but the residue of raw materials was the determining factor for the safety of duck feeding. PMID:25310710

  19. Early Post Operative Enteral Versus Parenteral Feeding after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Mashhadi, Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Zilaee, Marzie; Rezaei, Reza; Maddah, Ghodratollah; Majidi, Mohamad Reza; Bahadornia, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is reported to be high. In particular, patients with esophageal cancer are prone to malnutrition, due to preoperative digestive system dysfunctions and short-term non-oral feeding postoperatively. Selection of an appropriate method for feeding in the postoperative period is important in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone esophagectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 were randomly assigned into either enteral feeding or parenteral feeding groups, with the same calorie intake in each group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C3, C4 and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as well as the rate of surgical complications, restoration of bowel movements and cost was assessed in each group. Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of serum albumin, prealbumin or transferrin. However, C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group compared with the parenteral group, while hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. Bowel movements were restored sooner and costs of treatment were lower in the enteral group. Postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. There was one death in the parenteral group 10 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that enteral feeding can be used effectively in the first days after surgery, with few early complications and similar nutritional outcomes compared with the parenteral method. Enteral feeding was associated with reduced inflammation and was associated with an improvement in immunological responses, quicker return of bowel movements, and reduced costs in comparison with parenteral feeding. PMID:26568935

  20. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  1. Inept media trials of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, N. V.

    2012-01-01

    The Indian media in general, with the exception of a few domain expert journalists, have failed to comprehend the complexities involved in the clinical trial process. In the run up to the deadline-based coverage of a story, a majority of them fall short in conveying the right perspective to readers, but nevertheless they have been successful in sensationalizing an event in this arena. Possibly by unintended misrepresentation, or mostly out of ignorance of the nuances involved in the clinical trials process, the media has done more harm than good, and got away with it. On the other side, the industry has been reluctant to engage with the media in a meaningful dialog for too long now. It bears not only the consequences of damage to its professional reputation following such reportage, but also the repercussions of unnecessary clampdowns by the regulators. Science journalism in India has yet to rise as a profession. PMID:22701819

  2. Breast feeding: social, economic and medical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1983-10-01

    A certain attitude and lifestyle is needed if breast feeding is to be successful. It must have priority over all other activities save the very basic ones. The rural environment provides a situation in which breast feeding can flourish . With urbanisation and the accompanying change in lifestyle breast feeding becomes very difficult. Since successful breast feeding needs strong motivation, the change in attitude of urbanised wives makes it even more unlikely. The Singapore experience demonstrates this convincingly; even though awareness of the benefits of breast feeding is widespread, the motivation to breast feed is not. Remedial measures should take into consideration the need to motivate the mother and family, the prevention of commercial infant food companies influencing public opinion, and incentives for the working mothers to breast feed. PMID:6678141

  3. Spiritual healing as a therapy for chronic pain: a randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abbot, N C; Harkness, E F; Stevinson, C; Marshall, F P; Conn, D A; Ernst, E

    2001-03-01

    Spiritual healing is a popular complementary and alternative therapy; in the UK almost 13000 members are registered in nine separate healing organisations. The present randomized clinical trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of healing in the treatment of chronic pain. One hundred and twenty patients suffering from chronic pain, predominantly of neuropathic and nociceptive origin resistant to conventional treatments, were recruited from a Pain Management Clinic. The trial had two parts: face-to-face healing or simulated face-to-face healing for 30 min per week for 8 weeks (part I); and distant healing or no healing for 30 min per week for 8 weeks (part II). The McGill Pain Questionnaire was pre-defined as the primary outcome measure, and sample size was calculated to detect a difference of 8 units on the total pain rating index of this instrument after 8 weeks of healing. VASs for pain, SF36, HAD scale, MYMOP and patient subjective experiences at week 8 were employed as secondary outcome measures. Data from all patients who reached the pre-defined mid-point of 4 weeks (50 subjects in part I and 55 subjects in part II) were included in the analysis. Two baseline measurements of outcome measures were made, 3 weeks apart, and no significant differences were observed between them. After eight sessions there were significant decreases from baseline in McGill Pain Questionnaire total pain rating index score for both groups in part I and for the control group in part II. However, there were no statistically significant differences between healing and control groups in either part. In part I the primary outcome measure decreased from 32.8 (95% CI 28.5-37.0) to 23.3 (16.8-29.7) in the healing group and from 33.1 (27.2-38.9) to 26.1 (19.3-32.9) in the simulated healing group. In part II it changed from 29.6 (24.8-34.4) to 24.0 (18.7-29.4) in the distant healing group and from 31.0 (25.8-36.2) to 21.0 (15.7-26.2) in the no healing group. Subjects in healing groups

  4. The Perfect Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bril, V

    2016-01-01

    Multiple phase III clinical trials have failed to show disease-modifying benefits for diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) and this may be due to the design of the clinical trials. The perfect clinical trial in DSP would enroll sufficiently large numbers of patients having early or minimal disease, as demonstrated by nerve conduction studies (NCS). These patients would be treated with an intervention given at an effective and well-tolerated dose for a sufficient duration of time to show change in the end points selected. For objective or surrogate measures such as NCS and for some small fiber measures, the duration needed to show positive change may be as brief as 6-12 months, but subsequently, trials lasting 5-8 years will be required to demonstrate clinical benefits. PMID:27133143

  5. Clinical Trials - Participants

    MedlinePlus

    ... participating in was reviewed by an IRB. Further Reading For more information about research protections, see: Office ... data and decide whether the results have medical importance. Results from clinical trials are often published in ...

