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Sample records for 8-week mindfulness-based stress

  1. Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. PMID:25053754

  2. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eluned; Smith, Alistair; Hopper, Ieuan; Herne, David; Tansey, Glenis; Hulland, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Stress within the teaching profession has a negative impact on the health and well-being of individual teachers and on retention and recruitment for the profession as a whole. There is increasing literature to suggest that Mindfulness is a useful intervention to address a variety of psychological problems, and that Mindfulness-Based Stress…

  3. Changes in spirituality partly explain health-related quality of life outcomes after Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Daniel M.; Smoski, Moria J.; Brantley, Jeffrey G.; Ekblad, Andrew G.; Suarez, Edward C.; Wolever, Ruth Quillian

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction is a secular behavioral medicine program that has roots in meditative spiritual practices. Thus, spirituality may partly explain Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction outcomes. Participants (N = 279; M (SD) age = 45(12); 75% women) completed an online survey before and after an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that, following Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, the relationship between enhanced mindfulness and improved health-related quality of life is mediated by increased daily spiritual experiences. Changes in both spirituality and mindfulness were significantly related to improvement in mental health. Although the initial mediation hypothesis was not supported, an alternate model suggested that enhanced mindfulness partly mediated the association between increased daily spiritual experiences and improved mental health-related quality of life (indirect effect: β = 0.07, P = 0.017). Effects on physical health-related quality of life were not significant. Findings suggest a novel mechanism by which increased daily spiritual experiences following Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction may partially explain improved mental health as a function of greater mindfulness. PMID:21360283

  4. An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-09-01

    Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

  5. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Improves Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress: Results from A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Shahar, Ben; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The high likelihood of recurrences in depression is linked to progressive increase in emotional reactivity to stress (stress sensitization). Mindfulness-based therapies teach mindfulness skills designed to decrease emotional reactivity in the face of negative-affect producing stressors. The primary aim of the current study was to assess whether Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing emotional reactivity to social evaluative threat in a clinical sample with recurrent depression. A secondary aim was to assess whether improvement in emotional reactivity mediates improvements in depressive symptoms. Methods Fifty-two individuals with partially-remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week MBCT course or a waitlist control condition. All participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) before and after the 8-week trial period. Emotional reactivity to stress was assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory at several time points before, during and after the stressor. Results MBCT was associated with decreased emotional reactivity to social stress, specifically during the recovery (post-stressor) phase of the TSST. Waitlist controls showed an increase in anticipatory (pre-stressor) anxiety, which was absent in the MBCT group. Improvements in emotional reactivity partially mediated improvements in depressive symptoms. Limitations Limitations include small sample size, lack of objective or treatment adherence measures, and non-generalizability to more severely depressed populations. Conclusions Given that emotional reactivity to stress is an important psychopathological process underlying the chronic and recurrent nature of depression, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills are important in adaptive emotion regulation when coping with stress. PMID:22440072

  6. Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Anxiety, Depression and Stress in Women With Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolahkaj, Bentolhoda; Zargar, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies suggest that mindfulness-based interventions can improve anxiety, depression and stress in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, no study investigated the effectiveness of this method in patients with a combination of problems such as depression, anxiety and stress simultaneously. However, comorbidities of depression and anxiety in MS are prevalent. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBRS) on anxiety, depression and stress in women with multiple sclerosis. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 2013 in Ahvaz MS Society. Forty eight patients were selected by convenient sampling and randomly assigned in experimental and control groups. The patients in the two groups filled out depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) at initiation of study, 8 weeks later and 1 month after the end of intervention. The experimental group received 8 sessions of MBRS, while the control group treated as usual. Finally, data of 40 patients analyzed using t-test, chi square and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: In the MBSR group, the mean depression, anxiety and stress were reduced significantly (P < 0.001). The mean depression score was 8.35 ± 1.78 before the intervention and reduced to 4.80 ± 0.83 and 4.45 ± 0.60 after the intervention and follow-up (P < 0.001). Also the mean anxiety score was 8.90 ± 1.97 before the intervention, which was significantly reduced to 4.70 ± 1.38 and 4.55 ± 0.99 after the intervention and follow-up (P < 0.001). The mean stress score was also 8.80 ± 2.35 before treatment and 4.80 ± 1.67 and 4.70 ± 1.34 after the intervention and follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that MBSR training can reduce mean depression, anxiety and stress scores in patients with MS. These findings suggest that MBSR is useful for psychological problems such as depression, anxiety and stress in patients with MS. PMID

  7. Effects of Low-Dose Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR-ld) on Working Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatt, Maryanna D.; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working…

  8. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Academic Evaluation Anxiety: A Naturalistic Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and…

  9. Stress and burnout in residents: impact of mindfulness-based resilience training

    PubMed Central

    Goldhagen, Brian E; Kingsolver, Karen; Stinnett, Sandra S; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Stress and burnout impact resident physicians. This prospective study tests the hypothesis that a mindfulness-based resilience intervention would decrease stress and burnout in residents. Methods Resident physicians from the Departments of Family Medicine, Psychiatry, and Anesthesia at Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, participated in two or three 1-hour sessions of mindfulness-based resilience activities, which introduced mindful-awareness and included practical exercises for nurturing resilience. Anonymous surveys were distributed before (completed by 47 residents) and after the intervention (both completed by 30 residents); a follow-up survey was distributed 1 month later (seven residents completed all three surveys). The survey included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 21-question version (DASS-21), the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and ten questions from the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results At baseline, most residents’ scores were in the normal range with respect to stress; however, female residents had higher DASS-21 scores than male residents (31.7, females vs 18.4, males; P=0.002). Most residents’ burnout scores were in the abnormal range, both with respect to exhaustion (38/47 residents, subscore ≥2.25) and disengagement (37/47 residents, subscore ≥2.1). Higher perceived levels of stress correlated with the instruments. Analysis of the surveys before and after the intervention showed no significant short-term change in stress, burnout, mindful-awareness, or cognitive failure. There was a trend for females and post-medical school graduate year 1 and 2 (PGY1 and PGY2) residents to have a reduction in DASS-21 scores after intervention. There was also a trend of reduced stress and burnout in residents who perceived higher stress. Conclusion Residents who are female, PGY1 and PGY2, and who perceive residency to be stressful may benefit most from a mindfulness-based resilience

  10. [Mindfulness-based psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bohus, M

    2012-11-01

    Mindfulness-based psychotherapy is rooted in the Far East meditation culture. In the context of psychotherapy mindfulness-based treatment programs mostly include mindfulness as modular components aiming at acceptance of aversive circumstances or emotions and on improvement of metacognitive awareness. Currently there are five mindfulness-based concepts with different proof of effectiveness: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) can be classified as effective in reducing the risk of relapse in patients with recurrent depression, whereas the popular mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) reveals only small effect sizes. In summary, mindfulness used as one component in modular conceptualized treatment programs seems to be both acceptable and effective. PMID:23069894

  11. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for comorbid anxiety and depression: case report and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly

    2012-11-01

    Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. PMID:23124187

  12. How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate

    2015-04-01

    Given the extensive evidence base for the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), researchers have started to explore the mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects on psychological outcomes, using methods of mediation analysis. No known studies have systematically reviewed and statistically integrated mediation studies in this field. The present study aimed to systematically review mediation studies in the literature on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), to identify potential psychological mechanisms underlying MBCT and MBSR's effects on psychological functioning and wellbeing, and evaluate the strength and consistency of evidence for each mechanism. For the identified mechanisms with sufficient evidence, quantitative synthesis using two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modelling (TSSEM) was used to examine whether these mechanisms mediate the impact of MBIs on clinical outcomes. This review identified strong, consistent evidence for cognitive and emotional reactivity, moderate and consistent evidence for mindfulness, rumination, and worry, and preliminary but insufficient evidence for self-compassion and psychological flexibility as mechanisms underlying MBIs. TSSEM demonstrated evidence for mindfulness, rumination and worry as significant mediators of the effects of MBIs on mental health outcomes. Most reviewed mediation studies have several key methodological shortcomings which preclude robust conclusions regarding mediation. However, they provide important groundwork on which future studies could build. PMID:25689576

  13. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for lung cancer patients and their partners: Results of a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Melanie P. J.; Molema, Johan; Speckens, Anne E. M.; van der Drift, Miep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer patients and partners show high rates of impaired quality of life and heightened distress levels. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction has proven to be effective in reducing psychological distress in cancer patients. However, studies barely included lung cancer patients. Aim: We examined whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction might be a feasible and effective intervention for patients with lung cancer and partners. Design: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction is a training in which mindfulness practices are combined with psycho-education to help participants cope with distress. In this mixed methods pilot study, questionnaires on psychological distress and quality of life were administered before, directly after and 3 months after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training, in combination with semi-structured interviews. Setting/participants: Patients with lung cancer and partners were recruited at one tertiary care academic medical centre. A total of 19 lung cancer patients and 16 partners participated in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training. Results: Most patients were diagnosed with advanced stage lung cancer. Vast majority completed the training. Those receiving anti-cancer treatment did not miss more sessions than patients who were not currently treated. Patients and partners felt positive about participating in a peer group and with their partner. Among participants no significant changes were found in psychological distress. Caregiver burden in partners decreased significantly after following Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. The qualitative analysis showed that the training seemed to instigate a process of change in participants. Conclusion: The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training seemed to be feasible for patients with lung cancer and their partners. A randomized controlled trial is needed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in reducing psychological distress in lung cancer

  14. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Academic Evaluation Anxiety: A Naturalistic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor’s and master’s students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and self-confidence improved. A growth curve analysis with all 70 original participants showed reductions in both cognitive and emotional components of evaluation anxiety, and that reduction continued postintervention. Although more research is needed, this study indicates that MBSR may reduce evaluation anxiety. PMID:27227169

  15. Recruiting and retaining family caregivers to a randomized controlled trial on mindfulness-based stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Whitebird, Robin R; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Lewis, Beth A; Hanson, Leah R; Crain, A Lauren; Enstad, Chris J; Mehta, Adele

    2011-09-01

    Caregivers for a family member with dementia experience chronic long-term stress that may benefit from new complementary therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction. Little is known however, about the challenges of recruiting and retaining family caregivers to research on mind-body based complementary therapies. Our pilot study is the first of its kind to successfully recruit caregivers for a family member with dementia to a randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction. The study used an array of recruitment strategies and techniques that were tailored to fit the unique features of our recruitment sources and employed retention strategies that placed high value on establishing early and ongoing communication with potential participants. Innovative recruitment methods including conducting outreach to health plan members and generating press coverage were combined with standard methods of community outreach and paid advertising. We were successful in exceeding our recruitment goal and retained 92% of the study participants at post-intervention (2 months) and 90% at 6 months. Recruitment and retention for family caregiver interventions employing mind-body based complementary therapies can be successful despite many challenges. Barriers include cultural perceptions about the use and benefit of complementary therapies, cultural differences with how the role of family caregiver is perceived, the use of group-based designs requiring significant time commitment by participants, and travel and respite care needs for busy family caregivers. PMID:21601010

  16. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for veterans exposed to military sexual trauma: rationale and implementation considerations.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Autumn M; Cross, Wendi; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2015-06-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) represents a significant public health concern among military personnel and Veterans and is associated with considerable morbidity and suicide risk. It is estimated that 22% of Veteran women and 1% of Veteran men experienced sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during their military service. Exposure to traumatic stress has detrimental effects on emotion regulation, which refers to a set of strategies used to modulate different components of emotion at different points on the trajectory of an emotional response. Mindfulness-based interventions offer approaches to health that focus on mind and body practices that can help regulate the experience and expression of difficult emotions. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an evidence-based therapy shown to be effective for depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This article discusses the rationale for providing MBSR to Veterans who have been exposed to MST. The article also discusses ways to facilitate implementation of this practice in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. We address potential barriers to care and ways to facilitate implementation at the patient, provider, organization/local, and policy levels. MBSR is likely to be an important component of a comprehensive approach to care for Veterans exposed to MST. PMID:26032384

  17. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629

  18. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629

  19. The temporal order of change in daily mindfulness and affect during mindfulness-based stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Snippe, Evelien; Nyklíček, Ivan; Schroevers, Maya J; Bos, Elisabeth H

    2015-04-01

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede or follow changes in negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) during a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program. This study also examines interindividual differences in the association between mindfulness and affect and possible predictors of these differences. Mindfulness, NA, and PA were assessed on a daily basis in 83 individuals from the general population who participated in an MBSR program. Multilevel autoregressive models were used to investigate the temporal order of changes in mindfulness and affect. Day-to-day changes in mindfulness predicted subsequent day-to-day changes in both NA and PA, but reverse associations did not emerge. Thus, changes in mindfulness seem to precede rather than to follow changes in affect during MBSR. The magnitude of the effects differed substantially between individuals, showing that the strength of the relationship between mindfulness and affect is not the same for all participants. These between-subjects differences could not be explained by gender, age, level of education, average level of mindfulness home practice, or baseline levels of mindfulness and affect. Mindfulness home practice during the day did predict subsequent increases in mindfulness. The findings suggest that increasing mindfulness on a daily basis can be a beneficial means to improve daily psychological well-being. PMID:25621590

  20. Enhancing the resilience of nurses and midwives: pilot of a mindfulness-based program for increased health, sense of coherence and decreased depression, anxiety and stress.

