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Sample records for 8-week healing period

  1. Change in diet and oral hygiene over an 8-week period: effects on oral health and oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Roth, Dominik; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Follo, Marie; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Deimling, Daniela; Hellwig, Elmar; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor changes in oral health and oral biofilm composition in vivo during an experiment simulating prehistoric lifestyle and diet and poor oral hygiene. Thirteen subjects lived for a period of 8 weeks under Neolithic conditions. The following clinical parameters were recorded before and after the project: gingival and plaque index (Löe and Silness, Acta Odontol Scand 21:533, 1963; Silness and Löe, Acta Odontol Scand 22:121-135, 1964), probing pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. In addition, supragingival plaque samples were collected both before and after the project and were analysed quantitatively using multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The following plaque bacteria were evaluated: Streptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii. The plaque index increased significantly from 1.12 up to 1.55 over the 8-week period (gingival index before, 0.46; after, 0.93; p < 0.05). A strong correlation of both indices was recorded before (r = 0.77) and after (r = 0.83) participation in the study. Each of the children in the study showed a progression of carious lesions and/or new areas of demineralisation. The probing pocket depth and bleeding upon probing were not affected. All subjects yielded an intra-individual shift in biofilm composition. The proportion of F. nucleatum decreased across all subjects. The proportion of Veillonella spp. increased among the children. Poor oral hygiene and change of diet lead to an increase in oral plaque and gingival inflammation. The inter-individual comparison indicated a shift in bacterial composition. PMID:19626350

  2. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  3. Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ventres, William B.

    2016-01-01

    My personal ethos of healing is an expression of the belief that I can and do act to heal patients while I attend to the traditional goals of medicine. The 7 supporting principles that inform my ethos are dignity, authenticity, integrity, transparency, solidarity, generosity, and resiliency. I invite others, including medical students, residents, and practicing physicians, to reflect and discover their own ethos of healing and the principles that guide their professional growth. A short digital documentary accompanies this essay for use as a reflective prompt to encourage personal and professional development. PMID:26755787

  4. Healing.

    PubMed

    Ventres, William B

    2016-01-01

    My personal ethos of healing is an expression of the belief that I can and do act to heal patients while I attend to the traditional goals of medicine. The 7 supporting principles that inform my ethos are dignity, authenticity, integrity, transparency, solidarity, generosity, and resiliency. I invite others, including medical students, residents, and practicing physicians, to reflect and discover their own ethos of healing and the principles that guide their professional growth. A short digital documentary accompanies this essay for use as a reflective prompt to encourage personal and professional development. PMID:26755787

  5. Oral treatment of pressure ulcers with polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex): 8-week open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sakae, Kensaku; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) is a tablet commonly prescribed for gastric ulcers in Japan. Recently, we reported the effects of polaprezinc on pressure ulcer healing at 4-week follow-up. We aimed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of polaprezinc in 8-week treatment for chronic pressure ulcers. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcers for ≥ 8 weeks received 150 mg/day polaprezinc (containing 116 mg L-carnosine and 34 mg zinc) per os for a maximum of 8 weeks. We measured the severity of pressure ulcers weekly using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score and monitored blood biochemistry. Fourteen patients (nine men; 68.4 ± 11.8 years) were enrolled. Pressure ulcer stages were II (one patient; 7 %), III (nine; 64 %), and IV (four; 29 %). The PUSH score improved significantly from 8.1 [95 % CI, 6.0-10.3] at baseline to -1.4 [-4.0 to 1.1] after 8 weeks (P < 0.001). Differences from baseline were significant after 1 week (P < 0.05). The mean weekly improvement in PUSH score was 2.0. Eleven patients healed within 8 weeks and none dropped out. Serum zinc levels increased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas serum copper levels (P = 0.001) and copper/zinc ratios (P < 0.001) decreased significantly. In one patient, preexisting copper deficiency deteriorated. These preliminary data suggest that polaprezinc may be effective and well-tolerated in 8-week treatment of pressure ulcers and could be a candidate for their oral treatment. PMID:24691900

  6. "Toothbrush" the Feet: A Periodic Mechanical Stimulus for Healing of a Severe Chronic Leg Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Vounotrypidis, Periklis; Pappas, Periklis; Vrangalas, Vasilios; Pehlivanidis, Anthimos

    2015-09-01

    Chronic wounds develop when the sequence of healing events are disrupted, usually in patients with underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus, venous insufficiency, peripheral artery disease, and neuropathies and they affect most often the lower extremities. We present a 68-year-old woman with plantar ulceration, lasting for approximately 18 months, resistant to healing with conventional therapy and various modalities we used. The patient had a long history of seronegative enteropathic arthritis, Crohn's disease, secondary fibrillar amyloidosis, multiplex neuropathy, and small vessel vasculitis, the latter being the trigger event for the ulceration of her right foot. Before the decision for a final surgical intervention, we implemented a mechanical periodic stimulus using a soft toothbrush, which resulted in the gradual and complete healing of the ulcer within a period of 6 weeks. Patient's history and previous treatments are presented along with the procedures that led to the healing of the chronic wound. This report supports the idea that periodic mechanical stimulus is of great importance for the healing process and this could be the mechanism of action of some other methods that have been described in the medical literature. PMID:25845912

  7. The effects of 8-week balance training or weight training

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Roberto, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of participating in an 8-week physical training (ie: balance or weight training) on psychosocial outcomes for independently living healthy older adults. Eighteen older adults (65 years old or older) voluntarily participated for this study. Participants were randomly and evenly distributed in 3 different groups such as balance, weight, or control group; 6 participants each. Fear of falling and social activity levels were statistically tested by evaluating questionnaires validated in previous studies. Psychological factors improved in all groups after 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Social interaction level did not improve in any of the three groups, although all participants exhibited improvements in being physically independent (P < 0.05). Results suggested that being physically active as well as being socially active could result in being less fearful of falls, more confident of leaving residency, being more independent, and being more active. PMID:21394234

  8. A new desensitizing dentifrice--an 8-week clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Sowinski, J A; Battista, G W; Petrone, M E; Chaknis, P; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    2000-01-01

    An 8-week, double-blind, three-way clinical trial compared the dentinal hypersensitivity-reducing effectiveness of a new dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate and 0.454% stannous fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength Toothpaste, Colgate-Palmolive Co.) with a commercially available desensitizing dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate and 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Sensodyne Fresh Mint Toothpaste, Block Drug Company, Inc.) and a nondesensitizing dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Winterfresh Gel, Colgate-Palmolive Co.). One hundred nine subjects were stratified into three balanced groups according to gender, age, mean baseline tactile (Yeaple Probe), and thermal (air blast) scores. The test products were randomly assigned to each group with instructions to brush twice daily. Oral examinations with tactile and thermal assessments were repeated after 4 and 8 weeks. The new dentifrice group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in tactile and thermal sensitivity over the two control groups. PMID:11908355

  9. Resonance frequency analysis of 208 Straumann dental implants during the healing period.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ahmet Umut; Sumer, Mahmut; Duran, Ibrahim; Sandikci, Elif Ozen; Telcioglu, Nazife Tuba

    2013-04-01

    The most important prerequisite for the success of an osseointegrated dental implant is achievement and maintenance of implant stability. The aim of the study was to measure the 208 Straumann dental implant stability quotient (ISQ) values during the osseointegration period and determine the factors that affect implant stability. A total of 164 of the implants inserted were standard surface, and 44 of them were SLActive surface. To determine implant stability as ISQ values, measurements were performed at the stage of implant placement and healing periods by the Osstell mentor. The ISQ value ranges showed a significant increase during the healing period. Except for the initial measurement, the posterior maxilla had the lowest ISQ values, and there was no significant difference among anterior mandible, posterior mandible, and anterior maxilla (P < .05). Implant length did not have a significant influence on ISQ value (P > .05). The second measurement was significantly higher in men compared with women (P < .05). The second measurement was significantly higher than the others at 4.8 mm, and for the final measurement, there were no significant differences between 4.8 and 4.1 mm, which were higher than 3.3 mm (P < .05). When comparing sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) and SLActive surface implants, there were no significant differences for insertion measurements, but for second measurements, SLActive was significantly higher (P = 0), and for the final measurement, there was no significant difference. It appears that repeated ISQ measurements of a specific implant have some diagnostic benefit, and the factors that affect implant stability during the healing period are presented. PMID:22103915

  10. Healing period after open high tibial osteotomy and related factors: Can we really say that it is long?

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Masamichi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Toru; Hirano, Koji; Doi, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a general procedure for the treatment of degenerative gonarthrosis. In recent years, it has been reported that opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) has become widespread with good results. Despite these facts, HTOs tend to be avoided due to the need for long-term postoperative treatment. To investigate the treatment period for total recovery (healing period) after OWHTO and the factors affecting it. There were 47 cases of medial type degenerative gonarthrosis who underwent OWHTO from 2008 through 2011. The definition of the healing period was based on the time-dependent changes of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, focusing especially on pain on walking and pain on ascending/descending stairs. This score was defined as the Ability score. In this study, the healing period ended when the Ability score reached its maximum or when it showed a perfect score. Patients' characteristics were examined to determine their effect on the healing period. The Ability score was 36.7 ± 10.1 (mean ± SD) before surgery and 51.6 ± 5.4 12 months after OWHTO. The healing period was 6.3 ± 3.9 months. Factors correlated with a longer healing period included female sex (correlation coefficient -0.35) and high BMI (correlation coefficient 0.33). Our study suggested that the healing period after OWHTO is approximately 6 months, and patients' BMI and sex appear to be related to this period. This information is expected to be helpful for counseling patients undergoing treatment for gonarthrosis. Level of evidence Therapeutic study, Level IV. PMID:26904392

  11. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  12. Locally applied simvastatin improves fracture healing at late period in osteoporotic rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Faming; Zhang, Liu; Kang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Junshan; Ao, Jiao; Yang, Fang

    effect of simvastatin locally applied from a bioactive polymer coating of implants on osteoporotic fracture healing at late period. Methods:Femur fracture model was established on normal or osteotoporotic mature female SD rats, intramedullary stabilization was achieved with uncoated titanium Kirschnerwires in normal rats(group A),with polymer-only coated vs. polymer plus simvastatin coated titanium Kirschner wires in osteoporotic rats(group B and C, respectively).Femurs were harvested after 12 weeks, and underwent radiographic and histologic analysis, as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for BMP-2 expression. Results:Radiographic results demonstrated progressed callus in the simvastatin-treated groups compared to the uncoated group.The histologic analysis revealed a significantly processed callus with irregular-shaped newly formed bone trabeculae in simvastatin-treated group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed markedly higher expression levels of B:MP-2 in simvastatin-treated group.Conclusions: The present study revealed a improved fracture healing under local application of simvastatin in osteoporotic rat,which might partially from upregulation of the B:MP-2 expression at fractured site.

  13. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  14. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention. PMID:26332902

  15. Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures. 2. Effect of treatment factors such as treatment delay, repositioning, splinting type and period and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Mejàre, I; Cvek, M

    2004-08-01

    This is the second part of a retrospective study of 400 root-fractured permanent incisors. In this article, the effect of various treatment procedures is analyzed. Treatment delay, i.e. treatment later than 24 h after injury, did not change the root fracture healing pattern, healing with hard tissue between fragments (HH1), interposition of bone and/or periodontal ligament (PDL) or pulp necrosis (NEC). When initial displacement did not exceed 1 mm, optimal repositioning appeared to significantly enhance both the likelihood of pulpal healing and hard tissue repair (HH1). Significant differences in healing were found among the different splinting techniques. The lowest frequency of healing was found with cap splints and the highest with fiberglass or Kevlar splints. The latter splinting procedure showed almost the same healing result as non-splinting. Comparison between non-splinting and splinting for non-displaced teeth was found to reveal no benefit from splinting. With respect to root fractures with displacement, too few cases were available for analysis. No beneficial effect of splinting periods greater than 4 weeks could be demonstrated. The administration of antibiotics had the paradoxical effect of promoting both HH1 and NEC. No explanation could be found. It was concluded that, optimal repositioning seems to favor healing. Furthermore, the chosen splinting method appears to be related to healing of root fractures, with a preference to pulp healing and healing fusion of fragments to a certain flexibility of the splint and possibly also non-traumatogenic splint application. Splinting for more than 4 weeks was not found to influence the healing pattern. A certain treatment delay (a few days) appears not to result in inferior healing. The role of antibiotics upon fracture healing is questionable. PMID:15245519

  16. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  17. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    the experiment healed wounds more rapidly than lighter birds. Finally, chronically stressed birds lost body mass at the start of chronic stress, but after wounding all birds regardless of stress or molt status started gaining weight, which continued for the remainder of the study. Increased body mass could suggest compensatory feeding to offset energetic or resource demands (e.g., proteins) of wound healing. Although chronic stress did not inhibit healing, our data suggest that corticosterone may play an important role in mediating healing processes and that molt could influence energy saving tactics during periods of chronic stress. Although the experiment was designed to test allostasis, interpretation of data through reactive scope appears to be a better fit. PMID:26965949

  18. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Frost, DM, Bronson, S, Cronin, JB, and Newton, RU. Changes in maximal strength, velocity, and power after 8 weeks of training with pneumatic or free weight resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 934-944, 2016-Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands. PMID:26418368

  19. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers. PMID:27478849

  20. Fitness Changes After an 8-Week Fitness Coaching Program at a Regional Youth Detention Facility.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, John; Kukay, Jake

    2016-01-01

    A Surgeon General's report states that there is a favorable relationship between exercise and chronic disease. Research suggests that exercise programs for elderly inmates may have a positive effect on the number of infirmary visits, which in turn may have a long-term effect on inmate health care costs. This exploratory descriptive double case study sought to add to the minimal information in peer-reviewed research journals by examining the effects of fitness coaching on two juveniles at a youth detention facility in Southwest Montana. The results showed that both participants made fitness improvements following the 8-week program and both perceived positive effects on self-concept and overall sense of well-being from participating in this program. PMID:26672121

  1. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  2. Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Iain M; Hartwell, Matthew

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive performance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed (CS) and driving distance (DD) before and after an 8-week training program. The control group (n = 5) continued their normal training, while the experimental group (n = 6) performed 2 sessions per week of weight training and plyometrics. Controls showed no significant (p > or = 0.05) changes, while experimental subjects showed a significant increase (p < or = 0.05) in CS and DD. The changes in golf drive performance were attributed to an increase in muscular force and an improvement in the sequential acceleration of body parts contributing to a greater final velocity being applied to the ball. It was concluded that specific combined weights and plyometrics training can help increase CS and DD in club golfers. PMID:14971982

  3. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  4. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry. PMID:26194655

  5. An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-09-01

    Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

  6. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  7. Medial orbital gyrus modulation during spatial perspective changes: Pre- vs. post-8 weeks mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation exercises the ability to shift to an "observer perspective". That means learning to observe internally and externally arising stimulations in a detached perspective. Both before and after attending a 8-weeks mindfulness training (MT) participants underwent an fMRI experiment (serving as their own internal control) and solved a own-body mental transformation task, which is used to investigate embodiment and perspective taking (and an non-bodily mental transformation task as control). We found a stimulus×time-points interaction: the own-body mental transformation task (vs. non-bodily) in the post (vs. pre-MT) significantly increased activations in the medial orbital gyrus. The signal change in the right medial orbital gyrus significantly correlated with changes in a self-maturity personality scale. A brief MT caused increased activation in areas involved in self related processing and person perspective changes, together with an increase in self-maturity, consistently with the aim of mindfulness meditation that is exercising change in self perspective. PMID:26821244

  8. Detection of surreptitious administration of analog insulin to an 8-week-old infant.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca P; Hollander, Abby S; Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2010-05-01

    An 8-week-old infant presented to the emergency department with lethargy, tachycardia, and a blood glucose concentration of 1.8 mmol/L. After admission, hypoglycemia recurred on 3 additional occasions. Initial urinalysis results were negative for ketones, and the results of additional laboratory tests did not support the diagnosis of cortisol or growth hormone deficiency, oral hypoglycemic ingestion, or an inborn error of metabolism. Difficulty restoring and maintaining glucose concentrations along with a transient response to glucagon during 1 hypoglycemic episode suggested hyperinsulinism. In 1 hypoglycemic episode, elevated insulin and low C-peptide concentrations suggested exogenous insulin administration, but 2 subsequent blood samples obtained during hypoglycemia contained appropriately decreased concentrations of insulin. The insulin immunoassay initially used in this case (Roche ElecSys/cobas [Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN]) was insensitive to insulin analogs. Two additional immunoassays, 1 with intermediate (Immulite [Siemens, Deerfield, IL]) and 1 with broad (radioimmunoassay [Millipore, Inc, Billerica, MA]) reactivity to insulin analogs were used to characterize insulin in each of the critical blood samples. Samples obtained during hypoglycemia displayed a graded reactivity similar to that observed in type 1 diabetic patients prescribed insulin analogs, whereas a sample obtained from the patient and a control subject during euglycemia showed equal reactivity among the 3 assays. These data suggested administration of insulin analog to the child, and further characterization of insulin by using tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of Humalog. The child was subsequently placed in foster care with no further recurrence of hypoglycemia. PMID:20385635

  9. The effects of 8 weeks of endurance running on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in female runners.

    PubMed

    Auersperger, Irena; Knap, Bojan; Jerin, Ales; Blagus, Rok; Lainscak, Mitja; Skitek, Milan; Skof, Branko

    2012-02-01

    Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week's recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p=.02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p<.001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p=.01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p<.001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p<.001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation. PMID:22248501

  10. Varenicline Augmentation in Depressed Smokers: An 8-week, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Whiteley, Laura; Price, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess possible antidepressant effects of varenicline augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depressive disorders and nicotine dependence. Background Varenicline (Chantix) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 partial agonist and α7 full agonist approved for smoking cessation. Studies of similar compounds have suggested evidence of antidepressant effects. Methods Eighteen patients were recruited from a general psychiatric outpatient clinic. Inclusion criteria were 1) primary Axis I depressive disorder, 2) persistent depressive symptoms despite adequate treatment, and 3) current cigarette smoking with nicotine dependence. Patients received varenicline in addition to stable doses of their regular psychotropic medications. Depression symptoms, side effects, clinical global impressions, anhedonia, daily cigarette consumption, and vitals signs were assessed every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Baseline and endpoint ratings were compared, and the relationship between mood improvement and smoking cessation was examined. The primary outcome variable was mean improvement in depressive symptoms. Results Fourteen patients (78%) completed the study; 4 discontinued due to side effects, including gastrointestinal (n = 3) and worsened mood/irritability (n = 1). Patients demonstrated significant improvement in depression at endpoint (p < .001), with significant improvement as early as week 2. Eight (44%) patients met criteria for categorical response, and six (33%) reached remission criteria; the overall effect size was large. All patients were interested in smoking cessation, eight (44%) achieved abstinence, and nine (50%) had some reduction in smoking. Improvement in depressive symptoms was correlated with smoking cessation. There was no evidence of treatment-emergent suicidality. Conclusion Open-label varenicline augmentation was associated with significant improvement in mood in a small sample of outpatient smokers with persistent depressive symptoms

  11. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  12. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  13. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  14. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  15. Effect of daidzein, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor or estrogen on gastrocnemius muscle of osteoporotic rats undergoing tibia healing period.

    PubMed

    Komrakova, Marina; Werner, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Nguyen, Ba Tiep; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2009-05-01

    The effect of daidzein (D), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) or estradiol-17beta-benzoate (E(2)) on muscle of osteoporotic rats during fracture healing was studied. After performing a metaphyseal tibia osteotomy in 96 osteoporotic 5-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, they received daily 50 mg D, 200 mg 4-MBC or 0.4 mg E(2) per kg body weight, or soy free (SF) diet up to 36 and 72 days. Mitochondrial activity, fiber area, and capillary density were analyzed in M. gastrocnemius. Osseous callus bridging of fracture was observed in half of the rats after 36 days. By day 72, fracture was healed in most of the animals. State 3 mitochondrial respiration significantly enhanced in E(2), 4-MBC and D groups versus SF after 36 days (30, 32 and 32 vs 23 pmol O(2)/s per mg). It declined after 72 days, however, in E(2) group it was still at a higher level versus SF (25, 23 and 21 vs 20 pmol O(2)/s per mg). Size of fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) and fast glycolytic (FG) fibers, capillary density did not differ significantly between the groups, however, at day 36 an increase in D and 4-MBC groups was detectable. FOG diameter was 64, 66, 68, and 58 microm and FG diameter was 88, 98, 95, and 89 microm in SF, D, 4-MBC, and E(2) groups. The ratio of capillaries to muscle fiber was 1.1, 1.4, 1.3, and 1.1 in SF, D, 4-MBC and E(2) groups by day 36. D and 4-MBC react similar to estrogen thereby improving oxidative cell metabolism in severe osteoporotic rats. The level of mitochondrial activity was higher, though no significant morphological differences could be shown. PMID:19273502

  16. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  17. Short report: effect of ranitidine on duodenal ulcer healing in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

    PubMed

    Ljubicic, W; Bilić, A; Roić, D

    1993-04-01

    The effect of ranitidine (300 mg daily) on the healing of acute duodenal ulcer was investigated in patients with and without cirrhosis of the liver. Of the 109 patients who entered the study, two patients from each group were excluded. Healing rates after 4 and 8 weeks were significantly different between patients with cirrhosis and controls (4- and 8-week healing rates in cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics: 49 and 69%, and 71 and 91%, respectively). This study demonstrates that duodenal ulcer healing is delayed in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:8485276

  18. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. PMID:26239913

  19. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  20. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner. PMID:25471318

  1. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  2. Changes in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor at 8 weeks after sorafenib administration as predictors of survival for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Shuya; Muraoka, Masaru; Nakata, Toru; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Yasui, Yutaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Hosokawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Takashi; Ueda, Ken; Kuzuya, Teiji; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2014-01-01

    Background A new predictive biomarker for determining prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who receive sorafenib is required, because achieving a reduction in tumor size with sorafenib is rare, even in patients who have a favorable prognosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a sorafenib target. In the current study, the authors examined changes in plasma VEGF concentrations during sorafenib treatment and determined the clinical significance of VEGF as a prognostic indicator in patients with HCC. Methods Plasma VEGF concentrations were serially measured in 63 patients with advanced HCC before and during sorafenib treatment. A plasma VEGF concentration that decreased >5% from the pretreatment level at 8 weeks was defined as a “VEGF decrease.” An objective tumor response was determined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1 month after the initiation of therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Results Patients who had a VEGF decrease at week 8 (n = 14) had a longer median survival than those who did not have a VEGF decrease (n = 49; 30.9 months vs 14.4 months; P = .038). All patients who had a VEGF decrease survived for >6 months, and the patients who had both a VEGF decrease and an α-fetoprotein response (n = 6) survived during the observation period (median, 19.7 months; range, 6.5-31.0 months). In univariate analyses, a VEGF decrease, radiologic findings classified as progressive disease, and major vascular invasion were associated significantly with 1-year survival; and, in multivariate analysis, a VEGF decrease was identified as an independent factor associated significantly with survival. Conclusions A plasma VEGF concentration decrease at 8 weeks after starting sorafenib treatment may predict favorable overall survival in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:24122122

  3. Alterations of Muscular Strength and Left and Right Limb Balance in Weightlifters after an 8-week Balance Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Hwun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Kwi Baek; Lee, Sung Soo; Shin, Ki ok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters' balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes' sport performance. PMID:24259879

  4. Ondansetron or placebo in the augmentation of fluvoxamine response over 8 weeks in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Zarei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed M R; Taghvaei, Rheleh; Maleki, Haleh; Tabrizi, Mina; Fallah, Jalil; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six men and women, aged 18-60 years, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21 were recruited into the study. The patients randomly received either ondansetron (8 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. All patients received fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by 200 mg/day for the rest of the trial. The patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS and the adverse event checklists at baseline, and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth week. Forty-four patients completed the study. The Y-BOCS total score as well as the Y-BOCS obsession subscale score and compulsion subscale score showed significantly greater reduction in the ondansetron group than in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. In this 8-week double-blind randomized-controlled trial, ondansetron showed significant beneficial effect as an augmentative agent with fluvoxamine in patients with moderate to severe OCD and it was generally well tolerated. PMID:24850229

  5. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-jae; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Methods Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Results Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats. PMID:26566500

  6. Protein Supplementation Increases Postexercise Plasma Myostatin Concentration After 8 Weeks of Resistance Training in Young Physically Active Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pacelli, Quirico F.; Neri, Marco; Toniolo, Luana; Cancellara, Pasqua; Canato, Marta; Moro, Tatiana; Quadrelli, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Bianco, Antonino; Reggiani, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth even if some studies have shown a counterintuitive positive correlation between MSTN and muscle mass (MM). Our aim was to investigate the influence of 2 months of resistance training (RT) and diets with different protein contents on plasma MSTN, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided in two groups: high protein (HP) and normal protein (NP) groups. Different protein diet contents were 1.8 and 0.85 g of protein·kg bw−1·day−1 for HP and NP, respectively. Subjects underwent 8 weeks of standardized progressive RT. MSTN, IGF-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were analyzed before and after the first and the last training sessions. Lean body mass, MM, upper-limb muscle area, and strength were measured. Plasma MSTN showed a significant increase (P<.001) after the last training in the HP group compared with NP group and with starting value. IGF-1 plasma concentration showed a positive correlation with MSTN in HP after the last training (r2=0.6456; P=.0295). No significant differences were found between NP and HP for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and strength and MM or area. These findings suggest a “paradoxical” postexercise increase of plasma MSTN after 8 weeks of RT and HP diets. This MSTN elevation correlates positively with IGF-1 plasma level. This double increase of opposite (catabolic/anabolic) mediators could explain the substantial overlapping of MM increases in the two groups. PMID:25133710

  7. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  8. Effects of 8 weeks of CPAP on lipid-based oxidative markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Sheila; Witting, Paul K; Hoyos, Camilla M; Maw, Aung M; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ronald R; Phillips, Craig L

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidaemia and increased oxidative stress have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea, and both may be related to the development of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown in a randomized crossover study in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea that therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 8 weeks improved postprandial triglycerides and total cholesterol when compared with sham continuous positive airway pressure. From this study we have now compared the effect of 8 weeks of therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure on oxidative lipid damage and plasma lipophilic antioxidant levels. Unesterified cholesterol, esterified unsaturated fatty acids (cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2; and cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4; the major unsaturated and oxidizable lipids in low-density lipoproteins), their corresponding oxidized products [cholesteryl ester-derived lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxides (CE-O(O)H)] and antioxidant vitamin E were assessed at 20:30 hours before sleep, and at 06:00 and 08:30 hours after sleep. Amongst the 29 patients completing the study, three had incomplete or missing [CE-O(O)H] data. The mean apnea -hypopnoea index, age and body mass index were 38 per hour, 49 years and 32 kg m(-2) , respectively. No differences in lipid-based oxidative markers or lipophilic antioxidant levels were observed between the continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure arms at any of the three time-points [unesterified cholesterol 0.01 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2 0.05 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4 0.02 mm, P = 0.05; CE-O(O)H 2.5 nm, P > 0.05; and lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E 0.03 μm, P > 0.05]. In this study, accumulating CE-O(O)H, a marker of lipid oxidation, does not appear to play a role in oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25533591

  9. Magnet Healing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2000-03-01

    Many people are convinced that static magnets—applied to their skin—will heal ills, and many businesses sell such magnets. The biophysics of such healing was reviewed [1] together with the general biophysics of static fields. Birds and insects do use the earth’s magnetic field for navigation. While insect and frog egg development can clearly be influenced by high fields (7 T and 17 T respectively), there is no experimental evidence that small magnetic fields (of less than 0.5 T) might heal, and much evidence that they cannot heal. A puzzle to the physics community is: How to show laypersons that simple magnets (very probably) do not heal, however attractive that idea might be. [1] L. Finegold, The Physics of "Alternative Medicine": Magnet Therapy, The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine 3:26-33 (1999).

  10. Archetypal healing.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Churchill, J E

    1994-01-01

    With emphasis on healing versus curing, the authors draw from a wide assortment of treatment methods for psychospiritual relief of pain in the terminally ill. These archetypal methods include: life-review therapy; ministry of presence; clinical hypnosis; myths, symbols, rituals, and community; creative therapies. In life-review therapy, the ill person shares his/her life story with the provider much like the healing rituals of the ancient storyteller did in his community. In the ministry of presence, the caregiver focuses on sharing his vulnerability, not his professional skills. Clinical hypnosis emphasizes the naturalness and simplicity of accessing the unconscious along with problem areas of the hypnoclinician. Myths, symbols, rituals, and community serve as nurturing agents in the intervention of pain, while creative therapies such as music, drama, crafts, and art continue to be powerful healing instruments. Archetypal healing produces relief of pain in the caregiver, as well as the ill, with emphasis on healing versus curing. PMID:8117487

  11. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  12. Wound Healing and Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... heal through natural scar formation. continue The Healing Process Before healing begins, the body gears up to ... dry at all times to help the healing process. As the body does its healing work on ...

  13. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  14. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  15. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger. PMID:25595501

  16. Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top-level adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course of lower and upper limb plyometric training would enhance characteristics important to competition, including peak power output (Wpeak), jump performance, muscle volume, and ball throwing velocity. Study participants (23 men, age: 17.4 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 79.9 ± 11.5 kg, height: 1.79 ± 6.19 m, body fat: 13.8 ± 2.1%) were randomly assigned between controls (C; n = 11) and an experimental group (E, n = 12). Measures preintervention and postintervention included force-velocity ergometer tests for upper (Wupper peak) and lower limbs (Wlower peak), force platform determinations of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) characteristics (jump height, maximal force, initial velocity, and average power), video filming of sprint velocities (first step [V1S], first 5 m [V5m], and 25-30 m [Vmax]), and anthropometric estimates of leg muscle volume. E showed gains relative to C in Wupper peak and Wlower peak (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001), SJ (height p < 0.01; force p ≤ 0.05), CMJ (height p < 0.01; force p < 0.01 and relative power p ≤ 0.05), and sprint velocities (p < 0.001 for V1S, V5m, and Vmax). E also showed increases in leg and thigh muscle volumes (p < 0.001), but arm muscle volumes did not differ from control. We conclude that introduction of biweekly plyometric training into the standard regimen improved components important to handball performance, particularly explosive actions, such as sprinting, jumping, and ball throwing velocity. PMID:24149768

  17. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  18. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mollard, R C; Luhovyy, B L; Panahi, S; Nunez, M; Hanley, A; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low in energy density, supporting their inclusion in the diet for the management of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults. Body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood parameters and 24 h food intakes were measured at weeks 1, 4 and 8. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were measured after a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8. At week 8, both groups reported reductions in energy intake, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following the glucose load (P < 0·05). However, HDL, fasting C-peptide and insulin AUC responses were dependent on diet (P < 0·05). HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively, in the pulse group, but decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group. Insulin AUC decreased in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males (P < 0·05). In conclusion, frequent consumption of pulses in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetSyn and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction. PMID:22916807

  19. Colonization of 8-week-old conventionally reared goats by Escherichia coli O157 : H7 after oral inoculation.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, R M; Ahmed, N My; Best, A; Clifford, D; Weyer, U; Cooley, W A; Johnson, L; Pearson, G R; Woodward, M J

    2005-05-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 infections of man have been associated with consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk and direct contact with kid goats on petting farms, yet little is known about colonization of goats with this organism. To assess the contribution of flagella and intimin of E. coli O157 : H7 in colonization of the goat, 8-week-old conventionally reared goats were inoculated orally in separate experiments with 1x10(10) c.f.u. of a non-verotoxigenic strain of E. coli O157 : H7 (strain NCTC 12900 Nal(r)), an aflagellate derivative (DMB1) and an intimin-deficient derivative (DMB2). At 24 h after inoculation, the three E. coli O157 : H7 strains were shed at approximately 5x10(4) c.f.u. (g faeces)(-1) from all animals. Significantly fewer intimin-deficient bacteria were shed only on days 2 (P = 0.003) and 4 (P = 0.014), whereas from day 7 to 29 there were no differences. Tissues from three animals inoculated with wild-type E. coli O157 : H7 strain NCTC 12900 Nal(r) were sampled at 24, 48 and 96 h after inoculation and the organism was cultured from the large intestine of all three animals and from the duodenum and ileum of the animal examined at 96 h. Tissues were examined histologically but attaching-effacing (AE) lesions were not observed at any intestinal site of the animals examined at 24 or 48 h. However, the animal examined at 96 h, which had uniquely shed approximately 1x10(7) E. coli O157 : H7 (g faeces)(-1) for the preceding 3 days, showed a heavy, diffuse infection with cryptosporidia and abundant, multifocal AE lesions in the distal colon, rectum and at the recto-anal junction. These AE lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry to be associated with E. coli O157 : H7. PMID:15824429

  20. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  1. Wound healing in urology.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Neethu; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex phenomenon of replacing devitalized tissues in the body. Urethral healing takes place in four phases namely inflammation, proliferation, maturation and remodelling, similar to dermal healing. However, the duration of each phase of wound healing in urology is extended for a longer period when compared to that of dermatology. An ideal wound dressing material removes exudate, creates a moist environment, offers protection from foreign substances and promotes tissue regeneration. A single wound dressing material shall not be sufficient to treat all kinds of wounds as each wound is distinct. This review includes the recent attempts to explore the hidden potential of growth factors, stem cells, siRNA, miRNA and drugs for promoting wound healing in urology. The review also discusses the different technologies used in hospitals to treat wounds in urology, which make use of innovative biomaterials synthesised in regenerative medicines like hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, films etc., incorporated with growth factors, drug molecules or nanoparticles. These include surgical zippers, laser tissue welding, negative pressure wound therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. PMID:25500273

  2. How wounds heal

    MedlinePlus

    ... How puncture wounds heal; How burns heal; How pressure sores heal; How lacerations heal ... bleed. For example, burns, some puncture wounds, and pressure sores don't bleed. Once the scab forms, your ...

  3. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  4. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  5. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Ko-Hung; Huang, Hsin-Chia; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  6. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  7. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  8. Surface modification of PCL-TCP scaffolds in rabbit calvaria defects: Evaluation of scaffold degradation profile, biomechanical properties and bone healing patterns.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Alvin; Wong, Wah Jie; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2010-06-15

    Traditionally, polycaprolactone (PCL) based scaffolds tend to degrade at a slow rate. Pretreatment of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds under alkaline conditions can be utilized to increase the degradation rate and improve mechanical properties. Three groups of PCL-TCP scaffolds with varying pretreatment exposures with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were studied in a rabbit calvaria defect model and analyzed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. (Group A: Untreated, Group B: 3 M NaOH/ 48 h and Group C: 3 M NaOH/96 h). Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that scaffolds with increased surface roughness (Groups B and C) showed a greater impact on the overall volume loss during the early healing period between 2 and 8 weeks as compared to the untreated group. In addition, greater bone formation was detected in NaOH treated scaffolds as compared to the untreated group throughout the experiment. Scaffolds with increased surface roughness generally reported higher push out test and compressive strength values from 4 to 8 weeks of early healing. Interestingly, the mechanical properties displayed a decline in values from 12 weeks onwards in the modified groups suggesting a favorable breakdown or weakening of PCL-TCP scaffolds tailored for replacement by new bone formation. PMID:19911382

  9. 4. The Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) Mechanism and the Effect of Teriparatide on Fracture Healing.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Koji; Uchino, Masataka; Hirakawa, Noriko; Toyama, Masahiro; Miyajima, Genyo; Mukai, Manabu; Urabe, Ken; Uchida, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2016-08-01

    Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) provided a mechanical stimulus, and was thought to promote fracture healing by signal transduction through integrin, a cytoskeletal protein. Meanwhile, teriparatide, a drug for osteoporosis treatment, showed efficacy in promoting bone metabolism. This drug also appeared to prevent fractures in patients with serious osteoporosis by improving bone mineral density and bone quality, which in turn resulted from promoting action for bone metabolism. Further, clinical trials and fundamental research reported that teriparatide demonstrated the effect of promoting fracture healing. Mechanical stimulus by LIPUS had a topical effect on fractures; on the other hand, teriparatide (peptide hormone) had both topical and systemic effects. Both LIPUS and teriparatide had the effect of fracture healing, but it was supposed that the characteristics of each effect were different because of the different mechanism of action. Moreover, the combination therapy of LIPUS and teriparatide was expected to produce synergies. We used elderly rats as models for the femoral fracture to examine the effects of LIPUS and teriparatide on promoting fracture healing for treatment delay by aging. We observed the fracture healing process in 40-week-old rats as an elderly model using simple radiographs, and recognized a delay in fracture healing compared with that of 8-week-old rats. As discussed in histomorphology, it was demonstrated that the period of endochondral ossification, from chondrogenesis to teleost cross-linked callus, was prolonged and the fracture healing process was delayed by aging. Next, we treated the elderly fracture models with LIPUS for 20 minutes a day from the first day after the fracture, and compared them with non-treated models. The bone unions of the treated models were observed earlier than those of non-treated models in the simple radiographs. LIPUS shortened the period of endochondral ossification. Further, we gave the elderly

  10. Diurnal Glycemic Patterns during an 8-Week Open-Label Proof-of-Concept Trial of Empagliflozin in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin A.; Partridge, Helen; Tschirhart, Holly; Zinman, Bernard; Mazze, Roger; Fagan, Nora; Kaspers, Stefan; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; Broedl, Uli C.; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently reported improved glycemic control with reduced insulin dose in subjects with type 1 diabetes treated with the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin. To further characterize the effects, we analyzed diurnal glycemic patterns by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods In an 8-week single-arm open-label pilot study of empagliflozin, we compared ambulatory glucose profiles produced from CGM data during 2-week intervals in a placebo run-in baseline period, end-of-treatment, and post-treatment. Change in glycemic exposure was evaluated by area under the median curve according to time of day (AUCTOTAL 12:00am-11:55pm; AUCDAY 7:05am-10:55pm, AUCNIGHT 11:00pm-7:00am), as well as glycemic variability, glycemic stability and time-in-target (≥70 to ≤140mg/dL). Results The 40 patients (26 on insulin pump) were aged 24±5 years and BMI 24.5±3.2 kg/m2. Consistent with the observed HbA1c decrease (8.0±0.9% to 7.6±0.9%, p<0.0001), normalized AUCTOTAL CGM decreased from 153.7±25.4 to 149.0±30.2mg/dL∙h at end-of-treatment (p = 0.31), and significantly increased post-treatment (164.1±29.5mg/dL∙h, p = 0.02). The numerical decrease in normalized AUCNIGHT (152.0±36.6 to 141.9±34.4mg/dL∙h, p = 0.13) exceeded AUCDAY (154.5±24.5 to 152.6±30.4mg/dL∙h, p = 0.65). Trends toward lower glycemic variability (83.1±18.9 to 75.6±28.6mg/dL, p = 0.06) and little change in glycemic stability (10.8±3.6 to 10.3±4.5mg/dL/h, p = 0.51) were observed. When empagliflozin was discontinued, these worsened relative to baseline (89.3±19.3mg/dL, p = 0.04 and 11.8±3.7mg/dL/hr, p = 0.08). Time-in-target numerically increased (40.2±11.9 to 43.1±13.5%, p = 0.69) at end-of-treatment but reversed post-treatment. Findings were similar on stratification of pump and MDI subjects. Conclusions We observed that empagliflozin was associated with patterns of improved nighttime glycemia more prominent than daytime. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials

  11. Frontal-Subcortical Volumetric Deficits in Single Episode, Medication-Naïve Depressed Patients and the Effects of 8 Weeks Fluoxetine Treatment: A VBM-DARTEL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingtao; Wu, Feng; Tang, Yanqing; Ren, Ling; Kong, Dongyan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. Methods 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC) acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV) difference between groups was examined. Results Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected). Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected). No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. Conclusions This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset. PMID:24427263

  12. The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

  13. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  14. Spiritual healing as a therapy for chronic pain: a randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abbot, N C; Harkness, E F; Stevinson, C; Marshall, F P; Conn, D A; Ernst, E

    2001-03-01

    Spiritual healing is a popular complementary and alternative therapy; in the UK almost 13000 members are registered in nine separate healing organisations. The present randomized clinical trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of healing in the treatment of chronic pain. One hundred and twenty patients suffering from chronic pain, predominantly of neuropathic and nociceptive origin resistant to conventional treatments, were recruited from a Pain Management Clinic. The trial had two parts: face-to-face healing or simulated face-to-face healing for 30 min per week for 8 weeks (part I); and distant healing or no healing for 30 min per week for 8 weeks (part II). The McGill Pain Questionnaire was pre-defined as the primary outcome measure, and sample size was calculated to detect a difference of 8 units on the total pain rating index of this instrument after 8 weeks of healing. VASs for pain, SF36, HAD scale, MYMOP and patient subjective experiences at week 8 were employed as secondary outcome measures. Data from all patients who reached the pre-defined mid-point of 4 weeks (50 subjects in part I and 55 subjects in part II) were included in the analysis. Two baseline measurements of outcome measures were made, 3 weeks apart, and no significant differences were observed between them. After eight sessions there were significant decreases from baseline in McGill Pain Questionnaire total pain rating index score for both groups in part I and for the control group in part II. However, there were no statistically significant differences between healing and control groups in either part. In part I the primary outcome measure decreased from 32.8 (95% CI 28.5-37.0) to 23.3 (16.8-29.7) in the healing group and from 33.1 (27.2-38.9) to 26.1 (19.3-32.9) in the simulated healing group. In part II it changed from 29.6 (24.8-34.4) to 24.0 (18.7-29.4) in the distant healing group and from 31.0 (25.8-36.2) to 21.0 (15.7-26.2) in the no healing group. Subjects in healing groups

  15. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes. PMID:22692117

  16. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  17. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Extended-Release Quetiapine Fumarate in Youth with Bipolar Depression: An 8 Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanjeev; Earley, Willie R; Liu, Sherry; DelBello, Melissa P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of adolescent schizophrenia and pediatric bipolar mania. Large, placebo-controlled studies of interventions in pediatric bipolar depression are lacking. The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine extended-release (XR) in patients 10–17 years of age, with acute bipolar depression. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated quetiapine XR (dose range, 150–300 mg/day) in pediatric outpatients with an American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (current or most recent episode depressed) treated for up to 8 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00811473). The primary study outcome was mean change in Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R) total score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included CDRS-R-based response and remission rates. Results: Of 193 patients randomized to treatment, 144 patients completed the study (75.3% of quetiapine XR group [n=70]; 74.0% of placebo group [n=74]). Least squares mean changes in CDRS-R total score at week 8 were: −29.6 (SE, 1.65) with quetiapine XR and −27.3 (SE, 1.60) with placebo, a between-treatment group difference of −2.29 (SE, 1.99; 95% CI, −6.22, 1.65; p=0.25; mixed-model for repeated measures analysis). Rates of response and remission did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The safety profile of quetiapine XR was broadly consistent with the profile reported previously in adult studies of quetiapine XR and pediatric studies of quetiapine immediate-release (IR). Potentially clinically significant elevations in clinical chemistry values included triglycerides (9.3%, quetiapine XR; 1.4%, placebo group) and thyroid stimulating hormone (4.7%, quetiapine XR; 0%, placebo group). An adverse event

  19. What is esoteric healing?

    PubMed

    Settersten, Lori

    2011-06-01

    Esoteric Healing is a type of energy healing that originated from the teachings of Djwhal Khul and Alice Bailey first published in the early 1950s. Esoteric Healing instructors and practitioners are located in more than 19 countries throughout the world. Nurses and nurse practitioners as well as other health professionals (e.g., psychologists and physicians) have integrated Esoteric Healing into their current practice and/or have a separate practice in Esoteric Healing. According to Dochterman and Bulechek, the nursing diagnosis "energy field, disturbed" is defined as a "disruption in the flow of energy surrounding a person's being." Esoteric Healing is proposed to assist a person in balancing her or his flow of energy. In this article, Esoteric Healing is defined, and the components of the energy field according to the teachings of Esoteric Healing are differentiated. The basic Esoteric Healing treatment procedure, treatment protocols, and indications for when Esoteric Healing may be an appropriate healing modality option are described. Finally, research on Esoteric Healing is addressed. PMID:20966434

  20. Effect of levan supplement in orange juice on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profile of healthy subjects: results of an 8-week clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Akiva, Ira; Rokhkind, Evgenia; Naor, Etty; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nachum

    2012-07-01

    Levan is a commonly used dietary fiber of the fructans group. Its impact on health remains undetermined. This double blind controlled study aimed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks' daily consumption of 500 mL of natural orange juice enriched with 11.25 g of levan compared to the same amount of natural orange juice without levan on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profiles of 48 healthy volunteers. The statistical analyses compared between- and within-group findings at baseline, 4 weeks and study closure. The compared parameters were: weight, blood pressure, blood laboratory tests, daily number of defecations, scores of stool consistency, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, dyspepsia, vomiting and heartburn. Despite a higher fiber level recorded in the study group, there was no significant difference in the effect of the two kinds of juices on the studied parameters. Both juices decreased systolic and diastolic pressures, increased sodium level (within normal range), stool number, and bloating scores, and decreased gas scores. In conclusion, levan itself had no effect on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms or metabolic profile of healthy volunteers. Its possible effect on obese, hypertensive or hyperlipidemic patients should be investigated in further studies. PMID:22852055

  1. Urodynamic parameters and plasma LH/FSH in spayed Beagle bitches before and 8 weeks after GnRH depot analogue treatment.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Barth, Andrea; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2006-12-01

    The pathophysiology of urinary incontinence due to spaying remains unknown. Incontinent bitches can be treated successfully with depot preparations of GnRH-analogues and there are differences in plasma gonadotropin levels between continent and incontinent spayed bitches. It is therefore assumed that the supraordinated hormones, GnRH, FSH, and/or LH, have an effect on the urodynamic parameters. In this study, the potential influence of these hormones on the lower urinary tract was investigated by measuring urethral pressure profiles and cystometry. Simultaneously, plasma concentrations in 10 spayed Beagle bitches were determined 5 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after treatment with the GnRH analogue leuprolide. Within 1 week of GnRH analogue administration, plasma FSH and LH levels decreased from 72.5 and 7.7 to 7.75 and 0.72ng/mL, respectively. These plasma gonadotropin levels correspond with those of intact bitches during anoestrus. Urethral pressure profiles indicated that the treatment had no significant effect on maximum urethral closure pressure, functional and total length of the urethra, or area of the closure pressure curve. The data obtained by cystometry regarding mean bladder threshold volume showed a significant increase from 109 to 172mL. The improvement in bladder function after the application of GnRH-application is presumably a direct effect of the GnRH as a relationship between the plasma gonadotropin levels and the urodynamic parameters could not demonstrated. PMID:16876857

  2. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. PMID:26720411

  3. Response of BAX, Bcl-2 Proteins, and SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA Expression to 8-Week Treadmill Running in the Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Hui; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Yan-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise training on Bax and Bcl-2 protein content and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aging rats. Eight 18 months old male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 5 days weekly for 8 weeks on a treadmill, and eight sedentary rats served as controls. Gastrocnemius muscles were dissected 2 days after the last training session. The mRNA content of PGC-1α, caspase-3, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2, and SIRT1 was estimated by RT-PCR with GAPDH used as an internal control. The protein expression of BAX and Bcl-2 was assessed by Western immunoblot. After training, significant (p < 0.05) increases were noted for the gastrocnemius muscle weights, the gastrocnemius mass/body mass ratio, the bcl-2/BAX ratio, the Bcl-2 protein and the SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2 mRNA content in the trained gastrocnemius, relative to the control samples. No difference was found in the BAX protein between control and trained muscles, whereas the caspase-3 mRNA content decreased by 50 %, in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained animals. Exercise training may inhibit age-induced myonuclear apoptosis by stimulating SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA expression, thereby preventing sarcopenia in aging rat. PMID:27526155

  4. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke. PMID:27184585

  5. A Comparative Histological Study of Bone Healing in Rat Calvarial Defect Using the Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser and Rotary Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Jin, Seung-Chan; Lee, Sook-Young; Jang, Eun-Sook; Piao, Zheng-Gang; Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have been used in dentistry for cutting bone and removal of caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone healing in a skull defect prepared in rats using various instruments including Er:YAG laser. The 7 mm calvarial defects were created in 45 rats and 45 rats were divided into three groups (n = 15): a high-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), a low-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), and an Er:YAG laser. Specimens obtained after 3 days or 4 or 8 weeks were submitted for histological analysis. Three days after surgery, no bone formation had occurred in any of the groups. Four weeks after surgery, 90 ±8.16% new bone formation was observed in the high-speed group, and 8 weeks after surgery, 100 ±0% new bone formation was observed in the low- and high-speed groups. There were significant differences among the periods after surgery, but no significant differences were observed among final results with in different device groups.