  6. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  7. Participating in Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... experimental drug, therapy, medical device, lifestyle change, or test will help treat, find, or prevent a disease. A clinical trial may compare experimental products or tests to those already available or may compare existing ...

  8. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  9. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  10. History of infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Barness, L A

    1987-07-01

    Human milk was the one successful infant food until the advent of scientific pediatrics, the invention of electric refrigeration, and the development of formulas containing the major nutrients in concentrations similar to human milk. Infants apparently thrive on artificial formulas but the current formulas represent only a stage in the journey to optimal nutrition for infants. Better analyses of the composition of human milk are likely to lead to an improved understanding of the infant's nutritional requirements and thus to better feeding practices. PMID:3300255

  11. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    PubMed

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  12. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    PubMed Central

    Oltramari, C. E.; Nápoles, G. G. O.; De Paula, M. R.; Silva, J. T.; Gallo, M. P. C.; Pasetti, M. H. O.; Bittar, C. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  13. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world’s increasing demand for seafood products has resulted in rising demands for fish meal for fish feed, which must be compensated for by searching for effective alternative protein sources. In this study, twin-screw extrusion trials were conducted to study the production of nutritionally-bala...

  14. Reproductive Performance Of Heifers Offered Ad Libitum Or Restricted Access To Feed For A 140-D Period After Weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in heifers born in 4 years that were randomly assigned to either control (fed to appetite; n = 268) or restricted (fed at 80 % of that consumed by controls adjusted to a common BW basis; n = 263) feeding during a 140-d postweaning trial, beginning about 2 mo af...

  15. Reproductive Performance of Heifers Offered Ad Libitum Or Restricted Access To Feed For A 140-D Period After Weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in heifers born in 4 years that were randomly assigned to either control (fed to appetite; n = 268) or restricted (fed at 80 % of that consumed by controls adjusted to a common BW basis; n = 263) feeding during a 140-d postweaning trial, beginning about 2 mo af...

  16. Evaluation of an experimental chlorate product as a pre-harvest feed supplement to reduce Salmonella in meat producing birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of experimental chlorate product (ECP) feed supplementation on Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the crop and ceca of market-age broilers. In trial 1, 160 market-age broilers were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups, and replicated twice, with 20 broile...

  17. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  18. Investigation of food acceptability and feeding practices for lipid nutrient supplements and blended flours used to treat moderate malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and to identify practices associated with weight gain. Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), so...

  19. The role of feeding regimens in regulating metabolism of sexually mature broiler breeders: hepatic lipid metabolism, plasma hormones and metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism on sexually mature broiler breeders. A flock of Cobb 500 birds was divided into two groups at 35 days of age and fed either everyday (ED) or skip-a-d...

  20. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  1. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from < 0.9 to 1.4 microg/kg after the withdrawal period. Narasin residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture. PMID:15538711

  2. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  3. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  4. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yibo; Yang, Yunxia; Cai, Fasheng

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0 29.0°C for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  5. [Optimal feeding strategy for juvenile Hucho taimen].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Xue; Yin, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Bai, Qing-Li

    2013-11-01

    Three experiments including starvation and re-feeding, starvation and re-feeding recovery, and feeding frequency per day were conducted to approach the optimal feeding strategy for the growth and survival of juvenile Hucho taimen. In the experiment of starvation and re-feeding, all groups of restricted feeding showed non-compensatory growth. However, in the experiment of starvation and re-feeding recovery, different degrees of compensatory growth appeared in different starving groups, among which, the half a day starvation and half a day feeding group (S1/2) had a weight increment approximately the same as the control, and showed completely compensatory growth, indicating that the S1/2 could be a useful feeding strategy for the juvenile H. taimen at its early growth stage with the body mass from 0 to 2 g and at the water temperature from 9 to 15.3 degrees C. In feeding frequency experiment, the group T3 (three meals per day) had the highest body length, body mass, specific growth rate, and relatively high food conversion ratio, indicating that three meals a day could be more effective for improving the growth performance of juvenile H. taimen at its late stage with the body mass from 2 to 21 g and at the water temperature from 8.8 to 15.5 degrees C. PMID:24564159