    PubMed

    Foureur, Maralyn; Besley, Karyn; Burton, Geraldine; Yu, Nickolas; Crisp, Jackie

    2013-08-01

    Health workers in general, and midwives and nurses in particular, experience high levels of stress/distress due to the nature of their work and workplaces; and, their socialization into ways of working that minimizes the likelihood of self-care. Increasing interest in the development of resilient workers has meant an enormous growth in interest in the role of holistic practices such as mindfulness meditation. Kabat-Zinn's mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is one of the most commonly used by those seeking to practise, theorize or research mindfulness across multiple contexts. The primary aim of this study was to pilot the effectiveness of an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on the psychological wellbeing of nurses and midwives. More specifically, we sought to test the acceptability and feasibility of a modified MBSR intervention to inform a future randomized controlled trial (RCT). The pilot study used a pre and post intervention design. Twenty midwives and 20 nurses participated in a one-day workshop, undertook to meditate daily for 8 weeks and completed pre and post intervention measures: general health questionnaire (GHQ-12); sense of coherence (SOC) - orientation to life and the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS). A subgroup took part in interviews or focus group discussions of their experiences of the program and their ongoing mindfulness practice. The quantitative findings included significant improvements on the GHQ-12, SOC and the stress subscale of the DASS. Qualitative findings support the acceptability of the intervention, and highlighted a number of issues related to feasibility of any future RCT. In conclusion, mindfulness practice holds promise for increasing individual and workplace resilience, however, meaningful research evidence from carefully constructed studies will be required to engage and motivate participation and organizational support. PMID:24099232

  1. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM): An Onsite Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) for Chronically High Stress Work Environments to Increase Resiliency and Work Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success

  2. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM): An Onsite Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) for Chronically High Stress Work Environments to Increase Resiliency and Work Engagement.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success

  3. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S L; Schwartz, G E; Bonner, G

    1998-12-01

    The inability to cope successfully with the enormous stress of medical education may lead to a cascade of consequences at both a personal and professional level. The present study examined the short-term effects of an 8-week meditation-based stress reduction intervention on premedical and medical students using a well-controlled statistical design. Findings indicate that participation in the intervention can effectively (1) reduce self-reported state and trait anxiety, (2) reduce reports of overall psychological distress including depression, (3) increase scores on overall empathy levels, and (4) increase scores on a measure of spiritual experiences assessed at termination of intervention. These results (5) replicated in the wait-list control group, (6) held across different experiments, and (7) were observed during the exam period. Future research should address potential long-term effects of mindfulness training for medical and premedical students. PMID:9891256

  4. Effects of Participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Michelle Judith

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a pre-test, post-test comparison group design to examine effects of participation in a twelve-week Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course on college students' psychological well-being (Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Medium Form; Ryff, 1989, 1995, 1996), psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom…

  5. Examining the Efficacy of a Brief Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (Brief MBSR) Program on Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Possemato, Kyle; Cheon, Sanghyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine potential psychological health benefits of participating in a brief (5-week) mindfulness-based stress reduction (brief MBSR) program integrated into an academic course. Participants: Participants were 119 undergraduate students (treatment: "n" = 72; control: "n" = 47) enrolled…

  6. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2010-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive-affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients with SAD. Sixteen patients underwent functional MRI while reacting to negative self-beliefs and while regulating negative emotions using 2 types of attention deployment emotion regulation-breath-focused attention and distraction-focused attention. Post-MBSR, 14 patients completed neuroimaging assessments. Compared with baseline, MBSR completers showed improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem. During the breath-focused attention task (but not the distraction-focused attention task), they also showed (a) decreased negative emotion experience, (b) reduced amygdala activity, and (c) increased activity in brain regions implicated in attentional deployment. MBSR training in patients with SAD may reduce emotional reactivity while enhancing emotion regulation. These changes might facilitate reduction in SAD-related avoidance behaviors, clinical symptoms, and automatic emotional reactivity to negative self-beliefs in adults with SAD. PMID:20141305

  7. Mindfulness-based stress reduction: a non-pharmacological approach for chronic illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Asfandyar Khan; Niazi, Shaharyar Khan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) therapy is a meditation therapy, though originally designed for stress management, it is being used for treating a variety of illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, skin and immune disorders. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of MBSR in the treatment of chronic illnesses; it's mechanism of action and adverse effects. It describes an alternative method of treatment for physicians and patients that may help patients cope with their diseases in a more effective way. Materials and Methods: COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for data on outcome of treatment with MBSR used alone or in conjunction with other treatments. The data available on prevention of diseases through MBSR was also analyzed. Results: All the 18 studies included in this systematic review showed improvement in the condition of patients after MBSR therapy. These studies were focused on patients with chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and skin disorders, before and after MBSR therapy. Conclusions: Although the research on MBSR is sparse, the results of these researches indicate that MBSR improves the condition of patients suffering from chronic illnesses and helps them cope with a wide variety of clinical problems. PMID:22540058

  8. The Validation of an Active Control Intervention for Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)

    PubMed Central

    MacCoon, Donal G.; Imel, Zac E.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Sheftel, Jenna G.; Weng, Helen Y.; Sullivan, Jude C.; Bonus, Katherine A.; Stoney, Catherine M.; Salomons, Tim V.; Davidson, Richard J.; Lutz, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Most of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. The current article specifies and validates an active control condition, the Health Enhancement Program (HEP), thus providing the foundation necessary for rigorous investigations of the relative efficacy of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and for testing mindfulness as an active ingredient. 63 participants were randomized to either MBSR (n=31) or HEP (n=32). Compared to HEP, MBSR led to reductions in thermal pain ratings in the mindfulness- but not the HEP-related instruction condition (η2=.18). There were significant improvements over time for general distress (η2=.09), anxiety (η2=.08), hostility (η2=.07), and medical symptoms (η2=.14), but no effects of intervention. Practice was not related to change. HEP is an active control condition for MBSR while remaining inert to mindfulness. These claims are supported by results from a pain task. Participant-reported outcomes (PROs) replicate previous improvements to well-being in MBSR, but indicate that MBSR is no more effective than a rigorous active control in improving these indices. These results emphasize the importance of using an active control condition like HEP in studies evaluating the effectiveness of MBSR. PMID:22137364

  9. The Impact of an Innovative Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on the Health and Well-Being of Nurses Employed in a Corporate Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bazarko, Dawn; Cate, Rebecca A.; Azocar, Francisca; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    This study implemented an innovative new model of delivering a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program that replaces six of the eight traditional in-person sessions with group telephonic sessions (tMBSR) and measured the program's impact on the health and well-being of nurses employed within a large health care organization. As part of a nonrandomized pre–post intervention study, 36 nurses completed measures of health, stress, burnout, self-compassion, serenity, and empathy at three points in time. Between baseline (Time 1) and the end of the 8-week tMBSR intervention (Time 2), participants showed improvement in general health, t(37) = 2.8, p < .01, decreased stress, t(37) = 6.8, p < .001, decreased work burnout, t(37) = 4.0, p < .001, and improvement in several other areas. Improvements were sustained 4 months later (Time 3), and individuals who continued their MBSR practice after the program demonstrated better outcomes than those that did not. Findings suggest that the tMBSR program can be a low cost, feasible, and scalable intervention that shows positive impact on health and well-being, and could allow MBSR to be delivered to employees who are otherwise unable to access traditional, on-site programs. PMID:23667348

  10. The Impact of an Innovative Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on the Health and Well-Being of Nurses Employed in a Corporate Setting.

    PubMed

    Bazarko, Dawn; Cate, Rebecca A; Azocar, Francisca; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    This study implemented an innovative new model of delivering a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program that replaces six of the eight traditional in-person sessions with group telephonic sessions (tMBSR) and measured the program's impact on the health and well-being of nurses employed within a large health care organization. As part of a nonrandomized pre-post intervention study, 36 nurses completed measures of health, stress, burnout, self-compassion, serenity, and empathy at three points in time. Between baseline (Time 1) and the end of the 8-week tMBSR intervention (Time 2), participants showed improvement in general health, t(37) = 2.8, p < .01, decreased stress, t(37) = 6.8, p < .001, decreased work burnout, t(37) = 4.0, p < .001, and improvement in several other areas. Improvements were sustained 4 months later (Time 3), and individuals who continued their MBSR practice after the program demonstrated better outcomes than those that did not. Findings suggest that the tMBSR program can be a low cost, feasible, and scalable intervention that shows positive impact on health and well-being, and could allow MBSR to be delivered to employees who are otherwise unable to access traditional, on-site programs. PMID:23667348

  11. Telephone-adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction (tMBSR) for patients awaiting kidney transplantation: trial design, rationale and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Reilly-Spong, Maryanne; Reibel, Diane; Pearson, Terry; Koppa, Pat; Gross, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has demonstrated benefits for stress-related symptoms; however, for patients with burdensome treatment regimens, multiple co-morbidities and mobility impairment, time and travel requirements pose barriers to MBSR training. Purpose To describe the design, rationale and feasibility results of Journeys to Wellness, a clinical trial of mindfulness training delivered in a novel workshop and teleconference format. The trial aim is to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life in people waiting for a kidney transplant. Methods The standard 8-week MBSR program was reconfigured for delivery as two in-person workshops separated in time by six weekly teleconferences (tMBSR). A time and attention comparison condition (tSupport) was created using the workshop-telephone format. Feasibility results Kidney transplant candidates (N=63) were randomly assigned to tMBSR or tSupport: 87% (n=55) attended ≥1 class, and for these, attendance was high (6.6 ± 1.8 tMBSR and 7.0 ± 1.4 tSupport sessions). Fidelity monitoring found all treatment elements were delivered as planned and few technical problems occurred. Patients in both groups reported high treatment satisfaction, but more tMBSR (83%) than tSupport (43%) participants expected their intervention to be quite a bit or extremely useful for managing their health. Symptoms and quality of life outcomes collected before (baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months) and after kidney transplantation (2, 6 and 12 months) will be analyzed for efficacy. Conclusions tMBSR is an accessible intervention that may be useful to people with a wide spectrum of health conditions. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01254214 PMID:25847578

  12. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for low back pain. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is frequently used for pain conditions. While systematic reviews on MBSR for chronic pain have been conducted, there are no reviews for specific pain conditions. Therefore a systematic review of the effectiveness of MBSR in low back pain was performed. Methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CAMBASE, and PsycInfo were screened through November 2011. The search strategy combined keywords for MBSR with keywords for low back pain. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing MBSR to control conditions in patients with low back pain were included. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Clinical importance of group differences was assessed for the main outcome measures pain intensity and back-specific disability. Results Three RCTs with a total of 117 chronic low back pain patients were included. One RCT on failed back surgery syndrome reported significant and clinically important short-term improvements in pain intensity and disability for MBSR compared to no treatment. Two RCTs on older adults (age ≥ 65 years) with chronic specific or non-specific low back pain reported no short-term or long-term improvements in pain or disability for MBSR compared to no treatment or health education. Two RCTs reported larger short-term improvements of pain acceptance for MBSR compared to no treatment. Conclusion This review found inconclusive evidence of effectiveness of MBSR in improving pain intensity or disability in chronic low back pain patients. However, there is limited evidence that MBSR can improve pain acceptance. Further RCTs with larger sample sizes, adequate control interventions, and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23009599

  13. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Fear Conditioning, and The Uncinate Fasciculus: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hölzel, Britta K.; Brunsch, Vincent; Gard, Tim; Greve, Douglas N.; Koch, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian; Lazar, Sara W.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has been suggested to impact emotional learning, but research on these processes is scarce. The classical fear conditioning/extinction/extinction retention paradigm is a well-known method for assessing emotional learning. The present study tested the impact of mindfulness training on fear conditioning and extinction memory and further investigated whether changes in white matter fiber tracts might support such changes. The uncinate fasciculus (UNC) was of particular interest in the context of emotional learning. In this pilot study, 46 healthy participants were quasi-randomized to a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR, N = 23) or waitlist control (N = 23) group and underwent a two-day fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction memory protocol before and after the course or control period. Skin conductance response (SCR) data served to measure the physiological response during conditioning and extinction memory phases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were analyzed with probabilistic tractography and analyzed for changes of fractional anisotropy in the UNC. During conditioning, participants were able to maintain a differential response to conditioned vs. not conditioned stimuli following the MBSR course (i.e., higher sensitivity to the conditioned stimuli), while controls dropped the response. Extinction memory results were not interpretable due to baseline differences. MBSR participants showed a significant increase in fractional anisotropy in the UNC, while controls did not (group by time interaction missed significance). Pre-post changes in UNC were correlated with changes in the response to the conditioned stimuli. The findings suggest effects of mindfulness practice on the maintenance of sensitivity of emotional responses and suggest underlying neural plasticity. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT01320969, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320969). PMID:27378875

  14. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Fear Conditioning, and The Uncinate Fasciculus: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Britta K; Brunsch, Vincent; Gard, Tim; Greve, Douglas N; Koch, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian; Lazar, Sara W; Milad, Mohammed R