  6. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  7. Healing times and prediction of wound healing in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zimny, S; Pfohl, M

    2005-02-01

    Time line of wound healing and prediction of healing times in diabetic foot ulcers is an important issue. Usually, the percentage of wounds healed within a defined period is used for characterization of wound healing. R=sqrtA/pi (R, radius; A, planimetric wound area; pi, constant 3.14), and the wound radius reduction was 0.39 mm/week which was previously established. The initial average wound area was 96.9+/-13.1 mm2 (mean+/-SEM), and 3.61+/-1.6 mm 2 after ten weeks with an average healing time of 75.9 (95 %-CI 71-81) days. Using the equation mentioned above and the calculated weekly wound radius reduction, the predicted healing time in the test group was 86.9 (95 %-CI 73-101) days. The predicted and the observed healing times were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.55, p=0.0002). Providing standard care, the time needed for wound healing can reliably be predicted in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. This may be a useful tool in daily clinical practice to predict wound healing and recognize ulcers who do not respond adequately to the treatment. PMID:15772900

  8. N-Acetylaspartate Reduction in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Following 8 weeks of Risperidone Treatment in First-Episode Drug-Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xiaofen; Hu, Maolin; Li, Zongchang; Cao, Hongbao; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Zhou, Jun; Sang, Deen; Zhao, Hongzeng; Tang, Jinsong; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA) depletions documented in schizophrenia patients might be due to the disease progression or medications. Here we investigated longitudinal NAA changes in drug-naïve first-episode patients (FEP) who are relatively free from chronicity. Forty-two drug-naïve FEP and 38 controls were enrolled in this study to explore the effect of 8-week risperidone monotherapy on NAA. All spectra were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on a 3.0 T MRI and analyzed with LCModel. At baseline, patients presented no significant differences in NAA (P = 0.084) or NAA/Cr + Pcr (P = 0.500) compared to controls; NAA levels were negatively correlated with PANSS total scores (P = 0.001) and WCST-PE (P = 0.041). After treatment, patients demonstrated significant reductions of NAA (P < 0.001) and NAA/Cr + Pcr (P < 0.001), and significant improvement in PANSS-P (P < 0.001) and PANSS-G (P < 0.001) symptoms. We detected no significant correlations between NAA alterations and PANSS-P (P = 0.679) or PANSS-G (P = 0.668) symptom changes; nor did NAA/Cr + Pcr changes with alterations in PANSS-P (P = 0.677) and PANSS-G (P = 0.616). This is the first evidence that short-term risperidone treatment induces an acute reduction of MPFC NAA during the early phase of schizophrenia, which may be a previously unavailable biomarker to indicate risperidone with a similar pharmacological mechanism, although the functional significance is still unclear. PMID:25778460

  9. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD. PMID:26579947

  10. Efficacy of clorsulon for treatment of mature naturally acquired and 8-week-old experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Ramsey, R T; Loyacano, A F

    1984-05-01

    In a dose-titration study against experimentally induced 8-week-old Fasciola hepatica infection (study A), 20 calves were allotted to 5 groups, each of 4 calves, and treated with different doses of an injectable formulation of clorsulon or its vehicle: group 1--controls, no drug; group 2--2 mg of clorsulon /kg; group 3--4 mg of drug/kg; group 4--8 mg/kg; and group 5--16 mg/kg. Mean numbers of flukes recovered from 4 calves in each treatment group were as follows: group 1--112.2, group 2--42, group 3--4.8, group 4--3.0, and group 5--0.2. Percentages of fluke reductions for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 ( clorsulon -treated) calves were 62.6%, 95.7%, 97.3%, and 99.8%, respectively. Against naturally acquired mature (greater than 14-week-old) F hepatica infections (study B), a total of 161 flukes were recovered from 7 vehicle-treated control calves (group 6; mean fluke recovery = 23) and no flukes were recovered from 9 calves (group 7) given orally a formulation containing 7 mg of clorsulon /kg of body weight. Eggs were not found in the feces of clorsulon -treated calves at 20 to 21 days after treatment as compared with a mean of 7.4 eggs per gram (epg) in group 6 (control) calves. Mean bile egg recoveries were 13,532 (456 to 66,861) from group 6 calves as compared to recovery of a total of 162 (0 to 160) eggs from 3 of the 9 treated calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6732013

  11. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement. PMID:21869628

  12. Ultraviolet light and hyperpigmentation in healing wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemer, D.R.; Spira, M.

    1983-10-01

    The concept of permanent hyperpigmentation in wounds following ultraviolet light exposure during the postoperative period has found a place in plastic surgical literature but has not been documented. This study evaluates the effect of ultraviolet light on healing wounds in paraplegics. It failed to confirm permanent alteration in pigmentation response to ultraviolet exposure and suggests that other factors are of greater importance in the development of hyperpigmentation in the healing wound.

  13. The healing Buddha.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas S N; Chen, Peter S Y

    2004-11-01

    The iconography of the healing Buddha embraces two healing traditions, symbolized by the healing stone lapis lazuli from Central Asia and by the myrobalan fruit from the ayurvedic medicine of ancient India. The first mention of the healing Buddha is in Buddhist texts of the first century BC, and the earliest extant icons date from the fourth century AD. This suggests the cult of the healing Buddha was a relatively late development in the history of Buddhism. Worshippers sought his help in alleviating spiritual, mental and physical suffering, as well as for medical cures. In China followers believed he was also a cosmic Buddha, to whom one appealed for longevity and protection from disasters. This form of faith-based healing remains vibrant in China, Japan and Tibet to this day. PMID:15486623

  14. Authenticity and healing.

    PubMed

    McGee, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Caring and compassion cannot be faked. These are not actions we perform mechanically but states of being that flow from within to make healing connection with others in need. To be authentically healing requires that we live authentic lives. This paper describes what it means to be authentic from a psychospiritual perspective, discusses the components of authentic caring and ends with an exploration of ways to cultivate the authenticity of our lives in general and in our efforts to heal others. PMID:24526471

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid constituents collected at the atlanto-occipital site of xylazine hydrochloride sedated, healthy 8-week-old Holstein calves.

    PubMed Central

    St Jean, G; Yvorchuk-St Jean, K; Anderson, D E; Moore, W E

    1997-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported

  16. Self-healing materials.

    PubMed

    Hager, Martin D; Greil, Peter; Leyens, Christoph; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2010-12-14

    Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality can be restored. This article covers the design and generic principles of self-healing materials through a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers. Recent key developments and future challenges in the field of self-healing materials are summarised, and generic, fundamental material-independent principles and mechanism are discussed and evaluated. PMID:20839257

  17. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  18. Self Healing Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. Self-healing is a crucial in implementing the next generation of smart grids allowing to ensure a high quality of service to the users. We then map our self-healing procedure in a percolation problem and analyse the interplay between redundancies and topology in improving the resilience of networked infrastructures to multiple failures. We find exact results both for planar lattices and for random lattices, hinting the role of duality in the design of resilient networks. Finally, we introduce a cavity method approach to study the recovery of connectivity after damage in self-healing networks. CNR-PNR National Project ``Crisis-Lab,'' EU HOME/2013/CIPS/AG/4000005013 project CI2C and EU FET project MULTIPLEX nr.317532.

  19. The role of mechanobiology in tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical cues affect tendon healing, homeostasis, and development in a variety of settings. Alterations in the mechanical environment are known to result in changes in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, transcription factors, and cytokines that can alter tendon structure and cell viability. Loss of muscle force in utero or in the immediate postnatal period delays tendon and enthesis development. The response of healing tendons to mechanical load varies depending on anatomic location. Flexor tendons require motion to prevent adhesion formation, yet excessive force results in gap formation and subsequent weakening of the repair. Excessive motion in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction causes accumulation of macrophages, which are detrimental to tendon graft healing. Complete removal of load is detrimental to rotator cuff healing; yet, large forces are also harmful. Controlled loading can enhance healing in most settings; however, a fine balance must be reached between loads that are too low (leading to a catabolic state) and too high (leading to microdamage). This review will summarize existing knowledge of the mechanobiology of tendon development, homeostasis, and healing. PMID:22244066

  20. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John P; Lalani, Zahid; Bossano, Carla M; Brey, Eric M; Demian, Nagi; Johnston, Carol M; Dean, David; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E K; Mikos, Antonios G

    2004-03-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion. To test this hypothesis, healing bone was investigated within a rabbit incisor extraction socket, a subcritical size bone defect that resists significant soft tissue invasion by virtue of its conformity. After removal of the incisor teeth, one tooth socket was left as an empty control, one was filled with crosslinked polymer networks formed from the hydrophobic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), and one was filled with a hydrogel formed from the hydrophilic oligomer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF). At five different times (4 days as well as 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), jaw bone specimens containing the tooth sockets were removed. We analyzed bone healing by histomorphometrical analysis of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections as well as immunohistochemically stained sections. The proposed hypothesis, that a hydrophilic material would hinder bone healing, was supported by the histomorphometrical results. In addition, the immunohistochemical results reflect molecular signaling indicative of the early invasion of platelets, the vascularization of wound-healing tissue, the differentiation of migrating progenitor cells, and the formation and remodeling of bone tissue. Finally, the results emphasize the need to consider biomaterial properties and their differing effects upon endogenous growth factors, and thus bone healing, during the development of tissue engineering devices. PMID:14762922

  1. RAPID AND RELIABLE HEALING OF CRITICAL SIZE BONE DEFECTS WITH GENETICALLY MODIFIED SHEEP MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F.; Ferreira, E.; Porter, R.M.; Glatt, V.; Schinhan, M.; Shen, Z.; Randolph, M.A.; Kirker-Head, C.A.; Wehling, C.; Vrahas, M.S.; Evans, C.H.; Wells, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Large segmental defects in bone fail to heal and remain a clinical problem. Muscle is highly osteogenic, and preliminary data suggest that autologous muscle tissue expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) efficiently heals critical size defects in rats. Translation into possible human clinical trials requires, inter alia, demonstration of efficacy in a large animal, such as the sheep. Scale-up is fraught with numerous biological, anatomical, mechanical and structural variables, which cannot be addressed systematically because of cost and other practical issues. For this reason, we developed a translational model enabling us to isolate the biological question of whether sheep muscle, transduced with adenovirus expressing BMP-2, could heal critical size defects in vivo. Initial experiments in athymic rats noted strong healing in only about one-third of animals because of unexpected immune responses to sheep antigens. For this reason, subsequent experiments were performed with Fischer rats under transient immunosuppression. Such experiments confirmed remarkably rapid and reliable healing of the defects in all rats, with bridging by 2 weeks and remodelling as early as 3-4 weeks, despite BMP-2 production only in nanogram quantities and persisting for only 1-3 weeks. By 8 weeks the healed defects contained well-organised new bone with advanced neo-cortication and abundant marrow. Bone mineral content and mechanical strength were close to normal values. These data demonstrate the utility of this model when adapting this technology for bone healing in sheep, as a prelude to human clinical trials. PMID:26388615

  2. Healing Childhood Trauma Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Caelan

    2012-01-01

    Millions of the world's children are exposed to traumatic events and relationships every day. Whatever the cause, this overwhelming stress produces a host of unsettling symptoms and reactions. The author highlights six practical principles that undergird healing interventions.

  3. Saliva and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. Furthermore, saliva contains a variety of proteins that play a role in the various stages of the intraoral wound healing. Tissue factor, present in salivary exosomes, accelerates the clotting of blood dramatically. The subsequent proliferation of epithelial cells is promoted by growth factors in saliva, especially epidermal growth factor. The importance of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor is demonstrated by the observation that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Members of the salivary histatin family promote wound closure in vitro by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration. Cell proliferation is not enhanced by histatin. Cyclization of histatin increased its biological activity approximately 1,000-fold compared to linear histatin. These studies suggest that histatins could potentially be used for the development of new wound healing medications. PMID:23878824

  4. Metalloproteinases and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Caley, Matthew P.; Martins, Vera L.C.; O'Toole, Edel A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are present in both acute and chronic wounds. They play a pivotal role, with their inhibitors, in regulating extracellular matrix degradation and deposition that is essential for wound reepithelialization. The excess protease activity can lead to a chronic nonhealing wound. The timed expression and activation of MMPs in response to wounding are vital for successful wound healing. MMPs are grouped into eight families and display extensive homology within these families. This homology leads in part to the initial failure of MMP inhibitors in clinical trials and the development of alternative methods for modulating the MMP activity. MMP-knockout mouse models display altered wound healing responses, but these are often subtle phenotypic changes indicating the overlapping MMP substrate specificity and inter-MMP compensation. Recent Advances: Recent research has identified several new MMP modulators, including photodynamic therapy, protease-absorbing dressing, microRNA regulation, signaling molecules, and peptides. Critical Issues: Wound healing requires the controlled activity of MMPs at all stages of the wound healing process. The loss of MMP regulation is a characteristic of chronic wounds and contributes to the failure to heal. Future Directions: Further research into how MMPs are regulated should allow the development of novel treatments for wound healing. PMID:25945285

  5. Effects of shear load on frictional healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the seismic cycle of repeated earthquake failure, faults regain strength in a process known as frictional healing. Laboratory studies have played a central role in illuminating the processes of frictional healing and fault re-strengthening. These studies have also provided the foundation for laboratory-derived friction constitutive laws, which have been used extensively to model earthquake dynamics. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the affect of shear load on frictional healing. Frictional healing is quantified during slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests, which serve as a simple laboratory analog for the seismic cycle in which earthquakes (slide) are followed by interseismic quiescence (hold). We studied bare surfaces of Westerly granite and layers of Westerly granite gouge (thickness of 3 mm) at normal stresses from 4-25 MPa, relative humidity of 40-60%, and loading and unloading velocities of 10-300 μm/s. During the hold period of SHS tests, shear stress on the sample was partially removed to investigate the effects of shear load on frictional healing and to isolate time- and slip-dependent effects on fault healing. Preliminary results are consistent with existing works and indicate that frictional healing increases with the logarithm of hold time and decreases with normalized shear stress τ/τf during the hold. During SHS tests with hold periods of 100 seconds, healing values ranged from (0.013-0.014) for τ/τf = 1 to (0.059-0.063) for τ/τf = 0, where τ is the shear stress during the hold period and τf is the shear stress during steady frictional sliding. Experiments on bare rock surfaces and with natural and synthetic fault gouge materials are in progress. Conventional SHS tests (i.e. τ/τf = 1) are adequately described by the rate and state friction laws. However, previous experiments in granular quartz suggest that zero-stress SHS tests are not well characterized by either the Dieterich or Ruina state evolution laws. We are investigating

  6. Systemic Treatment with Strontium Ranelate Does Not Influence the Healing of Femoral Mid-shaft Defects in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie; Sørensen, Thomas Givskov; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-02-01

    Strontium ranelate (SrR) has both bone anabolic and anti-resorption properties and has therefore the potential to increase the healing of bone defects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of systemic treatment with SrR during the healing of cortical bone defects in rats. In addition, the vertebral bodies were examined in order to elucidate the effect of short-term treatment with SrR on intact trabecular bone. Sixty 16-week-old female Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. A cylindrical defect was drilled through the anterior cortex of the mid-femoral diaphysis in both hind limbs. Two of the groups were treated with SrR (900 mg/kg b.w.) mixed into the food and two groups served as controls. The animals were euthanized after either 3 or 8 weeks of treatment. Healing of the defects was analyzed with µCT, mechanical testing, and stereology. Treatment with SrR resulted in increased thickness of the defects after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas no effect on bone volume fraction (BV/TV), mechanical properties (maximum strength and maximum stiffness), periosteal callus volume, or osteoclast-covered bone surfaces (Oc.S/BS) after either 3 or 8 weeks of treatment was found. Furthermore, SrR increased the bone material density (ρ) of the vertebral bodies, and tended to increase BV/TV after 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.087). The mechanical properties of the vertebral bodies were not influenced by SrR treatment. In conclusion, 3 weeks of treatment with SrR increased the thickness of the healing mid-femoral cortical bone defects in rats, but did not influence BV/TV, mechanical properties, periosteal callus volume, or Oc.S/BS after either 3 or 8 weeks. Furthermore, SrR had no effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the vertebral bodies. PMID:26543033

  7. Clinician's ability to evaluate the strength of healing fractures from plain radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Panjabi, M.M.; Lindsey, R.W.; Walter, S.D.; White, A.A. 3d.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the usefulness of plain radiographs in evaluating bone healing. Rabbit tibiae were osteotomized, externally fixed, and allowed to heal for 3-8 weeks. Bones were harvested, x-rayed, and tested to failure in a dynamic torsion tester. AP and lateral radiographs of 10 rabbit tibia pairs and 10 individual rabbit tibiae were selected randomly for use in a questionnaire, given to 93 physicians who routinely assess fracture healing to evaluate clinicians' ability to assess bone strength. The results indicated that clinicians can differentiate the relative strength of bones by comparing two sets of radiographs. However, the strength determination from a single set of radiographs of a fracture is unreliable, the tendency being to evaluate the fracture to be weaker than it actually is.

  8. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  9. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Løvendahl, P; Bennedsgaard, T W; Østergaard, S

    2015-11-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5 wk before treatment and until 8 wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, lower milking frequency, and elevated interquarter yield ratio. Within these measures, deviations from baseline levels and from the control cows were found as early as 1 to 3 wk before the antibiotic treatment and peaked around the days of treatment. In some cases, the mastitic cows returned to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However

  10. Acceleration Of Wound Healing Ny Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Tayyaba; Hamblin, Michael R.; Trauner, Kenneth

    2000-08-22

    Disclosed is a method for accelerating wound healing in a mammal. The method includes identifying an unhealed wound site or partially-healed wound site in a mammal; administering a photosensitizer to the mammal; waiting for a time period wherein the photosensitizer reaches an effective tissue concentration at the wound site; and photoactivating the photosensitizer at the wound site. The dose of photodynamic therapy is selected to stimulate the production of one or more growth factor by cells at the wound site, without causing tissue destruction.

  11. [Magical and religious healing in Byzantium].

    PubMed

    Józsa, László

    2010-01-01

    Religious and magical ways of healing have been known and practiced since the very beginning of human history. In the present article, the Byzantine philosophical, cultural, historical and "methodological" aspects of this way of healing are discussed. The article outlines the development of magic healing in Byzantium from the 4th to the 15th century. During this period magical therapy included the cult of patron saints--listed by the author--and pleading for divine intervention as well. The activity of "anargyroi" and the use of magical objects and amulets is also discussed in detail. Exorcism was also a part of religious therapy both against psychical and somatical diseases. In early Christianity, and especially in Byzantium the devil or other demons were also supposed to cause various somatical or psychical illnesses by "intrusion" or "internalisation," i.e. by possession or obsession of their victims. PMID:21661260

  12. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  13. Spirituality, healing and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, D

    1991-01-01

    The natural science base of modern medicine influences the way in which medicine is delivered and may ignore the spiritual factors associated with illness. The history of spirituality in healing presented here reflects the growth of scientific knowledge, demands for religious renewal, and the shift in the understanding of the concept of health within a broader cultural context. General practitioners have been willing to entertain the idea of spiritual healing and include it in their daily practice, or referral network. Recognizing patients' beliefs in the face of suffering is an important factor in health care practice. PMID:1777299

  14. The Fragility of Healing.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lawlor, Mary

    2001-03-01

    This article explores a paradox-the simultaneous cultivation and suppression of "healing dramas" by pediatric rehabilitation therapists. Dramatic moments are defined as ones in which the routine exercises and treatment activities of therapeutic practice are transformed into narrative plots. These improvisational plots involve multiple characters, risks, suspense, and above all, a heightened sense that something is at stake. Experience itself becomes the focus of attention for the patient. Based upon ethnographic research in Chicago and Los Angeles, this article offers an anatomy of two such moments, investigating not only how healing dramas are constructed between patients and healers but how and why institutional discourses and practices invite their abandonment. PMID:20930950

  15. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. PMID:21919046

  16. A radiographic study of the effect of various retrograde fillings on periapical healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Pitt Ford, T R

    1994-12-01

    An effective retrograde sealing procedure places great demands upon both technique and materials. Prevention of micro-leakage, biocompatibility and stability of the material in the apical tissues are very important. To evaluate potential retrograde filling materials, a replantation model has been developed in which extracted permanent molars were replanted in monkeys after apicectomy of each root, preparation of a 2-mm deep retrograde cavity and its sealing with various dental materials. Prior to retro-filling the remaining pulp was exposed to saliva. Apicected molars which were infected and did not receive retrograde fillings served as positive controls. Periapical healing was evaluated radiographically after 8 weeks based on planimetric measurements of the size of the periapical radiolucency. The following dental materials were tested: amalgam, glass ionomer cement, calcium-hydroxide lining cement, AH 26 root canal sealer, various zinc oxide-eugenol cements, Cavit, and gutta-percha with various sealers. The materials which were associated with better apical healing than the infected controls were glass ionomer cement, Cavit, and the zinc oxide-eugenol cements. When plain zinc oxide-eugenol or IRM were combined with a gutta-percha core, healing was best and not statistically different from normal apices. It was concluded that radiographic assessment at 8 weeks of molar teeth retrograde filled prior to replantation could be a valuable method for discrimination of potentially useful materials in vivo. PMID:7867616

  17. Educators Healing Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, Nancy L., Ed.; McIntyre, D. John, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on racism and the role of teachers in healing racism. There are three sections with nine papers. After an "Introduction" (D. John McIntyre), Section 1, "Historical Perspectives," includes: (1) "Racism in Education" (Gwendolyn Duhon Boudreaux, Rose Duhon-Sells, Alice Duhon-Ross, and Halloway C. Sells); and…

  18. Phytochemicals in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Sharad, Shashwat; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Traditional therapies, including the use of dietary components for wound healing and skin regeneration, are very common in Asian countries such as China and India. The increasing evidence of health-protective benefits of phytochemicals, components derived from plants is generating a lot of interest, warranting further scientific evaluation and mechanistic studies. Recent Advances: Phytochemicals are non-nutritive substances present in plants, and some of them have the potential to provide better tissue remodeling when applied on wounds and to also act as proangiogenic agents during wound healing. Critical Issues: In this review, we briefly discuss the current understanding, important molecular targets, and mechanism of action(s) of some of the phytochemicals such as curcumin, picroliv, and arnebin-1. We also broadly review the multiple pathways that these phytochemicals regulate to enhance wound repair and skin regeneration. Future Directions: Recent experimental data on the effects of phytochemicals on wound healing and skin regeneration establish the potential clinical utility of plant-based compounds. Additional research in order to better understand the exact mechanism and potential targets of phytochemicals in skin regeneration is needed. Human studies a2nd clinical trials are pivotal to fully understand the benefits of phytochemicals in wound healing and skin regeneration. PMID:27134766

  19. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  20. Healing Racism: Education's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutstein, Nathan, Ed.; Morgan, Michael, Ed.

    The 16 essays in this collection address how to lessen the effects of racism through classroom education by emphasizing the oneness of humanity and the relatedness of all human beings. These selections offer advice about healing racism from the early grades through secondary education. The essays are: (1) "Racism as a Disease" (John Woodall); (2)…

  1. Indigenous Healing Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliman, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding new…

  2. Healing Magazine, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBiase, Miriam H., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newly designed volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue shares information on guiding children through times of trauma, particularly after the events of September 11th. Two articles provide information on debriefing after trauma and talking…

  3. The arts as healing.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, H Q; Erikson, J M

    1983-10-01

    The relationship between artistic involvement and individual mental health is considered, and the concept of "healing" is differentiated from that of "therapy." Seven properties of art experience are identified which, when developed, have contributed to patients' recovery from mental illness. Implications of these properties for clinical programs, and the related value of art experience for non-patients, are discussed. PMID:6638153

  4. Healing Invisible Wounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Erica J.

    2010-01-01

    As many as 9 in 10 justice-involved youth are affected by traumatic childhood experiences. According to "Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense," between 75 and 93 percent of youth currently incarcerated in the justice system have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual abuse, war,…

  5. Nutritional aspects of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ayello, E A; Thomas, D R; Litchford, M A

    1999-01-01

    Proper nutrition is essential to prevent the development of pressure ulcers and to support adequate and timely wound healing. Additionally, research and clinical observation suggest nutrients play a major role in wound healing. How the nutrients Vitamin A, Vitamin C, zinc, calories, protein, and fluids are used in wound healing and recommendations regarding use of supplements are discussed in this article. PMID:10855131

  6. The Impact of Strontium Ranelate on Metaphyseal Bone Healing in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Komrakova, Marina; Weidemann, Anna; Dullin, Christian; Ebert, Joachim; Tezval, Mohammad; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Sehmisch, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    The following questions were addressed: whether therapy with strontium ranelate (SR) should be continued or interrupted if the fractures occur during SR treatment and whether SR could be applied directly after fracture to improve bone healing. Sprague-Dawley rats (3 month old) were ovariectomized (Ovx, n = 48) or left intact (n = 12). After 8 weeks, a bilateral transverse osteotomy of the tibia metaphysis was created in all rats. Ovx rats were divided into four groups: Ovx; SR applied directly after Ovx until osteotomy (prophylaxis, SR pr, 8 weeks); SR applied after osteotomy (therapy, SR th, 5 weeks); SR applied during the whole experiment (pr + th, 13 weeks). SR dosage was 625 mg/kg body weight/day, administered in the feed. Five weeks later, tibiae were analyzed by biomechanical, histological, micro-CT, and gene expression analyses. The SR pr + th treatment increased total bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction, cortical BMD and volume, callus area and density, serum alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase mRNA, accelerated osteotomy bridging, and callus formation at weeks 2 and 3 of healing and decreased the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand mRNA ratio. SR th enlarged callus area and improved callus formation during the 5th week of healing. SR pr improved cortical BMD preserving bone after SR discontinuation (5-week rest); the bone healing was not affected. SR content in the tibia metaphysis was the highest in SR pr + th group and was not different between SR pr and SR th. SR has a positive effect on osteoporotic bone healing in rat and SR treatment can be continued after the fracture occurs or applied directly after the fracture. PMID:26084691

  7. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianyi; Chang, Qingxuan; Wang, Di; Gao, Min; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8weeks high fat diet (HFD) feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds. PMID:27028201

  8. Tibia Fracture Healing Prediction Using First-Order Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, M.; Prakasam, P.; Kumaravel, S.; Madhava Sarma, P.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of healing period of a tibia fracture in humans across limb using first-order mathematical model is demonstrated. At present, fracture healing is diagnosed using X-rays. Recent studies have demonstrated electric stimulation as a diagnostic tool in fracture healing. A DC electric voltage of 0.7 V was applied across the fracture and stabilized with Teflon coated carbon rings and the data was recorded at different time intervals until the fracture heals. The experimental data fitted a first-order plus dead time zero model (FOPDTZ) that coincided with the mathematical model of electrical simulated tibia fracture limb. Fracture healing diagnosis was proposed using model parameter process gain. Current stabilization in terms of process gain parameter becoming constant indicates that the healing of fracture is a new finding in the work. An error analysis was performed and it was observed that the measured data correlated to the FOPDTZ model with an error of less than 2 percent. Prediction of fracture healing period was done by one of the identified model parameters, namely, process gain. Moreover, mathematically, it is justified that once the fracture is completely united there is no capacitance present across the fracture site, which is a novelty of the work. PMID:26495032

  9. The Fragility of Healing

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lawlor, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article explores a paradox—the simultaneous cultivation and suppression of “healing dramas” by pediatric rehabilitation therapists. Dramatic moments are defined as ones in which the routine exercises and treatment activities of therapeutic practice are transformed into narrative plots. These improvisational plots involve multiple characters, risks, suspense, and above all, a heightened sense that something is at stake. Experience itself becomes the focus of attention for the patient. Based upon ethnographic research in Chicago and Los Angeles, this article offers an anatomy of two such moments, investigating not only how healing dramas are constructed between patients and healers but how and why institutional discourses and practices invite their abandonment. PMID:20930950

  10. [Healing with art?].

    PubMed

    Kühlmann, A Y R Rosalie; Jeekel, J Hans; Pierik, E G J M Robert

    2015-01-01

    Music and other forms of art are increasingly being integrated into hospitals. As well as the aesthetic value of art, more and more attention is being paid to its contribution to the healing of the patient. Scientific research indicates the possible benefits of specific art in healthcare facilities. Using this knowledge of the role and employability of surroundings and art in the healing of patients may be complementary to the high quality of care in the Netherlands. By means of proper, methodologically correct research, it is possible to investigate the use of different aspects of the patient's environment as simple, safe and low-cost measures in improving health and well-being of patients. PMID:26530121

  11. Wound healing in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Alessandra; Angelini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CuAO) and flavin-containing amine oxidases (PAO) are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing enzymes responsible for the oxidative de-amination of polyamines. Currently, a key role has been ascribed to apoplastic amine oxidases in plants, i.e., to behave as H2O2-delivering systems in the cell wall during cell growth and differentiation as well as in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, H2O2 is the co-substrate for the peroxidase-driven reactions during cell-wall maturation and a key signalling molecule in defence mechanisms. We recently demonstrated the involvement of an apoplastic PAO in the wound-healing process of the Zea mays mesocotyl. Experimental evidence indicated a similar role for an apoplastic PAO in Nicotiana tabacum. In this addendum we suggest that a CuAO activity is also involved in this healing event. PMID:19704660

  12. Can Faith Heal?

    PubMed Central

    White, Norman F.

    1984-01-01

    Belief in the healing power of faith is widespread, and is receiving new support because of the holistic health movement. However, reports of faith healing are uncommon and always involve changes in symptoms rather than in disease. Unanticipated remissions probably occur more frequently than they are reported, but often they may be ascribed to misdiagnosis or to the fact that disease progresses more slowly than expected or even regresses in some patients. When they are sick, patients are more likely to pray and to seek spiritual assistance, and such improvements in their health may thus seem to result from faith. Faith—especially an uncritical acceptance of medical authority—sometimes has negative effects. Patients' unquestioning compliance is not trust; it is an abdication of personal responsibility. Physicians also must maintain a healthy skepticism so that they do not accept all medical explanations without questioning them. PMID:21283499

  13. Self-healing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional structure fabricated from a self-healing polymeric material, comprising poly(ester amides) obtained from ethylene glycol, azelaic acid and 1,1-aminoundecanoic acid, wherein polymeric material has a melt index above 2.5 g/10 min. as determined by ASTM D1238 at 190.degree. C. and 2.16kg, impact resistance and ductility sufficient to resist cracking and brittle fracture upon impact by a 9 mm bullet fired at a temperature of about 29.degree. C. at subsonic speed in a range from about 800 feet/sec to about 1000 feet/sec. It has been determined that the important factors necessary for self-healing behavior of polymers include sufficient impact strength, control of the degree of crystallinity, low melting point and the ability to instantly melt at impacted area.

  14. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  15. Self-healing minefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolader, Glenn E.; Rogers, John; Batteh, Jad

    2004-07-01

    The Self Healing Minefield (SHM) is comprised of a networked system of mobile anti-tank landmines. When the mines detect a breach, each calculates an appropriate response, and some fire small rockets to "hop" into the breach path, healing the breach. The purpose of the SHM is to expand the capabilities of traditional obstacles and provide an effective anti-tank obstacle that does not require Anti-Personnel (AP) submunitions. The DARPA/ATO sponsored program started in June 2000 and culminated in a full 100-unit demonstration at Fort Leonard Wood, MO in April 2003. That program went from "a concept" to a prototype system demonstration in approximately 21 months and to a full tactically significant demonstration in approximately 33 months. Significant accomplishments included the following: (1) Demonstration of a working, scalable (order of a hundred nodes), ad hoc, self-healing RF network. (2) Demonstration of an innovative distributed time synchronization scheme that does not rely on GPS. (3) Demonstration of a non-GPS based, self-mapping, relative geolocation system. (4) Development of an innovative distributed safe, arm, and fire system that allows for independent firing of eight rockets within a single node. (5) Development of a small rocket design with a novel geometry that meets the propulsion requirements.

  16. Healing as appreciating wholeness.

    PubMed

    Cowling, W R

    2000-03-01

    The "clinicalization" of human experience by the health care disciplines has been instrumental in denying important facets of human life and not fully accounting for the essence and wholeness of experience. A unitary conceptualization of healing as appreciating wholeness is proposed. Appreciating is actualized through a praxis approach used for research and practice--unitary pattern appreciation--created to bring the theoretical principles of unitary science into practical reality. It is essentially a praxis for exploration of the wholeness within human/environmental pattern. Healing is conceptualized as the realization, knowledge, and appreciation of the inherent wholeness in life that elucidates prospects of clarified understanding and opportunities for action. The essential features of the process of pattern appreciation are a synoptic stance toward pattern information, a participatory engagement with people in the exploration of wholeness, and the transformative nature of the process that illuminates the possibilities in wholeness. A case demonstrates the nature of the unitary pattern appreciation process and its healing qualities. PMID:10711802

  17. Diagnosis and distress in Navajo healing.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Thomas J; Storck, Michael J; Strauss, Milton

    2008-08-01

    In contemporary Navajo society, traditional Navajo ceremonies, Native American Church prayer meetings, and Navajo Christian faith healing are all highly sought-after resources in the everyday pursuit of health and well-being. What is the nature of affliction among patients who turn to such forms of religious healing? Are these patients typically afflicted with psychiatric disorder? In this article we discuss 84 Navajo patients who participated in the Navajo Healing Project during a period in which they consulted one of these forms of healing. We present diagnostic results obtained from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV (SCID) administered to these patients. We then present an ethnographically augmented analysis comparing the research diagnosis obtained via the SCID with a clinical diagnosis, with the diagnosis given by religious healers, and with the understanding of their own distress on the part of patients. These analyses demonstrate how a cultural approach contributes to the basic science and clinical understandings of affliction as well as to discussion of the advantages and limitations of DSM categories as descriptors of distress and disorder. PMID:18974670

  18. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  19. The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing. PMID:15841273

  20. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Natalya M; Melamed, Eitan; Wasserman, Elad; Raphael, Bitya; Breuer, Aviva; Stok, Kathryn S; Sondergaard, Rachel; Escudero, Ana V Villarreal; Baraghithy, Saja; Attar-Namdar, Malka; Friedlander-Barenboim, Silvina; Mathavan, Neashan; Isaksson, Hanna; Mechoulam, Raphael; Müller, Ralph; Bajayo, Alon; Gabet, Yankel; Bab, Itai

    2015-10-01

    Cannabinoid ligands regulate bone mass, but skeletal effects of cannabis (marijuana and hashish) have not been reported. Bone fractures are highly prevalent, involving prolonged immobilization and discomfort. Here we report that the major non-psychoactive cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD), enhances the biomechanical properties of healing rat mid-femoral fractures. The maximal load and work-to-failure, but not the stiffness, of femurs from rats given a mixture of CBD and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 8 weeks were markedly increased by CBD. This effect is not shared by THC (the psychoactive component of cannabis), but THC potentiates the CBD stimulated work-to-failure at 6 weeks postfracture followed by attenuation of the CBD effect at 8 weeks. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), the fracture callus size was transiently reduced by either CBD or THC 4 weeks after fracture but reached control level after 6 and 8 weeks. The callus material density was unaffected by CBD and/or THC. By contrast, CBD stimulated mRNA expression of Plod1 in primary osteoblast cultures, encoding an enzyme that catalyzes lysine hydroxylation, which is in turn involved in collagen crosslinking and stabilization. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy we confirmed the increase in collagen crosslink ratio by CBD, which is likely to contribute to the improved biomechanical properties of the fracture callus. Taken together, these data show that CBD leads to improvement in fracture healing and demonstrate the critical mechanical role of collagen crosslinking enzymes. PMID:25801536

  1. Wound healing for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Zitelli, J

    1987-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex sequence of events, beginning with tissue injury, mediated by inflammation, and ending long after reepithelialization is complete. Research and controlled clinical experience have provided a better understanding so that clinicians can influence the events of healing to decrease pain, control bleeding, infection, and cosmetic result as well as speed the time for complete healing. The following is a summary of guidelines for the management of wound healing: (1) wound creation; wounds should be created with minimal necrosis of tissue in order to prevent delays in healing. Electrosurgical, cryosurgical, and laser surgical wounds heal more slowly than wounds created by scalpel excision or curettage. Electro-coagulation should be used sparingly in sutured wounds. Large lesions are best treated in a single stage rather than in divided treatments since the rate of wound healing is not proportional to the area but instead to the logarithm of the area. Thus, the total healing time is much shorter if done in a single treatment session. (2) use of drugs; corticosteroids given before or within three days of wounding in dose of prednisone 40 mg or greater will inhibit wound healing. Vitamin A topically or systemically may reverse this inhibition. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are more important for their effects on platelet function and bleeding than on wound healing. (3) wound dressings; the use of occlusive dressings to promote moist wound healing is the most significant advance in wound management. Occlusive dressings shorten the time for healing, decrease pain, reduce wound contamination, and improve the cosmetic result. (4) control of wound contraction and scar formation; at the time of wound formation, guiding sutures may be helpful in wound healing by secondary intention in order to control the direction of wound contraction and prevent distortion. Intralesional steroids may be useful for hypertrophic scars and keloids

  2. Amniotic membrane can be a valid source for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    ElHeneidy, Hossam; Omran, Eman; Halwagy, Ahmed; Al-Inany, Hesham; Al-Ansary, Mirvat; Gad, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM) can promote proper epithelialization with suppression of excessive fibrosis by creating a supportive milieu for regeneration of chronic ulcer bed. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate whether AM scaffold can modulate the healing of a wound by promoting tissue reconstruction rather than promoting scar tissue formation. Subjects and methods AM was obtained and prepared and then applied to patients with chronic leg ulcers who were randomly divided into two different groups. Group I (control group) included eleven patients in whom ulcers were treated with conventional wound dressings that were changed daily for 8 weeks. Group II (study group) included 14 patients in whom the AM was placed in contact with the ulcer and held in place with a secondary dressing, which was changed daily. Follow-up was done to detect healing rate and detection of ulcer size, assessment of pain, and to take ulcer images (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60). Results In group I, all ulcers showed no reduction in their size, and ulcer floor remained the same. Healthy granulations were present in two ulcers (18.2%) and absent in nine ulcers (81.8%). There was no improvement of pain level in the eleven ulcers. In group II, complete healing of 14 ulcers occurred in 14–60 days with a mean of 33.3±14.7; healing rate range was 0.064–2.22 and the mean 0.896±0.646 cm2/day. Healthy granulations were present in 13 ulcers (92.9%) and absent in one ulcer (7.1%). Three ulcers (21.4%) were of mild severity (grade 1 ulcers) while eleven ulcers (78.6%) were of moderate severity (grade 2 ulcers). The healing rate was faster in ulcers of mild severity (1.7±0.438 cm2/day) in comparison to ulcers of moderate severity (0.673±0.498 cm2/day). Eleven cases (78.6%) showed improvement in their pain level on a scale from 0 to 10. Conclusion AM graft can be of value in wound healing. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27390533

  3. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    PubMed Central

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Shearn, Jason T.; Butler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natural PT-to-bone healing have not been well characterized. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the global biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns of both normal and naturally healing murine PT at three time points (2, 5, and 8 weeks) following acute surgical rupture of the tibial enthesis. Normal murine PT exhibited distinct regional variations in tissue strain, with the insertion region experiencing approximately 2.5 times greater strain than the midsubstance at failure (10.80 ± 2.52% vs. 4.11 ± 1.40%; mean ± SEM). Injured tendons showed reduced structural (ultimate load and linear stiffness) and material (ultimate stress and linear modulus) properties compared to both normal and contralateral sham-operated tendons at all healing time points. Injured tendons also displayed increased local strain in the insertion region compared to contralateral shams at both physiologic and failure load levels. 93.3% of injured tendons failed at the tibial insertion, compared to only 60% and 66.7% of normal and sham tendons, respectively. These results indicate that 8 weeks of natural tendon-to-bone healing does not restore normal biomechanical function to the murine PT following injury. PMID:24210849

  4. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  5. [Healing "booster" dressings].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Téot, Luc; Meaume, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the dressing and the wound is vital to clinical effectiveness. The more-or-less standard wound-surface coverings have been replaced with initial dressings, referred to as modern dressings, which contain an oily and sticky compound. They provide a moist medium by applying the basic mechanistic principles (liquid absorption and release). Other types of products and techniques modify the behaviour of wound cells by acting directly through irritation, biochemical stimulation or genetic modification of the cells, which accelerates the healing process. PMID:22003786

  6. Method of healing diabetic forefoot ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, J P; Le Quesne, L P

    1983-01-01

    Six diabetic patients with neuropathic ulceration of the sole of the foot (seven feet, eight ulcers) were treated by the application of a below knee walking plaster with a rubber rocker. All the ulcers healed with this treatment, greatly reducing the usual period of hospital inpatient stay. After healing, study of the forces acting on the sole of the foot showed that these ulcers occur at the site of maximal horizontal shear force and confirmed that they occur at the site of maximal vertical force. This treatment is highly effective for neuropathic ulcers of the sole not affecting bone or complicated by deep sepsis. There may be a high rate of recurrence, however, reflecting inadequacy of methods of protecting damaged neuropathic feet. PMID:6401552

  7. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  8. Integrins in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Regulation of cell adhesions during tissue repair is fundamentally important for cell migration, proliferation, and protein production. All cells interact with extracellular matrix proteins with cell surface integrin receptors that convey signals from the environment into the nucleus, regulating gene expression and cell behavior. Integrins also interact with a variety of other proteins, such as growth factors, their receptors, and proteolytic enzymes. Re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation are crucially dependent on the temporospatial function of multiple integrins. This review explains how integrins function in wound repair. Recent Advances: Certain integrins can activate latent transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) that modulates wound inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Dysregulation of TGF-β1 function is associated with scarring and fibrotic disorders. Therefore, these integrins represent targets for therapeutic intervention in fibrosis. Critical Issues: Integrins have multifaceted functions and extensive crosstalk with other cell surface receptors and molecules. Moreover, in aberrant healing, integrins may assume different functions, further increasing the complexity of their functionality. Discovering and understanding the role that integrins play in wound healing provides an opportunity to identify the mechanisms for medical conditions, such as excessive scarring, chronic wounds, and even cancer. Future Directions: Integrin functions in acute and chronic wounds should be further addressed in models better mimicking human wounds. Application of any products in acute or chronic wounds will potentially alter integrin functions that need to be carefully considered in the design. PMID:25493210

  9. Rank Protein Immunolabeling during Bone-Implant Interface Healing Process

    PubMed Central

    Ávila Souza, Francisley; Pereira Queiroz, Thallita; Rodrigues Luvizuto, Eloá; Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; Garcia-JR, Idelmo Rangel; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the expression of RANK protein during bone-healing process around machined surface implants. Twenty male Wistar rats, 90 days old, after having had a 2 mm diameter and 6 mm long implant inserted in their right tibias, were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days after healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were subjected to RANK immunostaining reaction. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Results. Immunolabeling analysis showed expressions of RANK in osteoclast and osteoblast lineage cells. The statistical analysis showed an increase in the expression of RANK in osteoblasts at 7 postoperative days and a gradual decrease during the chronology of the healing process demonstrated by mild cellular activity in the final stage (P < .05). Conclusion. RANK immunolabeling was observed especially in osteoclast and osteoblast cells in primary bone during the initial periods of bone-healing/implant interface. PMID:20706673

  10. VEGF and BFGF Expression and Histological Characteristics of the Bone-Tendon Junction during Acute Injury Healing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Gao, Weiwei; Xiong, Kaiyu; Hu, Kuan; Liu, Xincun; He, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Bone-tendon junction (BTJ) injuries are common and may be caused by acute trauma and delayed healing during exercise or work. To understand the nature of the healing process of BTJ injuries would help to prevent injuries and improve treatment. Thirty-three mature female rabbit hindlimbs were assigned to normal control (CON, n = 7) and injury groups (n = 26). The acute injury was established by administering one 7 plum-blossom needle puncture. Specimens were harvested post injury at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks (ND1W, n = 6; ND2W, n = 6; ND4W, n = 7; and ND8W, n = 7). The injury existed in all of the injury groups. Compared with the CON group, all of the animals in the injury group showed poor cell profiles, an unclear or undetectable tide mark, a proteoglycan area and profile changes; the BTJ cell density diminished significantly in the ND1W (p < 0.01), ND2W (p < 0.05), ND4W (p < 0.01), and ND8W groups (p < 0.01); the fibrocartilage zone thickness in all injury groups was significantly thicker than in the CON group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found among the injury groups (p>0.05). The basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression in the CON group was significantly less than in the ND1W group (p<0.01), but no significant difference was found when compared with the ND2W, ND4W, and ND8W groups. The bFGF expression in the ND1W group was higher than that of the ND4W (p < 0.05) and ND8W groups (p < 0.01). The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were not significantly different among the groups (p > 0.05). The bFGF and VEGF expression levels indicated that the healing process stopped at 8 weeks post injury or was not activated, although the injury had not healed by histological examination. A repeatable animal model of BTJ acute injury was established in this study, and the results described the BTJ acute injury healing difficult concerned with the repairing stop. Key Points This study described the bone-tendon junction acute injury nature

  11. Our Pathway toward Healing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honour, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Robert Honour, Training and Staff Development Manager, at the Fairfax, Virginia, Department of Family Services (DFS), reports on the outcome of "Healing Racism" training at his organization. Participants in "Healing Racism Institutes" are transforming relationships and creating an organizational culture that…

  12. Self-healing biomaterials(3)

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the biomaterials community to the emerging field of self-healing materials, and also to suggest how one could utilize and modify self-healing approaches to develop new classes of biomaterials. A brief discussion of the in vivo mechanical loading and resultant failures experienced by biomedical implants is followed by presentation of the self-healing methods for combating mechanical failure. If conventional composite materials that retard failure may be considered zeroth generation self-healing materials, then taxonomically-speaking, first generation self-healing materials describe approaches that “halt” and “fill” damage, whereas second generation self-healing materials strive to “fully restore” the pre-failed material structure. In spite of limited commercial use to date, primarily because the technical details have not been suitably optimized, it is likely from a practical standpoint that first generation approaches will be the first to be employed commercially, whereas second generation approaches may take longer to implement. For self-healing biomaterials the optimization of technical considerations is further compounded by the additional constraints of toxicity and biocompatibility, necessitating inclusion of separate discussions of design criteria for self-healing biomaterials. PMID:21171168

  13. The Healing Power of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith Anthos, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    This teacher believes that art has the power to heal, or at least aid in the healing process. After the terrorist attacks on 9/11, her students needed some way to express the injustice they felt. They discussed the attacks, and had some free drawing to release it from their system. They even did some patriotic-themed projects to boost their…

  14. Self-Healing Laminate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiermann, Brett A. (Inventor); Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A laminate material may include a first flexible layer, and a self-healing composite layer in contact with the first flexible layer. The composite layer includes an elastomer matrix, a plurality of first capsules including a polymerizer, and a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The laminate material may self-heal when subjected to a puncture or a tear.