  6. On the Evolution of Handedness: Evidence for Feeding Biases

    PubMed Central

    Flindall, Jason W.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Many theories have been put forward to explain the origins of right-handedness in humans. Here we present evidence that this preference may stem in part from a right hand advantage in grasping for feeding. Thirteen participants were asked to reach-to-grasp food items of 3 different sizes: SMALL (Cheerios®), MEDIUM (Froot Loops®), and LARGE (Oatmeal Squares®). Participants used both their right- and left-hands in separate blocks (50 trials each, starting order counterbalanced) to grasp the items. After each grasp, participants either a) ate the food item, or b) placed it inside a bib worn beneath his/her chin (25 trials each, blocked design, counterbalanced). The conditions were designed such that the outward and inward movement trajectories were similar, differing only in the final step of placing it in the mouth or bib. Participants wore Plato liquid crystal goggles that blocked vision between trials. All trials were conducted in closed-loop with 5000 ms of vision. Hand kinematics were recorded by an Optotrak Certus, which tracked the position of three infrared diodes attached separately to the index finger, thumb, and wrist. We found a task (EAT/PLACE) by hand (LEFT/RIGHT) interaction on maximum grip aperture (MGA; the maximum distance between the index finger and thumb achieved during grasp pre-shaping). MGAs were smaller during right-handed movements, but only when grasping with intent to eat. Follow-up tests show that the RIGHT-HAND/EAT MGA was significantly smaller than all other hand/task conditions. Because smaller grip apertures are typically associated with greater precision, our results demonstrate a right-hand advantage for the grasp-to-eat movement. From an evolutionary perspective, early humans may have preferred the hand that could grasp food with more precision, thereby maximizing the likelihood of retrieval, consumption, and consequently, survival. PMID:24236078

  7. On the evolution of handedness: evidence for feeding biases.

    PubMed

    Flindall, Jason W; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2013-01-01

    Many theories have been put forward to explain the origins of right-handedness in humans. Here we present evidence that this preference may stem in part from a right hand advantage in grasping for feeding. Thirteen participants were asked to reach-to-grasp food items of 3 different sizes: SMALL (Cheerios®), MEDIUM (Froot Loops®), and LARGE (Oatmeal Squares®). Participants used both their right- and left-hands in separate blocks (50 trials each, starting order counterbalanced) to grasp the items. After each grasp, participants either a) ate the food item, or b) placed it inside a bib worn beneath his/her chin (25 trials each, blocked design, counterbalanced). The conditions were designed such that the outward and inward movement trajectories were similar, differing only in the final step of placing it in the mouth or bib. Participants wore Plato liquid crystal goggles that blocked vision between trials. All trials were conducted in closed-loop with 5000 ms of vision. Hand kinematics were recorded by an Optotrak Certus, which tracked the position of three infrared diodes attached separately to the index finger, thumb, and wrist. We found a task (EAT/PLACE) by hand (LEFT/RIGHT) interaction on maximum grip aperture (MGA; the maximum distance between the index finger and thumb achieved during grasp pre-shaping). MGAs were smaller during right-handed movements, but only when grasping with intent to eat. Follow-up tests show that the RIGHT-HAND/EAT MGA was significantly smaller than all other hand/task conditions. Because smaller grip apertures are typically associated with greater precision, our results demonstrate a right-hand advantage for the grasp-to-eat movement. From an evolutionary perspective, early humans may have preferred the hand that could grasp food with more precision, thereby maximizing the likelihood of retrieval, consumption, and consequently, survival. PMID:24236078

  8. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  9. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.56) by 3.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), per cent body fat significantly decreased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.42) by -1.2%, and interleukin-6 and white blood cell (WBC) count both significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by -0.4 pg · mL(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.96) and -2.1 × 10(9) cells · L(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.87), respectively. Large magnitude enhancements were observed in the HRQoL factors of physical functioning, general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. When interpreted in a community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults. PMID:26571136

  10. Exercise and manual physiotherapy arthritis research trial (EMPART): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    French, Helen P; Cusack, Tara; Brennan, Aisling; White, Breon; Gilsenan, Clare; Fitzpatrick, Martina; O'Connell, Paul; Kane, David; FitzGerald, Oliver; McCarthy, Geraldine M

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indicates that therapeutic exercise has a beneficial but short-term effect on pain and disability, with poor long-term benefit. The optimal content, duration and type of exercise are yet to be ascertained. There has been little scientific investigation into the effectiveness of manual therapy in hip OA. Only one randomized controlled trial (RCT) found greater improvements in patient-perceived improvement and physical function with manual therapy, compared to exercise therapy. Methods and design An assessor-blind multicentre RCT will be undertaken to compare the effect of a combination of manual therapy and exercise therapy, exercise therapy only, and a waiting-list control on physical function in hip OA. One hundred and fifty people with a diagnosis of hip OA will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of 3 groups: exercise therapy, exercise therapy with manual therapy and a waiting-list control. Subjects in the intervention groups will attend physiotherapy for 6–8 sessions over 8 weeks. Those in the control group will remain on the waiting list until after this time and will then be re-randomised to one of the two intervention groups. Outcome measures will include physical function (WOMAC), pain severity (numerical rating scale), patient perceived change (7-point Likert scale), quality of life (SF-36), mood (hospital anxiety and depression scale), patient satisfaction, physical activity (IPAQ) and physical measures of range of motion, 50-foot walk and repeated sit-to stand tests. Discussion This RCT will compare the effectiveness of the addition of manual therapy to exercise therapy to exercise therapy only and a waiting-list control in hip OA. A high quality methodology will be used in keeping with CONSORT guidelines. The results will contribute

  11. Dopamine cell transplantation for Parkinson's disease: the importance of controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Freed, Curt R; Zhou, Wenbo; Breeze, Robert E