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has been suggested to impact emotional learning, but research on these processes is scarce. The classical fear conditioning/extinction/extinction retention paradigm is a well-known method for assessing emotional learning. The present study tested the impact of mindfulness training on fear conditioning and extinction memory and further investigated whether changes in white matter fiber tracts might support such changes. The uncinate fasciculus (UNC) was of particular interest in the context of emotional learning. In this pilot study, 46 healthy participants were quasi-randomized to a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR, N = 23) or waitlist control (N = 23) group and underwent a two-day fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction memory protocol before and after the course or control period. Skin conductance response (SCR) data served to measure the physiological response during conditioning and extinction memory phases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were analyzed with probabilistic tractography and analyzed for changes of fractional anisotropy in the UNC. During conditioning, participants were able to maintain a differential response to conditioned vs. not conditioned stimuli following the MBSR course (i.e., higher sensitivity to the conditioned stimuli), while controls dropped the response. Extinction memory results were not interpretable due to baseline differences. MBSR participants showed a significant increase in fractional anisotropy in the UNC, while controls did not (group by time interaction missed significance). Pre-post changes in UNC were correlated with changes in the response to the conditioned stimuli. The findings suggest effects of mindfulness practice on the maintenance of sensitivity of emotional responses and suggest underlying neural plasticity. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT01320969, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320969). PMID:27378875

  15. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, Gina M.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Shapiro, Shauna L.; Schubert, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that mindfulness-based treatment interventions may be effective for a range of mental and physical health disorders in adult populations, but little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions for treating adolescent conditions. The present randomized clinical trial was designed to assess the effect of the…

  16. The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

  17. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training Reduces Loneliness and Pro-Inflammatory Gene Expression in Older Adults: A Small Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Burklund, Lisa J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Cole, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Lonely older adults have increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes as well as increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Previous behavioral treatments have attempted to reduce loneliness and its concomitant health risks, but have had limited success. The present study tested whether the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program (compared to a Wait-List control group) reduces loneliness and downregulates loneliness-related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults (N=40). Consistent with study predictions, mixed effect linear models indicated that the MBSR program reduced loneliness, compared to small increases in loneliness in the control group (treatment condition × time interaction: F(1,35)=7.86, p=.008). Moreover, at baseline, there was an association between reported loneliness and upregulated pro-inflammatory NF-κB-related gene expression in circulating leukocytes, and MBSR downregulated this NF-κB-associated gene expression profile at post-treatment. Finally, there was a trend for MBSR to reduce C Reactive Protein (treatment condition × time interaction: (F(1,33)=3.39, p=.075). This work provides an initial indication that MBSR may be a novel treatment approach for reducing loneliness and related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults. PMID:22820409

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  19. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

  20. Effects of a Brief Mindfulness-Based Intervention Program for Stress Management among Medical Students: The Mindful-Gym Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Sidik, Sherina Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a…

  1. Mindfulness-based acceptance and posttraumatic stress symptoms among trauma-exposed adults without axis I psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Youngwirth, Nicole E; Johnson, Kirsten A; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    The present investigation examined the incremental predictive validity of mindfulness-based processes, indexed by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, in relation to posttraumatic stress symptom severity among individuals without any axis I psychopathology. Participants included 239 adults who endorsed exposure to traumatic life events. Results indicated that the Accepting without Judgment subscale was significantly incrementally associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; effects were above and beyond the variance accounted for by negative affectivity and number of trauma types experienced. The Acting with Awareness subscale was incrementally associated with only posttraumatic stress-relevant re-experiencing symptoms; and no other mindfulness factors were related to the dependent measures. Findings are discussed in relation to extant empirical and theoretical work relevant to mindfulness and posttraumatic stress. PMID:18834701

  2. The Impact of a Mindfulness Based Program on Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Sleep of Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Ferszt, Ginette G.; Miller, Robin J.; Hickey, Joyce E.; Maull, Fleet; Crisp, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Incarcerated women enter the prison setting with remarkable histories of trauma, mental health and substance abuse issues. Given the stress of incarceration and separation from their children, families, and significant others, it is not surprising that many women experience increased anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. Due to these negative outcomes, it is imperative to find efficient non-pharmacological interventions. This pilot study examined the impact of a 12-week mindfulness based program on the stress, anxiety, depression and sleep of women with a total of 33 completing the study. In one group, women’s perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:26389932

  3. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on psychosocial outcomes and quality of life in early-stage breast cancer patients: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Virginia P.; Clemow, Lynn; Massion, Ann O.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Druker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction (MBSR) program on quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer, using a three-arm randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT). This RCT consisting of 172 women, aged 20–65 with stage I or II breast cancer consisted of the 8-week MBSR, which was compared to a nutrition education program (NEP) and usual supportive care (UC). Follow-up was performed at three post-intervention points: 4 months, 1, and 2 years. Standardized, validated self-administered questionnaires were adopted to assess psychosocial variables. Statistical analysis included descriptive and regression analyses incorporating both intention-to-treat and post hoc multivariable approaches of the 163 women with complete data at baseline, those who were randomized to MBSR experienced a significant improvement in the primary measures of QOL and coping outcomes compared to the NEP, UC, or both, including the spirituality subscale of the FACT-B as well as dealing with illness scale increases in active behavioral coping and active cognitive coping. Secondary outcome improvements resulting in significant between-group contrasts favoring the MBSR group at 4 months included meaningfulness, depression, paranoid ideation, hostility, anxiety, unhappiness, and emotional control. Results tended to decline at 12 months and even more at 24 months, though at all times, they were as robust in women with lower expectation of effect as in those with higher expectation. The MBSR intervention appears to benefit psychosocial adjustment in cancer patients, over and above the effects of usual care or a credible control condition. The universality of effects across levels of expectation indicates a potential to utilize this stress reduction approach as complementary therapy in oncologic practice. PMID:21901389

  4. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions for managing stress in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of mindfulness-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz San José, A; Oreja-Guevara, C; Cebolla Lorenzo, S; Carrillo Notario, L; Rodríguez Vega, B; Bayón Pérez, C

    2016-03-01

    Depression or anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to a more severe course of the disease and higher numbers of relapses, in addition to poorer treatment adherence and exacerbated immune system dysregulation. Recent investigations indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions for stress management, such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), could improve quality of life, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in MS patients. Mindfulness fosters the ability to slow down and observe experiences as they truly are, which improves affect regulation. Mindfulness is acquired through training; its advantage over other psychotherapeutic interventions is that effects may remain over time, since cultivating mindfulness depends on regular practising of abilities learned during training. The objective of this article is to review the current evidence of psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions, including MBIs for stress management, and their beneficial effects on MS patients. PMID:26385015

  5. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  6. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction on Immune Function, Quality of Life and Coping In Women Newly Diagnosed with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Witek-Janusek, Linda; Albuquerque, Kevin; Chroniak, Karen Rambo; Chroniak, Christopher; Durazo, Ramon; Mathews, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation used a non-randomized controlled design to evaluate the effect and feasibility of a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program on immune function, quality of life (QOL), and coping in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Early stage breast cancer patients, who did not receive chemotherapy, self-selected into an 8-week MBSR program or into an assessment only, control group. Outcomes were evaluated over time. The first assessment was at least 10 days after surgery and prior to adjuvant therapy, as well as before the MBSR start-up. Further assessments were mid-MBSR, at completion of MBSR, and at 4-weeks post MBSR completion. Women with breast cancer enrolled in the control group (Non-MBSR) were assessed at similar times. At the first assessment (i.e., before MBSR start), reductions in peripheral blood mononuclear cell NK cell activity (NKCA) and IFN gamma production with increases in IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 production and plasma cortisol levels were observed for both the MBSR and Non-MBSR groups of breast cancer patients. Over time women in the MBSR group re-established their NKCA and cytokine production levels. In contrast, breast cancer patients in the Non-MBSR group exhibited continued reductions in NKCA and IFN gamma production with increased IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 production. Moreover, women enrolled in the MBSR program had reduced cortisol levels, improved QOL, and increased coping effectiveness compared to the Non-MBSR group. In summary, MBSR is a program that is feasible for women recently diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and the results provide preliminary evidence of beneficial effects of MBSR on immune function, QOL, and coping effectiveness. PMID:18359186

  7. Decreased Symptoms of Depression After Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: Potential Moderating Effects of Religiosity, Spirituality, Trait Mindfulness, Sex, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Smoski, Moria J.; Suarez, Edward C.; Brantley, Jeffrey G.; Ekblad, Andrew G.; Lynch, Thomas R.; Wolever, Ruth Quillian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a secular meditation training program that reduces depressive symptoms. Little is known, however, about the degree to which a participant's spiritual and religious background, or other demographic characteristics associated with risk for depression, may affect the effectiveness of MBSR. Therefore, this study tested whether individual differences in religiosity, spirituality, motivation for spiritual growth, trait mindfulness, sex, and age affect MBSR effectiveness. Methods: As part of an open trial, multiple regression was used to analyze variation in depressive symptom outcomes among 322 adults who enrolled in an 8-week, community-based MBSR program. Results: As hypothesized, depressive symptom severity decreased significantly in the full study sample (d=0.57; p<0.01). After adjustment for baseline symptom severity, moderation analyses revealed no significant differences in the change in depressive symptoms following MBSR as a function of spirituality, religiosity, trait mindfulness, or demographic variables. Paired t tests found consistent, statistically significant (p<0.01) reductions in depressive symptoms across all subgroups by religious affiliation, intention for spiritual growth, sex, and baseline symptom severity. After adjustment for baseline symptom scores, age, sex, and religious affiliation, a significant proportion of variance in post-MBSR depressive symptoms was uniquely explained by changes in both spirituality (β=−0.15; p=0.006) and mindfulness (β=−0.17; p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings suggest that MBSR, a secular meditation training program, is associated with improved depressive symptoms regardless of affiliation with a religion, sense of spirituality, trait level of mindfulness before MBSR training, sex, or age. Increases in both mindfulness and daily spiritual experiences uniquely explained improvement in depressive symptoms. PMID:25695903

  8. Students and Teachers Benefit from Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in a School-Embedded Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Sarah; Luong, Minh T.; Schmidt, Stefan; Bauer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a research gap in studies that evaluate the effectiveness of a school-embedded mindfulness-based intervention for both students and teachers. To address this gap, the present pilot study reviews relevant literature and investigates whether students and teachers who participate in separate Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) courses show improvements across a variety of psychological variables including areas of mental health and creativity. Methods: The study applied a controlled waitlist design with three measurement points. A total of 29 students (n = 15 in the intervention and n = 14 in the waitlist group) and 29 teachers (n = 14 in the intervention and n = 15 in the waitlist group) completed questionnaires before and after the MBSR course. The intervention group was also assessed after a 4-month follow-up period. Results: Relative to the control group, significant improvements in self-reported stress, self-regulation, school-specific self-efficacy and interpersonal problems were found among the students who participated in the MBSR course (p < 0.05, Cohens' d ranges from 0.62 to 0.68). Medium effect sizes on mindfulness, anxiety and creativity indicate a realistic potential in those areas. By contrast, teachers in the intervention group showed significantly higher self-reported mindfulness levels and reduced interpersonal problems compared to the control group(p < 0.05, Cohens' d = 0.66 and 0.42, respectively), with medium effect sizes on anxiety and emotion regulation. Conclusion: The present findings contribute to a growing body of studies investigating mindfulness in schools by discussing the similarities and differences in the effects of MBSR on students and teachers as well as stressing the importance of investigating interpersonal effects. PMID:27199825

  9. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  10. Comparison of Effectiveness of the Metacognition Treatment and the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Treatment on Global and Specific Life Quality of Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash; Ghanbary-Motlagh, ALi

    2014-01-01

    Background This study is conducted to compare the metacognition treatment and the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment on life quality of women with breast cancer. Methods In a quasi-experimental design, with pre-test, post-test and control group, 36 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer, among patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran, were selected in accessible way and were assigned randomly to three experimental groups, the first group receiving meta-cognition treatment (n=12), the second one receiving mindfulness-based stress reduction program (n=12), and the other was the control group. Participants completed global life quality in cancer patient's questionnaire and specific quality of life in breast cancer patient's questionnaire in three stages: baseline, after intervention and two-month follow-up. Data were analyzed using the multivariate repeated measurement model. Results Findings showed both treatments were effective in improving global and specific quality of life in patients with breast cancer. The mindfulness -based stress reduction treatment excelled in functions and roles, fatigue, pain, future perspective and treatment side effects symptoms at the end of the treatment and follow-up in comparison to the metacognition treatment. Conclusion Results of this research showed the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality of women with breast cancer and is a selective method for improving quality of life in patients. PMID:25628839

  11. Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction is not associated with reductions in emotional eating or uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Milton, Meredith L; Malte, Carol A; McDermott, Kelly A; Martinez, Michelle; Simpson, Tracy L

    2012-06-01

    The adverse health effects and increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States make interventions for obesity a priority in health research. Diet-focused interventions generally do not result in lasting reductions in weight. Behavioral interventions that increase awareness of eating cues and satiety have been postulated to result in healthier eating habits. We hypothesized that participation in a program called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) would positively influence the eating behaviors and nutritional intake of participants through changes in emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and type and quantity of food consumed. Forty-eight veterans at a large urban Veterans Administration medical center were assessed before MBSR, after MBSR, and 4 months later. For all participants (N = 48), MBSR participation was not associated with significant changes in EE or UE. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of energy, fat, sugar, fruit, or vegetables at either follow-up time point as compared with baseline. Enhanced mindfulness skills and reduced depressive symptoms were seen over time with medium to large effect sizes. Changes in mindfulness skills were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in EE and UE over time. Overall, there was no evidence that participation in MBSR was associated with beneficial changes in eating through reductions in disinhibited eating or significant changes in dietary intake. Randomized studies are needed to further define the relationship between mindfulness program participation and eating behaviors. PMID:22749177