  15. Synthetic Self-Healing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie

    2014-06-02

    Given enough time, pressure, temperature fluctuation, and stress any material will fail. Currently, synthesized materials make up a large part of our everyday lives, and are used in a number of important applications such as; space travel, under water devices, precise instrumentation, transportation, and infrastructure. Structural failure of these material scan lead to expensive and dangerous consequences. In an attempt to prolong the life spans of specific materials and reduce efforts put into repairing them, biologically inspired, self-healing systems have been extensively investigated. The current review explores recent advances in three methods of synthesized self-healing: capsule based, vascular, and intrinsic. Ideally, self-healing materials require no human intervention to promote healing, are capable of surviving all the steps of polymer processing, and heal the same location repeatedly. Only the vascular method holds up to all of these idealities.

  16. Radiotherapy and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Devalia, Haresh L; Mansfield, Lucy

    2008-03-01

    This review article discusses basic radiation physics and effects of radiation on wounds. It examines various postulated hypothesis on the role of circulatory decrease and radiation-induced direct cellular damage. The new concept related to the radiation pathogenesis proposes that there is a cascade of cytokines initiated immediately after the radiation. Sustained activation of myofibroblasts in the wound accounts for its chronicity. Recent advances highlight that transforming growth factor beta1 is the master switch in pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis. This articles overviews its role and summarises the available evidences related to radiation damage. The goal of this article was to provide its modern understanding, as future research will concentrate on antagonising the effects of cytokines to promote wound healing. PMID:18081782

  17. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats. PMID:25514392

  18. Measurements of CD34+/CD45-dim Stem Cells Predict Healing of Diabetic Neuropathic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R; Hampton, Michelle; Troiano, Michael A; Mirza, Ziad; Malay, D Scot; Shannon, Steven; Jennato, Nathan B; Donohue, Cornelius M; Hoffstad, Ole; Woltereck, Diana; Yang, Ming; Yu, Kevin; Bhopale, Veena M; Kovtun, Svitlana; Margolis, David J

    2016-02-01

    Management of neuropathic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes (DFUs) has changed little over the past decade, and there is currently no objective method to gauge probability of successful healing. We hypothesized that studies of stem/progenitor cells (SPCs) in the early weeks of standard wound management could predict who will heal within 16 weeks. Blood and debrided wound margins were collected for 8 weeks from 100 patients undergoing weekly evaluations and treatment. SPC number and intracellular content of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) were evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. More SPCs entered the bloodstream in the first 2 weeks of care in patients who healed (n = 37) than in those who did not (n = 63). Logistic regression demonstrated that the number of blood-borne SPCs and the cellular content of HIFs at study entry and the first-week follow-up visit predicted healing. Strong correlations were found among week-to-week assessments of blood-borne SPC HIF factors. We conclude that assays of SPCs during the first weeks of care in patients with DFUs can provide insight into how well wounds will respond and may aid with decisions on the use of adjunctive measures. PMID:26487786

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  20. Local Erythropoietin Injection in Tibiofibular Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Hooman; Kazemian, Gholamhossein; Emami, Mohammad; Nemati, Ali; Karimi Yarandi, Hossein; Safdari, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO), in addition to its function as an erythropoiesis regulator has a regenerative activity on some nonhematopoietic tissues. Animal studies have suggested a role for erythropoietin in bone healing. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of local EPO injection in healing of tibiofibular fractures. Materials and Methods In a prospective double blind study, 60 patients with tibiofibular fracture were divided to equal EPO or placebo groups, randomly. Patients received local injection of either EPO or a placebo to the site of fracture two weeks after surgical fixation. Patients were followed by clinical and radiographic examination to determine the union rate. The period of fracture union and incidence of nonunion were compared between the two groups. Results The demographic data and types of fractures were similar in the both groups. The mean duration of the fracture union was 2.1 weeks shorter in those treated with EPO (P = 0.01). Nonunion was observed in 6 patients of the control group and 2 receiving EPO (P = 0.02). No patient experienced any adverse effect from local EPO injections. Conclusions EPO injection into the site of tibiofibular fractures may possibly accelerate healing. PMID:24350133

  1. Mucopolysaccharides from psyllium involved in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, W; Das, P K; Middelkoop, E; Verschoor, J; Storey, L; Regnier, C

    2001-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharides derived from the husk of psyllium (Plantago ovata) have properties beneficial for wound cleansing and wound healing. Recent studies indicate that these mucopolysaccharides also limit scar formation. Our in vitro and in vivo studies aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved, e.g., fluid absorption, bacterial adherence and in vitro stimulatory effects on macrophages, which are pivotal in wound healing. The mucopolysaccharides contained in a sachet (Askina Cavity) or in a hydrocolloid mixture (Askina Hydro) were found to have a gradual and sustained absorbency over a period of 7 days, amounting to 4-6 times their weight in water. The swelling index was 9 mm after 312 h. Adherence of wound bacteria to the mucopolysaccharides started after 2 h and was more pronounced after 3 h. Semiquantitative measurements of bacterial adherence used centrifugation and subsequent optical density determinations of supernatant. These confirmed the strong adherence potential of psyllium particles. Lactic acid dehydrogenase staining of pretreated cultured human skin explants did not reveal toxicity of the mucopolysaccharides derived from psyllium husk. Langerhans' cell migration from the epidermis was negligible and interleukin-1 beta expression in the explants was not significant, supporting the very low allergenic potential of psyllium. The characteristics of mucopolysaccharide granulate derived from psyllium husk in Askina Cavity and Askina Hydro related to fluid absorption, bacterial adherence, biocompatibility, stimulation of macrophages, irritancy response and allergenicity showed an optimal profile, supporting the good clinical performance of wound healing products containing psyllium husk. PMID:11951574

  2. Computational characterization of fracture healing under reduced gravity loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Benjamin C; Lerner, Zachary F; Browning, Raymond C; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-07-01

    The literature is deficient with regard to how the localized mechanical environment of skeletal tissue is altered during reduced gravitational loading and how these alterations affect fracture healing. Thus, a finite element model of the ovine hindlimb was created to characterize the local mechanical environment responsible for the inhibited fracture healing observed under experimental simulated hypogravity conditions. Following convergence and verification studies, hydrostatic pressure and strain within a diaphyseal fracture of the metatarsus were evaluated for models under both 1 and 0.25 g loading environments and compared to results of a related in vivo study. Results of the study suggest that reductions in hydrostatic pressure and strain of the healing fracture for animals exposed to reduced gravitational loading conditions contributed to an inhibited healing process, with animals exposed to the simulated hypogravity environment subsequently initiating an intramembranous bone formation process rather than the typical endochondral ossification healing process experienced by animals healing in a 1 g gravitational environment. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1206-1215, 2016. PMID:26704186

  3. Wound Healing Essentials: Let There Be Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    The state of wound oxygenation is a key determinant of healing outcomes. From a diagnostic standpoint, measurements of wound oxygenation are commonly used to guide treatment planning such as amputation decision. In preventive applications, optimizing wound perfusion and providing supplemental O2 in the peri-operative period reduces the incidence of post-operative infections. Correction of wound pO2 may, by itself, trigger some healing responses. Importantly, approaches to correct wound pO2 favorably influence outcomes of other therapies such as responsiveness to growth factors and acceptance of grafts. Chronic ischemic wounds are essentially hypoxic. Primarily based on the tumor literature, hypoxia is generally viewed as being angiogenic. This is true with the condition that hypoxia be acute and mild to modest in magnitude. Extreme near-anoxic hypoxia, as commonly noted in problem wounds, is not compatible with tissue repair. Adequate wound tissue oxygenation is required but may not be sufficient to favorably influence healing outcomes. Success in wound care may be improved by a personalized health care approach. The key lies in our ability to specifically identify the key limitations of a given wound and in developing a multifaceted strategy to specifically address those limitations. In considering approaches to oxygenate the wound tissue it is important to recognize that both too little as well as too much may impede the healing process. Oxygen dosing based on the specific need of a wound therefore seems prudent. Therapeutic approaches targeting the oxygen sensing and redox signaling pathways are promising. PMID:19152646

  4. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  5. A Single-Center, Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Effects of Poly-Gamma-Glutamate on Human NK Cell Activity after an 8-Week Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ-PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ-PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ-PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  6. A single-center, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of poly-gamma-glutamate on human NK cell activity after an 8-week oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly- γ -glutamate ( γ -PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ -PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ -PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ -PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  7. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  8. [Fascial healing and wound failure].

    PubMed

    Fackeldey, V; Höer, J; Klinge, U

    2004-05-01

    The difficulties of acute or delayed failure of fascial healing after laparotomies are of great socioeconomic relevance. Despite a plurality of publications in the last decades, the incidence of burst abdomen (1-3%) and incisional hernia (10-15%) remained unchanged. The generally accepted cause is a multifactorial event with a large number of influencing factors. Therefore, only interdisciplinary cooperations are a match for the scientific complexity of this topic. A still underestimated problem is the description of wound healing factors influencing the microclimate in fascial healing. New aspects of pharmacotherapy and better understanding of collagen synthesis and dynamics of closure tension might improve the clinical situation in the future. PMID:15071734

  9. Age-Induced Loss of Wound-Healing Ability in Potato Tubers is Regulated by ABA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding of potato tubers stimulates the development of a suberized wound periderm that resists desiccation and microbial invasion. Wound-healing ability declines with advancing tuber age (storage period). The mechanism of age-induced loss in healing capacity is not known; however, older tubers ha...

  10. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing. PMID:26360824

  11. Seasonal and reproductive effects on wound healing in the flight membranes of captive big brown bats

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos-Vasquez, Alejandra; Caldwell, John R.; Faure, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The flight membranes of bats serve a number of physiological functions important for survival. Although flight membrane injuries are commonly observed in wild-caught bats, in most cases the damage heals completely. Previous studies examining wound healing in the flight membranes of bats have not taken into consideration energy constraints that could influence healing times. Wound healing results in increased energy demands, therefore we hypothesized that wound healing times would be slower during periods of energy conservation and/or energy output. In this study we used an 8 mm diameter circular punch tool to biopsy the wing membranes of healthy adult female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from a captive research colony to test the hypothesis that healing times will vary with seasonal temperature changes between the summer and winter seasons, and with reproductive condition between lactating and non-reproductive females. As expected, membrane biopsies took significantly longer to heal during the winter when bats were hibernating compared to the summer when bats were active. Surprisingly, no difference in healing time was observed between lactating and non-reproductive females. The wings of most bats fully healed, although some individuals showed wound expansion demonstrating that impaired healing is occasionally observed in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:25527646

  12. Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B

    2014-06-01

    What can an exploration of contemporary Aboriginal healing programs such as those offered in Canadian prisons and urban clinics tell us about the importance of history in understanding social and psychological pathology, and more significantly the salience of the concept of "historical trauma"? The form of Aboriginal "healing" that has emerged in recent decades to become dominant in many parts of the country is itself a reflection of historical processes and efforts to ameliorate the consequences of what is today often termed "historical trauma." In other words, contemporary notions of "healing" and the social, cultural, medical, and psychological disruption and distress caused by colonialism and captured in the term "historical trauma" have coevolved in an interdependent manner. I also argue that there is a tension between the attribution of this distress to both specific (e.g., residential schools) and generalized (e.g., colonialism) historical factors, as evident in the "historical trauma" concept, and the prevailing emphasis in many healing programs to encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for their situation and avoid attributing blame to other factors. I conclude that "historical trauma" represents an idiom of distress that captures a variety of historical and contemporary phenomena and which provides a language for expressing distress that is gaining currency, at least among scholars, and that the contemporary Aboriginal healing movement represents an effort to deal with the absence or failure of both "traditional" Aboriginal healing and government-sponsored medical and psychological services to adequately deal with this distress of colonialism. PMID:23788570

  13. Methyl methacrylate as a healing agent for self-healing cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tittelboom, K.; Adesanya, K.; Dubruel, P.; Van Puyvelde, P.; De Belie, N.

    2011-12-01

    Different types of healing agents have already been tested on their efficiency for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Generally, commercial healing agents are used while their properties are adjusted for manual crack repair and not for autonomous crack healing. Consequently, the amount of regain in properties due to self-healing of cracks is limited. In this research, a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based healing agent was developed specifically for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Various parameters were optimized including the viscosity, curing time, strength, etc. After the desired properties were obtained, the healing agent was encapsulated and screened for its self-healing efficiency. The decrease in water permeability due to autonomous crack healing using MMA as a healing agent was similar to the results obtained for manually healed cracks. First results seem promising: however, further research needs to be undertaken in order to obtain an optimal healing agent ready for use in practice.

  14. Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.

    PubMed

    Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients. Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP. There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

  15. Wound Healing Devices Brief Vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Caesar A.; Hare, Marc A.; Perdrizet, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The demand for wound care therapies is increasing. New wound care products and devices are marketed at a dizzying rate. Practitioners must make informed decisions about the use of medical devices for wound healing therapy. This paper provides updated evidence and recommendations based on a review of recent publications. Recent Advances: The published literature on the use of medical devices for wound healing continues to support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, and most recently electrical stimulation. Critical Issue: To inform wound healing practitioners of the evidence for or against the use of medical devices for wound healing. This information will aid the practitioner in deciding which technology should be accepted or rejected for clinical use. Future Directions: To produce high quality, randomized controlled trials or acquire outcome-based registry databases to further test and improve the knowledge base as it relates to the use of medical devices in wound care. PMID:27076996

  16. Self-Healing Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  17. Nutritional support for wound healing.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Douglas; Miller, Alan L

    2003-11-01

    Healing of wounds, whether from accidental injury or surgical intervention, involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, tissue types, cytokines, and growth factors. This results in increased cellular activity, which causes an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Nutritional deficiencies can impede wound healing, and several nutritional factors required for wound repair may improve healing time and wound outcome. Vitamin A is required for epithelial and bone formation, cellular differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation, proper immune function, and as a tissue antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the skin; however, the effect of vitamin E on surgical wounds is inconclusive. Bromelain reduces edema, bruising, pain, and healing time following trauma and surgical procedures. Glucosamine appears to be the rate-limiting substrate for hyaluronic acid production in the wound. Adequate dietary protein is absolutely essential for proper wound healing, and tissue levels of the amino acids arginine and glutamine may influence wound repair and immune function. The botanical medicines Centella asiatica and Aloe vera have been used for decades, both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair, and scientific studies are now beginning to validate efficacy and explore mechanisms of action for these botanicals. To promote wound healing in the shortest time possible, with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring to the patient, it is important to explore nutritional and botanical influences on wound outcome. PMID:14653765

  18. The effect of three hemostatic agents on early bone healing in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Resorbable bone hemostasis materials, oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) and microfibrillar collagen (MFC), remain at the site of application for up to 8 weeks and may impair osteogenesis. Our experimental study compared the effect of a water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymer (AOC) to ORC and MFC versus no hemostatic material on early bone healing. Methods Two circular 2.7 mm non-critical defects were made in each tibia of 12 rabbits. Sufficient AOC, ORC or MFC was applied to achieve hemostasis, and effectiveness recorded. An autologous blood clot was applied to control defects. Rabbits were sacrificed at 17 days, tibiae excised and fixed. Bone healing was quantitatively measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) expressed as fractional bone volume, and qualitatively assessed by histological examination of decalcified sections. Results Hemostasis was immediate after application of MFC and AOC, after 1-2 minutes with ORC, and >5 minutes for control. At 17 days post-surgery, micro-CT analysis showed near-complete healing in control and AOC groups, partial healing in the ORC group and minimal healing in the MFC group. Fractional bone volume was 8 fold greater in the control and AOC groups than in the MFC group (0.42 ± 0.06, 0.40 ± 0.03 vs 0.05 ± 0.01, P < 0.001) and over 1.5-fold greater than in the ORC group (0.25 ± 0.03, P < 0.05). By histology, MFC remained at the application site with minimal healing at the defect margins and early fibrotic tissue within the defect. ORC-treated defects showed partial healing but with early fibrotic tissue in the marrow space. Conversely, control and AOC-treated defects demonstrated newly formed woven bone rich in cellular activity with no evidence of AOC remaining at the application site. Conclusions Early healing appeared to be impaired by the presence of MFC and impeded by the presence of ORC. In contrast, AOC did not inhibit bone healing and suggest that AOC may be a better bone hemostatic material for

  19. Healing of Donor-site Buccal Mucosa Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Harris, Catherine R.; Enriquez, Anthony; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Buccal mucosal graft represents the gold standard graft material for urethroplasty because of its thick epithelium and a thin lamina propria for maximal graft uptake. There is an ongoing debate whether to close the buccal graft donor site. We show a unique look at buccal donor site healing through serial pictures over a 100-day period. In this patient, the anterior half of the buccal donor site was closed at the time of harvest, allowing real-time observation of wound healing from both the closed and open aspects of the wound. PMID:26151892

  20. Chronic wound caring ... a long journey toward healing.

    PubMed

    Orsted, H L; Campbell, K E; Keast, D H; Coutts, P; Sterling, W

    2001-10-01

    Healthcare professionals use words like "frustrating," "expensive," and "time-consuming" to describe chronic wound care. Healing a wound that has been present for an extended period of time is difficult. Often the problem is not just the wound but also the "woundedness" of the individual with the wound. The patient's needs in chronic wound care often continue over months, years, or even a lifetime. This article addresses more than the wound--it offers healthcare professionals' accounts of patient stories and their active involvement in the long journey toward chronic wound healing. PMID:11890076

  1. Calcium-Based Nanoparticles Accelerate Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ishise, Hisako; Carre, Antoine Lyonel; Nishimoto, Soh; Longaker, Michael; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nanoparticles (NPs) are small entities that consist of a hydroxyapatite core, which can bind ions, proteins, and other organic molecules from the surrounding environment. These small conglomerations can influence environmental calcium levels and have the potential to modulate calcium homeostasis in vivo. Nanoparticles have been associated with various calcium-mediated disease processes, such as atherosclerosis and kidney stone formation. We hypothesized that nanoparticles could have an effect on other calcium-regulated processes, such as wound healing. In the present study, we synthesized pH-sensitive calcium-based nanoparticles and investigated their ability to enhance cutaneous wound repair. Methods Different populations of nanoparticles were synthesized on collagen-coated plates under various growth conditions. Bilateral dorsal cutaneous wounds were made on 8-week-old female Balb/c mice. Nanoparticles were then either administered intravenously or applied topically to the wound bed. The rate of wound closure was quantified. Intravenously injected nanoparticles were tracked using a FLAG detection system. The effect of nanoparticles on fibroblast contraction and proliferation was assessed. Results A population of pH-sensitive calcium-based nanoparticles was identified. When intravenously administered, these nanoparticles acutely increased the rate of wound healing. Intravenously administered nanoparticles were localized to the wound site, as evidenced by FLAG staining. Nanoparticles increased fibroblast calcium uptake in vitro and caused contracture of a fibroblast populated collagen lattice in a dose-dependent manner. Nanoparticles also increased the rate of fibroblast proliferation. Conclusion Intravenously administered, calcium-based nanoparticles can acutely decrease open wound size via contracture. We hypothesize that their contraction effect is mediated by the release of ionized calcium into the wound bed, which occurs when the p

  2. Effects of systemic erythropoietin on ischemic wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Arslantaş, Mustafa Kemal; Arslantaş, Reyhan; Tozan, Emine Nur

    2015-03-01

    Results of in vivo studies have shown erythropoietin (EPO) is associated with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and cell protective effects on wound healing. These effects are dose-dependent. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the duration of EPO treatment affects the healing process in the ischemic wound. Forty-two (42) Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, wounded with H-shaped flaps, and randomized to 2 groups; Group 1 received 400 u/kg/day EPO and Group 2 received a saline solution, both via intraperitoneal injection following the wounding. All substances were administered once daily at the same time for up to 10 days after surgery. At days 3, 5, and 10, 7 rats from each group were sacrificed. Skin samples were stained with hematoxylin/eosin, viewed under an optical microscope at 10X and 40X magnification, and analyzed by blinded investigators for re-epithelialization, neovascularization amount and maturation of granulation tissue, inflammatory cells, and ulcer healing using an evaluation scale where 0 = none; 1 = partial; 2 = complete, but immature/thin: and 4 = complete and mature. Blood hemoglobin and hematocrit levels also were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA one-way test (P <0.05). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels rose while subsequent doses of EPO were administered over time, accompanied by a transient surge in healing on day 5, when differences in healing scores were significant. Flap necrosis, ulceration, and abscess were noted on post-wounding day 10 near the pedicle. The study showed EPO therapy can improve wound healing early in the post-wounding period but can reduce wound healing after post-injury treatment day 5. Further research is necessary, particularly to establish how EPO influences the microcirculation and rheology. PMID:25751848

  3. Effect of Neem oil and Haridra on non-healing wounds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anjali; Singh, Anil Kumar; Narayan, G.; Singh, Teja B.; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Ayurveda, Vrana (wound) has stated as tissue destruction and discoloration of viable tissue due to various etiology. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta described Vrana as a main subject. Most commonly Vrana can be classified into Shuddha and Dushta Vrana (chronic wound/nonhealing ulcers). Among the various drugs mentioned for Dushta Vrana, two of them, Neem (Azadirechta indica A. Juss) oil and Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) powder are selected for their wide spectrum action on wound. Aim: To compare the effect of Neem oil and Haridra in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds. Materials and Methods: Total 60 patients of wounds with more than 6 weeks duration were enrolled and alternatively allocated to Group I (topical application of Neem oil), Group II (Haridra powder capsules, 1 g 3 times orally) and Group III (both drugs). Duration of treatment was considered until complete healing of the wound, whereas 4th and 8th week were considered for assessment of 50% healing. Wound size was measured and recorded at weekly intervals. Wound biopsy was repeated after 4 weeks for assessment of angiogenesis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. Results: After 8 weeks of treatment, 50% wound healing was observed in 43.80% patients of Group I, 18.20% patients of Group II, and 70.00% patients of Group III. Microscopic angiogenesis grading system scores and DNA concentration showed highly significant effect of combined use of both drugs when compared before and after results of treatment (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Topical use of Neem oil and oral use of Haridra powder capsule used in combination were found effective for chronic non-healing wounds. PMID:26195902

  4. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  5. Acupoints Initiate the Healing Process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: As an important modality of Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been widely accepted by the Western world in the past 4 decades because of this modality's efficacy and safety. A vast amount of acupuncture research has been done. However, the mechanisms of acupuncture actions are still elusive. It is believed that the effects of acupuncture treatment begin from the moment of needle insertion. Methods: This review focuses on the acupuncture points and the three major reactions at the acupuncture points when needling is performed. These initial reactions may be the beginning of the healing process that initiates downstream effects through neuronal and humoral pathways. In addition to the physical reactions, this article also discusses the possibility of the effects of acupuncture on the healing process through a holistic pathway. Conclusions: Needling is the first step of traditional acupuncture therapy. Needling reactions— neuronal, biophysical, and biochemical—are the beginning of healing. The messengers of the three reactions involved may include neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones, and inflammatory factors. Healing may be potentiated through these messengers in neuronal and humoral pathways. The reactions manifest as erythema and De Qi—both of which are common phenomena used as positive signs in acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture may also play a role in the healing process through the holistic pathway, which needs further study. PMID:25352943

  6. Oesophageal function before, during, and after healing of erosive oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F; Ferrarini, F; Longanesi, A; Angeloni, M; Ragazzini, M; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between oesophageal motor abnormalities and oesophagitis, we carried out four hour studies of oesophageal motility and 24 hour pH measurements in fasting and fed conditions in eight patients before, during (pH only), and after medical healing of erosive oesophagitis. Gastrooesophageal acid reflux decreased (ns) during the treatment, but tended to return to basal values at the end. Oesophageal body motility was unchanged after healing, while the lower oesophageal sphincter basal tone was significantly increased at the end of the study in the postcibal period. The results suggest that the impairment of the sphincter tone in reflux oesophagitis is secondary to the presence of the oesophageal lesions. Macroscopic healing is not paralleled by improved major pathogenic factors of the disease, however--that is, acid reflux and oesophageal body motility. PMID:3345925

  7. CA19-9 decrease at 8 weeks as a predictor of overall survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, E. G.; Von Hoff, D. D.; Reni, M.; Arena, F. P.; Infante, J. R.; Bathini, V. G.; Wood, T. E.; Mainwaring, P. N.; Muldoon, R. T.; Clingan, P. R.; Kunzmann, V.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Tabernero, J.; Goldstein, D.; McGovern, D.; Lu, B.; Ko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A phase I/II study and subsequent phase III study (MPACT) reported significant correlations between CA19-9 decreases and prolonged overall survival (OS) with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC). CA19-9 changes at week 8 and potential associations with efficacy were investigated as part of an exploratory analysis in the MPACT trial. Patients and methods Untreated patients with MPC (N = 861) received nab-P + Gem or Gem alone. CA19-9 was evaluated at baseline and every 8 weeks. Results Patients with baseline and week-8 CA19-9 measurements were analyzed (nab-P + Gem: 252; Gem: 202). In an analysis pooling the treatments, patients with any CA19-9 decline (80%) versus those without (20%) had improved OS (median 11.1 versus 8.0 months; P = 0.005). In the nab-P + Gem arm, patients with (n = 206) versus without (n = 46) any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) of 40% versus 13%, and a median OS of 13.2 versus 8.3 months (P = 0.001), respectively. In the Gem-alone arm, patients with (n = 159) versus without (n = 43) CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed ORR of 15% versus 5%, and a median OS of 9.4 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.404), respectively. In the nab-P + Gem and Gem-alone arms, by week 8, 16% (40/252) and 6% (13/202) of patients, respectively, had an unconfirmed radiologic response (median OS 13.7 and 14.7 months, respectively), and 79% and 84% of patients, respectively, had stable disease (SD) (median OS 11.1 and 9 months, respectively). Patients with SD and any CA19-9 decrease (158/199 and 133/170) had a median OS of 13.2 and 9.4 months, respectively. Conclusion This analysis demonstrated that, in patients with MPC, any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 can be an early marker for chemotherapy efficacy, including in those patients with SD. CA19-9 decrease identified more patients with survival benefit than radiologic response by week 8. PMID:26802160

  8. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool. PMID:26864127

  9. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with autologous platelet concentrate applied in rabbit fibula fraction healing

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Paulo César Fagundes; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; Neves, Rogério Fagundes; Pircchio, Oronzo; Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Saad, Paulo Fernandes; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Moreira, Marcia Bento; de Souza Laurino, Cristiano Frota

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. METHODS: A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6–8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each): control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. RESULTS: Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model. PMID:24141841

  10. Rat rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing properties are adversely affected by hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Beason, David P.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Lee, Chang Soo; Edelstein, Lena; Abboud, Joseph A.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tendon tears represent a major component of reported orthopaedic injuries. In addition, more than one quarter of U.S. adults either currently have high cholesterol levels or have reduced their previously high cholesterol levels through the use of pharmaceuticals. Our clinical data have already linked hypercholesterolemia to full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and experimental data from our laboratory have shown effects on native tendon properties in multiple species. The objective of this study was to evaluate healing of supraspinatus tendons in our rat rotator cuff injury model. We hypothesized that tendon healing would be inferior in rats receiving a high-cholesterol diet for 6 months compared with those receiving standard chow. Methods All animals were subjected to a unilateral supraspinatus detachment and repair surgery, with contralateral limbs serving as within-animal comparative data. Animals continued their respective diet courses, and their supraspinatus tendons were biomechanically or histologically evaluated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively. Results Biomechanical testing revealed a significant reduction in normalized stiffness in hypercholesterolemic rats compared with controls at 4 weeks after injury, whereas histologic analyses showed no significant differences in collagen organization, cellularity, or cell shape between groups. Conclusion On the basis of our findings, hypercholesterolemia may have a detrimental biomechanical effect on tendon healing in our rat rotator cuff injury and repair model. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Animal Model. PMID:24295837

  11. Chemokines and diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Oscar; Torres, Francis M; Shireman, Paula K

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines are critical for white blood cell recruitment to injured tissues and play an important role in normal wound healing processes. In contrast, impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is accompanied by decreased early inflammatory cell infiltration but persistence of neutrophils and macrophages in the chronic, nonhealing wounds. These changes in inflammatory cell recruitment occur in conjunction with alterations in chemokine and growth factor expression. In addition to leukocyte trafficking, many different cell types, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes, produce and respond to chemokines, and these interactions are altered in diabetic wounds. Thus, the chemokine system may have both direct and inflammatory-mediated effects on many different aspects of diabetic wound healing. The potential roles of chemokines and inflammatory or immune cells in nonhealing diabetic wounds, including impairments in growth factor expression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix formation, and reepithelialization, are examined. PMID:18053419

  12. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. PMID:24650524

  13. Factors That Impair Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin; Hamm, Rose L.

    2014-01-01

    The body's response to tissue injury in a healthy individual is an intricate, sequential physiologic process that results in timely healing with full re-epithelialization, resolution of drainage, and return of function to the affected tissue. Chronic wounds, however, do not follow this sequence of events and can challenge the most experienced clinician if the underlying factors that are impairing wound healing are not identified. The purpose of this article is to present recent information about factors that impair wound healing with the underlying pathophysiological mechanism that interferes with the response to tissue injury. These factors include co-morbidities (diabetes, obesity, protein energy malnutrition), medications (steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, anti-rejection medications), oncology interventions (radiation, chemotherapy), and life style habits (smoking, alcohol abuse). Successful treatment of any chronic wound depends upon identification and management of the factors for each individual. PMID:26199879

  14. Fracture healing and lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J Patrick; Manigrasso, Michaele B; Kim, Brian D; Subramanian, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Lipid mediators regulate bone regeneration during fracture healing. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are well-known lipid mediators that regulate inflammation and are synthesized from the Ω-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase (COX-1 or COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyze the initial enzymatic steps in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, respectively. Inhibition or genetic ablation of COX-2 activity impairs fracture healing in animal models. Genetic ablation of COX-1 does not affect the fracture callus strength in mice, suggesting that COX-2 activity is primarily responsible for regulating fracture healing. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is performed clinically to reduce heterotopic ossification, although clinical evidence that NSAID treatment impairs fracture healing remains controversial. In contrast, inhibition or genetic ablation of 5-LO activity accelerates fracture healing in animal models. Even though prostaglandins and leukotrienes regulate inflammation, loss of COX-2 or 5-LO activity appears to primarily affect chondrogenesis during fracture healing. Prostaglandin or prostaglandin analog treatment, prostaglandin-specific synthase inhibition and prostaglandin or leukotriene receptor antagonism also affect callus chondrogenesis. Unlike the Ω-6-derived lipid mediators, lipid mediators derived from Ω-3 fatty acids, such as resolvin E1 (RvE1), have anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo, RvE1 can inhibit osteoclastogenesis and limit bone resorption. Although Ω-6 and Ω-3 lipid mediators have clear-cut effects on inflammation, the role of these lipid mediators in bone regeneration is more complex, with apparent effects on callus chondrogenesis and bone remodeling. PMID:24795811

  15. Toward a theology of healing.

    PubMed

    Studer, J N

    1982-12-01

    A sense of magic has always permeated our theology of healing. Consider the following theses: 1. By the very nature of material creation, however mysteriously it was initiated and is sustained, the power of God to influence material creation is restricted to the immanent (from within) and indirect; 2. God does not arbitrarily, in the case of two persons who have "identical" illnesses, decide the recovery of one and the death of the other. Rather, his love bears equally on all. This study will defend these theses and show that they are foundational and integral, to a theology of primarily physical healing. PMID:24310077

  16. [Wound healing in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Eming, S A; Wlaschek, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2016-02-01

    Restoration of tissue integrity is essential for host defense and protection of the organism. The efficacy and quality of skin repair varies significantly over a person's lifetime. Whereas prenatal wound healing is characterized by regeneration and scarless healing, scarring, fibrosis, and loss of function are features of postnatal repair. In fact, aging is the prominent risk factor for chronic wounds, skin fragility, infections, comorbidities, and decreased quality of life. Current strategies for restoration of tissue integrity and wound therapy are not sufficient and require further investigation of the underlying pathomechanisms and the development of causal-based concepts. PMID:26728073

  17. Self healing of defected graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jianhui; Shi, Tuwan; Cai, Tuocheng; Wu, Xiaosong; Yu, Dapeng; Xu, Tao; Sun, Litao

    2013-03-11

    For electronics applications, defects in graphene are usually undesirable because of their ability to scatter charge carriers, thereby reduce the carrier mobility. It would be extremely useful if the damage can be repaired. In this work, we employ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements to study defects in graphene introduced by argon plasma bombardment. We have found that majority of these defects can be cured by a simple thermal annealing process. The self-healing is attributed to recombination of mobile carbon adatoms with vacancies. With increasing level of plasma induced damage, the self-healing becomes less effective.

  18. The Healing Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Full-thickness Femoral Articular Cartilage Defects of Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, D.; Babazadeh, M.; Tanideh, N.; Zare, S.; Hoseinzadeh, S.; Torabinejad, S.; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage defect can lead to degradation of subchondral bone and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the healing effect of transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in full-thickness femoral articular cartilage defects in rabbit. Methods: 12 rabbits were equally divided into cell-treated and control groups. In cell-treated group, 2×106 cells of third passage suspended in 1 mL of DMEM was injected into articular defect. The control group just received 1 mL of DMEM. Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% penicillin and streptomycin and 2 mM L-glutamine were used for cell culture. To induce cartilage defect, 4 mm articular cartilage full-thickness defect was created in the knee. For histological evaluation in each group (H&E, safranin-O and toluidine blue), 3 rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks and 3 animals, 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: In cell therapy group post-transplantation, no abnormal gross findings were noticed. Neo-formed tissues in cell-treated groups were translucent with a smooth and intact surface and less irregularity. In cell-treated group after 8 weeks post-transplantation, the overall healing score of experimental knees were superior when compared to other groups. Conclusion: We showed that Ad-MSCs, as an available and non-invasive produced source of cells, could be safely administered in knee osteochondral defects. PMID:26576262

  19. Nonlinear periodization maximizes strength gains in split resistance training routines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Artur G; Aoki, Marcelo S; Evangelista, Alexandre L; Alveno, Daniel A; Monteiro, Gizele A; Piçarro, Ivan da Cruz; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare strength gains after 12 weeks of nonperiodized (NP), linear periodized (LP), and nonlinear periodized (NLP) resistance training models using split training routines. Twenty-seven strength-trained men were recruited and randomly assigned to one of 3 balanced groups: NP, LP, and NLP. Strength gains in the leg press and in the bench press exercises were assessed. There were no differences between the training groups in the exercise pre-tests (p > 0.05) (i.e., bench press and leg press). The NLP group was the only group to significantly increase maximum strength in the bench press throughout the 12-week training period. In this group, upper-body strength increased significantly from pre-training to 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), from 4 to 8 weeks (p = 0.004), and from 8 weeks to the post-training (p < 0.02). The NLP group also exhibited an increase in leg press 1 repetition maximum at each time point (pre-training to 4 weeks, 4-8 week, and 8 weeks to post-training, p < 0.0001). The LP group demonstrated strength increases only after the eight training week (p = 0.02). There were no further strength increases from the 8-week to the post-training test. The NP group showed no strength increments after the 12-week training period. No differences were observed in the anthropometric profiles among the training models. In summary, our data suggest that NLP was more effective in increasing both upper- and lower-body strength for trained subjects using split routines. PMID:19528843

  20. Self Healing Coating/Film Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, Burton; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mullenix, Pamela; Calle, Luz; Williams, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been developing self healing materials and technologies. This project seeks to further develop self healing functionality in thin films for applications such as corrosion protective coatings, inflatable structures, space suit materials, and electrical wire insulation.

  1. Concept of healing of recurrent shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main surgical techniques applied in the treatment of anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation, aiming the achievement of the normality of articulate movements. This was obtained by combining distinct surgical procedures, which allowed the recovery of a complete functional capacity of the shoulder, without jeopardizing the normality of movement, something that has not been recorded in the case of the tense sutures of the surgical procedures of Putti-Platt, Bankart, Latarjet, Dickson-O'Dell and others. The careful review of the methods applied supports the conclusion that recurrent shoulder dislocation can be cured, since cure has been obtained in 97% of the treated cases. However, some degree of limitation in the shoulder movement has been observed in most of the treated cases. Our main goal was to achieve a complete shoulder functional recovery, by treating simultaneously all of the anatomical-pathological lesions, without considering the so-called essential lesions. The period of post-operatory immobilization only last for the healing of soft parts; this takes place in a position of neutral shoulder rotation, since the use of vascular bone graft eliminates the need for long time immobilization, due to the shoulder stabilization provided by rigid fixation of the coracoid at the glenoid edge, as in the Latarjet's technique. Our procedure, used since 1959, comprises the association of several techniques, which has permitted shoulder healing without movement limitation. That was because of the tension reduction in the sutures of the subescapularis, capsule, and coracobraquialis muscles. PMID:26229839

  2. An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of 3 Vilazodone Dose-Initiation Strategies Following Switch From SSRIs and SNRIs in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rele, Shilpa; Millet, Robert; Kim, Sungman; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Seonghwan; Masand, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vilazodone, a selective and potent 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, has been approved for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. The primary objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of switching to 3 different doses of vilazodone from an equivalent dose range of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in adult subjects with MDD. Method: This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 3-arm trial to compare vilazodone 10 mg/d, 20 mg/d, and 40 mg/d as starting doses. Data were collected from December 2012 to December 2013. There was no washout phase, prior medications were stopped at the baseline visit, and vilazodone was started the next day in adults with MDD (DSM-IV criteria). The 10-mg/d and 20-mg/d dose was increased to 40 mg/d by week 3 and week 1, respectively, and the 40-mg/d initiation dose continued unchanged. The primary efficacy measure was change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score between the 3 dose groups. The secondary efficacy measures were changes in Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S), CGI-Improvement (CGI-I), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) scores. Safety measures were obtained by spontaneously reported adverse events, vital signs recording, and laboratory tests. Multivariate tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Seventy subjects were randomized, and 60 subjects completed the study (n = 20 in each group). Overall, there was a significant reduction in MADRS score from baseline (26.08 ± 1.1) to week 8 (9.86 ± 1.2) in the entire sample (P < .001). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in CGI-S (P < .001), CGI-I (P < .001) and HDRS (P < .001) scores from baseline to the end of the trial. There were no significant differences between the 3 vilazodone dose-initiation groups in changes in MADRS scores (P = .95) or changes in CGI

  3. Effect of fibrin glue and endothelial cell growth factor on the early healing response of the transplanted allogenic meniscus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Y; Kurosaka, M; Yoshiya, S; Mizuno, K

    1995-01-01

    Twentyfour meniscal allotransplantations were conducted in 12 adult mongrel dogs. The medial meniscus was replaced using a deep-frozen meniscal allograft. The junction between the meniscus and capsule was treated in one of the three ways. In the control group, the meniscus was sutured only to the adjacent capsular tissue (group C). In the second group, fibrin glue was injected at the junction (group F), and in the third group, fibrin glue and endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF) were injected at the juncture between the transplanted meniscus and the adjacent capsule before the meniscus was sutured (group FE). Histological observation was performed to investigate the effect of fibrin glue and ECGF on the healing process of transplants at various intervals of 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. No immunological response was noted in any of the knees. The healing of the transplanted meniscus was first observed at the peripheral attachment. Also, the pannus-like tissue extended from the synovium to the surface of the meniscus. The healing rate in each group at 1 week and 12 weeks was 22% and 77% in group C, 52% and 80% in group F, and 64% and 80% in group FE, respectively. At 4 and 8 weeks, early cellular repopulation was found in group FE and the area which contained new cells was larger than the acellular central core at 8 weeks. However, there was no difference among the three groups at 12 weeks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773819

  4. Impact of healing touch with healing harp on inpatient acute care pain: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Valerie; Nowak, Emily Witrak; Schommer, Barb; Briggs, Tami; Fehrer, Amy; Wax, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concomitant use of 2 complementary and alternative medicine modalities, Healing Harp and Healing Touch, to reduce pain, anxiety, and nausea in the postoperative patient population. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using concomitant Healing Touch and Healing Harp to significantly reduce moderate to severe pain and anxiety in this patient population. Further research is warranted. PMID:24722611

  5. An Assessment of Wound Healing Potential of Argyreia speciosa Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rawat, Bindu; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Venkateswara Rao, Chandana

    2014-01-01

    In North India, poultice of young unfolded leaves of Argyreia speciosa Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is used for healing wounds. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of leaves of A. speciosa in wound healing, this investigation was carried out. A linear incision wound of about 3 cm in length and 2 mm in depth and circular excision wound of 177 mm2 full thickness were made on the dorsal region of separate groups (n = 5) of anesthetized Swiss albino mice. A simple ointment, developed by including ethanol, ethanol-water, and water extracts (10% each, separately) of A. speciosa, was applied topically to mice once daily for 14 days after wounding. To evaluate the effect of each extract, wound contraction, epithelization period, wound breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content were determined. The water extract of A. speciosa showed accelerated wound healing activity as evidenced by fast wound contraction (96.30 ± 0.52%; P < 0.01), rapid epithelization period (11.40 ± 0.60 days; P < 0.001), greater wound breaking strength (376.56 ± 21.16 g; P < 0.001), and higher hydroxyproline content (16.49 ± 1.12 mg/g; P < 0.05) of granulation tissue. The present report supports the traditional use of Argyreia speciosa leaves for wound healing and signify its relevant therapeutic potential. PMID:24688387

  6. Healing, healthcare, missions, the church.

    PubMed

    Jarlsberg, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Churches throughout history have modeled ministry on Jesus' life of reaching out, teaching, preaching, and healing. Kampala Baptist Church (KBC) in Uganda is one such church that works to care spiritually and physically for their community. Partnering with local healthcare providers and short- and long-term healthcare missionaries, the church is transforming lives. Read about KBC and explore healthcare missions ministry. PMID:24592600

  7. Skin substitutes and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Auger, F A; Lacroix, D; Germain, L

    2009-01-01

    Medical science has vastly improved on the means and methods available for the treatment of wounds in the clinic. The production and use of various types of skin substitutes has led to dramatic improvements in the odds of survival for severely burned patients, but they have also shown promise for many other applications, including cases involving chronic wounds that are not life threatening. Nowadays, more than 20 products are commercially available, more are undergoing clinical trials and a large number of new models are being investigated in various research laboratories worldwide. Many of the current products do not contain any living cells and vary in their capacity to harness the innate capacity of the body to heal itself. Others include living cells, of allogeneic or autologous origin, and are often referred to as 'cellular therapy' or 'tissue-engineered' products. Modifications and improvements are currently investigated that aim at improving the healing potential of those products through the use of recombinant growth factors and additional features such as microvascularization. Fundamental research into wound healing and scar-free regeneration raises the hope that we will eventually be able to restore almost completely the appearance and function of skin after the healing of wounds. PMID:19188757

  8. Autonomic healing of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottos, N. R.; Geubelle, P. H.; Moore, J. S.; Kessler, M. R.; Sriram, S. R.; Brown, E. N.; Viswanathan, S.

    2001-02-01

    Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).

  9. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention program. The…

  10. Art and Healing for Native American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe M.; Coleman, Victoria D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses elements of Native American Indian healing process and significance of arts in therapy. Until recently, most traditional healing practices were illegal in the United States. It is imperative that counselors and educators become aware of the role of arts in Native healing. Implications for counselors and educators are highlighted. (CRR)

  11. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex increased bone healing: histologic and histomorphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Ferhan; Acikan, Izzet; Dundar, Serkan; Simsek, Sercan; Gul, Mehmet; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    Background Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, and inositol 25%) is a novel material that is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of ASI complex on bone healing of critical-sized defects in rats. Methods The rats were randomly assigned to two groups of 21 rats each. The control group was fed a standard diet for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The ASI group was fed a diet containing 1.81 g/kg of ASI for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The calvarial bones of all the rats were then harvested for evaluation. Results Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the control group at days 7, 14, and 28 of the calvarial defect (P<0.05). New bone formation was detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the controls at day 28 (P<0.05). However, new bone formation was not detected at days 7 and 14 in both the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion ASI supplementation significantly improved bone tissue healing in rats with critical-sized defects. This study demonstrated that ASI can enhance bone repair and has potential as a therapeutic regimen in humans. PMID:27390517

  12. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    PubMed

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. PMID:26834030

  13. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kenneth C; Guha, Somes Chandra

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care.[1] It is a snapshot of a patient's total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors.[2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), as used at our institution (CAMC), and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) may vary widely from country to country and payment system.[3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons.[1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise. PMID:25593414

  14. Healing the mental scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Few groups of scientists can have been studied more intensely than 20th-century German physicists, thanks to both their extraordinary successes and their involvement in the upheavals of the first half of the century. That attention has produced a number of first-rate accounts of these physicists and their community through the Third Reich (1933-1945), thus enabling us to gain a considerable grasp of their science and its broader cultural and political context. The same cannot be said, however, for the postwar period, especially the chaotic years following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 through to the founding of East and West Germany - then under Allied occupation - in 1949.

  15. Implantable microelectromechanical sensors for diagnostic monitoring and post-surgical prediction of bone fracture healing.