    2011-10-01

    Transplantation of human fetal dopamine neurons into the brain of Parkinson's disease patients started in the late 1980s, less than 10 years after experiments in rats showed that embryonic dopamine neurons from a narrow window of development are suitable for transplantation. For human transplantation, the critical stage of development is 6 to 8 weeks after conception. Because putamen is the basal ganglia structure most depleted of dopamine in Parkinson's disease and because it is the structure most closely mapped to the motor cortex, it has been the primary target for neurotransplantation. The double blind trial conducted at the University of Colorado, Columbia University, and North Shore University is the first controlled surgical trial performed in the field of neurosurgery. Results have shown that transplants of fetal dopamine neurons can survive transplantation without immunosuppression and without regard to the age of the patients. Transplants improved objective signs of Parkinson's disease to the best effects of L-DOPA seen preoperatively. Placebo surgery produced no clinical changes. In subjects in whom transplants replaced the need for L-DOPA, the implants replicated the preoperative effects of L-DOPA, including dyskinesias in susceptible patients. Our trial has provided the first controlled evidence that dopamine cell transplants can improve the clinical state of patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:21997523

  12. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Methods Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer’s test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. Results OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer’s test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 71217488 PMID:26457673

  13. Feeds for reflector antennas - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarricoats, P. J. B.

    A review of progress made in feed modes for satellite broadcasting is presented. Hybrid mode feeds are discussed in terms of performance characteristics and current usage. They feature both electric and magnetic longitudinal field components, thus allowing radiation pattern symmetry and low cross polarization in the 45 deg planes. The most common hybrid mode antenna is presently the corrugated horn, such as on COMSTAR. It is noted that hybrid modes have azimuthal dependence, while circularly symmetric fields are constrained to pure modes. Cylindrical or conical wave guides are employed to receive and transmit pure modes. Component characteristics of pure and mixed mode feeds are described, and advantages which array feeds hold over single element feeds are outlined, as are projections of future improvements in feed designs.

  14. Limited efficacy of early postoperative jejunal feeding.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J T; Wolfe, B M; Calvert, C C

    1985-07-01

    Twenty patients underwent placement of a jejunal catheter for early postoperative feeding at the time of upper abdominal operations, and a control group of 11 patients underwent operative procedures of similar magnitude without jejunostomy. Advancement of the rate of feeding to target intake over 6 to 7 days was attempted. Complications from the feeding led to cessation or curtailment of intake in 65 percent of the patients. Specific complications included abdominal pain and distention, diarrhea, and retrograde reflux of the feeding into the stomach. No statistically significant difference in nitrogen balance was demonstrated between the fed and unfed groups, presumably due to the limitations of nutrient delivery or absorption in the fed groups or elevated breath hydrogen excretion in patients with abdominal pain and distention suggests that the nature of the nutrients, particularly complex carbohydrates, is a factor in the development of feeding complications. Caution must be exercised in advancing the rate of postoperative jejunal feeding. PMID:3925800

  15. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  16. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  17. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  18. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  19. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  20. Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2004-01-01

    Many of the flavonoids found in grapes and grape products such as juice or wine have been known to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibitory and arterial relaxing effects either in vitro, in animal studies and in human trials. This study was designed to test the effect of Concord grape juice consumption on altering blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Forty subjects were given 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day of either Concord grape juice (CGJ) or a calorie-matched placebo drink every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured on weeks 0, 4 and 8. Compared to baseline, in the CGJ group systolic BP was reduced on average by 7.2 mm Hg (p = 0.005) and diastolic BP was reduced on average by 6.2 mm Hg (p = 0.001) at the end of 8 weeks. Comparable changes in the group getting the placebo product were -3.5 mm Hg (NS) and -3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.05) Consuming Concord grape juice, which is high in polyphenolic compounds, may favorably affect BP in hypertensive individuals. PMID:15630270

  1. Resistance training does not have an effect on cognition or related serum biomarkers in nonagenarians: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J R; Gil-Bea, F; Bustamante-Ara, N; Rodríguez-Romo, G; Fiuza-Luces, C; Serra-Rexach, J A; Cedazo-Minguez, A; Lucia, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effects of 8-week exercise-intervention on cognition and related serum biochemical markers in nonagenarians. We also studied the effects of a 4-week training cessation ('detraining') period on our study variables. Participants were randomly allocated to a standard-care (control) or intervention (exercise) group [n=20 (16 women)/group]. The intervention focused on supervised, light-to-moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercises (mainly leg press), and included 3 weekly sessions. Cognitive status was determined by the mini-mental state examination and geriatric depression scale. We analysed proteins with reported relation with mechanisms behind cognition changes such as serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme, amyloid-precursor protein, epidermal growth factor, brain-derived neural factor and tumor necrosis factor. No significant change (P>0.05) in any of the variables studied was found following the exercise intervention compared with the standard-care group. Similarly, no significant changes (P>0.05) were observed following the detraining period compared with the standard-care group. Overall changes after the exercise intervention in serum biomarkers were not associated with changes in functional capacity and cognitive measures. An 8-week exercise intervention focusing on resistance exercises neither benefits cognitive function nor affects the levels of the serum proteins analysed in nonagenarians. PMID:25329433

  2. Laser capture microdissection of nematode feeding cells.

    PubMed

    Ithal, Nagabhushana; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2011-01-01