  12. A pilot study of a mindfulness based stress reduction program in adolescents with implantable cardioverter defibrillators or pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Freedenberg, Vicki A; Thomas, Sue A; Friedmann, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) or pacemakers (PMs) face unique challenges that can cause psychosocial distress. Psychosocial interventions are effective for adults with cardiac devices and could potentially impact adolescents' adjustment to these devices. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a structured psycho-educational program that includes meditation, yoga, and group support and has been studied extensively among adults. This study examined the feasibility of the MBSR program for adolescents with ICDs/PMs, a population previously unexamined in the research literature. The participants completed measures of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and coping (Responses to Stress Questionnaire) at baseline and after the six-session MBSR intervention. Mean age of the cohort (n = 10) was 15 ± 3 years, 6 were male, 6 had a PM, and 4 had an ICD. Feasibility was demonstrated by successful recruitment of 10 participants, 100 % participation and completion. Anxiety decreased significantly following the intervention, with a large effect size, t[9] = 3.67, p < .01, ŋ (2) = .59. Anxiety frequency decreased from baseline to post-intervention (Fisher's exact test p = .024), and 90 % of participants reported decreased anxiety scores post-intervention. Coping skills related negatively to anxiety (r = -.65, p = .04) and depression (r = -.88, p = .001). Post-intervention, the group independently formed their own Facebook group and requested to continue meeting monthly. Although generalizability is limited due to the small sample size, this successful pilot study paves the way for larger studies to examine the efficacy of MBSR interventions in adolescents with high-risk cardiac diagnoses. PMID:25519914

  13. No Sustained Attention Differences in a Longitudinal Randomized Trial Comparing Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction versus Active Control

    PubMed Central

    MacCoon, Donal G.; MacLean, Katherine A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Saron, Clifford D.; Lutz, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a secular form of meditation training. The vast majority of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. Previous studies have found that meditation training over several months is associated with improvements in cognitive control and attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a visual continuous performance task (CPT) to test the effects of eight weeks of mindfulness training on sustained attention by comparing MBSR to the Health Enhancement Program (HEP), a structurally equivalent, active control condition in a randomized, longitudinal design (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01301105) focusing on a non-clinical population typical of MBSR participants. Researchers were blind to group assignment. 63 community participants were randomized to either MBSR (n = 31) or HEP (n = 32). CPT analyses were conducted on 29 MBSR participants and 25 HEP participants. We predicted that MBSR would improve visual discrimination ability and sustained attention over time on the CPT compared to HEP, with more home practice associated with greater improvements. Our hypotheses were not confirmed but we did find some evidence for improved visual discrimination similar to effects in partial replication of other research. Our study had sufficient power to demonstrate that intervention groups do not differ in their improvement over time in sustained attention performance. One of our primary predictions concerning the effects of intervention on attentional fatigue was significant but not interpretable. Conclusions Attentional sensitivity is not affected by mindfulness practice as taught in MBSR, but it is unclear whether mindfulness might positively affect another aspect of attention, vigilance. These results also highlight the relevant procedural modifications required by future research to correctly investigate the role of sustained attention in

  14. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women With PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention to reduce health disparities for low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article presents our rationale for using MBSR as an intervention with this population, the details of its implementation, and a discussion of the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention based on participants’ feedback and our observations. We conclude that the use of MBSR programs for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of IPV is both feasible (of initial interest to and completed by most participants) and acceptable (congruent with and relevant to their needs). Replication with larger samples and examination of mechanisms is warranted by these findings. PMID:24043922

  15. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Advanced Nursing Practice: A Nonpharmacologic Approach to Health Promotion, Chronic Disease Management, and Symptom Control.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hants; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Tanabe, Paula

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how advanced practice nurses (APNs) can incorporate mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a nonpharmacologic clinical tool in their practice. Over the last 30 years, patients and providers have increasingly used complementary and holistic therapies for the nonpharmacologic management of acute and chronic diseases. Mindfulness-based interventions, specifically MBSR, have been tested and applied within a variety of patient populations. There is strong evidence to support that the use of MBSR can improve a range of biological and psychological outcomes in a variety of medical illnesses, including acute and chronic pain, hypertension, and disease prevention. This article will review the many ways APNs can incorporate MBSR approaches for health promotion and disease/symptom management into their practice. We conclude with a discussion of how nurses can obtain training and certification in MBSR. Given the significant and growing literature supporting the use of MBSR in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease, increased attention on how APNs can incorporate MBSR into clinical practice is necessary. PMID:25673578

  16. Preliminary Outcomes of a Mindfulness-Based Programme for Hong Kong Adolescents in Schools: Well-Being, Stress and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ngar-sze; Hue, Ming-tak

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness-based intervention with adults has been found to be highly effective and as such it has been the subject of much research in the past few decades. However, the study of mindfulness-based approaches with adolescents, especially in the Asian context, is still under-explored. This paper reports findings from a pilot controlled trial…

  17. Mindfulness-Based Mind Fitness Training: A Case Study of a High-Stress Predeployment Military Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Elizabeth A.; Schaldach, John M.; Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Jha, Amishi P.

    2011-01-01

    Current military deployments have resulted in many psychological and physical health issues and created interest in protective measures to mitigate effects of prolonged and repetitive stress. Mindfulness training has been successfully used for stress reduction in other contexts. The following case report presents a detachment of U.S. Marines who…

  18. Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention program for stress management among medical students: the Mindful-Gym randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Mohd Sidik, Sherina

    2015-12-01

    Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a medical school in Malaysia. Seventy-five medical students participated in the program. They were stratified according to years of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 37) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Awareness Attention Scale); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale); mental distress (with General Health Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (with General Self-efficacy Scale). Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to analyse the effect of group (intervention vs. control) on changes in the outcome variables. There were significant improvements at one week post-intervention in all outcome variables: mindfulness (β = 0.19, ΔR2 = 0.04, p = .040, f (2) = 0.05), perceived stress (β = -0.26, ΔR2 = 0.07, p = .009, f (2) = 0.10); mental distress (β = -0.28, ΔR2 = 0.10, p = .003, f (2) = 0.15); and self-efficacy (β = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.09, p < .001, f (2) = 0.21). Six months after the intervention, those who had joined the program reported higher self-efficacy compared to those in the control group (β = 0.24, ΔR2 = 0.06, p = .020, f (2) = 0.08); but there was no difference in other outcome measures. More than 90% of the participants found the program applicable in helping patients and all reported that they would recommend it to others. This study indicates that the program is potentially an effective stress management program for medical students in Malaysia. PMID:25697124

  19. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Perceived Pain Intensity and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Headache

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Amirani, Ahmadreza; Amirifard, Hamed; Shahrakipoor, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress reduction (MBSR) on perceived pain intensity and quality of life in patients with chronic headache. Thus, forty patients based on the diagnosis of a neurologist and diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS) for migraine and chronic tension-type headache were selected and randomly assigned to the intervention group and control group, respectively. The participants completed the Pain and quality of life (SF-36) questionnaire. The intervention group enrolled in an eight-week MBSR program that incorporated meditation and daily home practice, per week, session of 90-minutes. Results of covariance analysis with the elimination of the pre-test showed significantly improvement of pain and quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group. The findings from this study revealed that MBSR can be used non-pharmacological intervention for improvement the quality of life and development of strategies to cope with pain in patients with chronic headache. And can be used in combination with other therapies such as pharmacotherapy. PMID:26573025

  20. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Than Usual Care Alone (03/22/16) Mindfulness Meditation May Benefit People With Chronic Insomnia (09/01/14) Mindfulness May Be Helpful for People With Ulcerative Colitis ... Meditation (11/15/13) Meditation or Exercise May Help ...

  1. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  2. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Usual Care on Back Pain and Functional Limitations among Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cherkin, Daniel C.; Sherman, Karen J.; Balderson, Benjamin H.; Cook, Andrea J.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Hansen, Kelly E.; Turner, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has not been rigorously evaluated for young and middle-aged adults with chronic low back pain. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness for chronic low back pain of MBSR versus usual care (UC) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, interviewer-blind, controlled trial in integrated healthcare system in Washington State of 342 adults aged 20–70 years with CLBP enrolled between September 2012 and April 2014 and randomly assigned to MBSR (n = 116), CBT (n = 113), or UC (n = 113). Interventions CBT (training to change pain-related thoughts and behaviors) and MBSR (training in mindfulness meditation and yoga) were delivered in 8 weekly 2-hour groups. UC included whatever care participants received. Main Outcomes and Measures Co-primary outcomes were the percentages of participants with clinically meaningful (≥30%) improvement from baseline in functional limitations (modified Roland Disability Questionnaire [RDQ]; range 0 to 23) and in self-reported back pain bothersomeness (0 to 10 scale) at 26 weeks. Outcomes were also assessed at 4, 8, and 52 weeks. Results Among 342 randomized participants (mean age, 49 (range, 20–70); 225 (66%) women; mean duration of back pain, 7.3 years (range 3 months to 50 years), <60% attended 6 or more of the 8 sessions, 294 (86.0%) completed the study at 26 weeks and 290 (84.8%) completed the study 52weeks. In intent-to-treat analyses, at 26 weeks, the percentage of participants with clinically meaningful improvement on the RDQ was higher for MBSR (61%) and CBT (58%) than for UC (44%) (overall P = 0.04; MBSR versus UC: RR [95% CI] = 1.37 [1.06 to 1.77]; MBSR versus CBT: 0.95 [0.77 to 1.18]; CBT versus UC: 1.31 [1.01 to 1.69]. The percentage of participants with clinically meaningful improvement in pain bothersomeness was 44% in MBSR and 45% in CBT, versus 27% in UC (overall P = 0.01; MBSR versus UC: 1.64 [1.15 to 2.34]; MBSR versus CBT: 1

  3. Mindful pregnancy and childbirth: effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on women's psychological distress and well-being in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Cassandra; Hanieh, Emma; Roberts, Rachel; Powrie, Rosalind

    2012-04-01

    This pilot study explored the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group on pregnant women. Participants reported a decline in measures of depression, stress and anxiety; with these improvements continuing into the postnatal period. Increases in mindfulness and self-compassion scores were also observed over time. Themes identified from interviews describing the experience of participants were: 'stop and think', 'prior experience or expectations', 'embracing the present', 'acceptance' and 'shared experience'. Childbirth preparation classes might benefit from incorporating training in mindfulness. PMID:22382281

  4. Mind-Body Interventions to Reduce Risk for Health Disparities Related to Stress and Strength Among African American Women: The Potential of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Loving-Kindness, and the NTU Therapeutic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Black, Angela R.

    2011-01-01

    In the current article, the authors examine the potential role of mind-body interventions for preventing or reducing health disparities in a specific group—African American women. The authors first discuss how health disparities affect this group, including empirical evidence regarding the influence of biopsychosocial processes (e.g., psychological stress and social context) on disparate health outcomes. They also detail how African American women's unique stress experiences as a result of distinct sociohistorical and cultural experiences related to race and gender potentially widen exposure to stressors and influence stress responses and coping behaviors. Using two independent, but related, frameworks (Superwoman Schema [SWS] and the Strong Black Woman Script [SBW-S]), they discuss how, for African American women, stress is affected by “strength” (vis-à-vis resilience, fortitude, and self-sufficiency) and the emergent health-compromising behaviors related to strength (e.g., emotional suppression, extraordinary caregiving, and self-care postponement). The authors then describe the potential utility of three mind-body interventions—mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), loving-kindness meditation (LKM), and NTU psychotherapy—for specifically targeting the stress-, strength-, and contextually related factors that are thought to influence disparate outcomes for African American women. Self-awareness, self-care, inter- and intrapersonal restorative healing and a redefinition of inner strength may manifest through developing a mindfulness practice to decrease stress-related responses; using LKM to cultivate compassion and forgiveness for self and others; and the balance of independence and interdependence as a grounding NTU principle for redefining strength. The authors conclude with a discussion of potential benefits for integrating key aspects of the interventions with recommendations for future research. PMID:21479157

  5. Meditation Lowers Stress and Supports Forgiveness among College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Doug; Shapiro, Shauna L.; Thoresen, Carl E.; Plante, Thomas G.; Flinders, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors evaluated the effects on stress, rumination, forgiveness, and hope of two 8-week, 90-min/wk training programs for college undergraduates in meditation-based stress-management tools. Methods: After a pretest, the authors randomly allocated college undergraduates to training in mindfulness-based stress…

  6. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development. PMID:23512648

  7. A Small Randomized Pilot Study of a Workplace Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Surgical Intensive Care Unit Personnel: Effects on Salivary α-Amylase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Duchemin, Anne-Marie; Steinberg, Beth A.; Marks, Donald R.; Vanover, Kristin; Klatt, Maryanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a workplace stress-reduction intervention decreases reactivity to stress among personnel exposed to a highly stressful occupational environment. Methods Personnel from a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) were randomized to a stress reduction intervention or a wait-list control group. The 8-week group mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) included mindfulness, gentle yoga and music. Psychological and biological markers of stress were measured one week before and one week after the intervention. Results Levels of salivary α-amylase, an index of sympathetic activation, were significantly decreased between the 1st and 2nd assessments in the intervention group with no changes in the control group. There was a positive correlation between salivary α-amylase levels and burnout scores. Conclusions These data suggest that this type of intervention could not only decrease reactivity to stress, but also decrease the risk of burnout. PMID:25629803