    PubMed

    McGilvray, Kirk C; Unal, Emre; Troyer, Kevin L; Santoni, Brandon G; Palmer, Ross H; Easley, Jeremiah T; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between modern clinical diagnostic data, such as from radiographs or computed tomography, and the temporal biomechanical integrity of bone fracture healing has not been well-established. A diagnostic tool that could quantitatively describe the biomechanical stability of the fracture site in order to predict the course of healing would represent a paradigm shift in the way fracture healing is evaluated. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a wireless, biocompatible, implantable, microelectromechanical system (bioMEMS) sensor, and its implementation in a large animal (ovine) model, that utilized both normal and delayed healing variants. The in vivo data indicated that the bioMEMS sensor was capable of detecting statistically significant differences (p-value <0.04) between the two fracture healing groups as early as 21 days post-fracture. In addition, post-sacrifice micro-computed tomography, and histology data demonstrated that the two model variants represented significantly different fracture healing outcomes, providing explicit supporting evidence that the sensor has the ability to predict differential healing cascades. These data verify that the bioMEMS sensor can be used as a diagnostic tool for detecting the in vivo course of fracture healing in the acute post-treatment period. PMID:26174472

  16. Healing texts and healing techniques in indigenous Balinese medicine.

    PubMed

    McCauley, A P

    1988-01-01

    Case histories of three prominent Balinese healers illustrate various ways that indigenous medical texts are used in healing. Most healers employ mantras, spells and inscriptions from the texts because they believe them to have innate power which can heal. A smaller group of healers are literate in the archaic language used in the palm-leaf medical manuscripts. However, their use of these manuscripts often differs from the literal and unambiguous way that Westerners read medical documents. An examination of Balinese medical manuscripts, in the context of the conventions of Balinese literature, demonstrates the use of these texts to align the body with the macrocosm and to reaffirm the beliefs of the ancestors. PMID:3227378

  17. Wound Healing Immediately Post-Thermal Injury Is Improved by Fat and Adipose Derived Stem Cell Isografts

    PubMed Central

    Loder, Shawn; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Agarwal, Shailesh; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Brownley, Cameron; DeLaRosa, Sara; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Cederna, Paul; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with severe burns suffer functional, structural, and aesthetic complications. It is important to explore reconstructive options given that no ideal treatment exists. Transfer of adipose and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has been shown to improve healing in various models. We hypothesize that use of fat isografts and/or ASCs will improve healing in a mouse model of burn injury. Methods Twenty 6–8 week old C57BL/6 male mice received a 30% surface area partial-thickness scald burn. Adipose tissue and ASCs from inguinal fat pads were harvested from a second group of C57BL/6 mice. Burned mice received 500μl subcutaneous injection at burn site of 1) processed adipose, 2) ASCs, 3) mixed adipose (adipose and ASCs), or 4) sham (saline) injection (n=5/group) on the first day post-injury. Mice were followed by serial photography until sacrifice at days 5 and 14. Wounds were assessed for burn depth and healing by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry. Results All treated groups showed improved healing over controls defined by decreased wound depth, area, and apoptotic activity. After 5 days, mice receiving ASCs or mixed adipose displayed a non-significant improvement in vascularization. No significant changes in proliferation were noted at 5 days. Conclusions Adipose isografts improve some early markers of healing post-burn injury. We demonstrate that addition of these grafts improve specific structural markers of healing. This improvement may be due to an increase in early wound vascularity post-graft. Further studies are needed to optimize use of fat or ASC grafts in acute and reconstructive surgery. PMID:25185931

  18. Simulated microgravity alters the expression of key genes involved in fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, N. Patrick; Androjna, Caroline; Hill, Esther; Globus, Ruth K.; Midura, Ronald J.

    2013-11-01

    Fracture healing in animal models has been shown to be altered in both ground based analogs of spaceflight and in those exposed to actual spaceflight. The molecular mechanisms behind altered fracture healing as a result of chronic exposure to microgravity remain to be elucidated. This study investigates temporal gene expression of multiple factors involved in secondary fracture healing, specifically those integral to the development of a soft tissue callus and the transition to that of hard tissue. Skeletally mature female rats were subjected to a 4 week period of simulated microgravity and then underwent a closed femoral fracture procedure. Thereafter, they were reintroduced to the microgravity and allowed to heal for a 1 or 2 week period. A synchronous group of weight bearing rats was used as a normal fracture healing control. Utilizing Real-Time quantitative PCR on mRNA from fracture callus tissue, we found significant reductions in the levels of transcripts associated with angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. These data suggest an altered fracture healing process in a simulated microgravity environment, and these alterations begin early in the healing process. These findings may provide mechanistic insight towards developing countermeasure protocols to mitigate these adaptations.

  19. Burn wound healing property of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pallavi; Durgaprasad, S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study was undertaken to evaluate the burn wound healing property of oil of Cocos nucifera and to compare the effect of the combination of oil of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine with silver sulphadiazine alone. Materials and Methods: Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted upon four groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control, Group II received the standard silver sulphadiazine. Group III was given pure oil of Cocos nucifera , and Group IV received the combination of the oil and the standard. The parameters observed were epithelialization period and percentage of wound contraction. Results: It was noted that there was significant improvement in burn wound contraction in the group treated with the combination of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine. The period of epithelialization also decreased significantly in groups III and IV. Conclusion: It is concluded that oil of Cocos nucifera is an effective burn wound healing agent. PMID:20040946

  20. The Hippocratic impact on healing cults: the archaeological evidence in Attica.

    PubMed

    Gorrini, Maria Elena

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I will examine the nature of the relationship between Hippocratic medical concepts and the practices of healing sanctuaries within Attica. I will consider the evolution of medical practice in a religious context to the time of Hippocratic medicine, the parallel floruit of Hippocratic practice and healing cults, and the relations between religious and rational medicine in their relative contexts: the temple and the city up to the Roman period. We will reassess the nature of the developing relationship between Hippocratic and religious medical practises, with particular focus on the presence of medical doctors within the healing sanctuaries. PMID:17144069

  1. Fracture healing: mechanisms and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Thomas A.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are the most common large-organ, traumatic injuries to humans. The repair of bone fractures is a postnatal regenerative process that recapitulates many of the ontological events of embryonic skeletal development. Although fracture repair usually restores the damaged skeletal organ to its pre-injury cellular composition, structure and biomechanical function, about 10% of fractures will not heal normally. This article reviews the developmental progression of fracture healing at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Innate and adaptive immune processes are discussed as a component of the injury response, as are environmental factors, such as the extent of injury to the bone and surrounding tissue, fixation and the contribution of vascular tissues. We also present strategies for fracture treatment that have been tested in animal models and in clinical trials or case series. The biophysical and biological basis of the molecular actions of various therapeutic approaches, including recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone therapy, are also discussed. PMID:25266456

  2. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  3. Self-healing fuse development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    The mercury-filled self-healing fuses developed for this program afford very good protection from circuit faults with rapid reclosure. Fuse performance and design parameters have been characterized. Life tests indicate a capability of 500 fuse operations. Fuse ratings are 150 v at 5, 15, 25 and 50 circuit A. A series of sample fuses using alumina and beryllia insulation have been furnished to NASA for circuit evaluation.

  4. Fracture healing in osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing Hoi; Miclau, Theodore; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Yang, Frank F; Alt, Volker

    2016-06-01

    As the world population rises, osteoporotic fracture is an emerging global threat to the well-being of elderly patients. The process of fracture healing by intramembranous ossification or/and endochondral ossification involve many well-orchestrated events including the signaling, recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the early phase; formation of a hard callus and extracellular matrix, angiogenesis and revascularization during the mid-phase; and finally callus remodeling at the late phase of fracture healing. Through clinical and animal research, many of these factors are shown to be impaired in osteoporotic bone. Animal studies related to post-menopausal estrogen deficient osteoporosis (type I) have shown healing to be prolonged with decreased levels of MSCs and decreased levels of angiogenesis. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) was shown to be delayed in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture. This might be related to the observed difference in mechanical sensitivity between normal and osteoporotic bones, which requires further experiments to elucidate. In mice fracture models related to senile osteoporosis (type II), it was observed that chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation were impaired; and that transplantation of juvenile bone marrow would result in enhanced callus formation. Other factors related to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis have also been noted to be impaired in aged models, affecting the degradation of cartilaginous matrixes and vascular invasion; the result is changes in matrix composition and growth factors concentrations that ultimately impairs healing during age-related osteoporosis. Most osteoporotic related fractures occur at metaphyseal sites clinically, and reports have indicated that differences exist between diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. An animal model that satisfies three main criteria (metaphyseal region, plate fixation, osteoporosis) is suggested for future research for

  5. Gene therapy for bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical problems in bone healing include large segmental defects, nonunion and delayed union of fractures, and spinal fusions. Gene-transfer technologies have the potential to aid healing by permitting the local delivery and sustained expression of osteogenic gene products within osseous lesions. Key questions for such an approach include the choice of transgene, vector and gene-transfer strategy. Most experimental data have been obtained using cDNAs encoding osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP-4 and BMP-7, in conjunction with both nonviral and viral vectors using in vivo and ex vivo delivery strategies. Proof of principle has been convincingly demonstrated in small-animal models. Relatively few studies have used large animals, but the results so far are encouraging. Once a reliable method has been developed, it will be necessary to perform detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies, as well as satisfy other demands of the regulatory bodies, before human clinical trials can be initiated. Such studies are very expensive and often protracted. Thus, progress in developing a clinically useful gene therapy for bone healing is determined not only by scientific considerations, but also by financial constraints and the ambient regulatory environment. PMID:20569532

  6. Modeling of anisotropic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, C.; Javierre, E.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Biological soft tissues exhibit non-linear complex properties, the quantification of which presents a challenge. Nevertheless, these properties, such as skin anisotropy, highly influence different processes that occur in soft tissues, for instance wound healing, and thus its correct identification and quantification is crucial to understand them. Experimental and computational works are required in order to find the most precise model to replicate the tissues' properties. In this work, we present a wound healing model focused on the proliferative stage that includes angiogenesis and wound contraction in three dimensions and which relies on the accurate representation of the mechanical behavior of the skin. Thus, an anisotropic hyperelastic model has been considered to analyze the effect of collagen fibers on the healing evolution of an ellipsoidal wound. The implemented model accounts for the contribution of the ground matrix and two mechanically equivalent families of fibers. Simulation results show the evolution of the cellular and chemical species in the wound and the wound volume evolution. Moreover, the local strain directions depend on the relative wound orientation with respect to the fibers.

  7. On the influence of mechanical conditions in osteochondral defect healing.

    PubMed

    Duda, Georg N; Maldonado, Zully M; Klein, Petra; Heller, Markus O W; Burns, Justin; Bail, Hermann

    2005-04-01

    Despite the introduction of new surgical techniques, the treatment of cartilage defects remains challenging. Delay or complete failure of cartilage healing is associated with problems in biological regeneration. The influence of mechanical conditions on this process, however, remains unevaluated. Osteochondral defects were generated on the left femoral condyle in 18 Yucatan minipigs. After 4, 6 and 12 weeks the defect filling, trabecular orientation and bone density were compared to the intact contralateral side. The mechanical straining during this period was then analyzed using an adaptive finite element technique. Histologically, the osteochondral defects showed bone resorption at the base and bone formation from the circumference. At 12 weeks, the macroscopically healed specimens showed fibrous cartilage formation, a minimally organized trabecular structure and increased trabecular volume fraction compared to the controls (p < 0.002). The amount of cancellous, cartilagineous, and fibrous tissue and the defect size as measured in histomorphometric analysis for the three time points (4, 6 and 12 weeks) was comparable in magnitude to that predicted by finite element analysis. The simulated osteochondral healing process was not fully capable of re-establishing a hyaline-like cartilage layer. The correlation between simulation and histology allows identification of mechanical factors that appear to have a larger impact on the healing of osteochondral defects than previously considered. PMID:15713306

  8. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  9. The Effect of Healing on the Brittle Compressive Strength of Ice that Contains Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodder, Stephen Thomas

    We report the parameters that affect the healing of Columbic (C) faulted (or analogue) S2 columnar ice and the effect that healing has on the resistance to frictional sliding. Healing is defined as the restoration of mechanical strength to an interface in ice during periods of dormancy when the driving forces for sliding along the interface falls below the level required for continuous sliding. Damaged laboratory grown polycrystalline specimens of ice, freshwater and saline, were tested under a variety of conditions (biaxial confining stresses (60kPa to 750 kPa), biaxial confinement times (3s to 18 hours), temperatures (-3°C to -30°C), three surface roughnesses) to explore the effect of these parameters on healing. The damage was imparted as a C-fault created under low confinement or as a fault made using a bandsaw cut (termed saw-cut fault) or as a smoothed bandsaw cut (termed smooth fault). Healing was quantified through the uniaxial fracture strength, as defined by the maximum force before failure divided by the area over which that force was applied. The uniaxial fracture strengths show that the degree of healing is dependent upon time, temperature, confinement, and salinity but not dependent on roughness. The greater the degree of healing, the more the ice behaves like virgin material in that the failure strength approaches that for undamaged ice and the failure plane becomes less dependent on the pre-existing fault. Biaxial confinement experiments allowed for healing to be quantified by the resistance to sliding, i.e. as a friction coefficient. These experiments illustrate that the friction coefficient is dependent on both the magnitude of the healing force and the length of time the specimen is held under biaxial confinement. We show that the underlying mechanism involved in healing is pressure sintering caused by the creep of connecting asperities.

  10. A PTH-responsive circadian clock operates in ex vivo mouse femur fracture healing site.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, Tatsuya; Okubo, Naoki; Minami, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Hosokawa, Toshihiro; Asada, Maki; Oda, Ryo; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock contains clock genes including Bmal1 and Period2, and it maintains an interval rhythm of approximately 24 hours (the circadian rhythm) in various organs including growth plate and articular cartilage. As endochondral ossification is involved not only in growth plate but also in fracture healing, we investigated the circadian clock functions in fracture sites undergoing healing. Our fracture models using external fixation involved femurs of Period2::Luciferase knock-in mice which enables the monitoring of endogenous circadian clock state via bioluminescence. Organ culture was performed by collecting femurs, and fracture sites were observed using bioluminescence imaging systems. Clear bioluminescence rhythms of 24-hour intervals were revealed in fracture healing sites. When parathyroid hormone (PTH) was administered to fractured femurs in organ culture, peak time of Period2::Luciferase activity in fracture sites and growth plates changed, indicating that PTH-responsive circadian clock functions in the mouse femur fracture healing site. While PTH is widely used in treating osteoporosis, many studies have reported that it contributes to improvement of fracture healing. Future studies of the role of this local clock in wound healing may reveal a novel function of the circadian timing mechanism in skeletal cells. PMID:26926165

  11. A PTH-responsive circadian clock operates in ex vivo mouse femur fracture healing site

    PubMed Central

    Kunimoto, Tatsuya; Okubo, Naoki; Minami, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Hosokawa, Toshihiro; Asada, Maki; Oda, Ryo; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock contains clock genes including Bmal1 and Period2, and it maintains an interval rhythm of approximately 24 hours (the circadian rhythm) in various organs including growth plate and articular cartilage. As endochondral ossification is involved not only in growth plate but also in fracture healing, we investigated the circadian clock functions in fracture sites undergoing healing. Our fracture models using external fixation involved femurs of Period2::Luciferase knock-in mice which enables the monitoring of endogenous circadian clock state via bioluminescence. Organ culture was performed by collecting femurs, and fracture sites were observed using bioluminescence imaging systems. Clear bioluminescence rhythms of 24-hour intervals were revealed in fracture healing sites. When parathyroid hormone (PTH) was administered to fractured femurs in organ culture, peak time of Period2::Luciferase activity in fracture sites and growth plates changed, indicating that PTH-responsive circadian clock functions in the mouse femur fracture healing site. While PTH is widely used in treating osteoporosis, many studies have reported that it contributes to improvement of fracture healing. Future studies of the role of this local clock in wound healing may reveal a novel function of the circadian timing mechanism in skeletal cells. PMID:26926165

  12. Self-Healing of Unentangled Polymer Networks with Reversible Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Stukalin, Evgeny B.; Cai, Li-Heng; Kumar, N. Arun; Leibler, Ludwik; Rubinstein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing polymeric materials are systems that after damage can revert to their original state with full or partial recovery of mechanical strength. Using scaling theory we study a simple model of autonomic self-healing of unentangled polymer networks. In this model one of the two end monomers of each polymer chain is fixed in space mimicking dangling chains attachment to a polymer network, while the sticky monomer at the other end of each chain can form pairwise reversible bond with the sticky end of another chain. We study the reaction kinetics of reversible bonds in this simple model and analyze the different stages in the self-repair process. The formation of bridges and the recovery of the material strength across the fractured interface during the healing period occur appreciably faster after shorter waiting time, during which the fractured surfaces are kept apart. We observe the slowest formation of bridges for self-adhesion after bringing into contact two bare surfaces with equilibrium (very low) density of open stickers in comparison with self-healing. The primary role of anomalous diffusion in material self-repair for short waiting times is established, while at long waiting times the recovery of bonds across fractured interface is due to hopping diffusion of stickers between different bonded partners. Acceleration in bridge formation for self-healing compared to self-adhesion is due to excess non-equilibrium concentration of open stickers. Full recovery of reversible bonds across fractured interface (formation of bridges) occurs after appreciably longer time than the equilibration time of the concentration of reversible bonds in the bulk. PMID:24347684

  13. Self-Healing of Polymer Networks with Reversible Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Self-healing polymeric materials are systems that after damage can revert to their original state with full or partial recovery of mechanical strength. Using scaling theory we study a simple model of autonomic self-healing of polymer networks. In this model one of the two end monomers of each polymer chain is fixed in space mimicking dangling chains attachment to a polymer network, while the sticky monomer at the other end of each chain can form pairwise reversible bond with the sticky end of another chain. We study the reaction kinetics of reversible bonds in this simple model and analyze the different stages in the self-repair process. The formation of bridges and the recovery of the material strength across the fractured interface during the healing period occur appreciably faster after shorter waiting time, during which the fractured surfaces are kept apart. We observe the slowest formation of bridges for self-adhesion after bringing into contact two bare surfaces with equilibrium (very low) density of open stickers in comparison with self-healing. The primary role of anomalous diffusion in material self-repair for short waiting times is established, while at long waiting times the recovery of bonds across fractured interface is due to hopping diffusion of stickers between different bonded partners. Acceleration in bridge formation for self-healing compared to self-adhesion is due to excess nonequilibrium concentration of open stickers. Full recovery of reversible bonds across fractured interface (formation of bridges) occurs after appreciably longer time than the equilibration time of the concentration of reversible bonds in the bulk. The model is extended to describe enhanced toughness of dual networks with both permanent and reversible cross-links. This work was done in collaboration with Drs. Ludwik Leibler, Li-Heng Cai, Evgeny B. Stukalin, N. Arun Kumar and supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Towards integration of traditional healing and western healing: Is this a remote possibility?

    PubMed Central

    Mokgobi, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of Western-trained health care personnel in state hospitals and clinics in South Africa. However, traditional healers are in abundance in both the urban and rural areas of South Africa. Some health care interest groups and individual researchers have called for integration of traditional healing and Western biomedicine in South Africa. The South African government seems to support the idea of integrating the two health care systems. The current paper offers a critical discussion of this issue. The paper discusses pertinent issues such as the demand for traditional healing, possible integration of traditional healing and Western healing as well as anticipated hindrances to integration of traditional healing and Western healing. Finally, the paper discusses dilemmas posed by non-integration of traditional healing and Western healing. In conclusion, the potential to integrate the two health care systems remains a complex possibility which might take years to achieve. PMID:26594665

  15. Microcirculation in healing and healthy Achilles tendon assessed with invasive laser doppler flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Arverud, Erica Domeij; Persson-Lindell, Olof; Sundquist, Fredrik; Labruto, Fausto; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Achilles tendon (AT) rupture exhibits a prolonged healing process with varying clinical outcome. Reduced blood flow to the AT has been considered an underlying factor to AT rupture (ATR) and impaired healing. In vivo measurements using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) may be a viable method to assess blood flow in healthy and healing AT. Methods 29 persons were included in the study; 9 being ATR patients and 20 healthy subjects without any prior symptoms from the AT. Invasive LDF was used to determine the post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the paratenon after 15 minutes of occlusion of the lower extremities. ATR patients were examined two weeks post-operatively. Results LDF-assessments demonstrated a significantly different (p < 0.001) PORH response in the healing- versus intact- and control AT. In the healing AT, a slow, flattened PORH was observed compared to a fast, high peak PORH in intact, healthy AT. Conclusion in vivo LDF appears to be a feasible method to assess alterations in blood flow in healing and intact AT. The healing ATs capability to react to an ischemic period is clearly impaired, which may be due to the trauma at injury and/or surgery or degenerative changes in the tendon. PMID:27331035

  16. Computational and Experimental Study of the Mechanics of Embryonic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Victor D.; Taber, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in the embryo show a remarkable ability to heal quickly without leaving a scar. Previous studies have found that an actomyosin ring (“purse string”) forms around the wound perimeter and contracts to close the wound over the course of several dozens of minutes. Here, we report experiments that reveal an even faster mechanism which remarkably closes wounds by more than 50% within the first 30 seconds. Circular and elliptical wounds (~100 µm in size) were made in the blastoderm of early chick embryos and allowed to heal, with wound area and shape characterized as functions of time. The closure rate displayed a biphasic behavior, with rapid constriction lasting about a minute, followed by a period of more gradual closure to complete healing. Fluorescent staining suggests that both healing phases are driven by actomyosin contraction, with relatively rapid contraction of fibers at cell borders within a relatively thick ring of tissue (several cells wide) around the wound followed by slower contraction of a thin supracellular actomyosin ring along the margin, consistent with a purse string mechanism. Finite-element modeling showed that this idea is biophysically plausible, with relatively isotropic contraction within the thick ring giving way to tangential contraction in the thin ring. In addition, consistent with experimental results, simulated elliptical wounds heal with little change in aspect ratio, and decreased membrane tension can cause these wounds to open briefly before going on to heal. These results provide new insight into the healing mechanism in embryonic epithelia. PMID:23973771

  17. Computational and experimental study of the mechanics of embryonic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Varner, Victor D; Taber, Larry A

    2013-12-01

    Wounds in the embryo show a remarkable ability to heal quickly without leaving a scar. Previous studies have found that an actomyosin ring (purse string) forms around the wound perimeter and contracts to close the wound over the course of several dozens of minutes. Here, we report experiments that reveal an even faster mechanism which remarkably closes wounds by more than 50% within the first 30s. Circular and elliptical wounds (~100μm in size) were made in the blastoderm of early chick embryos and allowed to heal, with wound area and shape characterized as functions of time. The closure rate displayed a biphasic behavior, with rapid constriction lasting about a minute, followed by a period of more gradual closure to complete healing. Fluorescent staining suggests that both healing phases are driven by actomyosin contraction, with relatively rapid contraction of fibers at cell borders within a relatively thick ring of tissue (several cells wide) around the wound followed by slower contraction of a thin supracellular actomyosin ring along the margin, consistent with a purse string mechanism. Finite-element modeling showed that this idea is biophysically plausible, with relatively isotropic contraction within the thick ring giving way to tangential contraction in the thin ring. In addition, consistent with experimental results, simulated elliptical wounds heal with little change in aspect ratio, and decreased membrane tension can cause these wounds to open briefly before going on to heal. These results provide new insight into the healing mechanism in embryonic epithelia. PMID:23973771

  18. The Role of Oxygen during Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chuanyong; Saless, Neema; Wang, Xiaodong; Sinha, Arjun; Decker, Sebastian; Kazakia, Galateia; Hou, Huagang; Williams, Benjamin; Swartz, Harold M.; Hunt, Thomas K.; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen affects the activity of multiple skeletogenic cells and is involved in many processes that are important for fracture healing. However, the role of oxygen in fracture healing has not been fully studied. Here we systematically examine the effects of oxygen tension on fracture healing and test the ability of hyperoxia to rescue healing defects in a mouse model of ischemic fracture healing. Mice with tibia fracture were housed in custom-built gas chambers and groups breathed a constant atmosphere of 13% oxygen (hypoxia), 21% oxygen (normoxia), or 50% oxygen (hyperoxia). The influx of inflammatory cells to the fracture site, stem cell differentiation, tissue vascularization, and fracture healing were analyzed. In addition, the efficacy of hyperoxia (50% breathing oxygen) as a treatment regimen for fracture nonunion was tested. Hypoxic animals had decreased tissue vascularity, decreased bone formation, and delayed callus remodeling. Hyperoxia increased tissue vascularization, altered fracture healing in un-complicated fractures, and improved bone repair in ischemia-induced delayed fracture union. However, neither hypoxia nor hyperoxia significantly altered chondrogenesis or osteogenesis during early stages of fracture healing, and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils was not affected by environmental oxygen after bone injury. In conclusion, our results indicate that environmental oxygen levels affect tissue vascularization and fracture healing, and that providing oxygen to patients with fractures accompanied by ischemia may be beneficial. PMID:23063782

  19. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  20. Self-healing fuse development.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1972-01-01

    The self-healing fuse is a very fast acting current overload protective device which opens and recloses in a few milliseconds. The fuse confines a mercury column in an insulated channel and returns the mercury to the channel after firing. Ratings 5 to 50 A at 600 peak volts are possible with a life of hundreds of cycles. Compared to conventional fuses, much less fault current energy fires the fuse by heating the mercury to boiling temperature. Next an arc discharge develops while explosive forces expel the liquid mercury from the channel. Then the high impedance arc either extinguishes immediately, or operates for a few milliseconds, until a switch opens the circuit.

  1. Scanning electron microscopic characterization of healing and normal rat ligament microstructure under slack and loaded conditions.

    PubMed

    Hurschler, Christof; Provenzano, Paolo P; Vanderby, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe and compare behavior of the collagen fiber microstructure in normal and healing ligaments, both in situ and ex vivo, in order to add insight into the structure-function relationship in normal and healing ligaments. Fifty-two ligaments from 26 male rats were investigated. Eleven animals underwent surgical transection of both medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) (22 ligaments), which were allowed to heal for a period of 2 weeks. An additional 15 animals (30 ligaments) were used as normals. Ligaments were placed into six groups: Slack (n = 6 control, n = 6 healing), Reference (n = 4 control, n = 4 healing), Loaded (n = 4 control, n = 4 healing), 15 degrees Flexion (n = 4 control, n = 4 healing), 120 degrees Flexion (n = 4 control, n = 4 healing), and Tissue Strain vs. Flexion Angle (n = 8 normals). All ligaments, except those in the Tissue Strain vs. Flexion Angle group, were prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Tissues were harvested, mounted in a load frame, and chemically fixed in one of five states: (1). slack, (2). reference (onset of loading), (3). loaded, (4). 15 degrees knee flexion, or (5). 120 degrees knee flexion. After fixation the tissues were prepared for electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs from the slack, reference, and loaded groups show fiber straightening with loading in normal ligaments as well as in both scar and "retracted" regions of healing ligaments. Collagen fibers' diameter and crimp patterns were dramatically changed in the scar region of healing ligaments: Width decreased from 19.4 +/- 1.7 microm to 6.5 +/- 2.1 microm (p <.000001), period from 51.4 +/- 15.1 microm to 11.0 +/- 2.4 microm (p <.000001), and amplitude from 9.8 +/- 0.8 microm to 3.9 +/- 0.8 microm (p <.000001). Normal ligaments fixed in situ show wavy regions at 120 degrees but less so at 15 degrees flexion. Healing ligaments fixed in situ show regions of fiber waviness in the scar region at 120 degrees and also at 15 degrees

  2. Healing through Interdependence: The Role of Connecting in First Nations Healing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Rod M.

    1997-01-01

    Utilized the Critical Incident Technique to explore the facilitation of healing for First Nations people. Results indicate that healing was facilitated through practices such as connecting to family, community, spirituality, and nature. Examines healing approaches that helped people achieve interdependence to illustrate the importance of…

  3. Integrating Counselling, Psychotherapy and Healing: An Inquiry into Counsellors and Psychotherapists Whose Work Includes Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, William

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative study of 30 counselors or psychotherapists revealed numerous themes. These major themes include the following: transition by the practitioner toward the use of healing; the taboo over talking about spiritual and healing experiences; the nature of healing as distinct from therapy; supervision difficulties; and the concept of spiritual…

  4. Joining a healing community for cancer: who and why?

    PubMed

    Sutherland, C E; Goldstein, M S

    1992-08-01

    This paper provides a description and evaluation of selected aspects of The Wellness California. Based upon participant observation, TWC's philosophy and program are described. The ways in which charismatic leadership is used to create a sense of 'healing charisma' is specified. Interviews were conducted at 3 points over a 10 month period with 65 individuals who initiated contact with TWC. Thirty-seven eventually became participants at TWC, while the 28 who did not were used as a comparison group. Participants were healthier, more oriented toward self-care and less satisfied with their existing social support networks. The findings indicate the role, and limitations, of healing communities for people with chronic physical illness. PMID:1519085

  5. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Gaurav, K; Goel, Shalini; Khanna, H D; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters. PMID:19317349

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Vishwanath, Guruswamy

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the use of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. Today several approved applications and indications exist for HBOT. HBOT has been successfully used as adjunctive therapy for wound healing. Non-healing wounds such as diabetic and vascular insufficiency ulcers have been one major area of study for hyperbaric physicians where use of HBOT as an adjunct has been approved for use by way of various studies and trials. HBOT is also indicated for infected wounds like clostridial myonecrosis, necrotising soft tissue infections, Fournier's gangrene, as also for traumatic wounds, crush injury, compartment syndrome, compromised skin grafts and flaps and thermal burns. Another major area of application of HBOT is radiation-induced wounds, specifically osteoradionecrosis of mandible, radiation cystitis and radiation proctitis. With the increase in availability of chambers across the country, and with increasing number of studies proving the benefits of adjunctive use for various kinds of wounds and other indications, HBOT should be considered in these situations as an essential part of the overall management strategy for the treating surgeon. PMID:23162231

  7. Bioinspired Self-Healing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksay, Ilhan

    2005-03-01

    Synthetic materials are designed to satisfy only one or two functions, but biologically produced ones are multifunctional and have properties (e.g., self-replicating, self-healing) that have yet to be introduced into man-made materials. The objective of this lecture will be to provide an understanding of the important processes for controlling materials properties through nano- and microstructural design and processing with the goal of attaining multifunctionality. A case study will be on the possibility of producing structural materials with self-healing characteristics. In an effort to mimic self-repair functions of living systems, we have been working with self-assembling complex fluids that respond to fields generated by the defects and deposit materials at the site of the defect. Presently, the techniques are limited to certain materials systems as coatings or thin films. We partially mimic the process of blood clotting as a process of colloidal aggregation at a defect site. We show that under the influence of an electrical field, colloidal particles detect a defect and aggregate at the defect site to form a protective layer. The basis of this process is the electrohdrodynamic flow generated by the inhomogeneities. We then make this a permanent protective layer through the electrodeposition of a metal binder in the interstitials of the colloidal aggregate.

  8. Tomographic Errors From Wavefront Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, A. E.; Trampert, J.

    2008-12-01

    Despite recent advances in full-waveform modeling ray theory is still, for good reasons, the preferred method in global tomography. It is well known that ray theory is most accurate for anomalies that are large compared to the wavelength. Exactly what errors result from the failure of this assumption is less well understood, in spite of the fact that anomalies found in the Earth from ray-based tomography methods are often outside the regime in which ray theory is known to be valid. Using the spectral element method, we have computed exact delay times and compared them to ray-theoretical traveltimes for two classic anomalies, one large and disk-shaped near the core mantle boundary, and the other a plume-like structure extending throughout the mantle. Wavefront healing is apparent in the traveltime anomalies generated by these structures; its effects are strongly asymmetric between P and S arrivals due to wavelength differences and source directionality. Simple computations in two dimensions allow us to develop the intuition necessary to understand how diffractions around the anomalies explain these results. When inverting the exact travel time anomalies with ray theory we expect wavefront healing to have a strong influence on the resulting structures. We anticipate that the asymmetry will be of particular importance in anomalies in the bulk velocity structure.

  9. Self-Healing Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournilhac, Francois

    2012-02-01

    Supramolecular chemistry teaches us to control non-covalent interactions between organic molecules, particularly through the use of optimized building blocks able to establish several hydrogen bonds in parallel. This discipline has emerged as a powerful tool in the design of new materials through the concept of supramolecular polymers. One of the fascinating aspects of such materials is the possibility of controlling the structure, adding functionalities, adjusting the macroscopic properties of and taking profit of the non-trivial dynamics associated to the reversibility of H-bond links. Applications of these compounds may include adhesives, coatings, rheology additives, high performance materials, etc. However, the synthesis of such polymers at the industrial scale still remains a challenge. Our first ambition is to design supramolecular polymers with original properties, the second ambition is to devise simple and environmentally friendly methods for their industrial production. In our endeavours to create novel supramolecular networks with rubbery elasticity, self-healing ability and as little as possible creep, the strategy to prolongate the relaxation time and in the same time, keep the system flexible was to synthesize rather than a single molecule, an assembly of randomly branched H-bonding oligomers. We propose a strategy to obtain through a facile one-pot synthesis a large variety of supramolecular materials that can behave as differently as associating low-viscosity liquids, semi-crystalline or amorphous thermoplastics, viscoelastic melts or self-healing rubbers.

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Vishwanath, Guruswamy

    2012-05-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the use of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. Today several approved applications and indications exist for HBOT. HBOT has been successfully used as adjunctive therapy for wound healing. Non-healing wounds such as diabetic and vascular insufficiency ulcers have been one major area of study for hyperbaric physicians where use of HBOT as an adjunct has been approved for use by way of various studies and trials. HBOT is also indicated for infected wounds like clostridial myonecrosis, necrotising soft tissue infections, Fournier's gangrene, as also for traumatic wounds, crush injury, compartment syndrome, compromised skin grafts and flaps and thermal burns. Another major area of application of HBOT is radiation-induced wounds, specifically osteoradionecrosis of mandible, radiation cystitis and radiation proctitis. With the increase in availability of chambers across the country, and with increasing number of studies proving the benefits of adjunctive use for various kinds of wounds and other indications, HBOT should be considered in these situations as an essential part of the overall management strategy for the treating surgeon. PMID:23162231

  11. Study on the changes of metal elemental contents in whole blood and bone during fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Sha; Guodong, Liu; Wenzheng, Lan; Pingsheng, Liu; Peiqun, Zhang; Han, Lin; Xiaoheng, Wen

    1996-04-01

    The radii of 72 rabbits were fractured by operation and the contents of elements P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in whole blood of the rabbits during fracture healing were determined by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The contents of Ca and Fe in whole blood were almost kept constant and the contents of other elements varied significantly during fracture healing. The contents of elements K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in bone for 48 rabbits fractured in radius of limb during healing were also analyzed by PIXE. Various absorbers were tested to improve the PIXE spectra of bone samples and the spectra with much better quality were obtained using some kinds of combined absorbers. The changes of the contents of elements Sr and Fe in bone were shown as a concave shape and convex one respectively, during healing period.

  12. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas; Rømer, John; Lund, Leif R

    2010-08-01

    During healing of incisional skin wounds, migrating keratinocytes dissect their way under the crust to re-epithelialize the wounded area. The efficiency of this tissue remodelling process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Treatment with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, galardin, delays wound healing in wildtype mice and completely arrest wound healing in plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice, indicating a functional overlap between plasmin- and galardin-sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing was not significantly different between Plg-deficient and MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice. These results show that MMP2 activity is not essential for wound healing and indicate that lack of MMP2 only marginally potentiates the effect of Plg deficiency. PMID:20163454

  13. Neurolaena lobata L. promotes wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramlogan, Surrin; Chalapathi Rao, AV; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The leaves of the Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae) plant are used to control diabetes and heal wounds and infections. Aim: The ethanolic extract of N. lobata leaf was evaluated for its ability to heal inflicted wounds in rats using the excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six each. Test group animals were treated topically with an ethanolic extract of N. lobata (1:1 with petroleum jelly, 100 mg/kg/day). Standard and control group animals were treated with mupirocin and petroleum jelly, respectively. Treatment was given for 13 days and the wound area was measured on alternate days. Parameters of healing assessed were the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization and hydroxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavanoids. Extract-treated animals exhibited 87% reduction in the wound area over 13 days when compared with the control (78%) and standard (83%) groups (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the epithelialization period was noticed with the extract-treated test group animals compared with the controls and the standard group animals (P < 0.008). The hydroxyproline content of the extract-treated animals was higher (230.5 ± 42.1) when evaluated against the control and (79.0 ± 32.2) and the standard (115.0 ± 44.5) groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increase in the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content with decrease in epithelialization time in extract-treated animals support further evaluation of N. lobata as a pharmacotherapy for wound healing. PMID:25143886

  14. "Healing is a Done Deal": Temporality and Metabolic Healing Among Evangelical Christians in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in independent Samoa, in this article, I analyze the temporal dimensions of evangelical Christian healing of metabolic disorders. I explore how those suffering with metabolic disorders draw from multiple time-based notions of healing, drawing attention to the limits of biomedicine in contrast with the effectiveness of Divine healing. By simultaneously engaging evangelical and biomedical temporalities, I argue that evangelical Christians create wellness despite sickness and, in turn, re-signify chronic suffering as a long-term process of Christian healing. Positioning biomedical temporality and evangelical temporality as parallel yet distinctive ways of practicing healing, therefore, influences health care choices. PMID:26436693

  15. Effect of Scapular Dyskinesis on Supraspinatus Repair Healing in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Liu, Stephen S.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Caro, Adam C.; Yannascoli, Sarah M.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that often require surgical repair to improve function and relieve pain. Unfortunately, repair failure remains a common problem following rotator cuff repair surgery. Several factors may contribute to repair failure including age, tear size, and time from injury. However, the mechanical mechanisms resulting in repair failure are not well understood making clinical management difficult. Specifically, altered scapular motion (termed scapular dyskinesis) may be one important and modifiable factor contributing to the risk of repair failure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of scapular dyskinesis on supraspinatus tendon healing following repair. Methods A rat model of scapular dyskinesis was used. 70 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 grams) were randomized into two groups: nerve transection of the accessory and long-thoracic nerves (SD) or sham nerve transection (Sham Control). Following this procedure, all rats underwent unilateral detachment and repair of the supraspinatus tendon. All rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional) were evaluated. Results Scapular dyskinesis alters joint function and may lead to compromised supraspinatus tendon properties. Specifically, diminished mechanical properties, altered histology, and decreased tendon organization was observed for some parameters. Conclusion This study identifies scapular dyskinesis as one underlying mechanism leading to compromise of supraspinatus healing following repair. Identifying modifiable factors that lead to compromised tendon healing will help improve clinical outcomes following repair. Level of evidence Basic Science, in-vivo Animal Study. PMID:25745826

  16. Sustained Release of Amnion-Derived Cellular Cytokine Solution Facilitates Achilles Tendon Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Philip, Justin; Kamel, Rami A.; Canseco, Jose A.; Hackl, Florian; Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Kim, Mi J.; Wilkie, Ryan; Caterson, Edward J.; Junker, Johan P. E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the United States, around 50% of all musculoskeletal injuries are soft tissue injuries including ligaments and tendons. The objective of this study is to assess the role of amnion-derived cellular cytokine solution (ACCS) in carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) gel in the healing of Achilles tendon in a rat model, and to examine its effects on mechanical properties and collagen content. Methods: Achilles tendons of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed and transected. The distal and proximal ends were injected with either saline or ACCS in CMC, in a standardized fashion, and then sutured using a Kessler technique. Tendons from both groups were collected at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively and assessed for material properties. Collagen studies were performed, including collagen content, collagen cross-linking, tendon hydration, and immunohistochemistry. Tendons were also evaluated histologically for cross-sectional area. Results: Mechanical testing demonstrated that treatment with ACCS in CMC significantly enhances breaking strength, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus in the tendon repair at early time points. In context, collagen content, as well as collagen cross-linking, was also significantly affected by the treatment. Conclusion: The application of ACCS in CMC has a positive effect on healing tendons by improving mechanical properties at early time points. Previous studies on onetime application of ACCS (not in CMC) did not show significant improvement on tendon healing at any time point. Therefore, the delivery in a slow release media like CMC seems to be essential for the effects of ACCS demonstrated in this study. PMID:25210571

  17. Systemic depletion of macrophages in the subacute phase of wound healing reduces hypertrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhensen; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Iwashina, Takashi; Tredget, Edward E

    2016-07-01

    Hypertrophic scars are caused by trauma or burn injuries to the deep dermis and can cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychological issues. Studies suggest that M2-like macrophages are pro-fibrotic and contribute to hypertrophic scar formation. A previous study from our lab showed that M2 macrophages were present in developing hypertrophic scar tissues in vivo at 3-4 weeks after wounding. In this study, the effect of systemic macrophage depletion on scar formation was explored at subacute phase of wound healing. Thirty-six athymic nude mice that received human skin transplants were randomly divided into macrophage depletion group and control group. The former received intraperitoneal injections of clodronate liposomes while the controls received sterile saline injections on day 7, 10, and 13 postgrafting. Wound area, scar thickness, collagen abundance and collagen bundle structure, mast cell infiltration, myofibroblast formation, M1, and M2 macrophages together with gene expression of M1 and M2 related factors in the grafted skin were investigated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postgrafting. The transplanted human skin from the control group developed contracted, elevated, and thickened scars while the grafted skin from the depletion group healed with significant less contraction and elevation. Significant reductions in myofibroblast number, collagen synthesis, and hypertrophic fiber morphology as well as mast cell infiltration were observed in the depletion group compared to the control group. Macrophage depletion significantly reduced M1 and M2 macrophage number in the depletion group 2 weeks postgrafting as compared to the control group. These findings suggest that systemic macrophage depletion in subacute phase of wound healing reduces scar formation, which provides evidence for the pro-fibrotic role of macrophages in fibrosis of human skin as well as insight into the potential benefits of specifically depleting M2 macrophages in vivo. PMID:27169512

  18. Holistic nurses' stories of personal healing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marlaine C; Zahourek, Rothlyn; Hines, Mary Enzman; Engebretson, Joan; Wardell, Diane Wind

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the nature, experiences, and meaning of personal healing for holistic nurses through their narrative accounts. The study employed a qualitative descriptive design with methods of narrative and story inquiry. Participants were nurse attendees at an American Holistic Nurses' Association conference who volunteered for the study. They were invited to share a story about healing self or another. Twenty-five stories were collected; seven were about personal healing, and these are the focus of this analysis. Data were analyzed using a hybrid approach from narrative and story inquiry methods. Eleven themes were clustered under three story segments. The themes within the Call to the Healing Encounter are the following: recognition of the need to resolve a personal or health crisis, knowledge of or engagement in self-care practices, and reliance on intuitive knowing. Themes under the Experience of Healing are the following: connections; profound sensations, perceptions, and events; awareness of the reciprocal nature of healing; inner resolution: forgiveness, awakening, and acceptance; use of multiple holistic approaches; and witnessing manifestations of healing. The themes for Insights are the following: gratitude and appreciation and ongoing journey. A metastory synthesizing the themes is presented, and findings are related to existing literature on healing. PMID:23463813

  19. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  20. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  1. The Meaning Of Healing: Transcending Suffering

    PubMed Central

    Egnew, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Medicine is traditionally considered a healing profession, but it has neither an operational definition of healing nor an explanation of its mechanisms beyond the physiological processes related to curing. The objective of this study was to determine a definition of healing that operationalizes its mechanisms and thereby identifies those repeatable actions that reliably assist physicians to promote holistic healing. METHODS This study was a qualitative inquiry consisting of in-depth, open-ended, semistructured interviews with Drs. Eric J. Cassell, Carl A. Hammerschlag, Thomas S. Inui, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, Cicely Saunders, Bernard S. Siegel, and G. Gayle Stephens. Their perceptions regarding the definition and mechanisms of healing were subjected to grounded theory content analysis. RESULTS Healing was associated with themes of wholeness, narrative, and spirituality. Healing is an intensely personal, subjective experience involving a reconciliation of the meaning an individual ascribes to distressing events with his or her perception of wholeness as a person. CONCLUSIONS Healing may be operationally defined as the personal experience of the transcendence of suffering. Physicians can enhance their abilities as healers by recognizing, diagnosing, minimizing, and relieving suffering, as well as helping patients transcend suffering. PMID:15928230

  2. Engineered Biopolymeric Scaffolds for Chronic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Laura E.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Skin regeneration requires the coordinated integration of concomitant biological and molecular events in the extracellular wound environment during overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and matrix remodeling. This process is highly efficient during normal wound healing. However, chronic wounds fail to progress through the ordered and reparative wound healing process and are unable to heal, requiring long-term treatment at high costs. There are many advanced skin substitutes, which mostly comprise bioactive dressings containing mammalian derived matrix components, and/or human cells, in clinical use. However, it is presently hypothesized that no treatment significantly outperforms the others. To address this unmet challenge, recent research has focused on developing innovative acellular biopolymeric scaffolds as more efficacious wound healing therapies. These biomaterial-based skin substitutes are precisely engineered and fine-tuned to recapitulate aspects of the wound healing milieu and target specific events in the wound healing cascade to facilitate complete skin repair with restored function and tissue integrity. This mini-review will provide a brief overview of chronic wound healing and current skin substitute treatment strategies while focusing on recent engineering approaches that regenerate skin using synthetic, biopolymeric scaffolds. We discuss key polymeric scaffold design criteria, including degradation, biocompatibility, and microstructure, and how they translate to inductive microenvironments that stimulate cell infiltration and vascularization to enhance chronic wound healing. As healthcare moves toward precision medicine-based strategies, the potential and therapeutic implications of synthetic, biopolymeric scaffolds as tunable treatment modalities for chronic wounds will be considered. PMID:27547189

  3. Wound Healing in PatientsWith Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Wyatt G.; Naidu, Deepak K.; Wheeler, Chad K.; Barkoe, David; Mentis, Marni; Salas, R. Emerick; Smith, David J.; Robson, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of patients with cancer has advanced into a complex, multimodal approach incorporating surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Managing wounds in this population is complicated by tumor biology, the patient's disease state, and additional comorbidities, some of which may be iatrogenic. Radiation therapy, frequently employed for local-regional control of disease following surgical resection, has quantifiable negative healing effects due to local tissue fibrosis and vascular effects. Chemotherapeutic agents, either administered alone or as combination therapy with surgery and radiation, may have detrimental effects on the rapidly dividing tissues of healing wounds. Overall nutritional status, often diminished in patients with cancer, is an important aspect to the ability of patients to heal after surgical procedures and/or treatment regimens. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to gather pertinent information on the topic of wound healing in patients with cancer. The effects that surgical procedures, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and nutritional deficits play in wound healing in these patients were reviewed and collated. Results: The current knowledge and treatment of these aspects of wound healing in cancer patients are discussed, and observations and recommendations for optimal wound healing results are considered. Conclusion: Although wound healing may proceed in a relatively unimpeded manner for many patients with cancer, there is a potential for wound failure due to the nature and effects of the oncologic disease process and its treatments. PMID:18264518

  4. Advocacy and Indigenous Methods of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    Most counselors have had very little experience with indigenous methods of healing. Indigenous healing can be defined as helping beliefs and practices that originate over extended time within a culture that are not transported from other regions, and that are designed for treating the inhabitants of a given group. Most counselors would find great…

  5. Effects of Platelet-Poor Plasma, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Healing of Extraction Sockets with Buccal Dehiscence in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3 mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence. PMID:24098948

  6. Effect of using miscible and immiscible healing agent on solid state self-healing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makenan, Siti Mastura; Jamil, Mohd Suzeren Md.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using various healing agent which are miscible; poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), and immiscible; poly(ethylene-co-acetate) and poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid), on self-healing resin system. The specimens were analysed by Fourier-transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), and izod test. Optical image of the sample morphology was observed using optical microscope. Healing efficiencies (HE) were evaluated using izod test. The concept of healing recovery was proved based on the use of miscible and immiscible healing agent. From the results, it can be concluded that the healable resin with miscible healing agent has the highest HE within the third healing cycle.

  7. Photobiomodulation in promoting wound healing: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuffler, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Despite diverse methods being applied to induce wound healing, many wounds remain recalcitrant to all treatments. Photobiomodulation involves inducing wound healing by illuminating wounds with light emitting diodes or lasers. While used on different animal models, in vitro, and clinically, wound healing is induced by many different wavelengths and powers with no optimal set of parameters yet being identified. While data suggest that simultaneous multiple wavelength illumination is more efficacious than single wavelengths, the optimal single and multiple wavelengths must be better defined to induce more reliable and extensive healing of different wound types. This review focuses on studies in which specific wavelengths induce wound healing and on their mechanisms of action. PMID:26681143

  8. Self Healing Composite for Aircraft's Structural Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, S. H.; Chia, H. Y.; Lee, M. S.; Nasyitah, A. J. N.; Luqman, H. B. S. M.; Nurhidayah, S.; Tan, Willy. C. K.