    Obligate plant-parasitic nematodes, such as cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), form specialized feeding cells in host plant roots. These feeding cells provide the sole source of nutrition for the growth and reproduction of the nematode to complete its life cycle. Feeding cell formation involves complex physiological and morphological changes to normal root cells and is accompanied by dramatic changes in plant gene expression. The distinct features of feeding cells suggest that their formation entails a unique gene expression profile, a better understanding of which will assist in building models to explain signaling pathways that modulate transcriptional changes in response to nematodes. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to design strategies to develop resistance against nematodes in crop plants. Feeding cells comprise a small fraction of the total root cell population, and identification of plant gene expression changes specific to these cells is difficult. Until recently, the specific isolation of nematode feeding cells could be accomplished only by manual dissection or microaspiration. These approaches are limited in that only mature feeding cells can be isolated. These limitations in tissue accessibility for macromolecule isolation at different stages of feeding cell development can be overcome through the use of laser microdissection (LM), a technique that enables the specific isolation of feeding cells from early to late stages for RNA isolation, amplification, and downstream analysis. PMID:21359812

  3. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  4. Comparative feeding kinematics of tropical hylid tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Venesky, Matthew D; Rossa-Feres, Denise C; Nomura, Fausto; de Andrade, Gilda Vasconcellos; Pezzuti, Tiago Leite; de Sousa, Verônica Thiemi Tsutae; Anderson, Christopher V; Wassersug, Richard J

    2013-05-15

    Anuran larvae, which are otherwise simple in shape, typically have complex keratinized mouthparts (i.e. labial teeth and jaw sheaths) that allow them to graze upon surfaces. The diversity in these structures among species presumably reflects specializations that allow for maximal feeding efficiency on different types of food. However, we lack a general understanding of how these oral structures function during feeding. We used high-speed digital imaging (500 Hz) to observe tadpoles of six species from the anuran family Hylidae grazing on a standardized food-covered substrate. Tadpoles of these species vary in the number of labial tooth rows, belong to two different feeding guilds (benthic and nektonic), and inhabit ponds and streams. We confirmed that the labial teeth in these species serve two functions: anchoring the mouth to the substrate and raking material off of the substrate. In general, tadpoles with a larger maximum gape or those with fewer labial tooth rows opened and closed their mouths slower than tadpoles with smaller gape or more tooth rows. Nektonic feeding tadpoles released each of their tooth rows proportionally earlier in the gape cycle compared with benthic feeding tadpoles. Lastly, we found some support for the idea that deformation of the jaw sheaths during a feeding cycle is predictable based on tadpole feeding guild. Collectively, our data show that anatomical (e.g. number of labial teeth) and ecological features (e.g. feeding guild) of tadpoles significantly influence how tadpoles open and close their mouths during feeding. PMID:23430988

  5. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonjung; Gilet, Tristan; Bush, John W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most difficult to transport. We here demonstrate that the sugar concentration that optimizes energy transport depends exclusively on the drinking technique employed. We identify three nectar drinking techniques: active suction, capillary suction, and viscous dipping. For each, we deduce the dependence of the volume intake rate on the nectar viscosity and thus infer an optimal sugar concentration consistent with laboratory measurements. Our results provide the first rationale for why suction feeders typically pollinate flowers with lower sugar concentration nectar than their counterparts that use viscous dipping. PMID:21949358

  6. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  7. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen, [18F]-FPS; Adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alfimeprase, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Belatacept, bortezomib; C340, caspofungin acetate, clazosentan sodium, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, DB-289, decitabine, dronedarone hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eletriptan, entecavir, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib; Gaboxadol, gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, gemifloxacin mesilate, glutamine; Human insulin; I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, indiplon, inhaled insulin, isatoribine; L-Arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Magnesium sulfate; Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, omapatrilat, OncoVEX (GM-CSF); rDNA insulin, rupatadine fumarate; Sorafenib; Tadalafil, teduglutide, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tiotropium bromide; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate. PMID:16357953

  8. Craniosacral therapy for migraine: Protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mann, John D; Faurot, Keturah R; Wilkinson, Laurel; Curtis, Peter; Coeytaux, Remy R; Suchindran, Chirayath; Gaylord, Susan A

    2008-01-01

    Background Migraine affects approximately 20% of the population. Conventional care for migraine is suboptimal; overuse of medications for the treatment of episodic migraines is a risk factor for developing chronic daily headache. The study of non-pharmaceutical approaches for prevention of migraine headaches is therefore warranted. Craniosacral therapy (CST) is a popular non-pharmacological approach to the treatment or prevention of migraine headaches for which there is limited evidence of safety and efficacy. In this paper, we describe an ongoing feasibility study to assess the safety and efficacy of CST in the treatment of migraine, using a rigorous and innovative randomized controlled study design involving low-strength static magnets (LSSM) as an attention control intervention. Methods The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that, compared to those receiving usual care plus a treatment with low-strength static magnets (attention-control complementary therapy), subjects receiving usual medical care plus CST will demonstrate significant improvement in: quality-of-life as measured by the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6); reduced frequency of migraine; and a perception of clinical benefit. Criteria for inclusion are either gender, age > 11, English or Spanish speaking, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria for migraine with or without aura, a headache frequency of 5 to 15 per month over at least two years. After an 8 week baseline phase, eligible subjects are randomized to either CST or an attention control intervention, low strength static magnets (LSSM). To evaluate possible therapist bias, videotaped encounters are analyzed to assess for any systematic group differences in interactions with subjects. Results 169 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of which 109 were eligible for the study. Five did not qualify during the baseline phase because of inadequate headache frequency. Nineteen have withdrawn from the