  8. The association between meditation practice and treatment outcome in Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Perich, Tania; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Mitchell, Philip B; Ball, Jillian R

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of quantity of mindfulness meditation practice on the outcome of psychiatric symptoms following Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for those diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Meditation homework was collected at the beginning of each session for the MBCT program to assess quantity of meditation practice. Clinician-administered measures of hypo/mania and depression along with self-report anxiety, depression and stress symptom questionnaires were administered pre-, post-treatment and at 12-month follow-up. A significant correlation was found between a greater number of days meditated throughout the 8-week trial and clinician-rated depression scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale at 12-month follow-up. There were significant differences found between those who meditated for 3 days a week or more and those who meditated less often on trait anxiety post-treatment and clinician-rated depression at 12-month follow-up whilst trends were noted for self-reported depression. A greater number of days meditated during the 8-week MBCT program was related to lower depression scores at 12-month follow-up, and there was evidence to suggest that mindfulness meditation practice was associated with improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms if a certain minimum amount (3 times a week or more) was practiced weekly throughout the 8-week MBCT program. PMID:23639299

  9. [Mindfulness-based interventions in psychotherapy and in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Szondy, Máté; Albu, Mónika; Denke, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness means paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment in a nonjudgmental and nonreactive way. During the last years we can see a growing interest about this topic both in psychology both in medicine. Our article reviews the concept of mindfulness, the wide range of its effects (from genexpression to social connections) and the theoretical models of mindfulness. We shortly review the methods which explicitly focus on the improvement of the skill of mindfulness (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction, Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) and the role of mindfulness in (oncological and neurological) rehabilitation. PMID:26771698

  10. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  11. Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting Education: Promoting Family Mindfulness during the Perinatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Bardacke, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We present the conceptual and empirical foundation and curriculum content of the Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) program and the results of a pilot study of n = 27 pregnant women participating in MBCP during their third trimester of pregnancy. MBCP is a formal adaptation of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program and was…

  12. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  13. Competence in Teaching Mindfulness-Based Courses: Concepts, Development and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Crane, Rebecca S; Kuyken, Willem; Williams, J Mark G; Hastings, Richard P; Cooper, Lucinda; Fennell, Melanie J V

    2012-03-01

    There has been a groundswell of interest in the UK in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and its derivatives, particularly Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Many health, education and social work practitioners have sought ways to develop their competencies as mindfulness-based teachers, and increasing numbers of organisations are developing mindfulness-based training programmes. However, the rapid expansion of interest in mindfulness-based approaches has meant that those people offering training for MBSR and MBCT teachers have had to consider some quite fundamental questions about training processes, standards and competence. They also need to consider how to develop a robust professional context for the next generation of mindfulness-based teachers. The ways in which competencies are addressed in the secular mainstream contexts in which MBSR and MBCT are taught are examined to enable a consideration of the particularities of mindfulness-based teaching competence. A framework suggesting how competencies develop in trainees is presented. The current status of methodologies for assessing competencies used in mindfulness-based training and research programmes is reviewed. We argue that the time is ripe to continue to develop these dialogues across the international community of mindfulness-based trainers and teachers. PMID:23293683

  14. Interaction between Neuroanatomical and Psychological Changes after Mindfulness-Based Training

    PubMed Central

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; D’Arista, Sicilia; Egiziano, Eutizio; Gardi, Concetta; Petrosino, Roberta; Vatti, Giampaolo; Reda, Mario; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have documented neuroanatomical changes in individuals with a long history of meditation, while a few evidences are available about the interaction between neuroanatomical and psychological changes even during brief exposure to meditation. Here we analyzed several morphometric indexes at both cortical and subcortical brain level, as well as multiple psychological dimensions, before and after a brief -8 weeks- Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training program, in a group of 23 meditation naïve-subjects compared to age-gender matched subjects. We found a significant cortical thickness increase in the right insula and the somatosensory cortex of MBSR trainees, coupled with a significant reduction of several psychological indices related to worry, state anxiety, depression and alexithymia. Most importantly, an interesting correlation between the increase in right insula thickness and the decrease in alexithymia levels during the MBSR training were observed. Moreover, a multivariate pattern classification approach allowed to identify a cluster of regions more responsive to MBSR training across subjects. Taken together, these findings documented the significant impact of a brief MBSR training on brain structures, as well as stressing the idea of MBSR as a valuable tool for alexithymia modulation, also originally providing a plausible neurobiological evidence of a major role of right insula into mediating the observed psychological changes. PMID:25330321

  15. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The generalization of these results is limited since most participants were female patients with breast cancer. Moreover, only one study examined the effectiveness of MBSR in partners of cancer patients. Therefore, in the present trial we study the effectiveness of MBSR versus treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Methods/Design A parallel group, randomized controlled trial is conducted to compare MBSR with TAU. Lung cancer patients who have received or are still under treatment, and their partners are recruited. Assessments will take place at baseline, post intervention and at three-month follow-up. The primary outcome is psychological distress (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (only for patients), caregiver appraisal (only for partners), relationship quality and spirituality. In addition, cost-effectiveness ratio (only in patients) and several process variables are assessed. Discussion This trial will provide information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBSR compared to TAU in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01494883. PMID:24386906

  16. The effects of 8-week balance training or weight training

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Roberto, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of participating in an 8-week physical training (ie: balance or weight training) on psychosocial outcomes for independently living healthy older adults. Eighteen older adults (65 years old or older) voluntarily participated for this study. Participants were randomly and evenly distributed in 3 different groups such as balance, weight, or control group; 6 participants each. Fear of falling and social activity levels were statistically tested by evaluating questionnaires validated in previous studies. Psychological factors improved in all groups after 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Social interaction level did not improve in any of the three groups, although all participants exhibited improvements in being physically independent (P < 0.05). Results suggested that being physically active as well as being socially active could result in being less fearful of falls, more confident of leaving residency, being more independent, and being more active. PMID:21394234

  17. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as sole intervention for non-somatisation chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP): protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lawrence; Han, Han; Martin, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) affects up to 50% of the world's population. It impacts negatively on quality of life; entailing high costs on our medical systems, and translates to economic burden due to work loss. Aetiology of CNCP is complex and multifactorial, embracing the somatosensory, cognitive and affective domains. Opioid analgesia and other invasive interventions are often inadequate for clinical management of CNCP. Recently, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has become a popular therapy for various medical conditions, including CNCP. However, studies reported varying efficacies, and relevant systematic reviews have included clinical trials with inherent heterogeneity either in study conditions or types of interventions used. Our study aims to provide an updated and more critical evaluation of the efficacy of MBSR as the intervention for non-somatisation CNCP. Methods and analysis A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials published in English will be performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the Cochrane Collaboration format. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Intervention, will be searched independently by reviewers using defined MeSH terms. Studies with full texts using MBSR as the main intervention on patients with non-somatising CNCP will be included. Outcome measures include pain scores and disability assessment scales. Continuous data will be meta-analysed using the RevMan 5 Review Manager programme. Primary analysis will adopt the random effects model in view of heterogeneity between trials. The standardised mean difference will be expressed as the effect size with 95% CIs. Forest plots, funnel plots, the I2 statistic and the Cochrane Risks of Bias Assessment table will be included. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is deemed necessary. Results of this study

  18. A new desensitizing dentifrice--an 8-week clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Sowinski, J A; Battista, G W; Petrone, M E; Chaknis, P; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    2000-01-01

    An 8-week, double-blind, three-way clinical trial compared the dentinal hypersensitivity-reducing effectiveness of a new dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate and 0.454% stannous fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength Toothpaste, Colgate-Palmolive Co.) with a commercially available desensitizing dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate and 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Sensodyne Fresh Mint Toothpaste, Block Drug Company, Inc.) and a nondesensitizing dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Winterfresh Gel, Colgate-Palmolive Co.). One hundred nine subjects were stratified into three balanced groups according to gender, age, mean baseline tactile (Yeaple Probe), and thermal (air blast) scores. The test products were randomly assigned to each group with instructions to brush twice daily. Oral examinations with tactile and thermal assessments were repeated after 4 and 8 weeks. The new dentifrice group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in tactile and thermal sensitivity over the two control groups. PMID:11908355

  19. Prospects for a clinical science of mindfulness-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Dimidjian, Sona; Segal, Zindel V

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are at a pivotal point in their future development. Spurred on by an ever-increasing number of studies and breadth of clinical application, the value of such approaches may appear self-evident. We contend, however, that the public health impact of MBIs can be enhanced significantly by situating this work in a broader framework of clinical psychological science. Utilizing the National Institutes of Health stage model (Onken, Carroll, Shoham, Cuthbert, & Riddle, 2014), we map the evidence base for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction as exemplars of MBIs. From this perspective, we suggest that important gaps in the current evidence base become apparent and, furthermore, that generating more of the same types of studies without addressing such gaps will limit the relevance and reach of these interventions. We offer a set of 7 recommendations that promote an integrated approach to core research questions, enhanced methodological quality of individual studies, and increased logical links among stages of clinical translation in order to increase the potential of MBIs to impact positively the mental health needs of individuals and communities. PMID:26436311

  20. Changes in disengagement coping mediate changes in affect following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Crane, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown that mindfulness-based interventions increase positive affect in non-clinical populations. However, the mechanisms underlying this increase are poorly understood. On the basis of previous empirical and theoretical accounts, we hypothesized that a decreased use of disengagement coping strategies in daily life would explain the benefits of a mindfulness-based intervention in terms of increased positive affect. We analysed the data of 75 healthy adult participants (58 women; 17 men) of different ages (M = 49 years old; SD = 13; age range 19-81) who had been randomly allocated to 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) or to a waitlist control group. The results confirmed our hypothesis: Participants in the MBCT group showed significant improvements in positive affect compared to the control group, with decreased use of disengagement coping styles mediating these improvements. The implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26385256

  1. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with older adults: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Foulk, Mariko A; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Kavanagh, Janet; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kales, Helen C

    2014-01-01

    An 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group for older adults with depression and/or anxiety is described. This article is based on an exploratory study of this therapeutic approach and changes in participants' symptoms associated with participation. Pre-post data from 5 MBCT groups showed significant improvements in reported anxiety, ruminative thoughts, and sleep problems and a reduction in depressive symptoms. Case examples are presented to illustrate these symptom changes. Findings showed that this nonpharmacological intervention is acceptable to older adults and is associated with positive changes. Suggestions are provided for both practitioners and researchers interested in using MBCT with older adults. PMID:24329497

  2. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Walter E B; Eisendrath, Stuart J

    2012-02-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) incorporates elements of cognitive-behavioural therapy with mindfulness-based stress reduction into an 8-session group program. Initially conceived as an intervention for relapse prevention in people with recurrent depression, it has since been applied to various psychiatric conditions. Our paper aims to briefly describe MBCT and its putative mechanisms of action, and to review the current findings about the use of MBCT in people with mood and anxiety disorders. The therapeutic stance of MBCT focuses on encouraging patients to adopt a new way of being and relating to their thoughts and feelings, while placing little emphasis on altering or challenging specific cognitions. Preliminary functional neuroimaging studies are consistent with an account of mindfulness improving emotional regulation by enhancing cortical regulation of limbic circuits and attentional control. Research findings from several randomized controlled trials suggest that MBCT is a useful intervention for relapse prevention in patients with recurrent depression, with efficacy that may be similar to maintenance antidepressants. Preliminary studies indicate MBCT also shows promise in the treatment of active depression, including treatment-resistant depression. Pilot studies have also evaluated MBCT in bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. Patient and clinician resources for further information on mindfulness and MBCT are provided. PMID:22340145

  3. Psychological mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Alberto; Anselmi, Roberta; Serretti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the psychological mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). In the present review, we suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may enhance positive emotional regulation strategies, as well as self-compassion levels, and decrease rumination and experiential avoidance. These changes are, in turn, associated with several clinical benefits including the reduction of stress and depression levels, as well as the enhancement of positive emotions. Limitations and potential applications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24503749

  4. Promoting Well-Being and Preventing Burnout in Teacher Education: A Pilot Study of a Mindfulness-Based Programme for Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Lau, Ngar-sze

    2015-01-01

    The stress that negatively affects teachers has been found to influence the turnover rate in the teaching profession. Recent research has shown that mindfulness-based programmes effectively promote well-being while addressing psychological distress. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a six-week mindfulness-based programme on…

  5. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for multiple chemical sensitivity: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition characterized by recurrent, self-reported symptoms from multiple organ systems, attributable to exposure to a wide range of chemically unrelated substances at low levels. The pathophysiology is unknown, and affected individuals generally favor avoidance of the symptom triggering substances as a coping strategy. The impact of MCS on daily life may thus be severe. An intervention that may effectively reduce the impact of MCS, alleviate the symptoms and the psychological distress associated with the condition is therefore highly needed. In this study we will assess the effects of a mindfulness-based cognitive (MBCT) program on MCS. Methods/Design Using a randomized controlled design (RCT), we will compare MBCT with treatment as usual (TAU). The MBCT intervention will include 8 weekly 2.5 hour sessions, and 45 minutes of mindfulness home practice 6 days each week. Participants will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. Based on sample size estimation, 82 participants will be randomized to either the MBCT intervention or to TAU. The primary outcome will be a measure of the impact of MCS on the participants’ lives. The secondary outcome measures are physical symptoms of psychological distress, perceived stress, illness perceptions, QOL, and work ability. Lastly, we will assess whether any effect of MBCT on the primary effect measure is mediated by level of mindfulness, self-compassion, perceived stress, and rumination. Discussion This trial will provide important information on the effects of MBCT on MCS. Trials registration Clinical trials identifier NCT01240395 PMID:23016822