    When one cuts himself, it is amazing to watch how quickly the body acts to mend the wound. Immediately, the body works to pull the skin around the cut back together. The concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents serves as the biomimetic inspiration of synthetic self repair systems. Such synthetic self repair systems are based on advancement in polymeric materials; the process of human thrombosis is the inspiration for the application of self healing fibres within the composite materials. Results based on flexural 3 point bend test on the prepared samples have shown that the doubled layer healed hollow fibre laminate subjected to a healing regime of 3 weeks has a healed strength increase of 27% compared to the damaged baseline laminate. These results gave us confidence that there is a great potential to adopt such self healing mechanism on actual composite parts like in aircraft's composite structures.

  9. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing.

    PubMed

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2016-10-01

    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs. PMID:26391242

  10. Gene Therapy and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Eming, Sabine A.; Krieg, Thomas; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    Wound repair involves the sequential interaction of various cell types, extracellular matrix molecules, and soluble mediators. During the past 10 years, much new information on signals controlling wound cell behavior has emerged. This knowledge has led to a number of novel_therapeutic strategies. In particular, the local delivery of pluripotent growth factor molecules to the injured tissue has been intensively investigated over the past decade. Limited success of clinical trails indicates that a crucial aspect of the growth factor wound-healing strategy is the effective delivery of these polypeptides to the wound site. A molecular approach in which genetically modified cells synthesize and deliver the desired growth factor in regulated fashion has been used to overcome the limitations associated with the (topical) application of recombinant growth factor proteins. We have summarized the molecular and cellular basis of repair mechanisms and their failure, and we give an overview of techniques and studies applied to gene transfer in tissue repair. PMID:17276205

  11. The Effects of Targeted Deliveries of Lovastatin and Tocotrienol on Ossification-Related Gene Expressions in Fracture Healing in an Osteoporosis Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nurul 'Izzah; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporotic drugs are used to prevent fragility fractures, but their role in fracture healing still remains unknown. Thus, alternative agents with suitable mode of delivery are needed to promote fracture healing. This study was performed to investigate the effects of direct deliveries of lovastatin and tocotrienol to fracture sites on ossification-related gene expression in fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into six groups. Group I comprised the sham-operated rats, while Groups II-VI were ovariectomized rats. After 8 weeks, the right tibiae of all rats were fractured and stabilized. Group I and Group II were given two single injections of lovastatin and tocotrienol carriers. Group III was given an estrogen preparation at 64.5 µg/kg daily via oral gavages. Group IV was injected with lovastatin particles (750 µg/kg), while Group V was injected with tocotrienol particles (60 mg/kg). Group VI received two single injections of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles and 60 mg/kg tocotrienol particles. After 4 weeks, the gene expressions were measured. Group VI showed significantly higher gene expressions of osteocalcin, BMP-2, VEGF-α, and RUNX-2 compared to Group II. In conclusion, combined treatment of lovastatin and tocotrienol upregulated the expression of genes related to fracture healing. PMID:26501302

  12. The Effects of Targeted Deliveries of Lovastatin and Tocotrienol on Ossification-Related Gene Expressions in Fracture Healing in an Osteoporosis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nurul ‘Izzah; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporotic drugs are used to prevent fragility fractures, but their role in fracture healing still remains unknown. Thus, alternative agents with suitable mode of delivery are needed to promote fracture healing. This study was performed to investigate the effects of direct deliveries of lovastatin and tocotrienol to fracture sites on ossification-related gene expression in fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into six groups. Group I comprised the sham-operated rats, while Groups II–VI were ovariectomized rats. After 8 weeks, the right tibiae of all rats were fractured and stabilized. Group I and Group II were given two single injections of lovastatin and tocotrienol carriers. Group III was given an estrogen preparation at 64.5 µg/kg daily via oral gavages. Group IV was injected with lovastatin particles (750 µg/kg), while Group V was injected with tocotrienol particles (60 mg/kg). Group VI received two single injections of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles and 60 mg/kg tocotrienol particles. After 4 weeks, the gene expressions were measured. Group VI showed significantly higher gene expressions of osteocalcin, BMP-2, VEGF-α, and RUNX-2 compared to Group II. In conclusion, combined treatment of lovastatin and tocotrienol upregulated the expression of genes related to fracture healing. PMID:26501302

  13. Ultrasound propagation velocity and broadband attenuation can help evaluate the healing process of an experimental fracture.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Giuliano; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Mazzer, Nilton; Pelá, Carlos Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasonometry seems to have a future for the evaluation of fracture healing. Ultrasound propagation velocity (USPV) significantly decreases at the same time that bone diameter decreases as healing takes place, thus approaching normal values. In this investigation, both USPV and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were measured using a model of a transverse mid-diaphyseal osteotomy of sheep tibiae. Twenty-one sheep were operated and divided into three groups of seven, according to the follow-up period of 30, 60, and 90 days, respectively. The progress of healing of the osteotomy was checked with monthly conventional radiographs. The animals were killed at the end of the period of observation of each group, both operated-upon and intact tibiae being resected and submitted to the measurement of underwater transverse and direct contact transverse and longitudinal USPV and BUA at the osteotomy site. The intact left tibia of the 21 animals was used for control, being examined on a symmetrical diaphyseal segment. USPV increased while BUA decreased with the progression of healing, with significant differences between the operated and untouched tibiae and between the periods of observation, for most of the comparisons. There was a strong negative correlation between USPV and BUA. Both USPV and BUA directly reflect and can help predict the healing of fractures, but USPV alone can be used as a fundamental parameter. Ultrasonometry may be of use in clinical application to humans provided adequate adaptations can be developed. PMID:20882591

  14. A physiologically active polysaccharide hydrogel promotes wound healing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Diao, Huajia; Xia, Suhua; Dong, Lei; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-07-01

    When the skin is injured, the subcutaneous tissues and organs are threatened by pathogens and excessive water loss. Wound dressings are, therefore, needed to protect the wound site from infection and improve the wound closure. Natural polysaccharides have been applied for various biomaterials including wound dressings, which show their advantages in biocompatibility, low toxicity, and pharmaceutical biomedical activity. In this study, a natural polysaccharide Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) hydrogel is prepared by an oxidation and crosslinking methods. This BSP hydrogel represents preferable swelling ability and appropriate water vapor transmission rate. Using a full-thickness trauma mouse model, the hydrogel is applied on the in vivo cutaneous wound healing. Compared with the control groups, the BSP hydrogel achieves the much better healing results. The quantification of the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BSP group are attenuated, whereas the secretion of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is highly elevated. On the 11th day after surgery, the wound area in the BSP hydrogel group is only 1/5-1/3 of those in the control groups. This new BSP hydrogel is proved to control the inflammatory responses and accelerate the wound closure and has potential application in wound healing. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010. PMID:20128009

  15. Laser therapy in wound healing associated with diabetes mellitus - Review*

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Raquel Gomes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of a literature review on the application of low intensity laser therapy on the healing of wounds associated diabetes mellitus in the last 10 years. Objective To determine the most effective parameter in healing wounds related to diabetes mellitus, as well as the most widely used type of laser. Methodology consisted of bibliographic searching the databases Bireme, SciELO, PubMed/Medline and Lilacs by using the keywords related to the topic. Were selected from these keywords, papers discussing the use of laser on wounds associated with diabetes, published in the period 2005-2014, in Portuguese or English. Results After analyzing the research, 12 studies consistent with the theme were selected. Conclusion Based on this review, the studies that showed more satisfactory results in healing diabetic wounds were those who applied energy densities in the range of 3-5 J/cm2, power densities equal to or below 0.2 W/cm2 and continuous emission. The He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm was used more often. PMID:27579745

  16. Antitumor and Wound Healing Properties of Rubus ellipticus Smith.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj; Kumar, Yamini T; Sajeesh, Thankarajan

    2015-06-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to study the antioxidant, antitumor, and wound healing properties of Rubus ellipticus. The R. ellipticus leaves were extracted using organic solvents in Soxhlet and were subjected to in vitro antioxidant assays. R. ellipticus leaf methanol (RELM) extract, which showed higher in vitro antioxidant activity, was taken for the evaluation of in vivo antioxidant, antitumor, and wound healing properties. Acute oral and dermal toxicity studies showed the safety of RELM up to a dose of 2 g/kg. A significant wound healing property was observed in incision, excision, and Staphylococcus aureus-induced infected wound models in the treatment groups compared to the control group. A complete epithelialization period was noticed during the 13(th) day and the 19(th) day. A 250-mg/kg treatment was found to prolong the life span of mice with Ehrlich ascite carcinoma (EAC; 46.76%) and to reduce the volume of Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) solid tumors (2.56 cm(3)). The present study suggests that R. ellipticus is a valuable natural antioxidant and that it is immensely effective for treating skin diseases, wounds, and tumors. PMID:26100067

  17. Johan Turi’s animal, mineral, vegetable cures and healing practices: an in-depth analysis of Sami (Saami) folk healing one hundred years ago

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The healing knowledge of a Sami (Saami) hunter and reindeer herder was surveyed as a window into the concepts of health, healing, and disease in early twentieth-century Sapmi (Northern Sweden). The two books of Johan Turi (1854–1936)—An Account of the Sami (1910) and Lappish Texts (1918–19) were examined to determine the varieties of recorded zootherapeutic, mineral, chemical, and ethnobotanical lore, as well as the therapeutic acts, identified conditions, and veterinary knowledge included. Methods Tabulation of the materials and species mentioned in Turi’s descriptions (n = 137) permitted analysis of the relative frequency of differing types of healing in Turi’s overall therapeutic repertoire, his relative attention to chronic vs. acute ailments, and the frequency of magic as a component of healing. A qualitative appraisal was made of the degree to which outside influences affected Sami healing of the period. A further assessment of the possible clinical efficacy of the recorded remedies was undertaken. Results Turi’s remedies consist most often of zootherapeutics (31%), followed by physical acts such as massage, moxibustion, or manipulation (22%). Ethnobotanical cures make up a significantly smaller portion of his repertoire (17%), followed by mineral and chemical cures (12%). Magic rituals (including incantations and ritual acts) make up a significant portion of Turi’s repertoire, and could be used alone (17%) or in conjunction with other types of healing (38%). Turi’s healing aimed primarily at acute ailments (65%), with chronic conditions addressed less often (35%). A literature review revealed that Turi’s remedies held a marked frequency of likely efficacy, at least in cases in which it was possible to ascertain the precise species, conditions, or substances described. Although it is possible at times to recognize foreign sources in Turi’s repertoire, it is clear that Turi understood all his healing methods as distinctively

  18. Mast Cells Regulate Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Ana; Leal, Ermelindo C; Kafanas, Antonios; Auster, Michael E; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Ostrovsky, Yana; Tecilazich, Francesco; Baltzis, Dimitrios; Zheng, Yongjun; Carvalho, Eugénia; Zabolotny, Janice M; Weng, Zuyi; Petra, Anastasia; Patel, Arti; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Veves, Aristidis

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes that lacks effective treatment. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to wound healing, but their role in diabetes skin complications is poorly understood. Here we show that the number of degranulated MCs is increased in unwounded forearm and foot skin of patients with diabetes and in unwounded dorsal skin of diabetic mice (P < 0.05). Conversely, postwounding MC degranulation increases in nondiabetic mice, but not in diabetic mice. Pretreatment with the MC degranulation inhibitor disodium cromoglycate rescues diabetes-associated wound-healing impairment in mice and shifts macrophages to the regenerative M2 phenotype (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, nondiabetic and diabetic mice deficient in MCs have delayed wound healing compared with their wild-type (WT) controls, implying that some MC mediator is needed for proper healing. MCs are a major source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse skin, but the level of VEGF is reduced in diabetic mouse skin, and its release from human MCs is reduced in hyperglycemic conditions. Topical treatment with the MC trigger substance P does not affect wound healing in MC-deficient mice, but improves it in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of nondegranulated MCs in unwounded skin is required for proper wound healing, and therapies inhibiting MC degranulation could improve wound healing in diabetes. PMID:27207516

  19. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A

    2016-01-01

    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing. PMID:26762498

  20. Effect of Teriparatide on Healing of Atypical Femoral Fractures: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used anti-osteoporotic drugs, which have been proven to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, use of BPs, particularly for long periods of time, is associated with an increased risk of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). Healing of BP-associated AFF is usually delayed because of suppressed bone turnover. Teriparatide (TPTD), a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), enhances bone healing in patients with delayed healing or non-union. Methods In this study, we summarized and performed a systemic review of the published literature on treatment of AFF using TPTD. Results Although there is a lack of level 1 studies on the evidence of TPTD in promoting bone union in AFFs, this systemic review of the available literature revealed that TPTD works positively in AFFs, and we put together the evidence that TPTD is a viable treatment option for enhancing fracture healing in AFFs. Conclusions While anecdotal evidence of beneficial effects of TPTD on fracture healing offer limited guidance for clinical decision making, a better understanding of the role of TPTD in fracture healing may be elucidated with future prospective trials. PMID:26713309

  1. Delayed Corneal Epithelial Healing after Intravitreal Bevacizumab: A Clinical and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Colombres, Gustavo A; Gramajo, Ana L; Arrambide, Maria P; Juarez, Silvina M; Arevalo, J Fernando; Bar, Jorge; Juarez, Claudio P; Luna, Jose D

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report corneal epithelial defects (CEDs) and delayed epithelial healing after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection and to describe delayed corneal epithelial healing with topical administration of bevacizumab in an experimental rabbit model. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on 850 eyes of 850 patients with neovascular eye disease and diabetic macular edema who had received 1.25 to 2.5 mg IVB. In the experimental arm of the study, photorefractive keratectomy was used to create a 3 mm CED in the right eyes of 18 New Zealand rabbits which were then randomized to three equal groups. All rabbits received topical antibiotics, additionally those in group A received topical bevacizumab and animals in group B were treated with topical corticosteroids. The rate of epithelial healing was assessed at different time points using slitlamp photography. Results In the clinical study, seven eyes of seven subjects developed CEDs the day after IVB injection. All of these eyes had preexisting corneal edema. The healing period ranged from 3 to 38 days (average 11 days) despite appropriate medical management. In the experimental study, topical bevacizumab and corticosteroids both significantly hindered corneal epithelial healing at 12 and 24 hours. Conclusion Bevacizumab was demonstrated to cause CEDs in clinical settings. Moreover, corneal epithelial healing was delayed by topical application of bevacizumab, in the experimental model. These short-term results suggest that corneal edema may be considered as a risk factor for epithelial defects after IVB. PMID:22454702

  2. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the spirit and mind in health and well-being among Chumash people. Prayer was the first step in healing since prayer invites the participation of God. Initiation practices are discussed that encouraged young people to develop the maturity and spiritual strength to become productive members of society. Pictographs were used in healing usually not only as a relaxation therapy, but also as a mode of education. A supportive environment was an important factor in Chumash health care, since the support of friends helps, comforts and relieves anxiety that is detrimental to healing. PMID:16322802

  3. Impression Testing of Self-Healing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Huber, Amy

    2005-01-01

    As part of the BIOSANT program (biologically-inspired smart nanotechnology), scientists at NASA-Langley have identified a "self-healing" plastic that spontaneously closes the hole left by the passage of a bullet. To understand and generalize the phenomenon in question, the mechanical properties responsible for this ability are being explored. Low-rate impression testing was chosen to characterize post-yield material properties, and it turned out that materials that heal following ballistic puncture also show up to 80% healing of the low-rate impression. Preliminary results on the effects of temperature and rate of puncture are presented.

  4. Potential benefits of pentoxifylline on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Motahareh; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this review, potential benefits of pentoxifylline (PTX) on wound healing have been evaluated. All available experimental and clinical studies examined effects of PTX on wound healing have been included. No time limitation was considered and all studies up to writing the manuscript were included. Administration of oral or parenteral PTX showed beneficial effects on the healing of colorectal anastomosis, post burn scar, radiation-induced skin/soft tissue injury, venous ulcers, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Data regarding effect of PTX on skin flap survival are conflicting. Only few evidences support promising effects of PTX in pressure ulcer, skin developing injury and burn. PMID:26558813

  5. Bioelectrical impedance assessment of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, Henry C; Moore, Micheal

    2012-01-01

    Objective assessment of wound healing is fundamental to evaluate therapeutic and nutritional interventions and to identify complications. Despite availability of many techniques to monitor wounds, there is a need for a safe, practical, accurate, and effective method. A new method is localized bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that noninvasively provides information describing cellular changes that occur during healing and signal complications to wound healing. This article describes the theory and application of localized BIA and provides examples of its use among patients with lower leg wounds. This promising method may afford clinicians a novel technique for routine monitoring of interventions and surveillance of wounds. PMID:22401341

  6. Monitoring of self-healing phenomena towards enhanced sustainability of historic mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenta, M.; Karatasios, I.; Maravelaki, P.; Kilikoglou, V.

    2016-05-01

    Mortars are known for their ability to heal their defects in an autogenic way. This phenomenon is expressed by the filling of microcracks by secondary products, restoring or enhancing the material's performance. Parameterization of self-healing phenomenon could be a key factor for the enhanced sustainability of these materials in terms of reduced repair cost and consumption of natural raw materials and thus reduced environmental fingerprint. The fact that this phenomenon takes place autogenously suggests that the material can self-repair its defects, without external intervention, thus leading to a prolonged life cycle. In the present study, the autogenic self-healing phenomenon was studied in natural hydraulic lime mortars, considering aspects of curing time before initial cracking, duration and conditions of the healing period. Furthermore, strength recovery due to autogenic self-healing was measured under high humidity conditions, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTA/TG) was performed in all specimens in order to quantitatively assess the available unreacted components in the binder at all ages. Regarding the microstructure of the healing phases, the main products formed during healing consist of calcite and various C-S-H/C-A-H phases. Depending on the parameters mentioned above, there is a wide diversity in the intensity, typology and topography of the secondary phases inside the cracks. The main differences discussed were observed between specimens cracked at very early age and those damaged after 30 days of curing. Similarly, the mechanical properties of the crack-healed specimens were associated with the above findings and especially with the available each-time amount of lime, determined by thermo-gravimetric analysis.

  7. Radiation-induced alterations of fracture healing biomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Panjabi, M.M.; Kapp, D.; Doganis, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the normal temporal progression of the physical properties of healing fractures were studied in a rat model. Fractures were surgically produced in the femur, stabilized with an intramedullary pin, and irradiated. One group of rats was exposed to 2,500 rads in divided doses over 2 weeks, beginning 3 days after fracture, and compared to a control group with fractures which were not irradiated. Animals were sacrificed at periodic intervals and the bones were tested to failure in torsion. The torque, stiffness, and energy increased and the angle decreased for the nonirradiated specimens in the expected fashion. This progression was deleteriously altered in the irradiated femurs.

  8. Stereolithographic volume evaluation of healing and shaping after rhinoplasty operations.

    PubMed

    Tatlidede, Soner; Turgut, Gürsel; Gönen, Emre; Kayali, Mahmut Ulvi; Baş, Lütfü

    2009-07-01

    Nasal edema and volume changes are unavoidable processes during the healing period after rhinoplasty. Various applications were reported regarding the prevention of early edema; however, the literature shows no study focused on the course of the nasal edema and volume changes up-to-date. We aimed to study the nasal volume changes during the first year of postoperative healing period and to form a recovery and volume change diagram with the obtained data. We prepared standard frames and nasal molds of 7 rhinoplasty patients at regular time intervals (preoperative period and at the postoperative 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, and 52nd weeks). Plaster nasal models were created by using these molds. Volumes of models were measured by computed tomographic scanning and three-dimensional image processing programs. According to our results, the nasal edema reaches its maximum level at the postoperative fourth week and then rapidly decreases until its minimum level at the eighth week. In contrast with the general opinion, the nasal volume begins to increase smoothly reaching to a level minimally below the preoperative value by the end of the first year. PMID:19553854

  9. 42 CFR 60.61 - Responsibilities of a HEAL school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of a HEAL school. 60.61 Section 60... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.61 Responsibilities of a HEAL school. (a) A HEAL school is required to carry out the following activities for each HEAL applicant or borrower: (1) Conduct...

  10. 42 CFR 60.61 - Responsibilities of a HEAL school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities of a HEAL school. 60.61 Section 60... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.61 Responsibilities of a HEAL school. (a) A HEAL school is required to carry out the following activities for each HEAL applicant or borrower: (1) Conduct...

  11. Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and pluronic containing hydrogel increases cutaneous wound healing in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Cağlayan, Ahmet B; Kılıç, Ertuğrul; Günal, Mehmet Y; Uslu, Unal; Cumbul, Alev; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-12-01

    After a disruption of skin integrity, the body produces an immediate response followed by a functional and comparable regeneration period, referred to as wound healing. Although normal wounds do not need much attention during the healing period, chronic (non-healing) wounds are the major challenge of current dermatological applications. Therefore, developing new, safe, and effective wound healing drugs has always been an attractive area of international research. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (NaB), pluronics (Plu; F68 and F127), and their combinations were investigated for their wound healing activities, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The results revealed that NaB significantly increased migration capacity and superoxide dismutase activity in primary human fibroblasts. Combinations of optimized concentrations for pluronic block co-polymers further increased cell migration, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of important growth factor and cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)). NaB containing hydrogel co-formulated with pluronics was also investigated for their wound healing activities using a full thickness wound model in rats. Macroscopic and histopathological analysis confirmed that wounds in combination gel-treated groups healed faster than those of control groups. NaB/Plu gel application was found to increase wound contraction and collagen deposition in the wound area. Therefore, our results suggest that NaB, and its pluronics combination, could be used in dermatological clinics and be a future solution for chronic wounds. However, further studies should be conducted to explore its exact action of mechanism and effects of this formulation on chronic wounds. PMID:25129136

  12. Determinants of Retention in 8-Week-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Eleanor Vander; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eight-week-old infants learned to execute an operant footkick to produce crib mobile movement in one of two conditions: training duration on (1) varied within single session and (2) consistent across multiple sessions. Results, in contrast with data from 3-month-olds, demonstrated that conditions of original learning influence immediate and…

  13. Molecular Imaging of Healing After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Naresh, Nivedita K; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Leor, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The progression from acute myocardial infarction (MI) to heart failure continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Potential new therapies for improved infarct healing such as stem cells, gene therapy, and tissue engineering are being investigated. Noninvasive imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of MI and infarct healing, both clinically and in preclinical research. Traditionally, imaging has been used to assess cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and viability. However, new imaging methods can be used to assess biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. We review molecular imaging techniques for evaluating the biology of infarct healing and repair. Specifically, we cover recent advances in imaging the various phases of MI and infarct healing such as apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and scar formation. Significant progress has been made in preclinical molecular imaging, and future challenges include translation of these methods to clinical practice. PMID:21869911

  14. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  15. Current wound healing procedures and potential care

    PubMed Central

    Dreifke, Michael B.; Jayasuriya, Amil A.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we describe current and future potential wound healing treatments for acute and chronic wounds. The current wound healing approaches are based on autografts, allografts, and cultured epithelial autografts, and wound dressings based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. The Food and Drug Administration approved wound healing dressings based on several polymers including collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. The new potential therapeutic intervention for wound healing includes sustained delivery of growth factors, and siRNA delivery, targeting micro RNA, and stem cell therapy. In addition, environment sensors can also potentially utilize to monitor and manage micro environment at wound site. Sensors use optical, odor, pH, and hydration sensors to detect such characteristics as uric acid level, pH, protease level, and infection – all in the hopes of early detection of complications. PMID:25579968

  16. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

  17. Self-healing networks: redundancy and structure.

    PubMed

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. We then analyze the effect of the level of redundancy on the resilience to multiple failures; in particular, we measure the fraction of nodes still served for increasing levels of network damages. Finally, we study the effects of redundancy under different connectivity patterns-from planar grids, to small-world, up to scale-free networks-on healing performances. Small-world topologies show that introducing some long-range connections in planar grids greatly enhances the resilience to multiple failures with performances comparable to the case of the most resilient (and least realistic) scale-free structures. Obvious applications of self-healing are in the important field of infrastructural networks like gas, power, water, oil distribution systems. PMID:24533065

  18. Self healing nature of bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debroy, Sanghamitra; Pavan Kumar Miriyala, V.; Vijaya Sekhar, K.; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Acharyya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenon of self healing of cracks in bilayer graphene sheet has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The bilayer graphene sheet was subjected to uniaxial tensile load resulting in initiation and propagation of cracks on exceeding the ultimate tensile strength. Subsequently, all forces acting on the sheet were removed and sheet was relaxed. The cracks formed in the graphene sheet healed without any external aid within 0.4 ps The phenomenon of self healing of the cracks in graphene sheet was found to be independent of the length of the crack, but occurred for critical crack opening distance less than 5 Å for AA stacked sheet and 13 Å for AB stacked bilayer graphene sheet. Self healing was observed for both AB (mixed stacking of armchair and zigzag graphene sheet) and AA (both sheets of similar orientation i.e. either armchair-armchair or zigzag-zigzag) stacking of bilayer graphene sheet.

  19. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  20. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  1. Enzymetically regulating the self-healing of protein hydrogels with high healing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuzhou; Luo, Quan; Qiao, Shanpeng; Wang, Liang; Dong, Zeyuan; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu

    2014-08-25

    Enzyme-mediated self-healing of dynamic covalent bond-driven protein hydrogels was realized by the synergy of two enzymes, glucose oxidase (GOX) and catalase (CAT). The reversible covalent attachment of glutaraldehyde to lysine residues of GOX, CAT, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) led to the formation and functionalization of the self-healing protein hydrogel system. The enzyme-mediated protein hydrogels exhibit excellent self-healing properties with 100% recovery. The self-healing process was reversible and effective with an external glucose stimulus at room temperature. PMID:25044612

  2. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  3. Ultrasonic monitoring of bone fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Protopappas, Vasilios C; Vavva, Maria G; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound has attracted significant interest in the evaluation of bone fracture healing. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that the propagation velocity across fractured bones can be used as an indicator of healing. Researchers have recently employed computational methods for modeling wave propagation in bones, aiming to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of wave propagation and to further enhance the monitoring capabilities of ultrasound. In this paper, we review the relevant literature and present the current status of knowledge. PMID:18599412

  4. Systems-based approaches toward wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Buganza-Tepole, Adrian; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing in the pediatric patient is of utmost clinical and social importance, since hypertrophic scarring can have aesthetic and psychological sequelae, from early childhood to late adolescence. Wound healing is a well-orchestrated reparative response affecting the damaged tissue at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system scales. While tremendous progress has been made towards understanding wound healing at the individual temporal and spatial scales, its effects across the scales remain severely understudied and poorly understood. Here we discuss the critical need for systems-based computational modeling of wound healing across the scales, from short-term to long-term and from small to large. We illustrate the state of the art in systems modeling by means of three key signaling mechanisms: oxygen tension regulating angiogenesis and revascularization; TGF-β kinetics controlling collagen deposition; and mechanical stretch stimulating cellular mitosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. The complex network of biochemical and biomechanical signaling mechanisms and the multi-scale character of the healing process make systems modeling an integral tool in exploring personalized strategies for wound repair. A better mechanistic understanding of wound healing in the pediatric patient could open new avenues in treating children with skin disorders such as birth defects, skin cancer, wounds, and burn injuries. PMID:23314298

  5. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kobbe, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Campbell, Graeme C.; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Bergmann, Christian; Kadyrov, Mamed; Fischer, Horst; Glüer, Christian C.; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing. PMID:26106256

  6. Thrombomodulin Promotes Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Hsun; I, Ching-Chang; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Hsu, Yun-Yan; Lee, Fang-Tzu; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the role of thrombomodulin (TM) in corneal epithelial wound healing, and to investigate whether recombinant TM epidermal growth factor-like domain plus serine/threonine-rich domain (rTMD23) has therapeutic potential in corneal epithelial wound healing. Methods TM localization and expression in the murine cornea were examined by immunofluorescence staining. TM expression after injury was also studied. The effect of rTMD23 on corneal wound healing was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results TM was expressed in the cornea in normal adult mice. TM expression increased in the early phase of wound healing and decreased after wound recovery. In the in vitro study, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced TM expression in murine corneal epithelial cells by mediating E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (Ets-1) via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The administration of rTMD23 increased the rate of corneal epithelial wound healing. Conclusions TM expression in corneal epithelium was modulated during the corneal wound healing process, and may be regulated by PDGF-BB. In addition, rTMD23 has therapeutic potential in corneal injury. PMID:25816372

  7. Self-healing coatings containing microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Le-ping; Wang, Si-jie; Li, Wu-jun

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of epoxy resin filled microcapsules was investigated for healing of cracks generated in coatings. Microcapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin to form shell over epoxy resin droplets. Characteristics of these capsules were studied by 3D measuring laser microscope, particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to investigate their surface morphology, size distribution, chemical structure and thermal stability, respectively. The results indicate that microcapsules containing epoxy resins can be synthesized successfully. The size is around 100 μm. The rough outer surface of microcapsule is composed of agglomerated urea-formaldehyde nanoparticles. The size and surface morphology of microcapsule can be controlled by selecting different processing parameters. The microcapsules basically exhibit good storage stability at room temperature, and they are chemically stable before the heating temperature is up to approximately 200 °C. The model system of self-healing coating consists of epoxy resin matrix, 10 wt% microencapsulated healing agent, 2 wt% catalyst solution. The self-healing function of this coating system is evaluated through self-healing testing of damaged and healed coated steel samples.

  8. Ritual healing and mental health in India.

    PubMed

    Sax, William

    2014-12-01

    Ritual healing is very widespread in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and is by far the most common option for those with serious behavioral disturbances. Although ritual healing thus accounts for a very large part of the actual health care system, the state and its regulatory agencies have, for the most part, been structurally blind to its existence. A decade of research on in this region, along with a number of shorter research trips to healing shrines and specialists elsewhere in the subcontinent, and a thorough study of the literature, suggest that such techniques are often therapeutically effective. However, several considerations suggest that ritual healing may not be usefully combined with mainstream "Western" psychiatry: (a) psychiatry is deeply influenced by the ideology of individualism, which is incompatible with South Asian understandings of the person; (b) social asymmetries between religious healers and health professionals are too great to allow a truly respectful relationship between them; and (c) neither the science of psychiatry nor the regulatory apparatus of the state can or will acknowledge the validity of "ritual therapy"--and even if they did so, regulation would most likely destroy what is most valuable about ritual healing. This suggests that it is best if the state maintain its structural blindness to ritual healing. PMID:24572292

  9. Curbing Inflammation in Skin Wound Healing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosique, Rodrigo G.; Rosique, Marina J.; Farina Junior, Jayme A.

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex regulated process that results in skin scar formation in postnatal mammals. Chronic wounds are major medical problems that can confer devastating consequences. Currently, there are no treatments to prevent scarring. In the early fetus wounds heal without scarring and the healing process is characterized by relatively less inflammation compared to adults; therefore, research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process related to wound healing might speed healing and improve the final scar appearance. PMID:26356299

  10. Everyday Objects of Learning about Health and Healing and Implications for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitari, Wanja

    2006-01-01

    The role of science education in rural development is of great interest to science educators. In this study I investigated how residents of rural Kirumi, Kenya, approach health and healing, through discussions and semistructured and in-depth interviews with 150 residents, 3 local herbalists, and 2 medical researchers over a period of 6 months. I…

  11. Lap shear strength and healing capability of self-healing adhesive containing epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Habibah; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ming-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a self-healing polymeric adhesive formulation with epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules. Epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules were dispersed into a commercialize two-part epoxy adhesive for developing self-healing epoxy adhesive. The influence of different content of microcapsules on the shear strength and healing capability of epoxy adhesive were investigated using single-lap-joints with average thickness of adhesive layer of about 180 µm. This self-healing adhesive was used in bonding of 5000 series aluminum alloys adherents after mechanical and alkaline cleaning surface treatment. The adhesion strength was measured and presented as function of microcapsules loading. The results indicated that the virgin lap shear strength was increased by about 26% with addition of 3 wt% of self-healing microcapsules. 12% to 28% recovery of the shear strength is achieved after self-healing depending on the microcapsules content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study fracture surface of the joints. The self-healing adhesives exhibit recovery of both cohesion and adhesion properties with room temperature healing.

  12. Healing and the Arts: A Powerful Metaphor for Teaching about Healing and for Teaching Medical Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirridge, Marjorie S.; Martin, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    For several years an interdisciplinary course called "Healing and the Arts" has been offered to undergraduates and medical students in a BA/MD program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Its stated purpose is to give students a theoretical and practical understanding of how the arts can be a healing force in people's lives.…

  13. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  14. Rapid identification of slow healing wounds.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kenneth; Covington, Scott; Sen, Chandan K; Januszyk, Michael; Kirsner, Robert S; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nonhealing wounds have a prevalence of 2% in the United States, and cost an estimated $50 billion annually. Accurate stratification of wounds for risk of slow healing may help guide treatment and referral decisions. We have applied modern machine learning methods and feature engineering to develop a predictive model for delayed wound healing that uses information collected during routine care in outpatient wound care centers. Patient and wound data was collected at 68 outpatient wound care centers operated by Healogics Inc. in 26 states between 2009 and 2013. The dataset included basic demographic information on 59,953 patients, as well as both quantitative and categorical information on 180,696 wounds. Wounds were split into training and test sets by randomly assigning patients to training and test sets. Wounds were considered delayed with respect to healing time if they took more than 15 weeks to heal after presentation at a wound care center. Eleven percent of wounds in this dataset met this criterion. Prognostic models were developed on training data available in the first week of care to predict delayed healing wounds. A held out subset of the training set was used for model selection, and the final model was evaluated on the test set to evaluate discriminative power and calibration. The model achieved an area under the curve of 0.842 (95% confidence interval 0.834-0.847) for the delayed healing outcome and a Brier reliability score of 0.00018. Early, accurate prediction of delayed healing wounds can improve patient care by allowing clinicians to increase the aggressiveness of intervention in patients most at risk. PMID:26606167

  15. [Effects of opioid peptide dalargin on reparative processes in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Shekhter, A B; Solov'eva, A I; Spevak, S E; Titov, M I

    1988-10-01

    At intraperitoneal injection and local application of opioid peptide dalargin induces fibroblast proliferation (3-fold increase in the mitotic index) and growth of capillaries, accelerates the maturation of granulation tissue and of scar, epitheliazation of the defect, and considerably reduces the period of healing of skin wound in rats. The stimulating action of dalargin is associated with its effect on the microcirculation system and activation of the macrophage-fibroblast interaction. Possessing the triggering mechanism, the drug induces a cascade of inflammatory-reparative reactions, which reduce the duration of all healing stages. PMID:3191245

  16. Effect of Healing Time on Bone-Implant Contact of Orthodontic Micro-Implants: A Histologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Barat Ali; Fatemi, Kazem; Dehghani, Mahboobe; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed loading of orthodontic micro-implants on bone-implant contact. Materials and Methods. Sixty four micro-implants were implanted in dog's jaw bone. The micro-implants were divided into loaded and unloaded (control) groups. The control group had two subgroups: four and eight weeks being implanted. The loaded group had two subgroups of immediate loading and delayed (after four weeks healing) loading. Loaded samples were subjected to 200g load for four weeks. After sacrificing the animals micro-implants and surrounding tissues were observed histologically. Bone-implant contact ratios (BIC) were calculated and different groups' results were compared by three-way ANOVA. Results. Mean survival rate was 96.7% in general. Survival rates were 96.7%, 94.4% and 100% for control, immediate and delayed loaded groups, respectively. BIC values were not significantly different in loaded and control groups, immediate and delayed loading groups, and pressure and tension sides. Mandibular micro-implants had significantly higher BIC than maxillary ones in immediate loading, 4-weeks control, and 8-weeks control groups (P = 0.021, P = 0.009, P = 0.003, resp.). Conclusion Immediate or delayed loading of micro-implants in dog did not cause significant difference in Bone-implant contact which could be concluded that healing time had not significant effect on micro-implant stability. PMID:25006463

  17. American Muslim Perceptions of Healing: Key Agents in Healing, and Their Roles

    PubMed Central

    Padela, Aasim I.; Killawi, Amal; Forman, Jane; DeMonner, Sonya; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims represent a growing and diverse community. Efforts at promoting cultural competence, enhancing cross-cultural communication skills, and improving community health must account for the religio-cultural frame through which American Muslims view healing. Using a community-based participatory research model, we conducted 13 focus groups at area mosques in southeast Michigan to explore American Muslim views on healing and to identify the primary agents, and their roles, within the healing process. Participants shared a God-centric view of healing. Healing was accessed through direct means such as supplication and recitation of the Qur'an, or indirectly through human agents including imams, health care practitioners, family, friends, and community. Human agents served integral roles, influencing spiritual, psychological, and physical health. Additional research into how religiosity, health care systems, and community factors influence health-care-seeking behaviors is warranted. PMID:22393065

  18. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong).

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (-52.3% [2.8%] vs -0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was -51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: -59.8% to -43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (-10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was -10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: -14.1 to -6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large pill burden. PMID

  19. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (−52.3% [2.8%] vs −0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was −51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: −59.8% to −43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (−10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was −10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: −14.1 to −6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large

  20. Influence of low-level laser therapy on wound healing in nicotine-treated animals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Macarini, Valmir Campos; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi; Bosco, Alvaro Francisco; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Okamoto, Tetuo; Longo, Mariéllen; Theodoro, Letícia Helena

    2012-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to have several biological effects that favor the healing process, and nicotine has been shown to delay the healing process. In this study we investigated the healing of open wounds created on the back of rats treated with nicotine with or without LLLT. Of 115 animals, 59 received subcutaneous injections of saline solution, and the others received subcutaneous injections of nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight), twice a day throughout the study period. After 30 days, skin wounds were created on the back of the animals. The animals receiving saline injections were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1, n = 29), in which the wounds were left untreated, and group 2 (G2, n = 30), in which the wounds were treated with LLLT (GaAlAs, 660 nm, 30 mW, 5.57 J/cm(2) per point, 0.39 J, 13 s per point, 0.42 W/cm(2)). The animals receiving nicotine injections were also divided into two groups: group 3 (G3, n = 29), in which the wounds were left untreated, and group 4 (G4, n = 27), in which the wounds were treated with LLLT. The animals were killed 3, 7 or 14 days after surgery. Wound healing was evaluated histologically both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Wounds of G2 showed a delay in epithelial migration and connective tissue organization compared to those of G1. Wounds of G2 showed faster healing than those of G1; similarly, wounds of G4 showed more advanced healing than those of G3. LLLT acted as a biostimulatory coadjuvant agent balancing the undesirable effects of nicotine on wound tissue healing. PMID:21750957

  1. Absence of positive effect of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on fracture healing in osteopenic rodent model.

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Daub, Florian; Sehmisch, Stephan; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Tezval, Mohammed; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-12-01

    The healing of predominantly metaphyseal fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis is delayed and comparatively poor. Due to the potential side effects of HRT, natural alternatives are appealing. The aim of this study was to determine whether Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 improves metaphyseal fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone in rats. Thirty-three 12-week-old female rats developed severe osteopenia during 10 weeks after ovariectomy. After metaphyseal tibial-osteotomy and standardized T-plate-osteosynthesis, the healing periods in ovariectomized rats (C), 17-α-estradiol (E) and Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) supplemented diets were assessed for 35 days. Changes in callus morphology were evaluated qualitatively by biomechanical testing and quantitatively in microradiographies and fluorochrome-labeled histological sections. The CR-supplementation slightly improved callus quality and trabecular bone formation. It significantly enhanced the endosteal callus density compared to C group (Cl.Dn.e C: 59.08 ± 21.89, E: 45.95 ± 18.39, CR: 60.85 ± 18.66*), though most of the other morphological parameters examined showed no improvement. The time course of fracture healing did not change due to CR. Estrogen-supplementation enhanced the biomechanical properties of the fracture site. Trabecular bone was improved indicating the physiological endosteal healing process. The CR-supplementation did not exhibit positive effects in severe (senile) osteopenic fracture healing as seen in early (postmenopausal) osteoporosis in rats. Callus formation was slightly improved under CR. Estrogen improved fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone, while the extent of callus formation played a minor role. PMID:20564511

  2. Fracture and healing cycles in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Kendrick, Jackie; von Aulock, Felix

    2014-05-01

    The repeated occurrence of fracture and healing occurs in a variety of geological, biological, metallurgical and engineering processes. In geology, it is most common in active tectonic regions, earthquake settings and volcanic conduits, where healing is thought to be intrinsically related to diffusional processes, aided by catalytic fluids. In this study, cycles of compression, healing by contact and tension are performed on standard soda-lime silicate liquids at high temperatures (500 to 700 ° C; i.e., in the diffusive regime of the viscoelastic body). The flat ends of two cylinders are brought in contact at relatively low strain rates (10-3 s-1) until a target normal stress is reached (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 MPa). The specimens are then held in contact whilst the normal stress is left to viscously dissipate for a different portion of Maxwell's relaxation timescale for the liquid (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320) in order to achieve different degrees of fracture healing. Strength recovery is assessed by subjecting the healed sample to a rapid tension event at 10-1 s-1 (to ensure a purely brittle response). We note that healing becomes efficient when allowed to operate for at least 5 times the relaxation timescale of the material. From this point onward, we observe an exponential increase in strength as a function of healing time. A small component of heat is generated during failure, monitored using a high-speed infrared thermographic camera. We find that fracture-healing dynamics has similarities with sintering, whereby the kinetics of the process is viscosity and diffusion dependent. Here we aim to expand this definition with normal applied stress constraints and link fracture and healing cycles to seismic swarms. Seismicity is perceived as a first order constraint on the mechanics of magma ascent and facilitates assessment of the real-time rheological state of magma in conduits. The processes presented here may be equally applicable to the strength

  3. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration enhanced mesenchymal stem cell recruitment in osteoporotic fracture healing through the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wei, F Y; Chow, S K; Leung, K S; Qin, J; Guo, A; Yu, O L; Li, G; Cheung, W H

    2016-01-01

    Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been proven to promote osteoporotic fracture healing. Mechanical stimulation was reported to enhance SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesised that LMHFV promoted osteoporotic fracture healing by enhancing MSC migration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. 152 ovariectomised SD-rats received closed femoral fracture in groups of vibration+MSC (VMG) (20 min/d, 5 d/week), vibration+MSC+AMD3100 (VMAG; AMD, a CXCR4 inhibitor) (1 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal), MSC (MG) (1 × 106 MSC, intracardiac) or control (CG) for a treatment duration of 2, 4 or 8 weeks. MSC migration was evaluated by ex-vivo green fluorescent protein signal in the callus; and fracture healing was examined by weekly radiographs, endpoint computed-tomography and mechanical test. At week-2 and week-4, ex-vivo callus GFP intensity of VMG was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05). From week-2 to week-3, both callus width and callus area in VMG were significantly larger; and from week-7 to week-8, smaller than other groups (p < 0.05). At week-8, high-density bone volume fraction, bone volume fraction, bone mineral density and stiffness in VMG were significantly higher than other 3 groups (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that LMHFV promoted MSC migration and fracture healing in osteoporotic rats. This effect was attenuated by CXCR4 inhibitor, providing strong evidence that SDF-1-mediated MSC migration was one of the important mechanisms through which LMHFV enhanced fracture healing. PMID:27215741

  4. Creep healing of fractures in rock salt

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L. S.; Wawersik, W. R.

    1980-08-01

    Fracture and healing experiments were performed on specimens of bedded salt from the Salado formation, southeastern New Mexico. Short rod specimens (100 mm in diameter) were loaded to failure in tension. During each test, a crack was initiated along the axis of the specimen. The fracture toughness of the salt was determined from the resulting load-crack opening displacement record. After the test, each specimen was pieced back together, jacketed and placed in a pressure vessel under hydrostatic pressure for several days. The confining pressure (10 to 35 MPa), temperature (22 to 100/sup 0/C) and healing time (4 to 8 days) were varied to determine the effect of each on the healing process. Upon removal from the pressure vessel, each sample was retested and the toughness of the healed fracture was determined. Results show that the salt specimens regained 70 to 80% of their original strength under all conditions except at the lowest temperature and pressure where specimens regained only 20 to 30% of their original strength. It is suspected that the primary mechanism involved is creep of asperities along the fracture surface which forms an interlocking network. Thus, the healing pressure is probably the most significant variable.

  5. Nutrient support of the healing wound.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N A; Muller, M J; Herndon, D N

    1994-05-01

    Wound healing is a series of complex physicochemical interactions that require various micronutrients at every step. In the critically ill or severely injured patient, wound healing is impaired by the protein-catabolic, hypermetabolic response to stress. The hypothalamus responds to cytokine stimulation by increasing the thermoregulatory set-point and by augmenting elaboration of stress hormones (catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon). In turn, the stress hormones induce thermogenic futile substrate cycling, lipolysis, and proteolysis. Increased glucose production results at the expense of skeletal muscle degradation, producing amino acid substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nutritional support of the hypermetabolic state is an essential part of ensuring efficient wound healing in these patients. Protein catabolism cannot be reversed by increased amino acid availability alone, due partly to a defect in amino acid transport. This defect can be reversed by anabolic agents, such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Growth hormone treatment dramatically improves wound healing in severely burned children. Supplementation with protein and vitamins, specifically arginine and vitamins A, B, and C, provides optimum nutrient support of the healing wound. PMID:7922445

  6. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Taradaj, Jakub; Dymarek, Robert; Sopel, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study. PMID:27413744

  7. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

  8. Curcumin as a wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Akbik, Dania; Ghadiri, Maliheh; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2014-10-22

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant and anti-infective effects. Curcumin has also been shown to have significant wound healing properties. It acts on various stages of the natural wound healing process to hasten healing. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the effects of curcumin on skin wound healing. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to reduce the body's natural response to cutaneous wounds such as inflammation and oxidation. The recent literature on the wound healing properties of curcumin also provides evidence for its ability to enhance granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling and wound contraction. It has become evident that optimizing the topical application of curcumin through altering its formulation is essential to ensure the maximum therapeutical effects of curcumin on skin wounds. PMID:25200875

  9. The effects of smoking on fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Sloan, A; Hussain, I; Maqsood, M; Eremin, O; El-Sheemy, M

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most avoidable cause of premature death worldwide. In fracture healing, it has been found to be a contributory factor to delayed union, and smokers are significantly disadvantaged, as healing times are often prolonged. The orthopaedic surgeon is likely to be knowledgeable about the detrimental effects of smoking on healing bones, as the problem has been known for some time. Smoking adversely affects bone mineral density, lumbar disc degeneration, the incidences of hip fractures and the dynamics of bone and wound healing. Clinical trials and demographic studies have been more widespread than biochemical analyses, and have reported poor prognosis for fracture patients who smoke. Scientific research has elucidated some of the negative impacts of tobacco use and investigations involving several animal models in cellular and humoral analyses have shown damage caused by various toxicological processes. Cessation of the habit perioperatively, therefore, is routinely advised to improve outcomes for patients. The current review describes some of the consequences of tobacco smoking in fracture healing. PMID:20303894

  10. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Giles T. S.; Mills, Stuart J.; Cowin, Allison J.; Smith, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials. PMID:26137471

  11. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice. PMID:24647509

  12. Role of medicinal plants and natural products on osteoporotic fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as "the silent disease" since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases-hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

  13. He-Ne laser irradiation acceleration of healing process of open gingival wounds in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovici, Armand; Roisman, P.; Hirsch, A.; Segal, S.; Fischer, J.