  9. Rationale and design of the randomised clinical trial comparing early medication change (EMC) strategy with treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with Major Depressive Disorder - the EMC trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the traditional belief of a delayed onset of antidepressants' effects has lead to the concept of current guidelines that treatment durations should be between 3-8 weeks before medication change in case of insufficient outcome. Post hoc analyses of clinical trials, however, have shown that improvement usually occurs within the first 10-14 days of treatment and that such early improvement (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] decrease ≥20%) has a substantial predictive value for final treatment outcome. Even more important, non-improvement (HAMD decrease <20%) after 14 days of treatment was found to be highly predictive for a poor final treatment outcome. Methods/Design The EMC trial is a phase IV, multi-centre, multi-step, randomized, observer-blinded, actively controlled parallel-group clinical trial to investigate for the first time prospectively, whether non-improvers after 14 days of antidepressant treatment with an early medication change (EMC) are more likely to attain remission (HAMD-17 ≤7) on treatment day 56 compared to patients treated according to current guideline recommendation (treatment as usual; TAU). In level 1 of the EMC trial, non-improvers after 14 days of antidepressant treatment will be randomised to an EMC strategy or TAU. The EMC strategy for this study schedules a first medication change on day 15; in case of non-improvement between days 15-28, a second medication change will be performed. TAU schedules the first medication change after 28 days in case of non-response (HAMD-17 decrease <50%). Both interventions will last 42 days. In levels 2 and 3, EMC strategies will be compared with TAU strategies in improvers on day 14, who experience a stagnation of improvement during the course of treatment. The trial is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and will be conducted in cooperation with the BMBF funded Interdisciplinary Centre Clinical Trials (IZKS) at

  10. Octopamine: a new feeding modulator in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Vehovszky, Á.

    1998-01-01

    The role of octopamine (OA) in the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, was studied by applying behavioural tests on intact animals, and a combination of electrophysiological analysis and morphological labelling in the isolated central nervous system. OA antagonists phentolamine, demethylchlordimeform (DCDM) and 2-chloro-4-methyl-2-(phenylimino)-imidazolidine (NC-7) were injected into intact snails and the sucrose-induced feeding response of animals was monitored. Snails that received 25 to 50 mg kg-1 phentolamine did not start feeding in sucrose, and the same dose of NC-7 reduced the number of feeding animals by 80 to 90% 1 to 3 hours after injection. DCDM treatment reduced feeding by 20 to 60%. In addition, both phentolamine and NC-7 significantly decreased the feeding rate of those animals that still accepted food after 1 to 6 hours of injection. In the central nervous system a pair of buccal neurons was identified by electrophysiological and morphological criteria. After double labelling (intracellular staining with Lucifer yellow followed by OA-immunocytochemistry) these neurons were shown to be OA immunoreactive, and electrophysiological experiments confirmed that they are members of the buccal feeding system. Therefore the newly identified buccal neurons were called OC neurons (putative octopamine containing neurons or octopaminergic cells). Synchronous intracellular recordings demonstrated that the OC neurons share a common rhythm with feeding neurons either appearing spontaneously or evoked by intracellularly stimulated feeding interneurons. OC neurons also have synaptic connections with identified members of the feeding network: electrical coupling was demonstrated between OC neurons and members of the B4 cluster motoneurons, furthermore, chemically transmitted synaptic responses were recorded both on feeding motoneurons (B1, B2 cells) and the SO modulatory interneuron after the stimulation of OC neurons. However, elementary synaptic

  11. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  12. Social customs and beliefs regarding breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Arora, A K; Singh, R N; Gupta, B D; Gupta, M; Dabi, D R

    1985-12-01

    This study, undertaken to investigate the social customs and beliefs surrounding breast feeding in Western Rajasthan, India, was conducted at the Umaid Hospital for Women and Children in Jodhpur. 300 women attending the pediatric outpatient and impatient departments and underfive clinics at the hospital constituted the study subjects. The women ranged in age from 15-42 years. They were interviewed to collect information on social and family variables and on breast feeding. Of the 300 women, 65.3% were residents of urban areas. 92.7% of the respondents believed in inaugural feeding with 32.3% preferring honey, followed by, among others, animal milk (17.6%), and janam ghutti (11.7%). Honey and janam ghutti were preferred by rural respondents; jaggery (13.8%), water (9.7%), and tea (7.7%) were preferred by urban women. Ceremonial ritual prior to beginning breast feeding was observed by 47.9% of the urban women (despite better education in urban areas) and 57.7% of the rural women. Colostrum feeding was denied by 32.6% women, but it was favored by 65.8% urban and 46.1% rural women. Nearly 33% urban and 40.9% rural mothers favored the restriction of breast feeding during maternal illness. During illness of the child, 48.4% urban and 51.9% rural women favored breast feeding restriction. The breast-feeding practices reflect a strong interlocking influence with social customs and beliefs as do the preference of women for inaugural feeds. The use of these feeds depends upon local customs and beliefs and the socioeducational level of the population. This is strongly supported by the observation that 79.7% of the women gave inaugural feed because of advice of an elderly family member or family tradition. PMID:3837777