  6. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Mindfulness-Based Approaches: Common Denominator Issues for Children with Emotional, Mental, or Behavioral Problems.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina; Gombojav, Narangerel; Solloway, Michele; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    US children with emotional, mental, or behavioral conditions (EMB) have disproportionate exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). There are theoretic and empirical explanations for early and lifelong physical, mental, emotional, educational, and social impacts of the resultant trauma and chronic stress. Using mindfulness-based, mind-body approaches (MBMB) may strengthen families and promote child resilience and success. This paper examines associations between EMB, ACEs, and protective factors, such as child resilience, parental coping/stress, and parent-child engagement. Findings encourage family-centered and mindfulness-based approaches to address social and emotional trauma and potentially interrupt cycles of ACEs and prevalence of EMB. PMID:26980120

  8. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to treat multiple chemical sensitivities: a randomized pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Skovbjerg, S; Hauge, C R; Rasmussen, A; Winkel, P; Elberling, J

    2012-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is a medically unexplained and socially disabling disorder characterized by negative health effects attributed to exposure to common airborne chemicals. Currently, there is no evidence-based treatment. The objectives of the study were to assess the feasibility of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program (MBCT) for adults with MCS and to evaluate possible effects on psychological distress and illness perception. The study design was a randomized clinical trial. The MBCT programme comprised 8 weekly sessions of 2½ hours. Forty-two adults were screened for eligibility and 37 were included. Mean age of the participants was 51.6 years, 35 (94.6%) were female and 21 (56.8%) were unemployed. Measures of psychological distress and illness perceptions were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and at 3 months follow-up. No significant differences in effect measures were found between the groups. However, those who completed the MBCT program generally reported benefiting in terms of improved coping strategies and sleep quality. The positive verbal feedback from the participants in the MBCT group suggests that a larger randomized clinical trial on the effect of MBCT for MCS could be considered. PMID:22530938

  9. The ethics and politics of mindfulness-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andreas T

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of enthusiasm for mindfulness practice and its use in healthcare, businesses and schools. An increasing number of studies give us ground for cautious optimism about the potential of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) to improve people's lives across a number of dimensions. This paper identifies and addresses some of the main ethical and political questions for larger-scale MBIs. First, how far are MBIs compatible with liberal neutrality given the great diversity of lifestyles and conceptions of the good characteristic of modern societies? It will be argued that the potential benefits of contemporary secular mindfulness practice are indeed of a sufficiently primary or all-purpose nature to qualify as suitable goals of liberal public policy. Second, what challenges are brought up if mindfulness is used in contexts and applications-such as military settings-whose goals seem incompatible with the ethical and soteriological views of traditional mindfulness practice? It will be argued that, given concerns regarding liberal neutrality and reasonable disagreement about ethics, MBIs should avoid strong ethical commitments. Therefore, it should, in principle, be applicable in contexts of controversial moral value. Finally, drawing on recent discussions within the mindfulness community, it is argued that we should not overstate the case for mindfulness and not crowd out discussion of organisational and social determinants of stress, lowered well-being, and mental illness and the collective measures necessary to address them. PMID:27099360

  10. Can mindfulness-based interventions help adolescents with cancer?

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul; Blunda, Megan; Biegel, Gina; Carlson, Linda E; Biel, Matthew; Wiener, Lori

    2013-09-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of cancer in adolescents. While recent studies have illustrated remarkable resilience in youth living with cancer, they can also face daunting acute and chronic adjustment struggles, cognitive and school problems, family and peer relational difficulties, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and other anxiety disorders. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), increasingly shown to be effective in a variety of medical and mental health settings, may be particularly beneficial for adolescents with cancer. This paper reviews evidence from clinical trials of MBIs showing a variety of benefits for adult cancer patients, adolescents with anxiety disorders and chronic pain, and clinically healthy teenagers, which collectively point to likely benefits of MBIs for teen cancer patients. The authors also explore ways that the particular psychological problems often faced by teen cancer patients, including anxiety about the future, may be especially well suited to mindfulness approaches such as learning to observe physical sensations, thoughts, and emotions, as well as cultivating compassion towards themselves and others. The paper concludes with an exploration of unanswered and potential research questions regarding the future use of MBIs with adolescents with cancer, and potentially with teenagers with other chronic diseases. PMID:23417883

  11. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Physical Conditions: A Narrative Review Evaluating Levels of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Linda E.

    2012-01-01

    Research on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for treating symptoms of a wide range of medical conditions has proliferated in recent decades. Mindfulness is the cultivation of nonjudgmental awareness in the present moment. It is both a practice and a way of being in the world. Mindfulness is purposefully cultivated in a range of structured interventions, the most popular of which is mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), followed by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). This paper begins with a discussion of the phenomenological experience of coping with a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness, followed by a theoretical discussion of the application of mindfulness in these situations. The literature evaluating MBIs within medical conditions is then comprehensively reviewed, applying a levels of evidence rating framework within each major condition. The bulk of the research looked at diagnoses of cancer, pain conditions (chronic pain, low back pain, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis), cardiovascular disease, diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and irritable bowel syndrome. Most outcomes assessed are psychological in nature and show substantial benefit, although some physical and disease-related parameters have also been evaluated. The field would benefit from more adequately powered randomized controlled trials utilizing active comparison groups and assessing the moderating role of patient characteristics and program “dose” in determining outcomes. PMID:23762768

  12. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  13. Acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of chronic pain: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Veehof, M M; Trompetter, H R; Bohlmeijer, E T; Schreurs, K M G

    2016-01-01

    The number of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain, such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), increased in recent years. Therefore an update is warranted of our former systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported effects on the mental and physical health of chronic pain patients. Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Cochrane were searched for eligible studies. Current meta-analysis only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were rated for quality. Mean quality did not improve in recent years. Pooled standardized mean differences using the random-effect model were calculated to represent the average intervention effect and, to perform subgroup analyses. Outcome measures were pain intensity, depression, anxiety, pain interference, disability and quality of life. Included were twenty-five RCTs totaling 1285 patients with chronic pain, in which we compared acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions to the waitlist, (medical) treatment-as-usual, and education or support control groups. Effect sizes ranged from small (on all outcome measures except anxiety and pain interference) to moderate (on anxiety and pain interference) at post-treatment and from small (on pain intensity and disability) to large (on pain interference) at follow-up. ACT showed significantly higher effects on depression and anxiety than MBSR and MBCT. Studies' quality, attrition rate, type of pain and control group, did not moderate the effects of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions. Current acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions, while not superior to traditional cognitive behavioral treatments, can be good alternatives. PMID:26818413

  14. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lever Taylor, Billie; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal mental health difficulties are associated with adverse consequences for parents and infants. However, the potential risks associated with the use of psychotropic medication for pregnant and breastfeeding women and the preferences expressed by women for non-pharmacological interventions mean it is important to ensure that effective psychological interventions are available. It has been argued that mindfulness-based interventions may offer a novel approach to treating perinatal mental health difficulties, but relatively little is known about their effectiveness with perinatal populations. This paper therefore presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing depression, anxiety and stress and improving mindfulness skills in the perinatal period. A systematic review identified seventeen studies of mindfulness-based interventions in the perinatal period, including both controlled trials (n = 9) and pre-post uncontrolled studies (n = 8). Eight of these studies also included qualitative data. Hedge’s g was used to assess uncontrolled and controlled effect sizes in separate meta-analyses, and a narrative synthesis of qualitative data was produced. Pre- to post-analyses showed significant reductions in depression, anxiety and stress and significant increases in mindfulness skills post intervention, each with small to medium effect sizes. Completion of the mindfulness-based interventions was reasonable with around three quarters of participants meeting study-defined criteria for engagement or completion where this was recorded. Qualitative data suggested that participants viewed mindfulness interventions positively. However, between-group analyses failed to find any significant post-intervention benefits for depression, anxiety or stress of mindfulness-based interventions in comparison to control conditions: effect sizes were negligible and it was conspicuous that intervention group participants

  15. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lever Taylor, Billie; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal mental health difficulties are associated with adverse consequences for parents and infants. However, the potential risks associated with the use of psychotropic medication for pregnant and breastfeeding women and the preferences expressed by women for non-pharmacological interventions mean it is important to ensure that effective psychological interventions are available. It has been argued that mindfulness-based interventions may offer a novel approach to treating perinatal mental health difficulties, but relatively little is known about their effectiveness with perinatal populations. This paper therefore presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing depression, anxiety and stress and improving mindfulness skills in the perinatal period. A systematic review identified seventeen studies of mindfulness-based interventions in the perinatal period, including both controlled trials (n = 9) and pre-post uncontrolled studies (n = 8). Eight of these studies also included qualitative data. Hedge's g was used to assess uncontrolled and controlled effect sizes in separate meta-analyses, and a narrative synthesis of qualitative data was produced. Pre- to post-analyses showed significant reductions in depression, anxiety and stress and significant increases in mindfulness skills post intervention, each with small to medium effect sizes. Completion of the mindfulness-based interventions was reasonable with around three quarters of participants meeting study-defined criteria for engagement or completion where this was recorded. Qualitative data suggested that participants viewed mindfulness interventions positively. However, between-group analyses failed to find any significant post-intervention benefits for depression, anxiety or stress of mindfulness-based interventions in comparison to control conditions: effect sizes were negligible and it was conspicuous that intervention group participants did

  16. ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff, and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding,…

  17. Mindfulness-Based Interventions and the Affective Domain of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…

  18. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with late-life depression: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sonal; Sharma, Mahendra Prakash; Bharath, Srikala

    2016-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study and assessed on the behavioral analysis pro forma, geriatric depression scale, Hamilton depression rating scale, Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, The World Health Organization quality of life Assessment Brief version (WHOQO-L-BREF). The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding the nature of depression, training in formal and informal mindfulness meditation, and cognitive restructuring. A total of 8 sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for each patient. The results of this study indicate clinically significant improvement in the severity of depression, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in all 5 patients. Eight-week MBCT program has led to reduction in depression and increased mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in patients with late-life depression. PMID:27512325

  19. Impact of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Intolerance of Uncertainty in Patients with Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kuk; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Borah; Choi, Tai Kiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic construct in various anxiety and depressive disorders. However, the relationship between IU and panic symptom severity is not yet fully understood. We examined the relationship between IU, panic, and depressive symptoms during mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in patients with panic disorder. Methods We screened 83 patients with panic disorder and subsequently enrolled 69 of them in the present study. Patients participating in MBCT for panic disorder were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks using the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report (PDSS-SR), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results There was a significant decrease in scores on the IUS (p<0.001), PDSS (p<0.001), and BDI (p<0.001) following MBCT for panic disorder. Pre-treatment IUS scores significantly correlated with pre-treatment PDSS (p=0.003) and BDI (p=0.003) scores. We also found a significant association between the reduction in IU and PDSS after controlling for the reduction in the BDI score (p<0.001). Conclusion IU may play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of panic disorder. MBCT is effective in lowering IU in patients with panic disorder. PMID:27081380

  20. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with late-life depression: A case series.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sonal; Sharma, Mahendra Prakash; Bharath, Srikala

    2016-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study and assessed on the behavioral analysis pro forma, geriatric depression scale, Hamilton depression rating scale, Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, The World Health Organization quality of life Assessment Brief version (WHOQO-L-BREF). The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding the nature of depression, training in formal and informal mindfulness meditation, and cognitive restructuring. A total of 8 sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for each patient. The results of this study indicate clinically significant improvement in the severity of depression, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in all 5 patients. Eight-week MBCT program has led to reduction in depression and increased mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in patients with late-life depression. PMID:27512325

  1. Change in Brainstem Gray Matter Concentration Following a Mindfulness-Based Intervention is Correlated with Improvement in Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Omar; Hölzel, Britta K.; Vangel, Mark; Brach, Narayan; Carmody, James; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can improve their levels of psychological well-being (PWB) through utilization of psychological interventions, including the practice of mindfulness meditation, which is defined as the non-judgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment. We recently reported that an 8-week-mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course lead to increases in gray matter concentration in several brain areas, as detected with voxel-based morphometry of magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo MRI scans, including the pons/raphe/locus coeruleus area of the brainstem. Given the role of the pons and raphe in mood and arousal, we hypothesized that changes in this region might underlie changes in well-being. A subset of 14 healthy individuals from a previously published data set completed anatomical MRI and filled out the PWB scale before and after MBSR participation. PWB change was used as the predictive regressor for changes in gray matter density within those brain regions that had previously shown pre- to post-MBSR changes. Results showed that scores on five PWB subscales as well as the PWB total score increased significantly over the MBSR course. The change was positively correlated with gray matter concentration increases in two symmetrically bilateral clusters in the brainstem. Those clusters appeared to contain the area of the pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus, nucleus raphe pontis, and the sensory trigeminal nucleus. No clusters were negatively correlated with the change in PWB. This preliminary study suggests a neural correlate of enhanced PWB. The identified brain areas include the sites of synthesis and release of the neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin, which are involved in the modulation of arousal and mood, and have been related to a variety of affective functions as well as associated clinical dysfunctions. PMID:24600370