    1994-09-01

    A histopathological study on the effect of He-Ne laser treatment on the evolution of cat gingiva open wounds is presented. The irradiation initiates first a massive inflammatory cell exudate together with an antiedematic effect after the second postoperative day. A substantial acceleration of the healing process is noted on the sixth day among irradiated tissues as compared to the operated gingiva which still shows, at this period of time, inflammatory exudate and isolated fibroblasts. The persistence of inflammatory exudate and edema among the untreated gingiva seemed to have a delaying effect upon the healing process. The biostimulatory effect of soft laser seems to act photodynamically both at the intracellular level and extracellular millieu, thus promoting the proliferative capacity of fibroblasts and capillary buds formation necessary for a rapid differentiation of connective tissue. The controlled application of He-Ne laser treatment is suggested in dental healing procedures.

  14. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  15. Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as “the silent disease” since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases—hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

  16. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Brochu, Alice B W; Chyan, William J; Reichert, William M

    2012-10-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thickness, content and reactivity of encapsulated agent, and shelf life are investigated and their reliance on solvent type and amount, surfactant type and amount, temperature, pH, agitation rate, reaction time, and mode of addition of the oil phase to the aqueous phase are presented. Capsules had average diameters ranging from 74 to 222 μm and average shell thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 6 μm. The capsule content was determined via thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent analysis of the capsules following up to 8 weeks storage revealed minimal loss of core contents. Mechanical testing of OCA-containing capsules showed individual capsules withstood compressive forces up to a few tenths of Newtons, and the contents released from crushed capsules generated tensile adhesive forces of a few Newtons. Capsules were successfully mixed into the poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement, surviving the mixing process, exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer, and the resulting exothermic matrix curing. PMID:22807313

  17. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Chyan, William J.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thickness, content and reactivity of encapsulated agent, and shelf life are investigated and their reliance on solvent type and amount, surfactant type and amount, temperature, pH, agitation rate, reaction time, and mode of addition of the oil phase to the aqueous phase are presented. Capsules had average diameters ranging from 74 to 222 μm and average shell thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 6 μm. The capsule content was determined via thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent analysis of the capsules following up to 8 weeks storage revealed minimal loss of core contents. Mechanical testing of OCA-containing capsules showed individual capsules withstood compressive forces up to a few tenths of Newtons, and the contents released from crushed capsules generated tensile adhesive forces of a few Newtons. Capsules were successfully mixed into the poly(- methyl methacrylate) bone cement, surviving the mixing process, exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer, and the resulting exothermic matrix curing. PMID:22807313

  18. The efficacy of topical Royal Jelly on diabetic foot ulcers healing: A case series*

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Shokri, Saeideh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Mohammadi, Mahbubeh; Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Farajzadehgan, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers and infections are the major sources of morbidity in individuals with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical Royal Jelly (a worker honey bee product) on healing diabetic foot ulcers. METHODS: Diabetic patients with foot ulcers that were referred to our clinic at Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran; were evaluated three times a week and treated according to standard treatments consisted of offloading, infection control, vascular improvement and debridement if required. In addition, all ulcers were measured and then topical sterile 5% Royal Jelly was applied on the total surface area of the wounds. Eventually, they were covered with sterile dressings. Each patient was followed for a period of three months or until the complete healing. RESULTS: A total of eight patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, two had two ulcers and, therefore, ten ulcers were evaluated. Two ulcers were excluded. Seven of the remained eight ulcers healed. Mean duration of complete healing was 41 days. One ulcer did not completely heal but improved to 40% smaller in length, 32% in width and 28% in depth. The mean length, width and depth reduction rates were 0.35 mm/day, 0.28 mm/day and 0.11 mm/day, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Royal Jelly dressing may be an effective method for treating diabetic foot ulcers besides standard treatments. PMID:22279458

  19. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfer, A.E.; Nassaux, P.; Emory, R.; Wray, H.L.; Schaudies, R.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing.

  20. Abductor digiti minimi muscle flap transfer to prevent wound healing complications after ORIF of calcaneal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Liang; Huang, Su-Fang; Sun, Xue-Sheng; Zhu, Tao; Lin, Chu; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the transfer of abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle flaps as a method for preventing wound healing complications in cases of closed calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Method: Design: Retrospective review. Patients: Twenty-six cases of acute closed calcaneal fracture in patients at risk for serious wound complications or with serious fractures. Intervention: During the ORIF surgery, an ADM muscle flap was removed and used to cover the plate, filling the gap between the plate and skin. Main Outcome Measures: Wound healing rates, postoperative complications, and time to heal. Results: All wounds healed uneventfully, except for one case of minor superficial epithelial necrosis during the early postoperative period, which was treated conservatively. All patients regained ambulatory status with regular foot apparel. At last follow-up, the patients presented no clinical, laboratory, or radiological signs of complications. Conclusions: This ADM muscle flap transfer technique appeared to successfully prevent wound healing complications among patients undergoing ORIF for closed calcaneal fractures. This method offers a promising treatment option for calcaneal fractures in patients at high risk for serious wound complications, and future studies with greater numbers of cases are needed to further investigate its clinical application. PMID:26550221

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Transdermal Plasters Containing Norfloxacin: A Novel Treatment for Burn Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Kamal; Ramana, M. V.; Sara, U. V. S.; Agrawal, D. K.; Pabreja, Kavita; Chakravarthi, Srikumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In an attempt for better treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds, plaster formulations containing different concentrations of norfloxacin were prepared using polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol and evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity, and burn wound healing properties. The prepared formulations were compared with silver sulfadiazine cream 1%, USP. Methods: Plaster formulations containing different concentrations of norfloxacin were prepared by solvent casting method using combination of polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol. These plasters were characterized for drug content, thickness, percentage elongation, tensile strength, in vitro drug release properties, and antimicrobial activity against various strains of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The wound healing property was evaluated by histopathological examination and by measuring the wound contraction. Results: The in vitro release and in vitro skin permeation followed the first-order kinetics followed by diffusion as dominant release mechanism. In spite of the significant antimicrobial and wound healing effects produced by plasters, the observed values were less than the values obtained with silver sulfadiazine 1% cream (P < .05). Various histopathological changes observed during the study period (days 1, 4, 8, and 12) also supported the wound healing process. Conclusion: Based on the observed in vitro performances along with antimicrobial and wound healing effects, the 5% norfloxacin transdermal plasters could be employed as an alternative to commercial silver sulfadiazine 1% cream. PMID:20596234

  2. VAC therapy to promote wound healing after surgical revascularisation for critical lower limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Greco, Michele; Pipitò, Narayana; Spinelli, Francesco; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new emerging non-invasive system in wound care, which speeds up wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates, and facilitating the removal of bacteria from the wound. The application of sub-atmospheric pressure on the lesions seems to alter the cytoskeleton of the cells on the wound bed, triggering a cascade of intracellular signals that increase the rate of cell division and subsequent formation of granulation tissue. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of VAC therapy used as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of foot wounds in patients affected by critical limb ischaemia (CLI) (Rutherford 6 class) after distal surgical revascularisation, to promote and accelerate the healing of ulcers. Twenty-nine patients (20 males, 9 females; mean age 68·4) affected by CLI of Rutherford 6 class, after surgical revascularisation of the lower limb, underwent VAC therapy in order to speed up wound healing. Complete wound healing was achieved in 19 patients (65·51%), in an average period of 45·4 ± 25·6 days. VAC therapy is a valid aid, after surgical revascularisation, to achieve rapid healing of foot lesions in patients with CLI. PMID:24872149

  3. Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2% w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

  4. Demineralized Bone Matrix Add-On for Acceleration of Bone Healing in Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Consecutive Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kulachote, Noratep; Sirisreetreerux, Norachart; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Fuangfa, Praman; Suphachatwong, Chanyut; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delayed union and nonunion are common complications in atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) despite having good fracture fixation. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a successfully proven method for enhancing fracture healing of the long bone fracture and nonunion and should be used in AFFs. This study aimed to compare the outcome after subtrochanteric AFFs (ST-AFFs) fixation with and without DBM. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 9 ST-AFFs patients using DBM (DBM group) during 2013-2014 and compared with a retrospective consecutive case series of ST-AFFs patients treated without DBM (2010–2012) (NDBM group, 9 patients). All patients were treated with the same standard guideline and followed up until fractures completely united. Postoperative outcomes were then compared. Results. DBM group showed a significant shorter healing time than NDBM group (28.1 ± 14.4 versus 57.9 ± 36.8 weeks, p = 0.04). Delayed union was found in 4 patients (44%) in DBM group compared with 7 patients (78%) in NDBM group (p > 0.05). No statistical difference of nonunion was demonstrated between both groups (DBM = 1 and NDBM = 2, p > 0.05). Neither postoperative infection nor severe local tissue reaction was found. Conclusions. DBM is safe and effective for accelerating the fracture healing in ST-AFFx and possibly reduces nonunion after fracture fixation. Trial registration number is TCTR20151021001. PMID:27022610

  5. Evaluation of wound healing, antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Mittal; Satish, Sardana; Anima, Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To validate the ethno-therapeutic claim of the traditionally used plant Jasminum auriculatum (J. auriculatum) in skin diseases, by evaluating its wound healing potential along with its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties; so as to understand their role in wound healing. Materials and Methods: Excision and incision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity on albino rats. The wound healing potential was assessed by measuring rate of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, skin breaking strength and histopathological parameters. Reference standard drug was Nitrofurazone ointment. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The antimicrobial activity was determined by agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration by serial dilution method. Results: Higher rate of wound contraction (83.66±0.50% on 15th day), decrease in the period of epithelialization (17.83±1.6days), higher skin breaking strength (170.71±1.52g), higher collagen content and favourable histopathological changes revealed that topical application of ointment containing successive ethanolic extract (S.E.E) of J. auriculatum leaves has the most potent wound healing ability compared to control group in both the models studied. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of successive ethanolic extract was found to be 33.39µg/ml. Successive ethanolic extract was found to be most effective against Pseudomonas auregenosa having a zone of inhibition 16.65±0.6mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.78mg/ml. Conclusion: The data of this study indicate that successive ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibit potent wound healing, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This justifies the ethno-medicinal use of plant for the treatment of wound and microbial infections. PMID:27462552

  6. [Actin in the wound healing process].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dorota; Popow-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Raźnikiewicz, Linda; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is an important biological process of crucial value for organisms survival and retention of its proper functions. The recognition of molecular mechanisms of these phenomenon is still under investigation. The transition of mesenchymal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key point in wound healing. The contraction ability of myofibroblast enables the shrinkage of a wound and closes its edges. Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), one of six actin isoforms, is a marker of compeletely differentiated myofibroblast. The regulation of differentiation process depends on many growth factors (especially TGF beta 1), the level of active thymosin beta 4, extracellular matrix proteins--including fibronectin, and also on specificity of microenvironment. Thymosin beta 4 is responsible for maintenance of pool of monomeric actin and actin filaments depolymerization. It can also act as a transcription factor, migration stimulator and immunomodulator, so this protein deserves for more attention in wound healing research field. PMID:19824469

  7. Vision, healing brush, and fiber bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Todor

    2005-03-01

    The Healing Brush is a tool introduced for the first time in Adobe Photoshop (2002) that removes defects in images by seamless cloning (gradient domain fusion). The Healing Brush algorithms are built on a new mathematical approach that uses Fibre Bundles and Connections to model the representation of images in the visual system. Our mathematical results are derived from first principles of human vision, related to adaptation transforms of von Kries type and Retinex theory. In this paper we present the new result of Healing in arbitrary color space. In addition to supporting image repair and seamless cloning, our approach also produces the exact solution to the problem of high dynamic range compression of17 and can be applied to other image processing algorithms.

  8. Scarless wound healing: chasing the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Graham G; Maan, Zeshaan N; Wong, Victor W; Duscher, Dominik; Hu, Michael S; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wearda, Taylor; Muhonen, Ethan; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Atashroo, David A; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Lorenz, H Peter; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2015-03-01

    Over 100 million patients acquire scars in the industrialized world each year, primarily as a result of elective operations. Although undefined, the global incidence of scarring is even larger, extending to significant numbers of burn and other trauma-related wounds. Scars have the potential to exert a profound psychological and physical impact on the individual. Beyond aesthetic considerations and potential disfigurement, scarring can result in restriction of movement and reduced quality of life. The formation of a scar following skin injury is a consequence of wound healing occurring through reparative rather than regenerative mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the basic stages of wound healing; differences between adult and fetal wound healing; various mechanical, genetic, and pharmacologic strategies to reduce scarring; and the biology of skin stem/progenitor cells that may hold the key to scarless regeneration. PMID:25719706

  9. The kinetics of crack healing in Sioux quartzite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B.; Renner, J.; Takeshita, T.

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the kinetics of crack healing in untreated and thermally cracked Sioux quartzite samples at temperatures T between 300 and 600° C and a confining pressure pc of 300 MPa. Pore fluid was either argon or distilled water. Pore fluid pressure pf varied between 50 and 250 MPa yielding effective pressures peff between 250 and 50 MPa, respectively. Sample permeability k and storage capacity β s were continuously monitored using the oscillatory pore pressure method. The sinusoidal pore pressure oscillations imposed on one end of the sample had amplitudes of 1 MPa. Oscillation period had to be increased with decreasing permeability and ranged between 60 and 9000 s. Permeability can reliably evaluated using about 3 full oscillations limiting the time resolution of changes in transport properties. Both permeability and storage capacity decrease with time. The initial permeability of the quartzite with abut 1% porosity ranges between 10-20 and 10-19 m2. Transport properties change faster at higher temperature and effective pressure. For example, at about 400° C and peff=200 MPa permeability drops by almost an order of magnitude over one day. At the same temperature, but a lower effective pressure of 100 MPa, the permeability decreases only by about a factor of two over the same time span. The decrease in permeability accelerates notably after 3 days at T=400° C and peff=200 MPa. Permeabilities are then in the order of 1ṡ10-23 m2 indicating that the samples reach the percolation threshold. Cross correlation between k and β s allow to constrain the porosity evolution during the healing process beyond the density measurements before and after the experiments. We are analyzing geometrical distribution and fluid density of the fluid inclusions that formed during the healing.

  10. Wavefront Healing and Tomographic Resolution of Deep Mantle Superplumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jing; Zhou, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Seismic tomography revealed two large low shear velocity province (LLSVP) at the bottom of the mantle, one under Africa and the other under the southern Pacific. Traditional tomographic results show strong anti-correlation between bulk sound speed and S wave speed perturbations, supporting at least partially chemical origin of deep mantle superplumes. The core-mantle boundary regions are best sampled by core diffracted waves while wave front healing effects of diffracted waves have been ignored in traditional tomographic studies. To investigate the resolution of deep mantle superplumes as well as the robustness of the anti correlation between bulk sound speed and S wave speed, we use Spectral Element Method (SEM) to simulate global seismic wave propagation in 3-D plume models at periods down to 10s. We measure frequency-dependent P-wave and S-wave travel time anomalies caused by 3-D plume structures using a multi-taper technique, and calculate bulk sound speed perturbations based on measured P-wave and S-wave traveltimes. The comparison between measured delay times and ray-theory predictions shows that different healing rates between P waves and S waves in thermal plume models can lead to significant artifact as anti-correlation between bulk sound speed and S-wave speed perturbations. The strength of this artifact depends on epicenter distance and wave frequency. The artifact in anti-correlation is also confirmed in tomographic inversions based on ray theory using Pdiff and Sdiff traveltimes measured from SEM seismograms. We show that resolutions of superplumes as well as artifacts in the anti-correlation are dependent upon the length scale of the anomalies, the frequency of the wave as well as source-receiver distribution. Finally we compare calculations based on finite-frequency theory and ray theory and show that different healing rates between P waves and S waves can be properly accounted for in finite-frequency tomography.

  11. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jumaat Mohd. Yussof; Omar, Effat; Pai, Dinker R.; Sood, Suneet

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs) and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth factors initiate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. Inflammation is followed by the proliferation of fibroblasts, which lay down the extracellular matrix. Simultaneously, various white cells and other connective tissue cells release both the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of these metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMPs remove damaged structural proteins such as collagen, while the fibroblasts lay down fresh extracellular matrix proteins. Fluid collected from acute, healing wounds contains growth factors, and stimulates fibroblast proliferation, but fluid collected from chronic, nonhealing wounds does not. Fibroblasts from chronic wounds do not respond to chronic wound fluid, probably because the fibroblasts of these wounds have lost the receptors that respond to cytokines and growth factors. Nonhealing wounds contain high levels of IL1, IL6, and MMPs, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio. Clinical examination of wounds inconsistently predicts which wounds will heal when procedures like secondary closure are planned. Surgeons therefore hope that these chemicals can be used as biomarkers of wounds which have impaired ability to heal. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will help the healing of chronic, nonhealing wounds. PMID:23162220

  12. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  13. Healing mysteries in a Vietnamese village.

    PubMed

    Tick, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The front lines of health and healing today are everywhere around our country and the world, where individuals, societies, and ecosystems are at risk. On these lines and often unheralded, courageous healers and communities utilize traditional, scientific, humanistic, communal, holistic, and spiritual resources to address our most pressing global health issues. FIELD REPORTS offers reports from these front lines about significant health crises, concerns, and healing approaches that occur beyond our usual horizon of vision. Our concern is for world health. We seek to hoist flags of hope. PMID:17362851

  14. Multifunctional composites: Healing, heating and electromagnetic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John

    2007-12-01

    Multifunctional materials, in the context of this research, integrate other functions into materials that foremost have outstanding structural integrity. Details of the integration of electromagnetic, heating, and healing functionalities into fiber-reinforced polymer composites are presented. As a result of fiber/wire integration through textile braiding and weaving, the dielectric constant of a composite may be tuned from negative to positive values. These wires are further leveraged to uniformly heat the composite through resistive heating. A healing functionality is introduced by utilizing a polymer matrix with the ability to heal internal cracking through thermally-reversible covalent bonds based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The Double Cleavage Drilled Compression (DCDC) specimen is applied to study the fracture and healing characteristics of the neat polymer. This method allows for quantitative evaluation of incremental crack growth, and ensures that the cracked sample remains in one piece after the test, improving the ability to re-align the fracture surfaces prior to healing. Initially, the fracture strength of PMMA is studied with various DCDC geometries to develop a model of the propagation of a crack within this type of specimen. Applied to the healable polymer (2MEP4F), repeated fracture-healing cycles demonstrate that treatment at temperatures between 85 to 95°C results in full fracture toughness recovery and no dimensional changes due to creep. The fracture toughness after each fracturing and healing cycle has been calculated, using the model, to yield a fracture toughness of about 0.71 MPa·m1/2 for this material at room temperature. Glass and carbon fiber-reinforced composites have been fabricated with the 2MEP4F polymer, and the ability of this polymer to heal microcracks in fiber-reinforced composites is demonstrated. Microcracks have been introduced into the composites by cryogenic cycling in liquid nitrogen, causing a reduction in the storage

  15. microRNA and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jaideep; Sen, Chandan K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules which play pivotal roles in wound healing. The increased expression of certain genes and expression of some others represent a key component of the wound biology and are largely under the regulation of naturally occurring miRNAs. Understanding the dysregulated miRNAs in chronic wound biology will therefore enable the development of newer therapies. This chapter focuses on the miRNAs that can be potentially targeted for improving skin wound healing and the challenges in miRNA therapy, including considerations in miRNA target identification and delivery. PMID:26663189

  16. Local release of pioglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist) accelerates proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shigeki; Sato, Keisuke; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily known for its anti-inflammatory and macrophage differentiation effects, as well as its ability to promote fat cell differentiation and reduce insulin resistance. Pioglitazone (Pio) is a PPARγ agonist used clinically as an anti-diabetic agent for improving insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to develop a drug delivery system (DDS) for the local release of Pio to promote wound healing. Pio of low aqueous solubility was water-solubilized by micelles formed from gelatin grafted with L-lactic acid oligomers, and incorporated into a biodegradable gelatin hydrogel. An 8-mm punch biopsy tool was used to prepare two skin wounds on either side of the midline of 8-week-old mice. Wounds were treated by the hydrogels with (Pio-hydrogel group) or without (control group) Pio, and the wound area were observed 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after treatment. In addition, a protein assay and immunohistological stain were performed to determine the effects of the Pio-hydrogel on inflammation and macrophage differentiation. The Pio-hydrogels promote wound healing. Moreover, Western blotting analysis demonstrated that treatment with Pio-hydrogels resulted in decreased levels of the cytokines MIP-2 and TGF-β, and increased levels of glucose-regulating adiponectin. It is concluded that Pio-incorporated hydrogels promote the proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing, and may prove to be effective as wound dressings. PMID:26710090

  17. The Effects of RANKL Inhibition on Fracture Healing and Bone Strength in a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Delos, D.; Yang, X.; Ricciardi, B.F.; Myers, E.R.; Bostrom, M.P.G.; Pleshko Camacho, N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Currently, the standard treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is bisphosphonate therapy. Recent studies, however, have shown delayed healing of osteotomies in a subset of OI patients treated with such agents. The current study sought to determine the effects of another therapy, RANKL inhibition, on bone healing and bone strength in the growing oim/oim mouse, a model of moderate-to-severe OI. Mice (73 oim/oim and 69 wildtype (WT)) were injected twice weekly with either soluble murine RANK (RANK-Fc) (1.5mg/kg) or saline beginning at 6 weeks of age. At 8 weeks of age, the animals underwent transverse mid-diaphyseal osteotomies of the right femur. Therapy was continued until sacrifice at 2, 3, 4 or 6 weeks post-fracture. At 6 weeks post-fracture, greater callus area (6.59±3.78mm2 vs 2.67±2.05mm2, p=0.003) and increased radiographic intensity (mineral density) (0.48 ± 0.14 vs. 0.30 ± 0.80, p=0.005) were found in the RANK-Fc vs saline oim/oim group, indicating a delay in callus remodeling. Despite this delay, mechanical tests at 6 weeks post-fracture revealed no significant differences in whole bone properties of stiffness and failure moment. Further, RANKL inhibition resulted in a greater failure moment and greater work to failure for the non-fractured contralateral WT bones compared to the non-fractured saline WT bones. Together, these results demonstrate that RANKL-inhibition does not adversely affect the mechanical properties of healing bone in the oim/oim mice, and is associated with increased strength in intact bone in the WT mice. PMID:17729310

  18. In vivo analysis of wound healing by optical methods

    PubMed Central

    Alborova, Alena; Lademann, Jürgen; Kramer, Axel; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Koch, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of wound healing is important for the therapy control and for the development of drugs stimulating the healing process. Wounds cause damage to the skin barrier. A damaged stratum corneum leads to an increased water loss through the skin barrier. The standard measuring procedure for characterization of wound healing is the measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The disadvantage of this method is that it can be easily disturbed by the perspiration of the volunteers and by topically applied substances, for instance wound healing creams. In the study presented, in vivo laser scanning microscopy and optical coherent tomography were compared concerning the application for their analysis of wound healing processes. The laser scanning microscopy allows the analysis of the healing process on a cellular level. The course of wound healing determined by laser scanning microscopy was correlated with numerical values, allowing the numerical characterization of the wound healing process. PMID:20204112

  19. HEALing Higher Education: An Innovative Approach to Preparing HSI Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is a case study of the Higher Education Administration and Leadership (HEAL) program at Adams State University. HEAL focuses on preparing the next generation of leaders at the nation's Hispanic-serving institutions.

  20. Multiphase design of autonomic self-healing thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yulin; Kushner, Aaron M.; Williams, Gregory A.; Guan, Zhibin

    2012-06-01

    The development of polymers that can spontaneously repair themselves after mechanical damage would significantly improve the safety, lifetime, energy efficiency and environmental impact of man-made materials. Most approaches to self-healing materials require the input of external energy, healing agents, solvent or plasticizer. Despite intense research in this area, the synthesis of a stiff material with intrinsic self-healing ability remains a key challenge. Here, we show a design of multiphase supramolecular thermoplastic elastomers that combine high modulus and toughness with spontaneous healing capability. The designed hydrogen-bonding brush polymers self-assemble into a hard-soft microphase-separated system, combining the enhanced stiffness and toughness of nanocomposites with the self-healing capability of dynamic supramolecular assemblies. In contrast to previous self-healing polymers, this new system spontaneously self-heals as a single-component solid material at ambient conditions, without the need for any external stimulus, healing agent, plasticizer or solvent.

  1. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    SciTech Connect

    BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    1999-12-03

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

  2. Evaluation of Tectona grandis leaves for wound healing activity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Mrityunjoy; Nayeem, Naira; Kamath, Jagadish V; Asad, Mohammed

    2007-04-01

    The frontal leaves of Tectona grandis (Verabinaceae) are widely used in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of wounds, especially burn wound. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hydrochloric extract of Tectona grandis on experimentally induced wounds in rats and compare the effects observed with a known wound healing agent, Aloe vera. The models selected were excision wound, incision wound, burn wound and dead space wound. A suitable gel formulation was selected for the application using cellophane membrane penetration. In the excision wound and burn wound models, animals treated with Tectona grandis leaf extract showed significant reduction in period of epithelisation and wound contraction 50%. In the incision wound model, a significant increase in the breaking strength was observed. Tectona grandis leaf extract treatment orally produced a significant increase in the breaking strength, dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue in dead space wound. It was concluded that Tectona grandis leaf extract applied topically (5% and 10% gel formulation) or administered orally (250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight) possesses wound healing activity. PMID:17416566

  3. The spleen and skin wound healing in Xenopus adults.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonella; Della Rocca, Annalaura; Bertolotti, Evelina

    2016-07-01

    In most vertebrates, the regenerative capacity to restore lost/damage tissues to original structure and functionality decreases at some time during ontogenesis. To evaluate the role of the acquired immunity in the decline of regenerative potential, we examined the cellular responses elicited in the spleen during skin repair in Xenopus adults. Modifications in the architecture were found to be induced and were remarkable 14 days postinjury when the spleen increased significantly in size. In white pulp, the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths were associated with follicles having central light zones, morphologically similar to germinal centers. With the progress of healing, pigment-containing cells were seen to accumulate in both white and red pulp regions. Moreover, compared to controls, the cells immunoreactive to anti-cytokines (TNF-α, TGF-β1) and -iNOS increased from the first days after wounding. The 14th day, the positive cells formed a dense network of reticular cells in central regions of lymphoid follicles and more frequent reactive leukocytes were detected within the red pulp. A higher number of lymphoid cells immunostained with anti-CD3ε were also observed in the perifollicular zone. The results suggest that the spleen of adult frogs is involved in skin wound healing with the expansion of lymphoid compartments. J. Morphol. 277:888-895, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059432

  4. Bone healing by sterilizable calcium phosphate tetrapods eluting osteogenic molecules.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yujiro; Hojo, Hironori; Shimohata, Nobuyuki; Choi, Sungjin; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    Although bone grafts and prosthetic implants have shown some clinical success in the treatment of bone defects, the graft availability, biocompatibility, function, and longevity still remain to be improved. One possible solution to these problems is to develop bone implants acting on host cells to induce rapid bone regeneration. Here, we demonstrate bone healing by means of a sterilizable and osteogenic molecule-eluting implant system in which two small molecules, a smoothened agonist (SAG) and a helioxanthin derivative (TH), are loaded onto tetrapod-shaped calcium phosphate granules (Tetrabone). We succeeded in directing progenitor cells toward mature osteoblasts with the combined application of the two small molecules acting on different stages of osteogenesis. Tetrabone released SAG and TH for prolonged periods when loaded with these molecules. EOG sterilization did not affect the osteogenic activity of the SAG- and TH-loaded Tetrabones. The combinatorial use of SAG- and TH-loaded Tetrabones achieved bone healing without cell transplantation in a rat femur bone defect model within two weeks. This system will allow us to vary the combination rate of implants loaded with different osteogenic factors depending on the types and sizes of defects, potentially allowing full temporal and spatial control of the bone regeneration. PMID:23623228

  5. Identification of Biomarkers for Footpad Dermatitis Development and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Escobar, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a type of skin inflammation that causes necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in commercial poultry, with significant animal welfare, and economic implications. To identify biomarkers for FPD development and wound healing, a battery cage trial was conducted in which a paper sheet was put on the bottom of cages to hold feces to induce FPD of broilers. Day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and assigned to 3 treatments with 8 cages per treatment and 11 birds per cage. Cages without paper sheets were used as a negative control (NEG). Cages with paper sheets during the entire growth period (d 0-30) were used as a positive control (POS) to continually induce FPD. Cages with paper sheets during d 0-13 and without paper sheets during d 14-30 were used to examine the dynamic of FPD development and lesion wound healing (LWH). Footpad lesions were scored to grade (G) 1-5 with no lesion in G1 and most severe lesion in G5. Covering with paper sheets in POS and LWH induced 99% incidence of G3 footpads on d 13. Removing paper sheets from LWH healed footpad lesions by d 30. One representative bird, with lesions most close to pen average lesion score, was chosen to collect footpad skin samples for biomarker analysis. Total collagen protein and mRNA levels of tenascin X (TNX), type I α1 collagen (COL1A1), type III α1 collagen (COL3A1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), and integrin α1 (ITGA1) mRNA levels were decreased (P < 0.05), while mRNA levels of tenascin C (TNC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-1β, and the ratio of MMP2 to all TIMP were increased (P < 0.03) in G3 footpads in POS and LWH compared to G1 footpads in NEG on d 14. These parameters continued to worsen with development of more severe lesions in POS. After paper sheets were removed (i.e., LWH), levels of these parameters gradually or rapidly

  6. Identification of Biomarkers for Footpad Dermatitis Development and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Escobar, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a type of skin inflammation that causes necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in commercial poultry, with significant animal welfare, and economic implications. To identify biomarkers for FPD development and wound healing, a battery cage trial was conducted in which a paper sheet was put on the bottom of cages to hold feces to induce FPD of broilers. Day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal diet and assigned to 3 treatments with 8 cages per treatment and 11 birds per cage. Cages without paper sheets were used as a negative control (NEG). Cages with paper sheets during the entire growth period (d 0–30) were used as a positive control (POS) to continually induce FPD. Cages with paper sheets during d 0–13 and without paper sheets during d 14–30 were used to examine the dynamic of FPD development and lesion wound healing (LWH). Footpad lesions were scored to grade (G) 1–5 with no lesion in G1 and most severe lesion in G5. Covering with paper sheets in POS and LWH induced 99% incidence of G3 footpads on d 13. Removing paper sheets from LWH healed footpad lesions by d 30. One representative bird, with lesions most close to pen average lesion score, was chosen to collect footpad skin samples for biomarker analysis. Total collagen protein and mRNA levels of tenascin X (TNX), type I α1 collagen (COL1A1), type III α1 collagen (COL3A1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), and integrin α1 (ITGA1) mRNA levels were decreased (P < 0.05), while mRNA levels of tenascin C (TNC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-1β, and the ratio of MMP2 to all TIMP were increased (P < 0.03) in G3 footpads in POS and LWH compared to G1 footpads in NEG on d 14. These parameters continued to worsen with development of more severe lesions in POS. After paper sheets were removed (i.e., LWH), levels of these parameters gradually

  7. Stimulation of healing within a rabbit calvarial defect by a PCL/PLGA scaffold blended with TCP using solid freeform fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Moon, Tae-Sung; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Cho, Dong-Woo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing capacity within an 8-mm rabbit calvarial defect using a polycaprolactone (PCL)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold blended with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) that was constructed using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology. The PCL/PLGA/TCP scaffold showed a 37 % higher compressive strength and rougher surface than the PCL/PLGA scaffold. In animal experiments, new bone formation was analyzed using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological and histometric analyses. The PCL/PLGA/TCP groups had significantly greater neo-tissue areas as compared with the control groups at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05). The PCL/PLGA/TCP group had significantly greater bone density as compared with the control and PCL/PLGA groups at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.005). The results of this study suggest that the PCL/PLGA/TCP scaffold fabricated using SFF technology is useful for recovering and enhancing new bone formation in bony defects in rabbits. PMID:22960800

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-I gene-enhanced mesenchymal stem cells improve structural aspects of healing in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Lauren V; Lynch, Maureen E; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Yeager, Amy E; Kornatowski, Matthew A; Nixon, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    Tendinitis remains a catastrophic injury among athletes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been investigated for use in the treatment of tendinitis. Previous work has demonstrated the value of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to stimulate cellular proliferation and tendon fiber deposition in the core lesion of tendinitis. This study examined the effects of MSCs, as well as IGF-I gene-enhanced MSCs (AdIGF-MSCs) on tendon healing in vivo. Collagenase-induced bilateral tendinitis lesions were created in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons (SDFT). Tendons were treated with 10 x 10(6) MSCs or 10 x 10(6) AdIGF-MSCs. Control limbs were injected with 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Ultrasound examinations were performed at t = 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Horses were euthanized at 8 weeks and SDFTs were mechanically tested to failure and evaluated for biochemical composition and histologic characteristics. Expression of collagen types I and III, IGF-I, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS-4) were similar in MSC and control tendons. Both MSC and AdIGF-MSC injection resulted in significantly improved tendon histological scores. These findings indicate a benefit to the use of MSCs and AdIGF-MSCs for the treatment of tendinitis. PMID:19350658

  9. Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Pongamia pinnata Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhandirge, S K; Tripathi, A S; Bhandirge, R K; Chinchmalatpure, T P; Desai, H G; Chandewar, A V

    2015-06-01

    Present study evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (PP). Evaluation of wound healing activity, 2 wound models were used I. e., incision and excision wounds were perform in this study on Albino wistar rats (150-200 g). The rats were been treated with 10% and 5% ointment base formulation at dose 15 µl/wound topically. The parameters studied were breaking strength in case of incision wounds, epithelization period and wound area in case of excision wound. The ethanolic extract treated group showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the wound breaking strength in incision type of wound model and significant increase in epithelization period and reduction in percentage of wound area in excision type of wound model as compared to control group. Extract treated groups showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement in all the wound healing parameters of incision and excision wound models as compared to control. This study justify the traditional use of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata stem bark shows wound healing property. PMID:25607746

  10. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Deraemaeker, A.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2015-07-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods.

  11. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  12. Intramembranous Bone Healing Process Subsequent to Tooth Extraction in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography, Histomorphometric and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Assis, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0h), the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7d), characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa), cytokines (TNFα, IL-10), chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4), matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a) and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146) markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14d), characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9), bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST) markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2). No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21d) when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the histomorphometric

  13. The Oneness of Humankind: Healing Racism Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    The guiding principle behind the healing of racism is the Oneness of Humankind. This is not an old concept warmed over. It is knowledge about our collective capacity to reach deep into the human spirit and solve the most complex challenges of our time. The compound problem of race and other issues such as poverty only can be resolved with the…

  14. Acceleration of cutaneous wound healing by brassinosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Schmidt, Barbara; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant growth hormones involved in cell growth, division and differentiation. Their effects in animals are largely unknown, although recent studies showed the anabolic properties of brassinosteroids possibly mediated through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Here we examined biological activity of homobrassinolide (HB) and its synthetic analogues on in vitro proliferation and migration assays in murine fibroblast and primary keratinocyte cell culture. HB stimulated fibroblast proliferation and migration, and weakly induced keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. The effects of topical HB administration on progression of wound closure were further tested in the mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. C57BL/6J mice were given a full thickness dermal wound, and the rate of wound closure was assessed daily for 10 d alongside adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 as a positive control. Topical application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced wound size and accelerated wound healing in treated animals. mRNA levels of TGF-β and ICAM-1 were significantly lower, while TNF-α was nearly suppressed in the wounds from treated mice. Our data suggest that topical brassinosteroids accelerate wound healing by positively modulating inflammatory and re-epithelialization phases of the wound-repair process, in partby enhancing Akt signaling in the skin at the edges of the wound and enhancing migration of fibroblasts in a wounded area. Targeting this signaling pathway with brassinosteroids may represent a promising approach to the therapy of delayed wound healing. PMID:23937635

  15. Signals Involved in Tuber Wound-Healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction and regulation of wound-healing (WH) processes in potato tubers and other vegetables are of great nutritional and economic importance. The rapid accumulation of waxes to restrict water vapor loss and formation of suberin barriers to block infection are crucial components of WH. Recen...

  16. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Jukema, Gerrolt N.; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required. PMID:23346185

  17. Boundary crossing in epithelial wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Eileen; Tzlil, Shelly; Tirrell, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The processes of wound healing and collective cell migration have been studied for decades. Intensive research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in wound healing, but the role of cell-substrate interactions is still not thoroughly understood. Here we probe the role of cell-substrate interactions by examining in vitro the healing of monolayers of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells cultured on artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins. We find that the rate of wound healing is dependent on the concentration of fibronectin-derived (RGD) cell-adhesion ligands in the aECM substrate. The wound closure rate varies nearly sixfold on the substrates examined, despite the fact that the rates of migration and proliferation of individual cells show little sensitivity to the RGD concentration (which varies 40-fold). To explain this apparent contradiction, we study collective migration by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The cells in the simulation spread, retract, and proliferate with probabilities obtained from a simple phenomenological model. The results indicate that the overall wound closure rate is determined primarily by the rate at which cells cross the boundary between the aECM protein and the matrix deposited under the cell sheet. PMID:20974917

  18. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  19. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Julann

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included. PMID:26817369

  20. Practices in Wound Healing Studies of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Rupesh; Jain, Nitika; Pathak, Raghvendra; Sandhu, Sardul Singh

    2011-01-01

    Wounds are the result of injuries to the skin that disrupt the other soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and protracted process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. Various plant products have been used in treatment of wounds over the years. Wound healing herbal extracts promote blood clotting, fight infection, and accelerate the healing of wounds. Phytoconstituents derived from plants need to be identified and screened for antimicrobial activity for management of wounds. The in vitro assays are useful, quick, and relatively inexpensive. Small animals provide a multitude of model choices for various human wound conditions. The study must be conducted after obtaining approval of the Ethics Committee and according to the guidelines for care and use of animals. The prepared formulations of herbal extract can be evaluated by various physicopharmaceutical parameters. The wound healing efficacies of various herbal extracts have been evaluated in excision, incision, dead space, and burn wound models. In vitro and in vivo assays are stepping stones to well-controlled clinical trials of herbal extracts. PMID:21716711

  1. Healing in the Sámi North

    PubMed Central

    Stabbursvik, Ellen Anne Buljo

    2010-01-01

    There is a special emphasis today on integrating traditional healing within health services. However, most areas in which there is a system of traditional healing have undergone colonization and a number of pressures suppressing tradition for hundreds of years. The question arises as to how one can understand today’s tradition in light of earlier traditions. This article is based on material collected in Sámi areas of Finnmark and Nord-Troms Norway; it compares local healing traditions with what is known of earlier shamanic traditions in the area. The study is based on 27 interviews among healers and their patients. The findings suggest that although local healing traditions among the Sámi in northern Norway have undergone major transformations during the last several hundred years, they may be considered an extension of a long-standing tradition with deep roots in the region. Of special interest are also the new forms tradition may take in today’s changing global society. PMID:20862528

  2. Healing Voids In Interconnections In Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.; Lawton, Russell A.; Gavin, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Unusual heat treatment heals voids in aluminum interconnections on integrated circuits (IC's). Treatment consists of heating IC to temperature between 200 degrees C and 400 degrees C, holding it at that temperature, and then plunging IC immediately into liquid nitrogen. Typical holding time at evaluated temperature is 30 minutes.

  3. Biomechanics and Wound Healing in the Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Dupps, William J.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The biomechanical and wound healing properties of the cornea undermine the predictability and stability of refractive surgery and contribute to discrepancies between attempted and achieved visual outcomes after LASIK, surface ablation and other keratorefractive procedures. Furthermore, patients predisposed to biomechanical failure or abnormal wound healing can experience serious complications such as keratectasia or clinically significant corneal haze, and more effective means for the identification of such patients prior to surgery are needed. In this review, we describe the cornea as a complex structural composite material with pronounced anisotropy and heterogeneity, summarize current understanding of major biomechanical and reparative pathways that contribute to the corneal response to laser vision correction, and review the role of these processes in ectasia, intraocular pressure measurement artifact, diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) and corneal haze. The current understanding of differences in the corneal response after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK and femtosecond-assisted LASIK are reviewed. Surgical and disease models that integrate corneal geometric data, substructural anatomy, elastic and viscoelastic material properties and wound healing behavior have the potential to improve clinical outcomes and minimize complications but depend on the identification of preoperative predictors of biomechanical and wound healing responses in individual patients. PMID:16720023

  4. Walking with Madhu: Healing Ped/agogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T. Francene

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, the author responds to Madhu Prakash's piece on friendship gardens and healing our "Mother" through Prakash's central question, "How to birth a world in which many worlds flourish and complement each other in their wild, divine diversity; all equally enjoying Ahimsa flourishing and happiness?" Coming…

  5. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  6. The Ntu Approach to Health and Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory W. Henry; Harper, Kevin W.

    2001-01-01

    Ntu is a pluralistic approach to psychotherapy. Framed in an Afrocentric understanding of the world, Ntu is a multifaceted, continually evolving way of conceptualizing human behavior that treats families using ancient Eastern principles of healing, New Age conceptualizations of the mind-body relationship, an Afrocentric world view, and…

  7. Functionalized silk biomaterials for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Bellas, Evangelia; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Silk protein-biomaterial wound dressings with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and silver sulfadiazine were studied with a cutaneous excisional mouse wound model. Three different material designs and two different drug incorporation techniques were studied to compare wound healing responses. Material formats included silk films, lamellar porous silk films and electrospun silk nanofibers, each studied with the silk matrix alone and with drug loading or drug coatings on the silk matrices. Changes in wound size and histological assessments of wound tissues showed that the functionalized silk biomaterial wound dressings increased wound healing rate, including reepithelialization, dermis proliferation, collagen synthesis and reduced scar formation, when compared to air-permeable Tegaderm tape (3M) (- control) and a commercial wound dressing, Tegaderm Hydrocolloid dressing (3M) (+ control). All silk biomaterials were effective for wound healing, while the lamellar porous films and electrospun nanofibers and the incorporation of EGF/silver sulfadiazine, via drug loading or coating, provided the most rapid wound healing responses. This systematic approach to evaluating functionalized silk biomaterial wound dressings demonstrates a useful strategy to select formulations for further study towards new treatment options for chronic wounds. PMID:23184644

  8. Inhibition of Midkine Augments Osteoporotic Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Kemmler, Julia; Heidler, Verena; Prystaz, Katja; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Kovtun, Anna; Rapp, Anna E.; Ignatius, Anita; Liedert, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The heparin-binding growth and differentiation factor midkine (Mdk) is proposed to negatively regulate osteoblast activity and bone formation in the adult skeleton. As Mdk-deficient mice were protected from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss, this factor may also play a role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We have previously demonstrated that Mdk negatively influences bone regeneration during fracture healing. Here, we investigated whether the inhibition of Mdk using an Mdk-antibody (Mdk-Ab) improves compromised bone healing in osteoporotic OVX-mice. Using a standardized femur osteotomy model, we demonstrated that Mdk serum levels were significantly enhanced after fracture in both non-OVX and OVX-mice, however, the increase was considerably greater in osteoporotic mice. Systemic treatment with the Mdk-Ab significantly improved bone healing in osteoporotic mice by increasing bone formation in the fracture callus. On the molecular level, we demonstrated that the OVX-induced reduction of the osteoanabolic beta-catenin signaling in the bony callus was abolished by Mdk-Ab treatment. Furthermore, the injection of the Mdk-Ab increased trabecular bone mass in the skeleton of the osteoporotic mice. These results implicate that antagonizing Mdk may be useful for the therapy of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture-healing complications. PMID:27410432

  9. Is frictional healing slip-dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Rubin, A. M.; Ryan, K. L.; Riviere, J. V.; Marone, C.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional re-strengthening of bare rock surfaces at very low stresses and near zero slip rate, as observed in the laboratory, is traditionally interpreted as showing support for purely time-dependent healing as embodied in the Aging law. However, while slide-hold-slide experiments on bare surfaces do show an apparent (purely) time-dependent increase in the static friction upon reslide, we show that the stress minima attained during the preceding holds show a strong slip-dependence which contradict the Aging law. A velocity strengthening Slip law explains such data much better. We also show that, large velocity step decreases, which drive the system far below steady state just like long holds, clearly support the slip-dependent response of the Slip law over the time-dependent healing contained in the Aging law. But, while time-dependent healing has an intuitive physical picture in terms of growth of the 'real contact area' with time, it is more difficult to ascribe one to slip-dependent healing. Here, we explore the possibility that the slip-dependence arises out of an interplay between contact `quality' and `quantity' at the scale of the asperity contacts. First, to further study the slip-dependence of healing, we carry out large velocity step decreases and sequences of long slide-hold-slides on both bare rock and gouge. Secondly, to probe the micro-mechanical origins of healing, we complement our mechanical data with amplitudes and travel time data of ultrasonic P- and S- waves transmitted across the sliding interface. While ultrasonic P-wave transmissivity has been used as a proxy for 'real contact area' in friction experiments by Nagata et al. (2012, 2014) before, the simultaneous use of P- and S-phases in our experiments is designed specifically to probe contact rheology. Initial results show strong correlations between changes in friction, transmitted wave amplitudes and travel times in response to changes in slip rate. We also observe important differences

  10. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  11. An Assessment of Self-Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Several reviews and books have been written concerning self-healing polymers over the last few years. These have focused primarily on the types of self-healing materials being studied, with minor emphasis given to composite properties. The purpose of this review is to assess the self-healing ability of these materials when utilized in fiber reinforced composites

  12. Creating optimal healing environments in a health care setting.

    PubMed

    Zborowsky, Terri; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2008-03-01

    As evidence about the benefits of healing environments accumulates, health care organizations are starting to incorporate features into hospital design that reduce stress and promote healing. This article discusses some of the research supporting healing design and provides examples of how it is being used in new construction and renovations. PMID:18438085

  13. Bodyfaith and the Mind's Heart: Educational Healing for Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sally Naylor

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that reimagining God through metaphors that counter patriarchy can become a liberating and transformational pathway for a healing community. Proposes two metaphorical constructions, "bodyfaith" and "the mind's heart," to act as tools to imagine a healing agenda within education. Considers the role of educational healing within a…

  14. The Presence of Oxygen in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Howard M; Grant, Anthony; Ditata, James

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen must be tightly governed in all phases of wound healing to produce viable granulation tissue. This idea of tight regulation has yet to be disputed; however, the role of oxygen at the cellular and molecular levels still is not fully understood as it pertains to its place in healing wounds. In an attempt to better understand the dynamics of oxygen on living tissue and its potential role as a therapy in wound healing, a substantial literature review of the role of oxygen in wound healing was performed and the following key points were extrapolated: 1) During energy metabolism, oxygen is needed for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase as it produces high-energy phosphates that are needed for many cellular functions, 2) oxygen is also involved in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine into procollagen, which leads to collagen maturation, 3) in angiogenesis, hypoxia is required to start the process of wound healing, but it has been shown that if oxygen is administered it can accelerate and sustain vessel growth, 4) the antimicrobial action of oxygen occurs when nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-linked oxygenase acts as a catalyst for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a superoxide ion which kills bacteria, and 5) the level of evidence is moderate for the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for diabetic foot ulcers, crush injuries, and soft-tissue infections. The authors hypothesized that HBOT would be beneficial to arterial insufficiency wounds and other ailments, but at this time further study is needed before HBOT would be indicated. PMID:27560469

  15. Enhancing resilience of interdependent networks by healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stippinger, Marcell; Kertész, János

    2014-12-01

    Interdependent networks are characterized by two kinds of interactions: The usual connectivity links within each network and the dependency links coupling nodes of different networks. Due to the latter links such networks are known to suffer from cascading failures and catastrophic breakdowns. When modeling these phenomena, usually one assumes that a fraction of nodes gets damaged in one of the networks, which is followed possibly by a cascade of failures. In real life the initiating failures do not occur at once and effort is made to replace the ties eliminated due to the failing nodes. Here we study a dynamic extension of the model of interdependent networks and introduce the possibility of link formation with a probability w, called healing, to bridge non-functioning nodes and enhance network resilience. A single random node is removed, which may initiate an avalanche. After each removal step healing starts resulting in a new topology. Then a new node fails and the process continues until the giant component disappears either in a catastrophic breakdown or in a smooth transition. Simulation results are presented for square lattices as starting networks under random attacks of constant intensity. We find that the shift in the position of the breakdown has a power-law scaling as a function of the healing probability with an exponent close to 1. Below a critical healing probability, catastrophic cascades form and the average degree of surviving nodes decreases monotonically, while above this value there are no macroscopic cascades and the average degree has first an increasing character and decreases only at the very late stage of the process. These findings facilitate to plan intervention in case of crisis situation by describing the efficiency of healing efforts needed to suppress cascading failures.