  13. Modulatory effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation in elderly patients receiving enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Junko; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Shirahata, Akira; Baba, Mieko; Abe, Akie; Ogawa, Koichi; Shimoda, Taeko

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the health management of elderly patients receiving enteral feeding. METHODS: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were performed with long-term inpatients receiving enteral tube feeding at Kitakyushu Hospital Group, Fukuoka, Japan. BB536 was administered as BB536-L and BB536-H powders that contained approximately 2.5 × 1010 and 5 × 1010 cfu of BB536, respectively. In the first trial, 83 patients (age range: 67-101 years) were randomized into 2 groups that received placebo (placebo group) or BB536-H (BB536 group) powders. In the second trial, 123 patients (age range: 65-102 years) were randomized into 3 groups, and each group received placebo (placebo group), BB536-L (BB536-L group), or BB536-H (BB536-H group) powders. Each patient received the study medication for 16 wk after 1 wk of pre-observation. Fecal samples were collected from each patient prior to and after the intervention during Trial 2. Clinical observations included body temperature, occurrence of infection, frequency of defecation, and fecal microbiota. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in the frequency of defecation for either treatment in Trial 1. However, a significant change was noted in the BB536-L group (P = 0.0439) in Trial 2 but not in the placebo or BB536-H groups. Subgroup analyses based on the frequency of defecation for each patient during the pre-observation period for both trials revealed significant increases in bowel movements in patients with a low frequency of defecation and significant decreases in the bowel movements of patients with a high frequency of defecation during the intervention period in the BB536 groups. The combination of Trials 1 and 2 data revealed a modulatory effect of BB536 ingestion on the changes in bowel movements. Significantly increased bowel movements were observed in patients in the low frequency subgroup with significant intergroup differences (P < 0

  14. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Officials. The collective names are as follows: (1) Animal protein products include one or more of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING...

  15. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Officials. The collective names are as follows: (1) Animal protein products include one or more of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING...

  16. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients. 501.110 Section 501.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements §...

  17. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  18. Nutritional route in oesophageal resection trial II (NUTRIENT II): study protocol for a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Wilts, Bas J W; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Kumagai, Koshi; Nilsson, Magnus; Weijs, Teus J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van Det, Marc J; Luyer, Misha D P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early start of an oral diet is safe and beneficial in most types of gastrointestinal surgery and is a crucial part of fast track or enhanced recovery protocols. However, the feasibility and safety of oral intake directly following oesophagectomy remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early versus delayed start of oral intake on postoperative recovery following oesophagectomy. Methods and analysis This is an open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing elective minimally invasive or hybrid oesophagectomy for cancer are eligible. Further inclusion criteria are intrathoracic anastomosis, written informed consent and age 18 years or older. Inability for oral intake, inability to place a feeding jejunostomy, inability to provide written consent, swallowing disorder, achalasia, Karnofsky Performance Status <80 and malnutrition are exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised using online randomisation software. The intervention group (direct oral feeding) will receive a liquid oral diet for 2 weeks with gradually expanding daily maximums. The control group (delayed oral feeding) will receive enteral feeding via a jejunostomy during 5 days and then start the same liquid oral diet. The primary outcome measure is functional recovery. Secondary outcome measures are 30-day surgical complications; nutritional status; need for artificial nutrition; need for additional interventions; health-related quality of life. We aim to recruit 148 patients. Statistical analysis will be performed according to an intention to treat principle. Results are presented as risk ratios with corresponding 95% CIs. A two-tailed p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Ethics and dissemination Our study protocol has received ethical approval from the Medical research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U). This study is conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice. Verbal and written informed consent is

  19. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  20. Feeding Solanum glaucophyllum to preparturient multiparous cows prevents postparturient hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Junichiro; Uramoto, Akifumi; Nagao, Yoshikazu; Goto, Hisaya

    2015-10-01

    Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) contains 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) glycosides. We investigated the effect of SG on hypocalcemia in cows. Serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, total calcium and phosphorus dose-relatedly increased after feeding with SG, while serum magnesium and chloride levels fell (P < 0.05). We also performed an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) infusion to induce artificial hypocalcemia. Cows that had been fed 4.0 mg/kg body weight of SG daily for 2 weeks had a higher serum concentration of total calcium at the end of EDTA infusion than those not fed SG (P < 0.05). In a field trial, multiparous cows were assigned to one of four groups: (1) no SG, (2) 1.3 g or (3) 2.6 g of SG daily from 14 days before the estimated calving day until 3 days after calving, or (4) a single feed of 35.75 g SG at 3 days before the estimated calving day. The concentrations of serum total calcium after the calving in each treatment group were (1) 7.4, (2) 7.9, (3) 8.0 and (4) 8.9 mg/dL and higher for (4) than for (1) (P < 0.05). The data suggests that feeding a high dose of SG before the calving may maintain higher concentrations of serum calcium after the calving. PMID:26208138