  2. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  3. Effects of 8 weeks of CPAP on lipid-based oxidative markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Sheila; Witting, Paul K; Hoyos, Camilla M; Maw, Aung M; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ronald R; Phillips, Craig L

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidaemia and increased oxidative stress have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea, and both may be related to the development of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown in a randomized crossover study in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea that therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 8 weeks improved postprandial triglycerides and total cholesterol when compared with sham continuous positive airway pressure. From this study we have now compared the effect of 8 weeks of therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure on oxidative lipid damage and plasma lipophilic antioxidant levels. Unesterified cholesterol, esterified unsaturated fatty acids (cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2; and cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4; the major unsaturated and oxidizable lipids in low-density lipoproteins), their corresponding oxidized products [cholesteryl ester-derived lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxides (CE-O(O)H)] and antioxidant vitamin E were assessed at 20:30 hours before sleep, and at 06:00 and 08:30 hours after sleep. Amongst the 29 patients completing the study, three had incomplete or missing [CE-O(O)H] data. The mean apnea -hypopnoea index, age and body mass index were 38 per hour, 49 years and 32 kg m(-2) , respectively. No differences in lipid-based oxidative markers or lipophilic antioxidant levels were observed between the continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure arms at any of the three time-points [unesterified cholesterol 0.01 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2 0.05 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4 0.02 mm, P = 0.05; CE-O(O)H 2.5 nm, P > 0.05; and lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E 0.03 μm, P > 0.05]. In this study, accumulating CE-O(O)H, a marker of lipid oxidation, does not appear to play a role in oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25533591

  4. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. PMID:24636206

  5. Fitness Changes After an 8-Week Fitness Coaching Program at a Regional Youth Detention Facility.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, John; Kukay, Jake

    2016-01-01

    A Surgeon General's report states that there is a favorable relationship between exercise and chronic disease. Research suggests that exercise programs for elderly inmates may have a positive effect on the number of infirmary visits, which in turn may have a long-term effect on inmate health care costs. This exploratory descriptive double case study sought to add to the minimal information in peer-reviewed research journals by examining the effects of fitness coaching on two juveniles at a youth detention facility in Southwest Montana. The results showed that both participants made fitness improvements following the 8-week program and both perceived positive effects on self-concept and overall sense of well-being from participating in this program. PMID:26672121

  6. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  7. Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Iain M; Hartwell, Matthew

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive performance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed (CS) and driving distance (DD) before and after an 8-week training program. The control group (n = 5) continued their normal training, while the experimental group (n = 6) performed 2 sessions per week of weight training and plyometrics. Controls showed no significant (p > or = 0.05) changes, while experimental subjects showed a significant increase (p < or = 0.05) in CS and DD. The changes in golf drive performance were attributed to an increase in muscular force and an improvement in the sequential acceleration of body parts contributing to a greater final velocity being applied to the ball. It was concluded that specific combined weights and plyometrics training can help increase CS and DD in club golfers. PMID:14971982

  8. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  9. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: trends and developments

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Meagan B; Kocovski, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a psychological intervention for individuals at risk of depressive relapse. Possible mechanisms of change for this intervention are in line with its theoretical underpinnings, and include increases in mindfulness and/or decreases in negative repetitive thoughts. This review provides an overview of current trends in MBCT research, including efficacy and questions regarding the specific effects of MBCT in light of recent comparisons with structurally equivalent control conditions, mechanisms of change, and moderators of treatment outcome. In addition, future directions are discussed, such as challenges with training an adequate number of therapists and disseminating this therapy. PMID:27274325

  10. ATTEND: toward a mindfulness-based bereavement care model.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding, this article focuses on attunement as a means to moderate the negative effects of traumatic bereavement, support the framework for posttraumatic growth in the bereaved, improve psychological outcomes for providers, and set the stage for the other aspects of the ATTEND model. PMID:24567995

  11. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry. PMID:26194655

  12. Mindfulness Based Programs Implemented with At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rawlett, Kristen; Scrandis, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review examines studies on mindfulness based programs used with adolescents at-risk for poor future outcomes such as not graduating from high school and living in poverty. Method: The keywords used include mindfulness, at-risk and adolescents in each database to search CINAHL (10 items: 2 book reviews, 3 Dissertations, and 5 research articles), Medline EBSCO (15 research articles), and PubMed (10 research articles). Only primary research articles published between 2009- 2015 in English on mindfulness and at-risk adolescents were included for the most current evidence. Results: Few studies (n= 11) were found that investigate mindfulness in at-risk adolescents. These studies used various mindfulness programs (n = 7) making it difficult to generalize findings for practice. Only three studies were randomized control trials focusing mostly on male students with low socioeconomic status and existing mental health diagnoses. Conclusion: There is a relationship between health behaviors and academic achievement. Future research studies on mindfulness based interventions need to expand to its effects on academic achievement in those youth at-risk to decrease problematic behaviors and improve their ability to be successful adults. PMID:27347259

  13. Mindfulness-based interventions for coping with cancer.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Linda E

    2016-06-01

    Work in the development and evaluation of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for cancer care has been underway for the last 20 years, and a growing body of literature now supports their efficacy. MBIs are particularly helpful in dealing with common experiences related to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship, including loss of control, uncertainty about the future, and fears of recurrence, as well as a range of physical and psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue. Our adaptation, mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR), has resulted in improvements across a range of psychological and biological outcomes, including cortisol slopes, blood pressure, and telomere length, in various groups of cancer survivors. In this paper, I review the rationale for MBIs in cancer care and provide an overview of the state of the current literature, with a focus on results from three recent clinical trials conducted by our research group. These include a comparative efficacy trial comparing MBCR to supportive-expressive therapy in distressed breast cancer survivors, a non-inferiority trial comparing MBCR to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer survivors with clinical insomnia, and an online adaptation of MBCR for rural and remote cancer survivors without access to in-person groups. I conclude by outlining work in progress and future directions for MBI research and applications in cancer care. PMID:26963792

  14. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    PubMed Central

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  15. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  16. Medial orbital gyrus modulation during spatial perspective changes: Pre- vs. post-8 weeks mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation exercises the ability to shift to an "observer perspective". That means learning to observe internally and externally arising stimulations in a detached perspective. Both before and after attending a 8-weeks mindfulness training (MT) participants underwent an fMRI experiment (serving as their own internal control) and solved a own-body mental transformation task, which is used to investigate embodiment and perspective taking (and an non-bodily mental transformation task as control). We found a stimulus×time-points interaction: the own-body mental transformation task (vs. non-bodily) in the post (vs. pre-MT) significantly increased activations in the medial orbital gyrus. The signal change in the right medial orbital gyrus significantly correlated with changes in a self-maturity personality scale. A brief MT caused increased activation in areas involved in self related processing and person perspective changes, together with an increase in self-maturity, consistently with the aim of mindfulness meditation that is exercising change in self perspective. PMID:26821244

  17. Detection of surreptitious administration of analog insulin to an 8-week-old infant.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca P; Hollander, Abby S; Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2010-05-01

    An 8-week-old infant presented to the emergency department with lethargy, tachycardia, and a blood glucose concentration of 1.8 mmol/L. After admission, hypoglycemia recurred on 3 additional occasions. Initial urinalysis results were negative for ketones, and the results of additional laboratory tests did not support the diagnosis of cortisol or growth hormone deficiency, oral hypoglycemic ingestion, or an inborn error of metabolism. Difficulty restoring and maintaining glucose concentrations along with a transient response to glucagon during 1 hypoglycemic episode suggested hyperinsulinism. In 1 hypoglycemic episode, elevated insulin and low C-peptide concentrations suggested exogenous insulin administration, but 2 subsequent blood samples obtained during hypoglycemia contained appropriately decreased concentrations of insulin. The insulin immunoassay initially used in this case (Roche ElecSys/cobas [Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN]) was insensitive to insulin analogs. Two additional immunoassays, 1 with intermediate (Immulite [Siemens, Deerfield, IL]) and 1 with broad (radioimmunoassay [Millipore, Inc, Billerica, MA]) reactivity to insulin analogs were used to characterize insulin in each of the critical blood samples. Samples obtained during hypoglycemia displayed a graded reactivity similar to that observed in type 1 diabetic patients prescribed insulin analogs, whereas a sample obtained from the patient and a control subject during euglycemia showed equal reactivity among the 3 assays. These data suggested administration of insulin analog to the child, and further characterization of insulin by using tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of Humalog. The child was subsequently placed in foster care with no further recurrence of hypoglycemia. PMID:20385635

  18. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention. PMID:26332902

  19. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  20. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  1. [Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy : current status and future applications].

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A; Segal, Zindel V

    2013-01-01

    Against the backdrop of dauntingly high prevalence rates of clinical depression and subsequent relapse, Segal, Teasdale and Williams (2002) sought to develop an intervention that would address the long-term sequence of depression. In the past decade, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy has been supported with a robust evidence base, highlighting its efficacy in the short, and long-term follow-up studies. Currently, novel adaptations of this intervention are being developed and piloted with a wide range of clinical issues that share amplified ruminative processes as a core feature of pathology. This review aims to summarize current and past research on MBCT, and to practically illuminate how this intervention can aid individuals in stepping out of the ruminative spirals that are part-and-parcel with major depressive episode. PMID:24719003

  2. Varenicline Augmentation in Depressed Smokers: An 8-week, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Whiteley, Laura; Price, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess possible antidepressant effects of varenicline augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depressive disorders and nicotine dependence. Background Varenicline (Chantix) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 partial agonist and α7 full agonist approved for smoking cessation. Studies of similar compounds have suggested evidence of antidepressant effects. Methods Eighteen patients were recruited from a general psychiatric outpatient clinic. Inclusion criteria were 1) primary Axis I depressive disorder, 2) persistent depressive symptoms despite adequate treatment, and 3) current cigarette smoking with nicotine dependence. Patients received varenicline in addition to stable doses of their regular psychotropic medications. Depression symptoms, side effects, clinical global impressions, anhedonia, daily cigarette consumption, and vitals signs were assessed every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Baseline and endpoint ratings were compared, and the relationship between mood improvement and smoking cessation was examined. The primary outcome variable was mean improvement in depressive symptoms. Results Fourteen patients (78%) completed the study; 4 discontinued due to side effects, including gastrointestinal (n = 3) and worsened mood/irritability (n = 1). Patients demonstrated significant improvement in depression at endpoint (p < .001), with significant improvement as early as week 2. Eight (44%) patients met criteria for categorical response, and six (33%) reached remission criteria; the overall effect size was large. All patients were interested in smoking cessation, eight (44%) achieved abstinence, and nine (50%) had some reduction in smoking. Improvement in depressive symptoms was correlated with smoking cessation. There was no evidence of treatment-emergent suicidality. Conclusion Open-label varenicline augmentation was associated with significant improvement in mood in a small sample of outpatient smokers with persistent depressive symptoms

  3. Oral treatment of pressure ulcers with polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex): 8-week open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sakae, Kensaku; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) is a tablet commonly prescribed for gastric ulcers in Japan. Recently, we reported the effects of polaprezinc on pressure ulcer healing at 4-week follow-up. We aimed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of polaprezinc in 8-week treatment for chronic pressure ulcers. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcers for ≥ 8 weeks received 150 mg/day polaprezinc (containing 116 mg L-carnosine and 34 mg zinc) per os for a maximum of 8 weeks. We measured the severity of pressure ulcers weekly using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score and monitored blood biochemistry. Fourteen patients (nine men; 68.4 ± 11.8 years) were enrolled. Pressure ulcer stages were II (one patient; 7 %), III (nine; 64 %), and IV (four; 29 %). The PUSH score improved significantly from 8.1 [95 % CI, 6.0-10.3] at baseline to -1.4 [-4.0 to 1.1] after 8 weeks (P < 0.001). Differences from baseline were significant after 1 week (P < 0.05). The mean weekly improvement in PUSH score was 2.0. Eleven patients healed within 8 weeks and none dropped out. Serum zinc levels increased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas serum copper levels (P = 0.001) and copper/zinc ratios (P < 0.001) decreased significantly. In one patient, preexisting copper deficiency deteriorated. These preliminary data suggest that polaprezinc may be effective and well-tolerated in 8-week treatment of pressure ulcers and could be a candidate for their oral treatment. PMID:24691900

  4. Development and Validation of the Mindfulness-Based Interventions--Teaching Assessment Criteria (MBI:TAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Rebecca S.; Eames, Catrin; Kuyken, Willem; Hastings, Richard P.; Williams, J. Mark G.; Bartley, Trish; Evans, Alison; Silverton, Sara; Soulsby, Judith G.; Surawy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of intervention integrity is essential in psychotherapeutic intervention outcome research and psychotherapist training. There has been little attention given to it in mindfulness-based interventions research, training programs, and practice. Aims: To address this, the Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment…

  5. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy with Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Uday K.; Kumar, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches have been shown to be useful in a variety of physical and mental health conditions including chronic pain, cancer, psoriasis, eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Mindfulness based CBT finds its origins in Eastern Buddhist meditation which began many centuries ago. Recent studies on CBT with mindfulness have shown…

  6. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  7. A pilot study examining mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Fordham, B; Griffiths, C E M; Bundy, C