  16. Primed Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alter Healing and Improve Rat Medial Collateral Ligament Healing

    PubMed Central

    Saether, Erin E.; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Aktas, Erdem; Leiferman, Ellen M.; Brickson, Stacey L.; Vanderby, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can improve tissue healing. It is possible, however, that priming MSCs prior to implantation can further enhance their therapeutic benefit. This study was then performed to test whether priming MSCs to be more anti-inflammatory would enhance healing in a rat ligament model, i.e. a medial collateral ligament (MCL). MSCs were primed for 48 hours using polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid (Poly (I:C)) at a concentration of 1µg/ml. Rat MCLs were surgically transected and administered 1×106 cells in a carrier solution at the time of injury. A series of healing metrics were analyzed at days 4 and 14 post-injury in the ligaments that received primed MSCs, unprimed MSCs, or no cells (controls). Applying primed MSCs beneficially altered healing by affecting endothelialization, type 2 macrophage presence, apoptosis, procollagen 1α, and IL-1Ra levels. When analyzing MSC localization, both primed and unprimed MSCs co-localized with endothelial cells and pericytes suggesting a supportive role in angiogenesis. Priming MSCs prior to implantation altered key ligament healing events, resulted in a more anti-inflammatory environment, and improved healing. PMID:26530282

  17. Effects of mouse genotype on bone wound healing and irradiation-induced delay of healing.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kung, Jason; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    We tested the effects of mouse genotype (C57BL/6NHsd, NOD/SCID, SAMR1, and SAMP6) and ionizing irradiation on bone wound healing. Unicortical wounds were made in the proximal tibiae, and the time course of spontaneous healing and effects of irradiation were monitored radiographically and histologically. There was reproducible healing beginning with intramedullary osteogenesis, subsequent bone resorption by osteoclasts, gradual bridging of the cortical wound, and re-population of medullary hematopoietic cells. The most rapid wound closure was noted in SAMR1 mice, followed by SAMP6, C57BL/6NHsd, and NOD/SCID. Ionizing irradiation (20 Gy) to the leg significantly delayed bone wound healing in mice of all four genotypes. Mice with genetically-determined predisposition to early osteopenia (SAMP6) or with immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) had impairments in bone wound healing. These mouse models should be valuable for determining the effects of irradiation on bone healing and also for the design and testing of novel bone growth-enhancing drugs and mitigators of ionizing irradiation. PMID:24632972

  18. A continuum thermo-inelastic model for damage and healing in self-healing glass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2014-07-08

    Self-healing glass, a recent advancement in the class of smart sealing materials, has attracted great attention from both research and industrial communities because of its unique capability of repairing itself at elevated temperatures. However, further development and optimization of this material rely on a more fundamental and thorough understanding of its essential thermo-mechanical response characteristics, which is also pivotal in predicting the coupling and interactions between the nonlinear stress and temperature dependent damage and healing behaviors. In the current study, a continuum three-dimensional thermo-inelastic damage-healing constitutive framework has been developed for the compliant self-healing glass material. The important feature of the present model is that various phenomena governing the mechanical degradation and recovery process, i.e. the nucleation, growth, and healing of the cracks and pores, are described with distinct mechanism-driven kinetics, where the healing constitutive relations are propagated from lower-length scale simulations. The proposed formulations are implemented into finite element analyses and the effects of various loading conditions and material properties on the material’s mechanical resistance are investigated.

  19. Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study. Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P<0.05). The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P<0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect. PMID:27309263

  20. Dual effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on skin wound healing of mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Min; Shi, Xing-Min; Cai, Jing-Fen; Chen, Si-Le; Li, Ping; Yao, Cong-Wei; Chang, Zheng-Shi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cold plasma has become an attractive tool for promoting wound healing and treating skin diseases. This article presents an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) generated in argon gas through dielectric barrier discharge, which was applied to superficial skin wounds in BALB/c mice. The mice (n = 50) were assigned randomly into five groups (named A, B, C, D, E) with 10 animals in each group. Natural wound healing was compared with stimulated wound healing treated daily with APPJ for different time spans (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 seconds) on 14 consecutive days. APPJ emission spectra, morphological changes in animal wounds, and tissue histological parameters were analyzed. Statistical results revealed that wound size changed over the duration of the experimental period and there was a significant interaction between experimental day and group. Differences between group C and other groups at day 7 were statistically significant (p < 0.05). All groups had nearly achieved closure of the untreated control wounds at day 14. The wounds treated with APPJ for 10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds showed significantly enhanced daily improvement compared with the control and almost complete closure at day 12, 10, 7, and 13, respectively. The optimal results of epidermal cell regeneration, granulation tissue hyperplasia, and collagen deposition in histological aspect were observed at day 7. However, the wounds treated for 50 seconds were less well healed at day 14 than those of the control. It was concluded that appropriate doses of cold plasma could inactivate bacteria around the wound, activate fibroblast proliferation in wound tissue, and eventually promote wound healing. Whereas, over doses of plasma suppressed wound healing due to causing cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Both positive and negative effects may be related to the existence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in APPJ. PMID:26342154

  1. Quantitative wound healing studies using a portable, low cost, handheld near-infrared optical scanner: preliminary sensitivity and specificity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiali; Rodriguez, Suset; Jayachandran, Maanasa; Solis, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Perez-Clavijo, Francesco; Wigley, Stephen; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers are devastating complications that are still un-recognized. To date, clinicians employ visual inspection of the wound site during its standard 4-week of healing process via monitoring of surface granulation. A novel ultra-portable near-infrared optical scanner (NIROS) has been developed at the Optical Imaging Laboratory that can perform non-contact 2D area imaging of the wound site. From preliminary studies it was observed that the nonhealing wounds had a greater absorption contrast with respect to the normal site, unlike in the healing wounds. Currently, non-contact near-infrared (NIR) imaging studies were carried out on 22 lower extremity wounds at two podiatric clinics, and the sensitivity and specificity of the scanner evaluated. A quantitative optical biometric was developed that differentiates healing from non-healing wounds, based on the threshold values obtained during ROC analysis. In addition, optical images of the wound obtained from weekly imaging studies are also assessed to determine the ability of the device to predict wound healing consistently on a periodic basis. This can potentially impact early intervention in the treatment of lower extremity ulcers when an objective and quantitative wound healing approach is developed. Lastly, the incorporation of MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) to automate the process of image acquisition, image processing and image analysis realizes the potential of NIROS to perform non-contact and real-time imaging on lower extremity wounds.

  2. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  3. A mimic of self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis?

    PubMed

    Williams, Charles A; Merkel, Kimberly L

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a chronic history of atypical papular mucinosis consisting of multiple subcutaneous nodules and confluent papular skin lesions. He initially presented at age 2 years with the rapid onset of numerous subcutaneous nodular lesions that completely resolved over a period of years. Clinical and histologic evidence, together with his clinical course, were suggestive of self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis (SHJCM), but a few years later, during childhood, he experienced a recurrence of the subcutaneous nodules involving the limbs, trunk, and face, in addition to new findings of multiple flesh-colored papules coalescing into plaques on his neck and back. Although his early childhood course and histologic picture were suggestive of SHJCM, the progressive nature of his disorder is not like that seen in SHJCM and appears different from other reported disorders involving cutaneous mucinosis. PMID:25233809

  4. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  5. Fracture Healing Is Delayed in Immunodeficient NOD/scid‑IL2Rγcnull Mice

    PubMed Central

    Recknagel, Stefan; Erbacher, Annika; Müller, Ingo; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Gebhard, Florian; Ignatius, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Following bone fracture, the repair process starts with an inflammatory reaction at the fracture site. Fracture healing is disturbed when the initial inflammation is increased or prolonged, whereby, a balanced inflammatory response is anticipated to be crucial for fracture healing, because it may induce down-stream responses leading to tissue repair. However, the impact of the immune response on fracture healing remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated bone healing in NOD/scid-IL2Rγcnull mice, which exhibit severe defects in innate and adaptive immunity, by biomechanical testing, histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography. We demonstrated that NOD/scid-IL2Rγcnull mice exhibited normal skeletal anatomy and a mild bone phenotype with a slightly reduced bone mass in the trabecular compartment in comparison to immunocompetent Balb/c mice. Fracture healing was impaired in immunodeficient NOD/scid-IL2Rγcnull mice. Callus bone content was unaffected during the early healing stage, whereas it was significantly reduced during the later healing period. Concomitantly, the amount of cartilage was significantly increased, indicating delayed endochondral ossification, most likely due to the decreased osteoclast activity observed in cells isolated from NOD/scid-IL2Rγcnull mice. Our results suggest that—under aseptic, uncomplicated conditions—the immediate immune response after fracture is non-essential for the initiation of bone formation. However, an intact immune system in general is important for successful bone healing, because endochondral ossification is delayed in immunodeficient NOD/scid-IL2Rγcnull mice. PMID:26849055

  6. Bixin action in the healing process of rats mouth wounds.

    PubMed

    Piva, Renata Machado; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Costa, Camila Kocler; Miguel, Obdulio Gomez; Rosa, Edvaldo Ribeiro; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Ignacio, Sergio Aparecido; Bettega, Patrícia Vida Cassi; Gregio, Ana Maria Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Oral lesions that manifest as ulcer lesions are quite common and can cause discomfort to the patient. Searching for drugs to accelerate the healing of these lesions is nonstop process. Bixin is a molecule found in annatto (urucum) seeds and is considered a viable therapeutic option to treat such lesions due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and healing properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bixin solution in the ulcer healing process in the oral mucosa of rats. Ulcers were induced with punches of 0.5 cm in the middle of the dorsum of the tongue of 64 Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups, in which 4 groups were treated with saline solution, while the other 4 were treated with the bixin solution. The animals were sacrificed in the periods 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after the beginning of the treatment. The species were histologically processed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius. Fibroblasts, reepithelialization, and wound contraction could be observed, as could the quantification of neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and mature and immature collagen. On the seventh day, the experimental group, when compared to the control group, presented a higher proliferation of fibroblasts, more advanced reepithelialization, and a higher contraction in the wounds. A reduction in the average number of neutrophils in the experimental group, when compared to the control group, could be observed in all periods (p=0.000). Up to two days, the total collagen area was higher (p=0.044) in the experimental group (4139.60±3047.51t han in the control group (1564.81±918.47). The deposition of mature collagen, on the 14(th) day, was higher (p=0.048) in the experimental group (5802.40±3578.18) than in the control group (1737.26±1439.97). The results found in the present study indicate that the bixin solution inhibits the acute inflammatory response with a minor average number of neutrophils and

  7. Platelet rich plasma to facilitate wound healing following tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, James L; Johnson, David A; Radio, Nicholas M; Fennell, James W

    2010-01-01

    Following tooth removal bone formation normally takes 16 weeks and may result in less than adequate volume for the necessary reconstruction. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been promoted as an effective method for improving bone formation. Its use is often expensive, time consuming, or not clinically convenient for the patient and/or clinician. This study examines a simple method for obtaining a "Buffy Coat"-PRP (BC-PRP) and its effect on bone healing following the removal of bilateral mandibular 3rd molars. Subtraction digital radiography and CT scan analysis were used to track changes in radiographic density at PRP treated sites in comparison to ipsilateral non-PRP treated sites. PRP treated sites demonstrated early and significant increased radiographic density over baseline measurements following tooth removal. The greatest benefit of PRP is during the initial 2-week postoperative healing time period (P < .001). During weeks 3 though 12, BC-PRP treatment resulted in significant (P < .0001) increases in bone density compared to control, but there was no significant interaction between time and treatment (P > .05). For the entire time period (0-25 weeks) PRP treatment was significant (P < .0001) and time was significant (P < .0001) but there was no significant interaction (P > .05) between the effect of PRP treatment and time. It required 6 weeks for control extraction sites to reach comparable bone density that PRP treated sites achieved at week 1. Postoperative pain, bleeding, and numbness were not significantly affected by BC-PRP application. Results suggest that this simple technique may be of value to clinicians performing oral surgery by facilitating bone regeneration following tooth extraction. PMID:20218866

  8. A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Naeema; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2014-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves the mediation of many initiators effective during the healing process such as cytokines, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, the defence mechanism of the body undergoes a step-by-step but continuous process known as the wound healing cascade to ensure optimal healing. Thus, when designing a wound healing system or dressing, it is pivotal that key factors such as optimal gaseous exchange, a moist wound environment, prevention of microbial activity and absorption of exudates are considered. A variety of wound dressings are available, however, not all meet the specific requirements of an ideal wound healing system to consider every aspect within the wound healing cascade. Recent research has focussed on the development of smart polymeric materials. Combining biopolymers that are crucial for wound healing may provide opportunities to synthesise matrices that are inductive to cells and that stimulate and trigger target cell responses crucial to the wound healing process. This review therefore outlines the processes involved in skin regeneration, optimal management and care required for wound treatment. It also assimilates, explores and discusses wound healing drug-delivery systems and nanotechnologies utilised for enhanced wound healing applications. PMID:24985412

  9. Predictability of antitumor efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan based on skin rash severity according to observation period in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer following failure of fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin

    PubMed Central

    HORIE, YOSHIKI; YAMAZAKI, KENTARO; FUNAKOSHI, TARO; HAMAUCHI, SATOSHI; TANIGUCHI, HIROYA; TSUSHIMA, TAKAHIRO; TODAKA, AKIKO; MACHIDA, NOZOMU; TAKU, KEISEI; FUKUTOMI, AKIRA; ONOZAWA, YUSUKE; YASUI, HIROFUMI; MIZUKAMI, TAKURO; IZAWA, NAOKI; HIRAKAWA, MAMI; TSUDA, TAKASHI; NAKAJIMA, TAKAKO; BOKU, NARIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of cetuximab correlates with the severity of skin toxicity, although its onset may vary. The AIM of this retrospective study was to investigate the optimal observation period for skin rash as a predictor of the efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan. The subjects comprised 33 patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who had received prior chemotherapy with fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. The response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the presence or absence of ≥grade 2 skin rash within 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks following cetuximab initiation. The overall RR was 45% (15/33) and the median PFS and OS were 188 and 383 days, respectively. A total of 26 patients experienced ≥grade 2 skin rash within 8 weeks. The proportion of responders among patients who developed ≥grade 2 skin rash (severe group) decreased depending on the duration of the observation period (50% within 8 weeks), whereas the proportion of non-responders among patients with 8 weeks). Similarly, the proportion of patients with an unfavorable prognosis (PFS <6 months, OS <1 year) in the mild group increased (86% for PFS and 71% for OS within 8 weeks), whereas the proportion of those with a favorable prognosis in the severe group remained stable (73% for PFS and 62% for OS within 8 weeks). Therefore, the absence of ≥grade 2 skin rash within 8 weeks may be predictive of unfavorable efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan in mCRC patients. PMID:26623045

  10. Analysis of internal crack healing mechanism under rolling deformation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haitao; Ai, Zhengrong; Yu, Hailiang; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental method, called the 'hole filling method', is proposed to simulate the healing of internal cracks in rolled workpieces. Based on the experimental results, the evolution in the microstructure, in terms of diffusion, nucleation and recrystallisation were used to analyze the crack healing mechanism. We also validated the phenomenon of segmented healing. Internal crack healing involves plastic deformation, heat transfer and an increase in the free energy introduced by the cracks. It is proposed that internal cracks heal better under high plastic deformation followed by slow cooling after rolling. Crack healing is controlled by diffusion of atoms from the matrix to the crack surface, and also by the nucleation and growth of ferrite grain on the crack surface. The diffusion mechanism is used to explain the source of material needed for crack healing. The recrystallisation mechanism is used to explain grain nucleation and growth, accompanied by atomic migration to the crack surface. PMID:25003518

  11. Analysis of Internal Crack Healing Mechanism under Rolling Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haitao; Ai, Zhengrong; Yu, Hailiang; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental method, called the ‘hole filling method’, is proposed to simulate the healing of internal cracks in rolled workpieces. Based on the experimental results, the evolution in the microstructure, in terms of diffusion, nucleation and recrystallisation were used to analyze the crack healing mechanism. We also validated the phenomenon of segmented healing. Internal crack healing involves plastic deformation, heat transfer and an increase in the free energy introduced by the cracks. It is proposed that internal cracks heal better under high plastic deformation followed by slow cooling after rolling. Crack healing is controlled by diffusion of atoms from the matrix to the crack surface, and also by the nucleation and growth of ferrite grain on the crack surface. The diffusion mechanism is used to explain the source of material needed for crack healing. The recrystallisation mechanism is used to explain grain nucleation and growth, accompanied by atomic migration to the crack surface. PMID:25003518

  12. The Role of Neuromediators and Innervation in Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mohammed; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-06-15

    The skin is densely innervated with an intricate network of cutaneous nerves, neuromediators and specific receptors which influence a variety of physiological and disease processes. There is emerging evidence that cutaneous innervation may play an important role in mediating wound healing. This review aims to comprehensively examine the evidence that signifies the role of innervation during the overlapping stages of cutaneous wound healing. Numerous neuropeptides that are secreted by the sensory and autonomic nerve fibres play an essential part during the distinct phases of wound healing. Delayed wound healing in diabetes and fetal cutaneous regeneration following wounding further highlights the pivotal role skin innervation and its associated neuromediators play in wound healing. Understanding the mechanisms via which cutaneous innervation modulates wound healing in both the adult and fetus will provide opportunities to develop therapeutic devices which could manipulate skin innervation to aid wound healing. PMID:26676806

  13. Polydimethylsiloxane-based self-healing composite and coating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo Hyoun

    This thesis describes the science and technology of a new class of autonomic polymeric materials which mimic some of the functionalities of biological materials. Specifically, we demonstrate an autonomic self-healing polymer system which can heal damage in both coatings and bulk materials. The new self-healing system we developed greatly extends the capability of self-healing polymers by introducing tin catalyzed polycondensation of hydroxyl end-functionalited polydimethylsiloxane and polydiethoxysiloxane based chemistries. The components in this system are widely available and comparatively low in cost, and the healing chemistry also remains stable in humid or wet environments. These achievements significantly increase the probability that self-healing could be extended not only to polymer composites but also to coatings and thin films in harsh environments. We demonstrate the bulk self-healing property of a polymer composite composed of a phase-separated PDMS healing agent and a microencapsulated organotin catalyst by chemical and mechanical testing. Another significant research focus is on self-healing polymer coatings which prevent corrosion of a metal substrate after deep scratch damage. The anti-corrosion properties of the self-healing polymer on metal substrates are investigated by corrosion resistance and electrochemical tests. Even after scratch damage into the substrate, the coating is able to heal, while control samples which do not include all the necessary healing components reveal rapid corrosion propagation. This self-healing coating solution can be easily applied to most substrate materials, and is compatible with most common polymer matrices. Self-healing has the potential to extend the lifetime and increase the reliability of thermosetting polymers used in a wide variety of applications ranging from microelectronics to aerospace.

  14. Skin wound healing and phytomedicine: a review.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Rafiee, Esmail; Mehrabian, Abolfath; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum. Phytotherapy may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on cutaneous wounds. This article provides a review of the common beneficial medicinal plants in the management of skin wounds with an attempt to explain their mechanisms. PMID:24993834

  15. Assisted self-healing in ripped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Blaeckberg, L.; Sjoestrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.; Ringbom, A.

    2010-11-15

    A monolayer of sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon (graphene) is a material with great technological promise because of, for example, its transport, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. In this work noble gas diffusion through ripped graphene sheets is explored. The motivation is improved detection systems used worldwide to verify compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. It is demonstrated that even ripped graphene sheets and/or nonoverlapping graphene flakes inhibit noble gas diffusion. The latter has been shown for He and Xe where an infinitely long rip was constructed to have Stone-Wales edges. It is also shown that the ripped graphene layer self-heal in an alternating pentagon, hexagon, heptagon (5-6-7) and 7-6-5 pattern perpendicular to the rip. Moreover, the noble gas (He and Xe) assists in the healing process of wider rips.

  16. Role of Wnt signaling in fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiyun; Duan, Jing; Ning, Dandan; Li, Jingbao; Liu, Ruofei; Yang, Ruixin; Jiang, Jean X.; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is well known to play major roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. In certain aspects, fracture repair mimics the process of bone embryonic development. Thus, the importance of Wnt signaling in fracture healing has become more apparent in recent years. Here, we summarize recent research progress in the area, which may be conducive to the development of Wnt-based therapeutic strategies for bone repair. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 666-672] PMID:25301020

  17. Tendon, tendon healing, hyperlipidemia and statins

    PubMed Central

    Esenkaya, Irfan; Unay, Koray

    2011-01-01

    Summary Both hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome have adverse effect on tendon structure. Atorvastatin is most widely used antihyperlipidemic drug. Statins have adverse effects on the tendon. Many studies have analyzed the relationship between atorvastatin and skeletal muscles. Atorvastatin administered after the surgical repair of a ruptured tendon appears to affect revascularization, collagenization, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen construction. Therefore, further investigations on the effects of atorvastatin on tendon healing are needed. PMID:23738266

  18. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  19. Effect of Acticoat(®) and Cutinova Hydro(®) on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Arıcan, Mustafa; Hatipoglu, Fatih; Uyaroglu, Aysen; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Ozkan, Kadircan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the wound-covering materials, Acticoat(®) and Cutinova Hydro(®) , on wound healing have been studied in rabbit models with open and tissue-lost wounds with full-thickness flank excisions. Rabbits were used as subjects with three groups of four rabbits each, and trial periods of 7, 14 and 21{\\uns}days. Four circular wounds, of 1.5 cm diameter were made two on the right (one of them control) and two on the left (one of them control) of the dorsal sides of the abdomen. Acticoat(®) and Cutinova Hydro(®) were applied on the wounds with suture for a period of 21 days and one each placed on the right and left sides as control with gauze. Biopsy specimens were taken from the animals at the end of the research period to check the length of the epithelium, epithelial thickness, size of wounds, wound granulation tissue formation and histopathological evaluation for clarity. The Acticoat(®) group showed better healing and scar formation compared to the Cutinova Hydro(®) group by macroscopic examination. Epithelial wound length and clarity in terms of statistical difference occurred on day 21 (P <0.05); while the length of the wound epithelium decreased patency, epithelial thickness on days~7, 14 and 21, showed no statistical differences (P >0.05). As a result, the Acticoat(®) wound dressing was determined as a more reliable for the early wound healing. This study has shown the short-term clinical benefits of hydroactive, polyurethane dressings in the management of acute wounds. However, longer periods of wound healing procedure should be planned for reliable and safe results of wound dressing. It has also been concluded that microbiological analyses should be included for more robust and reliable comparisons. PMID:22682153

  20. Triterpenes with healing activity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agra, Lais C; Ferro, Jamylle N S; Barbosa, Fabiano T; Barreto, Emiliano

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature on the efficacy of triterpenes for wound healing. We searched for original studies in the Medline, SCIDIRECT and LILACS databases published from 1910 to 2013. For each study, the title, abstract and full article were evaluated by two reviewers. We identified 2181 studies; however, after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 12 studies were subjected to further review. In surgical wounds, the triterpenes induced a reduction in time to closure, and this effect was reported in virtually all wound types. Triterpenes also modulate the production of ROS in the wound microenvironment, accelerating the process of tissue repair. Triterpenes may also induce cell migration, cell proliferation and collagen deposition. Although the pharmacological effects of triterpenes are well characterized, little is known about their effects in cells involved in healing, such as keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, the lack of studies on the risks associated with the therapeutic use of triterpenes is worrisome. Our study reveals that triterpenes seem to favor wound healing; however, toxicological studies with these compounds are required. Taken together, these findings show that the triterpenes are a class of molecules with significant promise that leads for the development of new drugs to treat skin injury. PMID:25893368

  1. BPC 157's effect on healing.

    PubMed

    Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P; Grabarevic, Z; Zoricic, I; Hanzevacki, M; Ljubanovic, D; Coric, V; Konjevoda, P; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Turkovic, B; Perovic, D; Mikus, D; Jandrijevic, S; Medvidovic, M; Tadic, T; Romac, B; Kos, J; Peric, J; Kolega, Z

    1997-01-01

    The 15 amino acid agent BPC 157, showing a wide range of organoprotective action in different experimental models, was used in our experiments in order to establish its influence on different elements connected with the healing process. Elements thought to be of greatest importance in the process of healing are formation of granulation tissue, angiogenesis and production of collagen. In our work we tested the influence of BPC 157 on: granulation tissue and collagen formation, on angiogenesis as well as on tensile strength development, using three experimental rat models: 1) skin incisional wounds; 2) colon-colon anastomoses; and 3) angiogenesis model with synthetic sponge implantation. The specimens were histologically assessed for collagen, reticulin and blood vessels using scoring and morphometry. In all experiments significant differences between BPC 157-treated animals and controls were found, showing a strong, promoting involvement of BPC in the healing process. It is worth noting that these effects were achieved by different routes of application, including intragastric and local, making BPC 157 a potentially useful therapeutic agent. PMID:9403790

  2. Biological aspects of rotator cuff healing

    PubMed Central

    Wildemann, Britt; Klatte, Franka

    2011-01-01

    Summary Tendon tears of the rotator cuff show a high prevalence in today’s population. Patients suffer from permanent pain and disability, and surgical reconstruction may be the only possibility for abatement. The complex process of tendon-bone healing leads to mechanically inferior scar-tissue, which often results in retears or non-healing. In the current literature, factors such as patients age, sex and fatty muscle infiltration are highly correlated to the presence of rotator cuff tears and the incidence of retears. To improve the tendon tissue quality after surgical reconstructions biologically based strategies with use of growth factors arouse more and more interest in the last years. However, to optimize the treatment of rotator cuff tears the biological background of tears and retears must be investigated in more detail. This article will elucidate different aspects that have an impact on rotator cuff healing and give a brief insight in tendon/ligament cell culture and animal studies focusing on growth factor treatments. PMID:23738265

  3. Epithelialization in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie C.; Ramirez, Horacio; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Sawaya, Andrew; Patel, Shailee B.; Khalid, Laiqua; Isseroff, Rivkah R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Keratinocytes, a major cellular component of the epidermis, are responsible for restoring the epidermis after injury through a process termed epithelialization. This review will focus on the pivotal role of keratinocytes in epithelialization, including cellular processes and mechanisms of their regulation during re-epithelialization, and their cross talk with other cell types participating in wound healing. Recent Advances: Discoveries in epidermal stem cells, keratinocyte immune function, and the role of the epidermis as an independent neuroendocrine organ will be reviewed. Novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation important for re-epithelialization, including microRNAs and histone modifications, will also be discussed. Critical Issues: Epithelialization is an essential component of wound healing used as a defining parameter of a successful wound closure. A wound cannot be considered healed in the absence of re-epithelialization. The epithelialization process is impaired in all types of chronic wounds. Future Directions: A comprehensive understanding of the epithelialization process will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to promote wound closure. PMID:25032064

  4. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret Mary; Melrose, James

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Proteoglycans have a distinct spatial localization in normal skin and are essential for the correct structural development, organization, hydration, and functional properties of this tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is no longer considered to be just an inert supportive material but is a source of directive, spatial and temporal, contextual information to the cells via components such as the proteoglycans. There is a pressing need to improve our understanding of how these important molecules functionally interact with other matrix structures, cells and cellular mediators in normal skin and during wound healing. Recent Advances: New antibodies to glycosaminoglycan side chain components of skin proteoglycans have facilitated the elucidation of detailed localization patterns within skin. Other studies have revealed important proliferative activities of proteinase-generated fragments of proteoglycans and other ECM components (matricryptins). Knockout mice have further established the functional importance of skin proteoglycans in the assembly and homeostasis of the normal skin ECM. Critical Issues: Our comprehension of the molecular and structural complexity of skin as a complex, dynamic, constantly renewing, layered connective tissue is incomplete. The impact of changes in proteoglycans on skin pathology and the wound healing process is recognized as an important area of pathobiology and is an area of intense investigation. Future Directions: Advanced technology is allowing the development of new artificial skins. Recent knowledge on skin proteoglycans can be used to incorporate these molecules into useful adjunct therapies for wound healing and for maintenance of optimal tissue homeostasis in aging skin. PMID:25785238

  5. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field. PMID:12197200

  6. Effect of methotrexate on fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Koichiro; Mark, Hans; Zachrisson, Peter; Rydevik, Björn; Byröd, Gunnar; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2011-01-01

    Low doses of methotrexate (MTX) are safe and effective for treating adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. However, because this powerful anti-inflammatory drug might negatively influence the healing of wounds and fractures, MTX administration is often stopped during surgical procedures. The present study assesses the effects of low- and high-dose MTX on early inflammatory processes and bone healing in an experimental model of fracture. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to low- and high-dose MTX and control groups. A femur was cut using a reciprocating saw and a 2-mm fracture gap was made using a fixator. One or four weeks thereafter, macrophages were immunostained and new bone formation was histomorphometrically measured. Significantly less new bone was formed in the high-dose MTX, than in the control group (p< 0.01), whereas bone formation did not significantly differ between the low-dose MTX and control groups. These results suggested that a low dose of MTX does not affect the early process of endochondral bone formation during fracture healing, whereas a high dose might delay the progress of new periosteal bone formation. Although more macrophages were found in the groups treated with MTX, their impact on surrounding inflammatory processes remains unclear. PMID:21701078

  7. Healing from incest: resurrecting the buried self.

    PubMed

    Godbey, J K; Hutchinson, S A

    1996-10-01

    Writers on the incest experience estimate conservatively that 10% to 30% of all girls and 30% of all boys have had at least one childhood experience of incest. Incest is emotionally devastating to a child as it involves betrayal, and the irretrievable loss of trust in the adults in the child's life. Little is written about the healing processes of incest survivors. The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive grounded theory that provides an explanatory schema for understanding the healing process of adult female incest survivors. The sample consisted of 10 adult women who had a history of incest and who volunteered to participate in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Data analysis revealed that these women had buried an integral part of the self because of the trauma of incest; The healing process required resurrecting the buried self through a series of seven phases. The model generated from this research provides a heuristic for nurse therapists that assists in assessing and counseling incest survivors. PMID:8897713

  8. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries. Current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management that prevent or minimize deficits and provide for speedy wound healing. Several laboratories are actively searching for improved therapies for cutaneous vesicant injury, with the aim of returning damaged skin to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest time. Improved treatment will result in a better cosmetic and functional outcome for the patient, and will enable the casualty to return to normal activities sooner. This editorial gives brief overviews of sulfur mustard use, its toxicity, concepts for medical countermeasures, current treatments, and strategies for the development of improved therapies. PMID:16921406

  9. MRI of anterior cruciate ligament healing

    SciTech Connect

    Ihara, Hidetoshi; Miwa, Megumi; Deya, Keizo; Torisu, Kenji

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate using MRI the natural healing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) when treated conservatively by early protective motion. Consecutive acute complete intraligamentous ruptures of the ACL in 50 cases that were allowed to heal without surgery were evaluated before and after 3 month treatment by MRI, arthroscopy, and stress radiographs. Twenty-nine of the 50 patients were also reevaluated 11 months from the initial injury, of which 7 were reevaluated again 24 months from the initial injury by MRI. The MR appearance of the treated ACL was categorized into four grades depending on homogeneity, straight band, and size. MR assessment of the ACL after 3 month treatment demonstrated a well defined normal-sized straight band in 37 cases (74%). There was a significant relationship between the 3 and 11 month MR evaluations (r. = 0.801, p < 0.0001). There were also significant relationships between the MR and arthroscopic evaluations (r, = 0.455, p < 0.005) and between the MR and stress radiographic evaluations (r, = 0.348, p < 0.025) after the 3 month treatment. MRI can demonstrate ACL healing when treated conservatively with early protective mobilization. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A Consideration of the Perspectives of Healing Practitioners on Research Into Energy Healing

    PubMed Central

    Bruyere, Rosalyn L.; Weintrub, Ken; Dieppe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Energy healing is a complex intervention with the purpose of enhancing wholeness within the client. Approaches to complex interventions require thoughtful utilization of a wide range of research methods. In order to advance the research in this field, we sought to understand the healing practitioners' point of view by reviewing qualitative literature, research reviews, and commentary written by and about practitioners. Further, we conducted a brief survey among healers, asking their opinions on types and topics of research in this field. Emerging from this inquiry is an overview of the healers' state required for successful healing, the importance of the clients' contribution, the heterogeneity of the process of healing, and the importance of choosing appropriate outcomes to reflect the goal of wholeness. Beyond attending to measurement of these nuanced aspects, we propose utilization of research designs appropriate for complex interventions, more use of qualitative research techniques, consideration of large data registries, and adoption of the perspectives of realist research. An important gap identified was the overall lack of understanding of the clients' experience and contribution to the healing encounter. PMID:26665045

  11. [Wound-healing effect of carbopol hydrogels in rats with alloxan diabetes model].

    PubMed

    Zinov'ev, E V; Ivakhniuk, G K; Dadaian, K A; Lagvilava, T O

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 0.5% hydrogels of acrylic polymers (carbopol), antibiotic ointment based on polyethylene oxides (levomekol), silver-containing creams (dermazin and argosulfan), silver sulfadiazine ointment with epidermal growth factor (ebermin), and wound-covering fabric of antibacterial cellulose with poviargol and zero-valent silver (aquacell-Ag) on skin repair processes have been evaluated in comparative experiments on rats. The wound-healing effects were characterized by the time of cleansing and epithelization, rate of suppuration, index of healing, and skin impedance under conditions of necrotic skin lesions on the background of diabetes. It is established that local application of carbopol hydrogels modified by electric (frequency-modulated) signal with antiseptics (poviargol) and nanostructural components (natural fullerene complex) shortens the period of wound cleansing from detritus on the background of decompensated diabetes by 3.6 days (p > 0.05), accelerates healing by 8.4 days (p < 0.05), reduces the frequency of suppuration by 23.3% (p < 0.05), exhibits strong bactericidal effect against wound infections by pathogens, and restores tissue impedance. Thus, hydrogels based on low-crosslinked acrylic polymers are a promising basis of wound-healing formulations for the treatment of necrotic lesions on the background of diabetic foot syndrome. PMID:24649598

  12. Clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of unicameral bone cysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is the most common benign lytic bone lesion seen in children. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of UBC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 155 UBC patients who consulted Nagoya musculoskeletal oncology group hospitals in Japan. Sixty of the 155 patients had pathological fracture at presentation. Of 141 patients with follow-up periods exceeding 6 months, 77 were followed conservatively and 64 treated by surgery. Results The fracture risk was significantly higher in the humerus than other bones. In multivariate analysis, ballooning of bone, cyst in long bone, male sex, thin cortical thickness and multilocular cyst were significant adverse prognostic factors for pathological fractures at presentation. The healing rates were 30% and 83% with observation and surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fracture at presentation and history of biopsy were good prognostic factors for healing of UBC in patients under observation. Conclusion The present results suggest that mechanical disruption of UBC such as fracture and biopsy promotes healing, and thus watchful waiting is indicated in these patients, whereas patients with poor prognostic factors for fractures should be considered for surgery. PMID:24884661

  13. Biofunctionalized electrospun silk mats as a topical bioactive dressing for accelerated wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A.; Wang, X.Y.; Kaplan, D.L.; Garlick, J.A.; Egles, C.

    2010-01-01

    Materials able to deliver topically bioactive molecules represent a new generation of biomaterials. In this article, we describe the use of silk mats, made of electrospun nanoscale silk fibers containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), for the promotion of wound healing processes. In our experiments, we demonstrated that EGF is incorporated into the silk mats and slowly released in a time-dependent manner (25% EGF release in 170 h). We tested these materials using a new model of wounded human skin-equivalents displaying the same structure as human skin and able to heal using the same molecular and cellular mechanisms found in vivo. This human three-dimensional model allows us to demonstrate that the biofunctionalized silk mats, when placed on the wounds as a dressing, aid the healing by increasing the time of wound closure by the epidermal tongue by 90%. The preservation of the structure of the mats during the healing period as demonstrated by electronic microscopy, the biological action of the dressing, as well as the biocompatibility of the silk demonstrate that this biomaterial is a new and very promising material for medical applications, especially for patients suffering from chronic wounds. PMID:19162575

  14. Inhibition of nocturnal acidity is important but not essential for duodenal ulcer healing.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi Porro, G; Parente, F; Sangaletti, O

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the relative importance of day and night time gastric acid inhibition for duodenal ulcer healing by comparing the anti-ulcer efficacy of a single morning with that of a single bedtime dose of ranitidine. One hundred and thirty patients with active duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to a double-blind therapy with ranitidine 300 mg at 8 am or the same dose at 10 pm for up to eight weeks. The antisecretory effects of these regimens were also assessed by 24 h intragastric pH monitoring in 18 of these patients. At four weeks ulcers had healed in 41/61 (67%) of patients taking the morning dose and in 47/63 (75%) of those receiving the nocturnal dose (95% CI for the difference -0.09 +0.25; p ns). At eight weeks, the corresponding healing rates were 82% and 85.5%, respectively (95% CI for the difference -0.11 +0.17; p ns). Both treatments were significantly superior to placebo in raising 24 h intragastric pH, although the effects of the morning dose were of shorter duration than those of the nocturnal dose. These findings suggest that suppression of nocturnal acidity is important but not essential to promote healing of duodenal ulcers; a prolonged period of acid inhibition during the day (as obtained with a single large morning dose of H2-blockers) may be equally effective. PMID:2186980

  15. Laser depilation of the natal cleft--an aid to healing the pilonidal sinus.

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Joy; Gault, David

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pilonidal disease is common. Excessive hair growth in the natal cleft is thought to be a factor in initiating these sinuses. It is chronic and intermittent in nature and treatment can be difficult. Hair removal by shaving or use of creams is often advised as a compliment to surgical treatments. However, access to the natal cleft can be difficult. Laser removal of hair in the natal cleft is considered as an aid to healing the pilonidal sinus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 5-year period, 14 patients with recurrent pilonidal disease were treated in our unit with laser depilation. They were all contacted by postal questionnaire, and those with ongoing disease were asked to return to the clinic for evaluation and possible further treatment. RESULTS: All patients returned the postal questionnaire. Of the 14 patients, 4 had on-going disease and received further depilation with the Alexandrite laser. All are now healed with no reported complications. All patients found the procedure painful and received local anaesthetic. CONCLUSIONS: Laser depilation in the natal cleft is by no means a cure for pilonidal disease. Removal of hair by this method represents an alternative and effective method of hair removal and, although long lasting, is only temporary. However, it allows the sinuses to heal rapidly. It is relatively safe, and simple to teach, with few complications. It should thus be considered as an aid to healing the problem pilonidal sinus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:11890622

  16. 'Workshops in healing' for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  17. Mindfulness and healing intention: concepts, practice, and research evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of the health care professional in creating an optimal healing environment (OHE), with a special focus on which inner state and way of being in the world can create a healing intention. A core thesis is that every healing effort and every healing intention starts within the health care professional. An accepting, mindful, and warm-hearted relationship with self is primary to any healing intention. Important concepts to develop such an attitude are mindfulness, love, compassion, and awareness. The concept of a healing attitude toward the self is described, as is the mirror principle that states there is symmetry between someone's relationship with the outer world and his or her inner world. The mindfulness concept is outlined through a set of mental and heart qualities. Mindfulness is strongly related to compassion, and it is compassion that serves as a source for all healing intentionality. Compassion connects the suffering of the patient with the healer's own suffering, and this emotional connection instantiates a healing relationship. The power and importance of mindfulness and compassion for healing are explored along the Frank model of nonspecific therapeutic components. This is the approach whereby a health care professional can elicit self-healing powers in patients through his or her inner attitudes. Finally, a research program and some hypotheses on how to implement and research this specific approach toward the creation of an OHE are outlined. PMID:15630818

  18. Temporal Healing in Rat Achilles Tendon: Ultrasound Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Connie S.; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E.; Okotie, Gregory; Brounts, Sabrina H.; Baer, Geoffrey S.; Vanderby, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether a new ultrasound-based technique correlates with mechanical and biological metrics that describe the tendon healing. Achilles tendons in 32 rats were unilaterally transected and allowed to heal without repair. At 7, 9, 14, or 29 days post-injury, tendons were collected and examined for healing via ultrasound image analysis, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with previous studies, we observe that the healing tendons are mechanically inferior (ultimate stress, ultimate load, and normalized stiffness) and biologically altered (cellular and ECM factors) compared to contralateral controls with an incomplete recovery over healing time. Unique to this study, we report: 1) Echo intensity (defined by gray-scale brightness in the ultrasound image) in the healing tissue is related to stress and normalized stiffness. 2) Elongation to failure is relatively constant so that tissue normalized stiffness is linearly correlated with ultimate stress. Together, 1 and 2 suggest a method to quantify mechanical compromise in healing tendons. 3) The amount and type of collagen in healing tendons associates with their strength and normalized stiffness as well as their ultrasound echo intensity. 4) A significant increase of periostin in the healing tissues suggests an important but unexplored role for this ECM protein in tendon healing. PMID:23149902

  19. Effects of healing on the seismogenic potential of carbonate fault rocks: Experiments on samples from the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Verberne, Berend A.; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-08-01

    Fault slip and healing history may crucially affect the fault seismogenic potential in the earthquake nucleation regime. Here we report direct shear friction tests on simulated gouges derived from a carbonate fault breccia, and from a clay/carbonate fault-core gouge, retrieved from a surface exposure of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) which hosted the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The experiments were conducted under dry and hydrothermal conditions, at temperatures up to 140°C, at an effective normal stress of 50 MPa, and involved sequential velocity-stepping (VS), slide-hold-slide (SHS), and velocity-stepping stages. Dry tests performed on breccia-derived samples showed no dependence of (quasi) steady state friction (μss) on SHS or VS history, and a log linear relation between transient peak healing (Δμpk) and hold time, or classical "Dieterich-type" healing behavior. By contrast, all experiments conducted under hydrothermal conditions were characterized by "non-Dieterich" healing behavior. This included (1) an increase in μss upon resliding after a hold period and (2) an increase in friction rate parameter (a - b), after SHS testing. Comparison with previous results suggests that the healing behavior seen in our wet tests may be attributed to solution transfer processes occurring during hold periods. Our findings imply that the shallow portions of faults with carbonate/clay-rich cores (e.g., the LFZ) can heal much faster than previously recognized, while the upper limit of the seismogenic zone may migrate to deeper levels during interseismic periods. These effects have important implications for understanding the seismic cycle in tectonically active carbonate terrains.

  20. Polarized light improves cutaneous healing on diabetic rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Oliveira, Priscila Chagas; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of 3rd degree burn on diabetic rats submitted or not to treatment with Polarized Light. Diabetes mellitus (Streptozotocin, 60mg/kg) was induced on 45 male Wistar albinus rats and a third degree burn (1.5× 1.5cm) was created in the dorsum of each animal under general anesthesia. After a regular quarantine period, the animals were randomly distributed into three groups as follows: G1: control (no treatment, n =15); G2: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 20J/cm2) and G3: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 40J/cm2). The phototherapy performed on group G2 was Polarized Light dose 20J/cm2 and G3 was Polarized Light dose 40J/cm2 (Bioptron®, λ400-2000 nm, 40mW; 2.4J/cm2 per minute; Φ +/- 5.5 cm; Bioptron AG, Monchaltorf, Switzerland). The phototherapy started immediately post-burning and was repeated daily until the day before the animal death. The energy was applied transcutaneously respecting the focal distance of 10cm as recommended by the manufacturer. The dose was 20 or 40J/cm2 (4min 15s or 8min.and 30s). At each time point chosen (7, 14, and 21 days post-burning) and following macroscopic examination, each animal was killed by an overdose of general anesthesia. Slides were stained with HE, Sirius Red, and CK AE1/AE3 antibody. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses were performed under light microscopy. The animals submitted to phototherapy (20J/cm2) showed significant differences on regards revascularization and epithelialization. The use of 20J/cm2 was effective on improving the healing of third degree buns on diabetic animals at both early and late stages of the repair.

  1. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

    PubMed Central

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C.

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure–property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials. PMID:26323335

  2. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure-property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials. PMID:26323335

  3. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C.

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure-property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials.