  1. Comparing the Effects of Multisensory Stimulation and Individualized Music Sessions on Elderly People with Severe Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alba; Maseda, Ana; Marante-Moar, M Pilar; de Labra, Carmen; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and individualized music sessions on agitation, emotional and cognitive status, and dementia severity in a sample of institutionalized patients with severe dementia. Twenty-two participants with a diagnosis of severe or very severe dementia were randomly assigned to two groups: MSSE and individualized music sessions. Both groups participated in two 30-min weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CMAI), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, CSDD), anxiety (Rating Anxiety in Dementia, RAID), cognitive function (Severe Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE), and the overall severity of dementia (Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale, BANS-S). They were assessed at baseline (pre-trial), in the middle (mid-trial), at the end of the intervention (post-trial), and 8 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Patients in the MSSE group showed significant improvement in their RAID and BANS-S scores compared with the individualized music group post- versus pre-trial. With regard to agitation, there was improvement during the intervention in both the MSSE and individualized music groups in the CMAI total score after 16 weeks of intervention, with no significant differences between the groups. The results suggest that MSSE could have better effects on anxiety symptoms and dementia severity in comparison with individualized music sessions in elderly patients with severe dementia. PMID:27060958

  2. USMARC expands feed-efficiency research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is not a new topic to the beef industry. Historically, this topic has been revisited by the industry every 10 to 15 years providing some benefit to the producer. The lack of progress in understanding the genetics of feed efficiency stems from the difficulty in trying to accurately ...

  3. Feeding activities of black skimmers in Guyana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Discrepancies appear in the literature concerning the influence of time of day and tide on feeding activities of Black Skimmers (Rhynchops niger). Observations from Guyana, South America, suggest that skimmers do feed during the day, but are strongly cued to receding tides.

  4. Observing the Mother-Infant Feeding Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…

  5. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    .... In the Federal Register of December 8, 2000 (65 FR 76924), FDA issued a final rule amending the new... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on...

  6. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed... the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the guinea pig or hamster. (b) Food... commercially and commonly available from feed suppliers. (c) The basic diet of guinea pigs and hamsters may...

  7. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed... the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the guinea pig or hamster. (b) Food... commercially and commonly available from feed suppliers. (c) The basic diet of guinea pigs and hamsters may...

  8. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed... the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the guinea pig or hamster. (b) Food... commercially and commonly available from feed suppliers. (c) The basic diet of guinea pigs and hamsters may...

  9. For the Classroom: Filter Feeding in Barnacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Provided is a high school activity in which students observe the filter feeding of barnacles and the effects of a variety of changing parameters upon their feeding process. Includes list of materials needed and procedures necessary to accomplish the activity. (JN)

  10. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal rumen function is pivotal to health, production, and profit in dairy systems. Achieving that function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. A key influence on optimal rumen function includes dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on ...

  11. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  12. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

  13. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  14. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  15. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed...

  16. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed... commercially and commonly available from feed suppliers. (c) The basic diet of guinea pigs and hamsters may...

  17. TRIAL BURNS: METHODS PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting a trial burn, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...

  18. TrialNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Canada, Finland, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand. This network is dedicated to the study, prevention, and early treatment of type 1 diabetes. Learn More > Visit us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter TrialNet YouTube Channel Department ...

  19. Clinical Trials: CSDRG Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent importance placed upon efficacy research has spawned the development of the Communication Sciences and Disorders Clinical Trials Research Group (CSDRG). This group, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), was organized by the American Speech Language and Hearing Association to address the need for more treatment efficacy research…

  20. Chinese herbal medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) for functional constipation: study protocol for a prospective, double-blinded, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint. Although the effectiveness of Ma Zi Ren Wan for alleviating functional constipation symptoms has been proven in a previous randomized placebo-controlled study, further evidence is needed to make clinical recommendations about Chinese herbal medicine. In particular, a comparison with conventional western medicine for functional constipation patients is needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, double-blinded, double dummy, randomized, controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, eligible patients (Rome III) with excessive traditional Chinese medicine syndrome will randomly be assigned to the Chinese medicine arm (Ma Zi Ren Wan and western medicine placebo), western medicine arm (senna and Chinese medicine placebo) or placebo arm (Chinese medicine placebo and western medicine placebo). Patients will undergo an 8-week treatment and an 8-week follow-up. The primary outcome is the responder rate for complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) during treatment. Patients with a mean increase of CSBM ≧1/week in comparison with their baselines are defined as responders. The secondary outcomes include responder rate during follow-up, changes of colonic transit as measured with radio-opaque markers, individual and global symptom assessments, and reported adverse effects. Discussion This study is the first study to compare a Chinese Herbal Medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) with a laxative that is commonly used in the clinical practice of western medicine, and with a placebo. This study will complete the investigation of Ma Zi Ren Wan for functional constipation, and should, therefore, suggest recommendations for clinical practice. Furthermore, the process of first conducting a systematic review, then implementing a dose determination study followed by a placebo-control trial, and finally, comparing traditional Chinese medicine with an active conventional medicine in a controlled trial can be a reference to other