  4. Randomized trials of dichlorphenamide in the periodic paralyses. Working Group on Periodic Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tawil, R; McDermott, M P; Brown, R; Shapiro, B C; Ptacek, L J; McManis, P G; Dalakas, M C; Spector, S A; Mendell, J R; Hahn, A F; Griggs, R C

    2000-01-01

    Although the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been used in the treatment of the primary periodic paralyses (PPs), their efficacy has not been demonstrated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of dichlorphenamide (DCP; Daranide), a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in the treatment of episodic weakness in the primary PPs. We performed two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials, one involving 42 subjects with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) and the other involving 31 subjects with potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis (PSPP). In each trial, two 8-week treatment periods were separated by an active washout period of at least 9 weeks. The primary outcome variable in the HypoPP trial was the occurrence of an intolerable increase in attack severity or frequency (end point). The primary outcome variable in the PSPP trial was the number of attacks per week. In the HypoPP trial, there were 13 subjects who exhibited a preference (in terms of the end point) for either DCP or placebo, and 11 of these preferred DCP. In the PSPP trial, DCP significantly reduced attack rates relative to placebo. DCP also significantly reduced attack rates relative to placebo in the HypoPP subjects. We conclude that DCP is effective in the prevention of episodic weakness in both HypoPP and PSPP. PMID:10632100

  5. Evaluation of wound healing potential of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract

    PubMed Central

    Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma; Kene, Raphael Okoli Chukwujekwu; Anika, Silvanus Maduka; Udegbunam, Rita Ijeoma; Nnaji, Theophilus Okafor; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Crinum jagus (J. Thomps.) Dandy commonly called Harmattan or St. Christopher’s lily belonging to the family Liliaceae is widely used traditionally in Southeastern Nigeria for treatment of skin sores. This study investigated the wound healing potentials of methanolic C. jagus bulb extract (MCJBE) using incision, excision, and dead space wound healing models. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins in the extract, but absence of flavonoids. In the incision and dead space wound models, rats were dosed orally with 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) of 10 and 5% of MCJBE solution, respectively, while in the excision wound model, rats were treated topically with 10 and 5% MCJBE ointments (MCJBEO), respectively. Result: The 10% MCJBE gave significantly (P < 0.05) highest percentage rate of wound contraction, shortest re-epithelialization and complete healing time when compared with 5% MCJBE and reference drug, framycetin sulfate. The extract of C. jagus showed significant (P < 0.05) concentration-dependent wound healing activity in incision, dead space and excision wound models. No contaminating microbial organism was isolated from wound sites of the rats dosed and treated with MCJBE throughout the study period. At day 7, post infliction of excision wound, histomorphological, and histochemical studies revealed more fibroblasts and Type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO while those of the control showed more inflammatory cells and fewer Type 1 collagen deposits. At day 14 post infliction of excision wound, more epithelial regeneration with overlying keratin were seen in the histological sections of wounds of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO, while histochemical study showed more Type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats in 10% MCJBEO treated group. Conclusion: This study established that methanolic C. jagus bulb extract

  6. Gingival tissue healing following Er:YAG laser ablation compared to electrosurgery in rats.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Masanori; Aoki, Akira; Komaki, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ogita, Mayumi; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-02-01

    The erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is currently used for periodontal soft tissue management with favorable outcomes. However, the process of wound healing after Er:YAG laser (ErL) treatment has not been fully elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingival tissue healing after ErL ablation in comparison with that after electrosurgery (ElS). Gingival defects were created in 28 rats by ablation with ErL irradiation or ElS. The chronological changes in wound healing were evaluated using histological, histometrical, and immunohistochemical analyses. The ErL-ablated gingival tissue revealed much less thermal damage, compared to the ElS. In the ElS sites, the postoperative tissue destruction continued due to thermal damage, while in the ErL sites, tissue degradation was limited and the defects were re-epithelialized early. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72/73 expression was detected abundantly remote from the wound in the ElS, whereas it was slightly observed in close proximity to the wound in the ErL sites. Hsp47 expression was observed in the entire connective tissue early in the wound healing and was found limited in the wound area later. This phenomenon proceeded faster in the ErL sites than in the ElS sites. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) persisted in the epithelial tissue for a longer period in the ElS than that in the ErL. The ErL results in faster and more favorable gingival wound healing compared to the ElS, suggesting that the ErL is a safe and suitable tool for periodontal soft tissue management. PMID:24241972

  7. Obesity does not affect the healing of femur fractures in mice.

    PubMed

    Histing, T; Andonyan, A; Klein, M; Scheuer, C; Stenger, D; Holstein, J H; Veith, N T; Pohlemann, T; Menger, M D

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is reported to be both protective and deleterious to bone. Lipotoxicity and inflammation might be responsible for bone loss through inhibition of osteoblasts and activation of osteoclasts. However, little is known whether obesity affects the process of fracture healing. Therefore, we studied the effect of high fat diet-induced (HFD) obesity on callus formation and bone remodelling in a closed femur fracture model in mice. Thirty-one mice were fed a diet containing 60kJ% fat (HFD) for a total of 20 weeks before fracture and during the entire postoperative observation period. Control mice (n=31) received a standard diet containing 10kJ% fat. Healing was analyzed using micro-CT, biomechanical, histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, serum and protein biochemical analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after fracture. HFD-fed mice showed a higher body weight and increased serum concentrations of leptin and interleukin-6 compared to controls. Within the callus tissue Western blot analyses revealed a higher expression of transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y (PPARy) and a reduced expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4. However, obesity did not affect the expression of BMP-2 and did not influence the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway during fracture healing. Although the bones of HFD-fed animals showed an increased number of adipocytes within the bone marrow, HFD did not increase callus adiposity. In addition, radiological and histomorphometric analysis could also not detect significant differences in bone formation between HFD-fed animals and controls. Accordingly, HFD did not affect bending stiffness after 2 and 4 weeks of healing. These findings indicate that obesity does not affect femur fracture healing in mice. PMID:27156834

  8. Analysis of fracture healing in osteopenic bone caused by disuse: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Paiva, A G; Yanagihara, G R; Macedo, A P; Ramos, J; Issa, J P M; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis has become a serious global public health issue. Hence, osteoporotic fracture healing has been investigated in several previous studies because there is still controversy over the effect osteoporosis has on the healing process. The current study aimed to analyze two different periods of bone healing in normal and osteopenic rats. Sixty, 7-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: unrestricted and immobilized for 2 weeks after osteotomy (OU2), suspended and immobilized for 2 weeks after osteotomy (OS2), unrestricted and immobilized for 6 weeks after osteotomy (OU6), and suspended and immobilized for 6 weeks after osteotomy (OS6). Osteotomy was performed in the middle third of the right tibia 21 days after tail suspension, when the osteopenic condition was already set. The fractured limb was then immobilized by orthosis. Tibias were collected 2 and 6 weeks after osteotomy, and were analyzed by bone densitometry, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone mineral density values from bony calluses were significantly lower in the 2-week post-osteotomy groups compared with the 6-week post-osteotomy groups (multivariate general linear model analysis, P<0.000). Similarly, the mechanical properties showed that animals had stronger bones 6 weeks after osteotomy compared with 2 weeks after osteotomy (multivariate general linear model analysis, P<0.000). Histomorphometry indicated gradual bone healing. Results showed that osteopenia did not influence the bone healing process, and that time was an independent determinant factor regardless of whether the fracture was osteopenic. This suggests that the body is able to compensate for the negative effects of suspension. PMID:26840708

  9. Analysis of fracture healing in osteopenic bone caused by disuse: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, A.G.; Yanagihara, G.R.; Macedo, A.P.; Ramos, J.; Issa, J.P.M.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a serious global public health issue. Hence, osteoporotic fracture healing has been investigated in several previous studies because there is still controversy over the effect osteoporosis has on the healing process. The current study aimed to analyze two different periods of bone healing in normal and osteopenic rats. Sixty, 7-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: unrestricted and immobilized for 2 weeks after osteotomy (OU2), suspended and immobilized for 2 weeks after osteotomy (OS2), unrestricted and immobilized for 6 weeks after osteotomy (OU6), and suspended and immobilized for 6 weeks after osteotomy (OS6). Osteotomy was performed in the middle third of the right tibia 21 days after tail suspension, when the osteopenic condition was already set. The fractured limb was then immobilized by orthosis. Tibias were collected 2 and 6 weeks after osteotomy, and were analyzed by bone densitometry, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone mineral density values from bony calluses were significantly lower in the 2-week post-osteotomy groups compared with the 6-week post-osteotomy groups (multivariate general linear model analysis, P<0.000). Similarly, the mechanical properties showed that animals had stronger bones 6 weeks after osteotomy compared with 2 weeks after osteotomy (multivariate general linear model analysis, P<0.000). Histomorphometry indicated gradual bone healing. Results showed that osteopenia did not influence the bone healing process, and that time was an independent determinant factor regardless of whether the fracture was osteopenic. This suggests that the body is able to compensate for the negative effects of suspension. PMID:26840708

  10. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the HEAL program? 60.1 Section 60.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM General Program Description § 60.1 What is the HEAL program? (a) The Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program is a program...

  11. Identification and Functional Analysis of Healing Regulators in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Fernández, Carmen; Tamirisa, Srividya; Prada, Federico; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Blanco, Enrique; Martín-Blanco, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is an essential homeostatic mechanism that maintains the epithelial barrier integrity after tissue damage. Although we know the overall steps in wound healing, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Genetically amenable systems, such as wound healing in Drosophila imaginal discs, do not model all aspects of the repair process. However, they do allow the less understood aspects of the healing response to be explored, e.g., which signal(s) are responsible for initiating tissue remodeling? How is sealing of the epithelia achieved? Or, what inhibitory cues cancel the healing machinery upon completion? Answering these and other questions first requires the identification and functional analysis of wound specific genes. A variety of different microarray analyses of murine and humans have identified characteristic profiles of gene expression at the wound site, however, very few functional studies in healing regulation have been carried out. We developed an experimentally controlled method that is healing-permissive and that allows live imaging and biochemical analysis of cultured imaginal discs. We performed comparative genome-wide profiling between Drosophila imaginal cells actively involved in healing versus their non-engaged siblings. Sets of potential wound-specific genes were subsequently identified. Importantly, besides identifying and categorizing new genes, we functionally tested many of their gene products by genetic interference and overexpression in healing assays. This non-saturated analysis defines a relevant set of genes whose changes in expression level are functionally significant for proper tissue repair. Amongst these we identified the TCP1 chaperonin complex as a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton essential for the wound healing response. There is promise that our newly identified wound-healing genes will guide future work in the more complex mammalian wound healing response. PMID:25647511

  12. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the HEAL program? 60.1 Section 60.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM General Program Description § 60.1 What is the HEAL program? (a) The Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program is a program...

  13. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the HEAL program? 60.1 Section 60.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM General Program Description § 60.1 What is the HEAL program? (a) The Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program is a program...

  14. Introduction: women, health, and healing in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Fissell, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Women played substantial roles in health and healing in medieval and early-modern Europe. They have been undercounted in studies that rely upon occupational labels, but when we look at caregiving and bodywork, we can see women providing a broad range of services. Although women often healed in domestic settings, neither female patients nor practitioners should be considered in isolation from larger market forces that shaped men's healing work. PMID:18344583

  15. Evaluation of fracture healing and subimplant bone response following fixation with a locking miniplate and screw system for mandibular angle fractures in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Poon, C C H; Verco, S

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to establish a mandible fracture model, and to review fracture healing following fixation with a locking miniplate system. Eighteen 2-year-old sheep were divided into three groups of six. Each animal had a single fracture that was anatomically reduced and internally fixed by a single 4-hole plate with two monocortical screws each side of the fracture. The fractures were internally fixed with poorly contoured conventional miniplates or poorly contoured mini-locking plate or well contoured conventional miniplates. Two sheep in each of the three groups were killed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The mandibles were radiographed then decalcified specimens were reviewed microscopically. No clinical difference was observed between the groups. All fractures were at an advanced stage of bony union by 4 weeks. Fracture union appeared radiographically more advanced with the locking plate system. This study established a protocol for simulating a fracture model for the study of fracture healing. A more advanced stage of union was seen for fractures internally fixed with locking plates/screws than with a conventional system. The observations suggest the purported biological benefits of locking miniplate system do exist. PMID:23374732

  16. Osteogenic gene regulation and relative acceleration of healing by adenoviral-mediated transfer of human BMP-2 or -6 in equine osteotomy and ostectomy models.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Shields, Kathleen M; Litsky, Alan S; Mattoon, John S; Weisbrode, Steven E; Bartlett, Jeffrey S; Bertone, Alicia L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated healing of equine metatarsal osteotomies and ostectomies in response to percutaneous injection of adenoviral (Ad) bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Ad-BMP-6, or beta-galactosidase protein vector control (Ad-LacZ) administered 14 days after surgery. Radiographic and quantitative computed tomographic assessment of bone formation indicated greater and earlier mineralized callus in both the osteotomies and ostectomies of the metatarsi injected with Ad-BMP-2 or Ad-BMP-6. Peak torque to failure and torsional stiffness were greater in osteotomies treated with Ad-BMP-2 than Ad-BMP-6, and both Ad-BMP-2- and Ad-BMP-6-treated osteotomies were greater than Ad-LacZ or untreated osteotomies. Gene expression of ostectomy mineralized callus 8 weeks after surgery indicated upregulation of genes related to osteogenesis compared to intact metatarsal bone. Expression of transforming growth factor beta-1, cathepsin H, and gelsolin-like capping protein were greater in Ad-BMP-2- and Ad-BMP-6-treated callus compared to Ad-LacZ-treated or untreated callus. Evidence of tissue biodistribution of adenovirus in distant organs was not identified by quantitative PCR, despite increased serum antiadenoviral vector antibody. This study demonstrated a greater relative potency of Ad-BMP-2 over Ad-BMP-6 in accelerating osteotomy healing when administered in this regimen, although both genes were effective at increasing bone at both osteotomy and ostectomy sites. PMID:18241059

  17. Electron beam sterilization does not have a detrimental effect on the ability of extracellular matrix scaffolds to support in vivo ligament healing.

    PubMed

    Proffen, Benedikt L; Perrone, Gabriel S; Fleming, Braden C; Sieker, Jakob T; Kramer, Joshua; Hawes, Michael L; Badger, Gary J; Murray, Martha M

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds have been used to enhance anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair in large animal models. To translate this technology to clinical care, identifying a method which effectively sterilizes the material without significantly impairing in vivo function is desirable. Sixteen Yorkshire pigs underwent ACL transection and were randomly assigned to bridge-enhanced ACL repair-primary suture repair of the ACL with addition of autologous blood soaked ECM scaffold--with either (i) an aseptically processed ECM scaffold, or (ii) an electron beam irradiated ECM scaffold. Primary outcome measures included sterility of the scaffold and biomechanical properties of the scaffold itself and the repaired ligament at 8 weeks after surgery. Scaffolds treated with 15 kGy electron beam irradiation had no bacterial or fungal growth noted, while aseptically processed scaffolds had bacterial growth in all tested samples. The mean biomechanical properties of the scaffold and healing ligament were lower in the electron beam group; however, differences were not statistically significant. Electron beam irradiation was able to effectively sterilize the scaffolds. In addition, this technique had only a minimal impact on the in vivo function of the scaffolds when used for ligament healing in the porcine model. PMID:25676876

  18. This paper is the winner of an SFB Award in the Hospital Intern, Residency category: Peptide biomaterials raising adaptive immune responses in wound healing contexts.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, Yalini; Han, Huifang; De Loera, Roberto; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Xing; Sun, Tao; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Collier, Joel H

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterials used in the context of tissue engineering or wound repair are commonly designed to be "nonimmunogenic." However, previously it has been observed that self-assembled peptide nanofiber materials are noninflammatory despite their immunogenicity, suggesting that they may be appropriate for use in wound-healing contexts. To test this hypothesis, mice were immunized with epitope-containing peptide self-assemblies until they maintained high antibody titers against the material, then gels of the same peptide assemblies were applied within full-thickness dermal wounds. In three different murine dermal-wounding models with different baseline healing rates, even significantly immunogenic peptide assemblies did not delay healing. Conversely, adjuvanted peptide assemblies, while raising similar antibody titers to unadjuvanted assemblies, did delay wound healing. Analysis of the healing wounds indicated that compared to adjuvanted peptide assemblies, the unadjuvanted assemblies exhibited a progression of the dominant T-cell subset from CD4(+) to CD8(+) cells in the wound, and CD4(+) cell populations displayed a more Th2-slanted response. These findings illustrate an example of a significant antibiomaterial adaptive immune response that does not adversely affect wound healing despite ongoing antibody production. This material would thus be considered "immunologically compatible" in this specific context rather than "nonimmunogenic," a designation that is expected to apply to a range of other protein- and peptide-based biomaterials in wound-healing and tissue-engineering applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1853-1862, 2016. PMID:27129604

  19. Creating a healing community: the role for physicians and nurses.

    PubMed

    Nickens, Wayne; Patchell, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Most of what is written and said about healing is focused on the individual and their personal pursuit of the experience of being healed. The Healing Community shifts that focus to a larger perspective. Indigenous people have recognized the importance of community for centuries, identifying the worst possible consequence for behavior as banishment or exile from their community, not death. In the holistic view, life and death are seen as being on a continuum that occurs within a community, with all being valued. It is time to release our self-imposed and society endorsed exile from what truly heals our relationship with a greater Power and each other. PMID:16028451

  20. Principles of Wound Management and Wound Healing in Exotic Pets.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, Megan A; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    The care of wounds in exotic animal species can be a challenging endeavor. Special considerations must be made in regard to the animal's temperament and behavior, unique anatomy and small size, and tendency toward secondary stress-related health problems. It is important to assess the entire patient with adequate systemic evaluation and consideration of proper nutrition and husbandry, which could ultimately affect wound healing. This article summarizes the general phases of wound healing, factors that affect healing, and principles of wound management. Emphasis is placed on novel methods of treating wounds and species differences in wound management and healing. PMID:26611923

  1. Chemokine Involvement in Fetal and Adult Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Swathi; Watson, Carey L.; Ranjan, Rajeev; King, Alice; Bollyky, Paul L.; Keswani, Sundeep G.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Fetal wounds heal with a regenerative phenotype that is indistinguishable from surrounding skin with restored skin integrity. Compared to this benchmark, all postnatal wound healing is impaired and characterized by scar formation. The biologic basis of the fetal regenerative phenotype can serve as a roadmap to recapitulating regenerative repair in adult wounds. Reduced leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated, in part, through changes in the chemokine milieu, is a fundamental feature of fetal wound healing. Recent Advances: The contributions of chemokines to wound healing are a topic of active investigation. Recent discoveries have opened the possibility of targeting chemokines therapeutically to treat disease processes and improve healing capability, including the possibility of achieving a scarless phenotype in postnatal wounds. Critical Issues: Successful wound healing is a complex process, in which there is a significant interplay between multiple cell types, signaling molecules, growth factors, and extracellular matrix. Chemokines play a crucial role in this interplay and have been shown to have different effects in various stages of the healing process. Understanding how these chemokines are locally produced and regulated during wound healing and how the chemokine milieu differs in fetal versus postnatal wounds may help us identify ways in which we can target chemokine pathways. Future Directions: Further studies on the role of chemokines and their role in the healing process will greatly advance the potential for using these molecules as therapeutic targets. PMID:26543680

  2. Inflammation and Neuropeptides: The Connection in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Leena; Nabzdyk, Christoph; Andersen, Nicholas D; LoGerfo, Frank W; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the interaction between neuropeptides and inflammatory mediators as it pertains to diabetic wound healing. Abnormal wound healing is a major complication of both type I and type II diabetes and is the most frequent cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputation. Wound healing requires the orchestrated integration of complex biological and molecular events. Inflammation, proliferation and migration of cells followed by angiogenesis and re-epithelization are essential phases of wound healing. The link between wound healing and the nervous system is clinically apparent as peripheral neuropathy is reported in 30–50% of diabetic patients and is the most common and sensitive predictor of foot ulceration. The bidirectional connection between the nervous and the immune systems and the role it plays in wound healing has emerged as one of the focal features of the wound healing dogma. The mediators of this connection include neuropeptides and the cytokines released from different cells including immune and cutaneous cells. Therefore, to develop successful wound healing therapies, it is vital to understand in depth the signaling pathways in the neuro-immune axis and their implication in diabetic wound healing. PMID:19138453

  3. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent social and healthcare problem. The processes by which individuals heal from CSA are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from CSA. Community recruitment for an on-going, broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to as the Sexual Violence Study, yielded a subsample of 48 women and 47 men who had experienced CSA. During semi-structured, open-ended interviews, they were asked to describe their experiences with healing from CSA and other victimization throughout their lives. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used with these data to develop constructs and hypotheses about healing. For the Sexual Violence Study, frameworks were developed to describe the participants' life patterns, parenting experiences, disclosures about sexual violence, spirituality, and altruism. Several analytic techniques were used to synthesize the findings of these frameworks to develop an overarching theoretical model that describes healing from CSA. The model includes four stages of healing, five domains of functioning, and six enabling factors that facilitate movement from one stage to the next. The findings indicate that healing is a complex and dynamic trajectory. The model can be used to alert clinicians to a variety of processes and enabling factors that facilitate healing in several domains and to guide discussions on important issues related to healing from CSA. PMID:21812546

  4. An infrared illuminator for a healing bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharekar, Madhu A.; Crowley, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Bio-stimulation by a light is called the Light Therapy (LT) and an Infrared Illuminator (IRI) provides the human sleeping in a Healing Bed (HB) continuously a dose of the IR radiation. General specifications for the IRI given below and its data are discussed in the paper. (1) Use of 60" wide by 80" long queen size bed. (2) A LED providing 1.5 mw at 1550 nm is selected. (3) 60 LED are mounted in series and parallel on a chip and this chip is mounted on top of the HB.

  5. Regenerative materials that facilitate wound healing.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Gerit; Wallin, Kelly; Tenenhaus, Mayer

    2012-07-01

    Wounds and damaged tissue become problematic when the tissue repair process does not proceed in a normal manner. Standard treatment of wounds entails topical dressings and devices in conjunction with good wound care practices. Good practices adequately support healing in most patients. Difficult, chronic, or recalcitrant wounds may require the use of more advanced technologies. Wounds that are full thickness or present with the absence of a matrix, may particularly benefit from regenerative materials. This article focuses on the use of cellular and acellular materials as well as chemical constructs to support granulation, tissue repair, and wound closure. PMID:22732374

  6. Healing Circles: An Ethnographic Study of the Interactions Among Health and Healing Practitioners From Multiple Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Healing circle” is a term that has been employed by a group of Northern California integrative medicine researchers as we embarked on an 8-year ethnographic study. As a clinical medical anthropologist and registered nurse specializing in integrative practice and behavioral health, I undertook this study with colleagues from various health disciplines. PMID:25105070

  7. The use of low output laser therapy to accelerate healing of diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized prospective controlled trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, S. V. L. G.; Subapriya, S.; Yeoh, C. N.; Soosai, S.; Shalini, V.; Harwant, S.

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low output laser therapy as an adjuvant treatment in grade 1 diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: Sixteen patients were randomly divided equally into two groups. Group A had daily dressing only, while group B had low output laser therapy instituted five days a week in addition to daily dressing. Serial measurement of the ulcer was done weekly using digital photography and analyzed. Results: The rate of healing in group A was 10.42 mm2/week, and in group B was 66.14mm2/week. The difference in the rate of healing was statistically significant, p<0.05. Conclusion: Laser therapy as an adjuvant treatment accelerates diabetic ulcer healing by six times in a six week period.

  8. Comparison of a liquid and a powder insecticidal dressing to aid healing and prevent flystrike of mulesing wounds in lambs.

    PubMed

    Pearse, B H; Peucker, S K

    1991-05-01

    A proprietary insecticidal mulesing powder containing diazinon and an experimental liquid dressing based on eucalyptus oil, naphthalene, cresylic acid and chlorfenvinphos in a carrier of liquid hydrocarbons and petroleum oil were compared for their ability to promote wound healing and reduce the incidence of fly strike in freshly mulesed lambs. Throughout the trial period of 4 weeks, fly trapping confirmed the presence of Lucilia cuprina in the paddock where the ewes and lambs were grazing At inspection one month after mulesing, no deaths had occurred since mulesing and no lambs showed evidence of cutaneous myiasis, although a number of their dams (with 8 months wool) were struck. At 4 weeks after mulesing, the wounds of the lambs treated with the experimental liquid dressing showed better healing than those treated with the powder dressing. It was concluded that both mulesing preparations were effective in inhibiting flystrike, but the liquid dressing promoted faster wound healing than did the powder. PMID:1883292

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Silver-Containing Antimicrobial Dressings on In Vitro and In Vivo Processes of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hiro, Matthew E.; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Ko, Francis; Wright, Terry E; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the in vitro and in vivo effects of silver products on wound healing. Methods: Eight silver products were compared to determine: fibroblast function using fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs), fibroblast viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, and fibroblast mitochondrial activity using the MTT [yellow tetrazolium salt; 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. In vivo effects of 9 silver products were evaluated utilizing a rat model of contaminated wounds. Serial quantitative bacteriology was performed on tissue biopsies over a 10-day period and serial wound areas were obtained over 12 days. Results: Fibroblast cytotoxicity occurred for all of the silver products evaluated. Remaining viable fibroblasts were insufficient to allow FPCL contraction. Mitochondrial activity of the fibroblasts allowed a separation of the various silver compounds. Actisorb Silver and Silvercel had the greatest viable fibroblast activity, but less than the control. Despite in vitro cytotoxicity, all of the silver products except Contreet Foam and Acticoat Moisture Control accelerated wound healing. Conclusions: Silver-containing dressings appeared to benefit healing of the wounds. Just as in vitro bacterial analyses do not fully predict the effect of an antimicrobial in the in vivo setting, in vitro cytotoxicity tests do not fully predict the effect of an agent on wound healing trajectories. Because of the varied antimicrobial and wound healing responses among products, a careful consideration of the particular effects of individual silver-containing dressings or drugs is warranted. PMID:23150745

  10. Mechanisms of Maggot-Induced Wound Healing: What Do We Know, and Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal maggots are believed to have three major mechanisms of action on wounds, brought about chemically and through physical contact: debridement (cleaning of debris), disinfection, and hastened wound healing. Until recently, most of the evidence for these claims was anecdotal; but the past 25 years have seen an increase in the use and study of maggot therapy. Controlled clinical studies are now available, along with laboratory investigations that examine the interaction of maggot and host on a cellular and molecular level. This review was undertaken to extract the salient data, make sense, where possible, of seemingly conflicting evidence, and reexamine our paradigm for maggot-induced wound healing. Clinical and laboratory data strongly support claims of effective and efficient debridement. Clinical evidence for hastened wound healing is meager, but laboratory studies and some small, replicated clinical studies strongly suggest that maggots do promote tissue growth and wound healing, though it is likely only during and shortly after the period when they are present on the wound. The best way to evaluate—and indeed realize—maggot-induced wound healing may be to use medicinal maggots as a “maintenance debridement” modality, applying them beyond the point of gross debridement. PMID:24744812

  11. Development of self-healing polymers via amine-epoxy chemistry: II. Systematic evaluation of self-healing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Yang, Jinglei

    2014-06-01

    Part I of this study (H Zhang and J Yang 2014 Smart Mater. Struct. 23 065003) reported the preparation and characterization of epoxy microcapsules (EP-capsules) and amine loaded hollow glass bubbles (AM-HGBs), and the modeling of a two-part self-healing system. In part II, the self-healing performance of this material system is systematically investigated. Various factors including the ratio, the total concentration and the size of the two carriers are studied as well as the healing temperature and the post heat treatment process. The best healing performance is obtained at a ratio of 1:3 of EP-capsules to AM-HGBs. It is observed that a higher concentration of larger carriers, together with a higher healing temperature, enables better healing behavior. Healing efficiency of up to 93% is obtained in these systems. In addition, post heat treatment decreases the healing efficiency due to stoichiometric mismatch of healing agents caused by leakage of amine in the HGBs at elevated temperature.

  12. Solid state self-healing system: Effects of using PDGEBA, PVC and PVA as linear healing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Noor Nabilah; Jamil, Mohd. Suzeren Md.; Abdullah, Shahrum

    2014-09-01

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employing a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. In this study, the effect of healing efficiency was investigated by using different thermoplastic polymers which are poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol as healing agents. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature i.e. above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to mobilize the polymeric chains of the healing agent. The curing reaction in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was been performed to demonstrate self-healing of the different specimens. Under test, it was found that healable resin with PDGEBA has highest healing efficiency followed by PVC and PVA, with 63%, 35% and 18% of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins.

  13. Self-Healing Nanofiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites. 1. Tensile Testing and Recovery of Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Wook; An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2015-09-01

    The present work aims at development of self-healing materials capable of partially restoring their mechanical properties under the conditions of prolonged periodic loading and unloading, which is characteristic, for example, of aerospace applications. Composite materials used in these and many other applications frequently reveal multiple defects stemming from their original inhomogeneity, which facilitates microcracking and delamination at ply interfaces. Self-healing nanofiber mats may effectively prevent such damage without compromising material integrity. Two types of core-shell nanofibers were simultaneously electrospun onto the same substrate in order to form a mutually entangled mat. The first type of core-shell fibers consisted of resin monomer (dimethylsiloxane) within the core and polyacrylonitrile within the shell. The second type of core-shell nanofibers consisted of cure (dimethyl-methyl hydrogen-siloxane) within the core and polyacrylonitrile within the shell. These mutually entangled nanofiber mats were used for tensile testing, and they were also encased in polydimethylsiloxane to form composites that were also subsequently subjected to tensile testing. During tensile tests, the nanofibers can be damaged in stretching up to the plastic regime of deformation. Then, the resin monomer and cure was released from the cores and the polydimethylsiloxane resin was polymerized, which might be expected to result in the self-healing properties of these materials. To reveal and evaluate the self-healing properties of the polyacrylonitrile-resin-cure nanofiber mats and their composites, the results were compared to the tensile test results of the monolithic polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats or composites formed by encasing polyacrylonitrile nanofibers in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. The latter do not possess self-healing properties, and indeed, do not recover their mechanical characteristics, in contrast to the polyacrylonitrile-resin-cure nanofiber mats and

  14. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Allamanda cathartica. L. and Laurus nobilis. L. extracts on rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Shivananda; Nalabothu, Poorna; Sandiford, Steve; Bhogadi, Vidyasagar; Adogwa, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Background Allamanda cathartica. L. is a perennial shrub used in traditional medicine for treating malaria and jaundice. Laurus nobilis. L. is a tree and has been used for its astringent, healing and diuretic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the aqueous extracts of Allamanda and Laurus nobilis to evaluate their wound healing activity in rats. Methods Excision and incision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of both the extracts on Sprague Dawley rats. In each model, animals were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. In both the model, group 1 served as control and group 2 as reference standard. In an excision wound model, group 3 animals were treated with Allamanda (150 mg kg-1 day-1) and group 4 animals were treated with Laurus nobilis (200 mg kg-1 b.w day-1) for 14 days respectively. In the case of incision wound model, group 3 and 4 animals were treated with the extracts of Allamanda and Laurus respectively for 10 days. The effects of vehicles on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, tensile strength, weights of the granulation tissue, hydroxyproline content and histopathology of the granulation tissue. Results The aqueous extract of Allamanda promoted wound healing activity significantly in both the wound models studied. High rate of wound contraction (P < .001), decrease in the period of epithelialisation (10.2 ± 0.13), high skin breaking strength (440.0 ± 4.53), significant increase in the weight of the granulation tissue (P < .001) and hydroxyproline (P < .001) content were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of Allamanda. Histological studies of the granulation tissue from the Allamanda treated group showed the presence of a lesser number of inflammatory cells, and increased collagen formation than the control. In Laurus nobilis treated animals, the rate of wound contraction, weight of the granulation tissue and

  15. Structural health management technologies for inflatable/deployable structures: Integrating sensing and self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Vozoff, Max; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Studor, George F.; Lyons, Frankel; Keller, Michael W.; Beiermann, Brett; White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Curry, Mark A.; Banks, David L.; Brocato, Robert; Zhou, Lisong; Jung, Soyoun; Jackson, Thomas N.; Champaigne, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    Inflatable/deployable structures are under consideration as habitats for future Lunar surface science operations. The use of non-traditional structural materials combined with the need to maintain a safe working environment for extended periods in a harsh environment has led to the consideration of an integrated structural health management system for future habitats, to ensure their integrity. This article describes recent efforts to develop prototype sensing technologies and new self-healing materials that address the unique requirements of habitats comprised mainly of soft goods. A new approach to detecting impact damage is discussed, using addressable flexible capacitive sensing elements and thin film electronics in a matrixed array. Also, the use of passive wireless sensor tags for distributed sensing is discussed, wherein the need for on-board power through batteries or hardwired interconnects is eliminated. Finally, the development of a novel, microencapuslated self-healing elastomer with applications for inflatable/deployable habitats is reviewed.

  16. Self-healing of the superhydrophobicity by ironing for the abrasion durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingxia; Li, Jingye; Deng, Bo; Jiang, Haiqing; Wang, Ziqiang; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing of the superhydrophobic cotton fabric (SCF) obtained by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and n-hexyl methacrylate (HMA), can be achieved by ironing. Through the steam ironing process, the superhydrophobicity of the SCFs will be regenerated even after the yarns are ruptured during the abrasion test under a load pressure of 44.8 kPa. SCFs made from LMA grafted cotton fabric can ultimately withstand at least 24,000 cycles of abrasion with periodic steam ironing. The FT-IR microscope results show that the migration of the polymethacrylates graft chains from the interior to the surface is responsible for the self-healing effect. PMID:24135813

  17. Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K N Chidambara; Reddy, Vittal K; Veigas, Jyothi M; Murthy, Uma D

    2004-01-01

    The methanolic extract of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels showed the presence of a high content of phenolic compounds (44.0%) along with other constituents. This extract was formulated as a 10% (wt/wt) water-soluble gel and was studied for its wound healing property against an excision wound on the skin of Wistar rats. The activity was compared with that of a commercial topical antibacterial applicant. The wound healing activity was assessed by measuring the percent contraction in skin and estimation of collagen content in terms of hydroxyproline content. Healed skin was also subjected to histopathological studies to examine the microscopic changes. The animals treated with 2.5% gel showed moderate healing (55.8% and 40.8% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively), whereas the group treated with 5.0% gel showed good healing (59.5% and 44.5% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively). The amount of hydroxyproline increased by twofold in the group treated with 5.0% gel. Histopathological studies also supported the wound healing on application of the gels. The group of rats that received 5.0% gel showed complete healing after 10 days, whereas in rats treated with 2.5% gel, healing was observed on day 12, in contrast to the positive control animals receiving the blank gel, which took 16-18 days for complete healing. The results of this study may be extended to different types of wounds so that the formulation could be exploited to develop it as a topical dermatological formulation. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the extract showed the presence of gallic acid and catechin as major components. PMID:15298776

  18. Wound Healing in Potato Tuber Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, R.; McChesney, J. D.; Watson, D.

    1974-01-01

    Several aspects of wound healing in tuber tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Kennebec), known to require protein synthesis, are inhibited by 2,4-dichlorobenzyltributylphosphonium chloride (Phosphon D). Cell division was completely blocked by 60 μm Phosphon and markedly reduced by concentrations as low as 3 μm. When applied at the time of wounding, 0.25mm Phosphon completely prevented the wound-induced respiratory increase. Application at 15 hours after wounding arrested respiration at the rate present at that time. The same concentrations of Phosphon inhibited auxin-induced cell expansion of the tissue, protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of leucine-14C into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction of tissue disks, and the appearance of wound-induced peroxidase isozymes. None of these inhibitory effects of Phosphon could be prevented or reversed by the application of gibberellic acid. All wound-induced processes inhibited by Phosphon are also inhibited by cycloheximide. It is suggested that inhibitory effects of Phosphon on wound healing in potato and on other developmental processes in excised plant tissues which cannot be reversed by gibberellin are due to interference with protein synthesis. PMID:16658674

  19. Fracture healing in the elderly: A review.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Bradley A; Kendal, Adrian R; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant

    2016-10-01

    Older patients are commonly at a higher risk of experiencing a bone fracture. Complications during fracture healing, including delayed union and non-union, can arise as a result of a multitude of patient and treatment factors. This review describes those factors which contribute to a greater risk of delayed union and non-union with particular reference to the elderly population and discusses therapies that may enhance the fracture healing process in the hope of reducing the incidence of delayed union and non-union. Increasing age does seem to increase the risk of delayed union or non-union. In addition, smoking and the treatment of post-fracture pain with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) put the patient at the greatest risk, while ultrasound therapy appears to be a non-invasive, effective treatment option to reduce the risk of delayed union or non-union. The use of growth factors and of stem cells and the role of surgery are also discussed. PMID:27621238

  20. The Epigenetic Regulation of Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christopher J; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Sharov, Andrey A; Fessing, Michael Y; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

    2014-07-01

    Significance: Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are essential for epidermal homeostasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of many skin diseases, including skin cancer and psoriasis. However, while the epigenetic regulation of epidermal homeostasis is now becoming active area of research, the epigenetic mechanisms controlling the wound healing response remain relatively untouched. Recent Advances: Substantial progress achieved within the last two decades in understanding epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression allowed defining several levels, including covalent DNA and histone modifications, ATP-dependent and higher-order chromatin chromatin remodeling, as well as noncoding RNA- and microRNA-dependent regulation. Research pertained over the last few years suggests that epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of skin regeneration and control an execution of reparative gene expression programs in both skin epithelium and mesenchyme. Critical Issues: Epigenetic regulators appear to be inherently involved in the processes of skin repair, and are able to dynamically regulate keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and migration, together with influencing dermal regeneration and neoangiogenesis. This is achieved through a series of complex regulatory mechanisms that are able to both stimulate and repress gene activation to transiently alter cellular phenotype and behavior, and interact with growth factor activity. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation is a priority as it represents potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of both acute and chronic skin conditions. Future research is, therefore, imperative to help distinguish epigenetic modulating drugs that can be used to improve wound healing. PMID:25032066

  1. Quantifying cell behaviors during embryonic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, David; Ma, Xiaoyan; Crews, Sarah; Lynch, Holley; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-03-01

    During embryogenesis, internal forces induce motions in cells leading to widespread motion in tissues. We previously developed laser hole-drilling as a consistent, repeatable way to probe such epithelial mechanics. The initial recoil (less than 30s) gives information about physical properties (elasticity, force) of cells surrounding the wound, but the long-term healing process (tens of minutes) shows how cells adjust their behavior in response to stimuli. To study this biofeedback in many cells through time, we developed tools to quantify statistics of individual cells. By combining watershed segmentation with a powerful and efficient user interaction system, we overcome problems that arise in any automatic segmentation from poor image quality. We analyzed cell area, perimeter, aspect ratio, and orientation relative to wound for a wide variety of laser cuts in dorsal closure. We quantified statistics for different regions as well, i.e. cells near to and distant from the wound. Regional differences give a distribution of wound-induced changes, whose spatial localization provides clues into the physical/chemical signals that modulate the wound healing response. Supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGP0021/2007 C).

  2. Mechanoregulation of Angiogenesis in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lancerotto, Luca; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical forces are important regulators of cell and tissue function. Endothelial cells proliferate in response to tissue stretch and the mechanical properties of the environment direct capillary sprouting and growth. As the vascular network is a key factor in physiology and disease, control of the vascularity by means of mechanical forces could lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Recent Advances: Increased understanding of mechanobiology has stimulated translational research and allowed the development and optimization of clinical devices that exploit mechanical forces for the treatment of diseases, in particular in the field of wound healing. Stretching in distraction osteogenesis and tissue expansion induces neogenesis of well-vascularized tissues. In micro-deformational wound therapy, micro-mechanical distortions of the wound bed stimulate cell proliferation and angiogenesis by stretching resident cells to improve healing of difficult wounds. Relief from tension antagonizes proliferation and angiogenesis in primarily closed wounds allowing for better scar quality. Critical Issues: The integration of mechanobiology into traditional cell biology and pathophysiology in general is not yet complete and further research is needed to fill existing gaps, in particular in the complexity of in vivo conditions. Future Directions: Still largely unexplored approaches based on mechanical perturbation of the micro-/macro-environment can be devised to overcome the limits of current strategies in a broad spectrum of clinical conditions. PMID:25302137

  3. Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Lee

    2013-08-01

    The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

  4. Walking with Madhu: healing ped/agogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, T. Francene

    2015-03-01

    In this essay, the author responds to Madhu Prakash's piece on friendship gardens and healing our "Mother" through Prakash's central question, How to birth a world in which many worlds flourish and complement each other in their wild, divine diversity; all equally enjoying Ahimsa flourishing and happiness? Coming from the standpoint of schooling, education, and teacher preparation, the author works to reground the descriptors of "pre-service" and "in-service" from a technical discourse to an ecological one, where the notion of service becomes expansive and pedagogical. Illustrated is how people in community are building gardens and working with soil in a way that is restorative for more-than human relationships, illuminating the deep ways gardens heal and nourish. This is especially important as we emerge from the wake of Cold War numbness, where gardens enable and empower continued societal growth from ideological mindset of "against" to an increasing ability to look at the discord inside of our own communities/selves and move to growing "with." Working with soil not only opens us to relationship and hospitality with one another, but also inspires peace with the earth.

  5. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Joseph C.; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  6. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Joseph C; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E

    2016-06-01

    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  7. Effect of medicinal plants on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Budovsky, Arie; Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States alone, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. It is expected that the number of chronic wounds will increase worldwide due to the increase in age-related conditions and pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds, and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing healthcare costs, an aging population, and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide. While current therapeutic agents have generally inadequate efficacy and number of serious adverse effects, the medicinal plants have been used in medicine since ancient times and are well known for their abilities to promote wound healing and prevent infection without grave side effects. Thus, herbal therapy may be an alternative strategy for treatment of wounds. The purpose of this review is to provide the verified data on the medicinal plants of the world flora with wound healing activity including the biologically active substances belonging to these herbal preparations and describe in detail the various cellular and molecular mechanisms of their actions. PMID:25703533

  8. Enhancing spontaneous stem cell healing (Review)

    PubMed Central

    MAGUIRE, GREG; FRIEDMAN, PETER

    2014-01-01

    Adult stem cells are distributed throughout the human body and are responsible to a great extent for the body’s ability to maintain and heal itself. Accumulating data since the 1990s regarding stem cells have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells are not restricted to their ability to differentiate and are more likely due to their ability to release a multitude of molecules. Recent studies indicated that ≤80% of the therapeutic benefit of adult stem cells is manifested by the stem cell released molecules (SRM) rather than the differentiation of the stem cells into mature tissue. Stem cells may release potent combinations of factors that modulate the molecular composition of the cellular milieu to evoke a multitude of responses from neighboring cells. A multitude of pathways are involved in cellular and tissue function and, when the body is in a state of disease or trauma, a multitude of pathways are involved in the underlying mechanisms of that disease or trauma. Therefore, stem cells represent a natural systems-based biological factory for the production and release of a multitude of molecules that interact with the system of biomolecular circuits underlying disease or tissue damage. Currently, efforts are aimed at defining, stimulating, enhancing and harnessing SRM mechanisms, in order to develop systems-based methods for tissue regeneration, develop drugs/biologics or other therapeutics and enhance the release of SRM into the body for natural healing through proper dietary, exercise and other lifestyle strategies. PMID:24649089

  9. Wound healing and antimicrobial activity of two classical formulations of Laghupanchamula in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Shivani; Gautam, Manish K.; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wounds affect a large number of patients and seriously reduce the quality of life. The wound as a medical problem was first discussed by Maharshi Agnivesha in Agnivesha Samhita (later known as Charaka Samhita) as Vrana. Laghupanchamula denotes a combination of the roots of five herbs. However, in Ayurvedic classics, besides four common herbs viz. Kantakari, Brihati, Shalaparni and Prinshniparni, the fifth one is either Gokshura (LPG) or Eranda (LPE), and both formulations have been documented to have wound healing (Vrana) activity. Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the in vivo wound healing activity and in vitro antimicrobial activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Laghupanchamula containing Gokshura (LPGE) and Laghupanchamula containing Eranda (LPEE) in rats with acute toxicity in mice. Materials and Methods: LPGE and LPEE (1000 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 10 days (incision wound model) or for 24 days (excision wound model) in rats. LPGE and LPEE was studied for its in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo wound breaking strength (WBS) (incision model) and rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model). Results and Conclusion: LPGE and LPEE showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, enhanced WBS, rate of contraction, skin collagen tissue formation and early epithelization period with low scar area indicating enhanced healing with histological evidence of more collagen formation in skin tissues. LPGE and LPEE also showed anti-bacterial activity and seemed to be safe, and use of both formulations in Laghupanchamula for their wound healing and anti-microbial activities is thus authenticated. PMID:26834423

  10. Its the Little Things. Women, Trauma, and Strategies for Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenius, Vanja M. K.; Veysey, Bonita M.

    2005-01-01

    Women recover and heal from traumatic violent experiences in many different ways. This study, which is part of the Franklin County Women and Violence Project, explores the healing experiences of 18 women who have histories of violence, substance abuse, and involvement in the mental health and/or substance abuse treatment system. Ethnographic…

  11. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of a HEAL loan. 60.38 Section 60.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... precludes the buyer of a HEAL loan from obtaining a warranty from the seller covering certain...

  12. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of a HEAL loan. 60.38 Section 60.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... precludes the buyer of a HEAL loan from obtaining a warranty from the seller covering certain...

  13. Skin-set and wound-healing/suberization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology and biochemistry of resistance and susceptibility to tuber skinning/excoriation wounds and wound-healing are of global importance because of the magnitude of the resulting food and financial losses. This work is intended to concisely describe skin-set and wound-healing including their...

  14. Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.Y.; Soens, H.; Verstraete, W.; De Belie, N.

    2014-02-15

    Microcapsules were applied to encapsulate bacterial spores for self-healing concrete. The viability of encapsulated spores and the influence of microcapsules on mortar specimens were investigated first. Breakage of the microcapsules upon cracking was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Self-healing capacity was evaluated by crack healing ratio and the water permeability. The results indicated that the healing ratio in the specimens with bio-microcapsules was higher (48%–80%) than in those without bacteria (18%–50%). The maximum crack width healed in the specimens of the bacteria series was 970 μm, about 4 times that of the non-bacteria series (max 250 μm). The overall water permeability in the bacteria series was about 10 times lower than that in non-bacteria series. Wet–dry cycles were found to stimulate self-healing in mortar specimens with encapsulated bacteria. No self-healing was observed in all specimens stored at 95%RH, indicating that the presence of liquid water is an essential component for self-healing.

  15. Potato tuber wounding induces responses associated with various healing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces an avalanche of biological responses involved in the healing and protection of internal tuber tissues exposed by mechanical damage and seed cutting. Collectively, our studies have framed a portrait of the mechanisms and regulation of potato tuber wound-healing, but much more is req...

  16. Hyperbaric Oxygen, Vasculogenic Stem Cells, and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Fosen, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is recognized as playing a role in stem cell mobilization from peripheral sites and also cell function. Recent Advances: This review focuses on the impact of hyperoxia on vasculogenic stem cells and elements of wound healing. Critical Issues: Components of the wound-healing process in which oxidative stress has a positive impact on the various cells involved in wound healing are highlighted. A slightly different view of wound-healing physiology is adopted by departing from the often used notion of sequential stages: hemostatic, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling and instead organizes the cascade of wound healing as overlapping events or waves pertaining to reactive oxygen species, lactate, and nitric oxide. This was done because hyperoxia has effects of a number of cell signaling events that converge to influence cell recruitment/chemotaxis and gene regulation/protein synthesis responses which mediate wound healing. Future Directions: Our alternative perspective of the stages of wound healing eases recognition of the multiple sites where oxidative stress has an impact on wound healing. This aids the focus on mechanistic events and the interplay among various cell types and biochemical processes. It also highlights the areas where additional research is needed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1634–1647. PMID:24730726

  17. Self-healing graphene-based composites with sensing capabilities.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Eleonora; Barg, Suelen; Ni, Na; Rocha, Victoria G; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-08-26

    A self-healing composite is fabricated by confining a supramolecular polymer in a graphene network. The network provides electrical conductivity. Upon damage, the polymer is released and flows to reform the material. Healing is repeatable and autonomous. The composite is sensitive to pressure and flexion and recovers its mechanical and electrical properties even when rejoining cut surfaces after long exposure times. PMID:26178801

  18. Is spiritual healing a valid and effective therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, R D; Scofield, A M

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the evidence supporting the reality of healing as a scientifically-attested phenomenon, the techniques and mechanisms of healing and the potential value of this therapy if it were developed and integrated into the medical services. The need for further extensive research is indicated and strategies for such research are suggested. PMID:7745566

  19. Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neurath, Markus F; Travis, Simon P L

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have identified mucosal healing on endoscopy as a key prognostic parameter in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus highlighting the role of endoscopy for monitoring of disease activity in IBD. In fact, mucosal healing has emerged as a key treatment goal in IBD that predicts sustained clinical remission and resection-free survival of patients. The structural basis of mucosal healing is an intact barrier function of the gut epithelium that prevents translocation of commensal bacteria into the mucosa and submucosa with subsequent immune cell activation. Thus, mucosal healing should be considered as an initial event in the suppression of inflammation of deeper layers of the bowel wall, rather than as a sign of complete healing of gut inflammation. In this systematic review, the clinical studies on mucosal healing are summarised and the effects of anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drugs such as 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, azathioprine, ciclosporin and anti-TNF antibodies (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, infliximab) on mucosal healing are discussed. Finally, the implications of mucosal healing for subsequent clinical management in patients with IBD are highlighted. PMID:22842618

  20. 42 CFR 60.35 - HEAL loan collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other internal collection agents; (2) Immediately notifying an appropriate consumer credit reporting... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HEAL loan collection. 60.35 Section 60.35 Public... LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.35 HEAL loan collection. A lender or holder must exercise...