    2015-01-01

    A sub-population of people with psoriasis have strong causal beliefs about stress, high levels of emotional distress (anxiety and depression) and an impaired quality of life (QoL). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has been found to reduce levels of stress and distress and to improve QoL. This pilot study in people with psoriasis aimed to test the hypothesis that mindfulness could reduce stress and thereby lessen psoriasis severity, improve QoL and reduce distress. Twenty-nine people with psoriasis (22-70-years old; 16 females; 13 males) were randomised to an eight-week mindfulness treatment as an adjunct to their usual psoriasis therapy or to a control group which continued with usual psoriasis therapy alone. All subjects completed self-reported measurements of psoriasis severity, perceived stress, distress and QoL, at baseline and again post-intervention. The mindfulness group reported statistically lower psoriasis severity (Self-Assessed Psoriasis Area Severity Index; z = 1.96, p = .05) and QoL impairment scores (Dermatology Life Quality Index; z = 2.30, p = .02) than the control group. There was no significant difference between groups on perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale; z = .07, p = .94) or distress scores (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; z = 1.60, p = .11). People with psoriasis who received mindfulness as an adjunct to their usual therapy reported a significant improvement in both psoriasis severity and QoL. These pilot results suggest that a full randomised control trial is justified to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as an adjunctive treatment for people with psoriasis. PMID:24684520

  8. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Improves Polysomnographic and Subjective Sleep Profiles in Antidepressant Users with Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Haynes, Patricia L.; Fridel, Keith W.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many antidepressant medications (ADM) are associated with disruptions in sleep continuity that can compromise medication adherence and impede successful treatment. The present study investigated whether mindfulness meditation training could improve self-reported and objectively-measured polysomnographic sleep profiles in depressed individuals who had achieved at least partial remission with ADM, but still had residual sleep complaints. Methods Twenty-three ADM users with sleep complaints were randomized into an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) course or a waitlist control condition. Pre-post measurements included polysomnographic sleep studies and subjectively reported sleep and residual depression symptoms. Results Compared to controls, the MBCT participants improved on both polysomnographic and subjective measures of sleep. They showed a pattern of decreased wake time and increased sleep efficiency. Sleep depth, as measured by stage 1 and SWS, did not change as a result of mindfulness training. Conclusions Mindfulness meditation is associated with increases in both objectively and subjectively-measured sleep continuity in ADM users. MM training may serve as more desirable and cost-effective alternative to discontinuation or supplementation with hypnotics, and may contribute to a more sustainable recovery from depression. PMID:22832540

  9. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder – A qualitative study on patients’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is the first-line treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, not all of them achieve remission on a longterm basis. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) represents a new 8-week group therapy program whose effectiveness has been demonstrated in various mental disorders, but has not yet been applied to patients with OCD. The present pilot study aimed to qualitatively assess the subjective experiences of patients with OCD who participated in MBCT. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 patients suffering from OCD directly after 8 sessions of a weekly MBCT group program. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results Participants valued the treatment as helpful in dealing with their OCD and OCD-related problems. Two thirds of the patients reported a decline in OCD symptoms. Benefits included an increased ability to let unpleasant emotions surface and to live more consciously in the present. However, participants also discussed several problems. Conclusion The data provide preliminary evidence that patients with OCD find aspects of the current MBCT protocol acceptable and beneficial. The authors suggest to further explore MBCT as a complementary treatment strategy for OCD. PMID:23114260

  10. Preliminary long-term follow-up of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy-induced remission of depression.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Krishna; Eisendrath, Stuart; Delucchi, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often chronic and characterized by relapse and recurrence despite successful treatments to induce remission. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a means of preventing relapse for individuals in remission using cognitive interventions. In addition, MBCT has preliminarily been found to be useful in treating active depression. This current investigation is unique in evaluating the long-term outcome of individuals with active depression who achieved remission with MBCT. 18 participants who achieved remission after an 8-week MBCT group were seen for evaluation at a mean follow-up interval of 48.7 months (SD=10.2) after completing treatment. The current study shows that in these participants, the gains achieved after the initial treatment including remission of depression, decreased rumination, decreased anxiety, and increased mindfulness continued for up to 58.9 months of follow-up. The data suggests that all levels of depression from less recurrent and mild to more recurrent and severe were responsive to MBCT. The average number of minutes per week of continued practice in our cohort was 210, but the number of minutes of practice did not correlate with depression outcomes. MBCT's effects may be more related to regularity of practice than specific quantity. This study provides a preliminary exploration of MBCT's long-term effects, which can aid in future research with a typically chronic illness. PMID:24443660

  11. The feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for mixed diagnosis patients in primary care: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Radford, Sholto R; Crane, Rebecca Susan; Eames, Catrin; Gold, Eluned; Owens, Gareth Wyn

    2012-09-01

    Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an intervention developed for the prevention of recurrent depression which is now being applied to widening numbers of clinical populations. Despite evidence for its effectiveness in preventing relapse in depression, less is known about its efficacy within routine clinical practice for groups of patients with more varied mental health problems, despite this being a potentially promising context for its application. Aims This pilot study aimed to investigate whether MBCT would be feasible and effective when delivered in a primary care context for patients who are vulnerable to recurrent depression and anxiety. Results Attrition from the programme was low and both attendance and engagement with home practices (during and after the intervention) were comparable with or higher than those observed in the existing literature. Improvements in self-reported depression, anxiety, rumination, self-compassion and well-being were evident over the 8-week programme and at 6-month post intervention follow-up. Conclusions Despite limitations in terms of sample size and the absence of a control group, the results demonstrate that the promising research results of MBCT for depression are transferable from a research to a practice setting, and demonstrate that it may be an effective and feasible intervention when delivered in a primary care setting for a range of mental health problems. PMID:23997825

  12. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  13. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  14. Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, James; Evans, Karleyton C.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Dusek, Jeffery A.; Morgan, Lucas; Pitman, Roger K.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2010-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse effects on health and is a risk factor for many illnesses. Neurobiological studies have implicated the amygdala as a brain structure crucial in stress responses. Whereas hyperactive amygdala function is often observed during stress conditions, cross-sectional reports of differences in gray matter structure have been less consistent. We conducted a longitudinal MRI study to investigate the relationship between changes in perceived stress with changes in amygdala gray matter density following a stress-reduction intervention. Stressed but otherwise healthy individuals (N = 26) participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Perceived stress was rated on the perceived stress scale (PSS) and anatomical MR images were acquired pre- and post-intervention. PSS change was used as the predictive regressor for changes in gray matter density within the bilateral amygdalae. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced perceived stress. Reductions in perceived stress correlated positively with decreases in right basolateral amygdala gray matter density. Whereas prior studies found gray matter modifications resulting from acquisition of abstract information, motor and language skills, this study demonstrates that neuroplastic changes are associated with improvements in a psychological state variable. PMID:19776221

  15. Feasibility of a mindfulness-based intervention to address youth issues in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao N; Trieu, Don T

    2016-06-01

    Youth problems including risky sex, drug use, violence and mental health issues are on the rise in Vietnam. Mindfulness is proposed as one way to address unskillful responses to stress that give rise to these behavioral and psychosocial issues in Vietnam. This study explores the feasibility of a mindfulness program for adolescents and young adults in a central city in Vietnam. The mindfulness-based intervention was comprised 1-h daily session over 3 weeks that was conducted at two different sites, one with handicapped adolescents/young adults at the Vocational School for Handicapped and the other with at-risk youth at a semi-private high school. Forty-two Vietnamese youth participants and five Vietnamese teachers/facilitators who were trained in the mindfulness program provided personal reflections of their experiences. Analyses of the qualitative data suggest that mindfulness was enthusiastically received and accepted by both youth and teachers. There is strong indication that mindfulness is promising as a prevention strategy to help with stress and to build important life skills among Vietnamese youth. PMID:25452422

  16. Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Levis, Alexander W.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7). Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases. Conclusions The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice. PMID:27058355

  17. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  18. Mindfulness-based therapy and behavioral activation: A randomized controlled trial with depressed college students.

    PubMed

    McIndoo, C C; File, A A; Preddy, T; Clark, C G; Hopko, D R

    2016-02-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) manifests in 20-30% of college students, with increased incidence in recent decades. Very limited research has assessed the efficacy of evidence-based interventions for MDD in college students. Mindfulness-Based Therapy (MBT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are two interventions with significant potential to meet demands of college counseling clinics and effectively treat college students with MDD. This study utilized a randomized controlled research design (n = 50) to examine the efficacy of four-sessions of abbreviated MBT and BA relative to a wait-list control condition with depressed college students. Intent-to-treat data analyses on depression outcome measures suggested both treatments were superior to the control group. There were significant pre-post treatment improvements across measures of depression, rumination, stress, and mindfulness, gains largely maintained at 1-month follow-up. Neither active treatment effectively reduced somatic anxiety. Both treatments generally had moderate-strong effect sizes relative to the control group, and based on depression response and remission criteria, 56-79% of patients exhibited clinically significant improvement. Based on reliable change indices, 75-85% experienced clinically significant reductions in depression. There was strong therapist competence and adherence to treatment protocols and high patient satisfaction with both interventions. Study limitations and implications for the assessment and treatment of depressed college students are discussed. PMID:26745622

  19. Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Recurrent Headaches: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M; Giles, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches. PMID:26798398

  20. Mindfulness-based training attenuates insula response to an aversive interoceptive challenge.

    PubMed

    Haase, Lori; Thom, Nate J; Shukla, Akanksha; Davenport, Paul W; Simmons, Alan N; Stanley, Elizabeth A; Paulus, Martin P; Johnson, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of mindfulness training (MT) modulate anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula among other brain regions, which are important for attentional control, emotional regulation and interoception. Inspiratory breathing load (IBL) is an experimental approach to examine how an individual responds to an aversive stimulus. Military personnel are at increased risk for cognitive, emotional and physiological compromise as a consequence of prolonged exposure to stressful environments and, therefore, may benefit from MT. This study investigated whether MT modulates neural processing of interoceptive distress in infantry marines scheduled to undergo pre-deployment training and deployment to Afghanistan. Marines were divided into two groups: individuals who received training as usual (control) and individuals who received an additional 20-h mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT). All subjects completed an IBL task during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and post-MMFT training. Marines who underwent MMFT relative to controls demonstrated a significant attenuation of right anterior insula and ACC during the experience of loaded breathing. These results support the hypothesis that MT changes brain activation such that individuals process more effectively an aversive interoceptive stimulus. Thus, MT may serve as a training technique to modulate the brain's response to negative interoceptive stimuli, which may help to improve resilience. PMID:24714209

  1. Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Recurrent Headaches: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G.; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M.; Giles, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches. PMID:26798398

  2. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Codie R; Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness). This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. PMID:26064068

  3. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  4. Mindfulness-based interventions in schools—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zenner, Charlotte; Herrnleben-Kurz, Solveig; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness programs for schools are popular. We systematically reviewed the evidence regarding the effects of school-based mindfulness interventions on psychological outcomes, using a comprehensive search strategy designed to locate both published and unpublished studies. Systematic searches in 12 databases were performed in August 2012. Further studies were identified via hand search and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, also selecting information about intervention programs (elements, structure etc.), feasibility, and acceptance. Twenty-four studies were identified, of which 13 were published. Nineteen studies used a controlled design. In total, 1348 students were instructed in mindfulness, with 876 serving as controls, ranging from grade 1 to 12. Overall effect sizes were Hedge's g = 0.40 between groups and g = 0.41 within groups (p < 0.0001). Between group effect sizes for domains were: cognitive performance g = 0.80, stress g = 0.39, resilience g = 0.36, (all p < 0.05), emotional problems g = 0.19 third person ratings g = 0.25 (both n.s.). All in all, mindfulness-based interventions in children and youths hold promise, particularly in relation to improving cognitive performance and resilience to stress. However, the diversity of study samples, variety in implementation and exercises, and wide range of instruments used require a careful and differentiated examination of data. There is great heterogeneity, many studies are underpowered, and measuring effects of Mindfulness in this setting is challenging. The field is nascent and recommendations will be provided as to how interventions and research of these interventions may proceed. PMID:25071620

  5. Mindfulness-Based Approaches for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Webb, Lindsey; Sibinga, Erica M S

    2016-06-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a useful adjunct to behavioral and medical interventions to manage a range of symptoms, including psychological and physical responses to stress, anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior. Mindfulness approaches can be taught to children, adolescents, and their parents to improve self-regulation, particularly in response to stress. Mindfulness may be particularly relevant for youth and families who have an increased risk for exposure to chronic stress and unique stressors associated with medical and/or social-contextual considerations. Moreover, mindfulness parenting techniques can augment traditional behavioral approaches to improve children׳s behavior through specific parent-child interactions. A growing body of empirical studies and clinical experience suggest that incorporating mindfulness practices will enable clinicians to more effectively treat youth and their families in coping optimally with a range of challenging symptoms. PMID:26968457

  6. Alterations of Muscular Strength and Left and Right Limb Balance in Weightlifters after an 8-week Balance Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Hwun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Kwi Baek; Lee, Sung Soo; Shin, Ki ok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters' balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes' sport performance. PMID:24259879

  7. Ondansetron or placebo in the augmentation of fluvoxamine response over 8 weeks in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Zarei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed M R; Taghvaei, Rheleh; Maleki, Haleh; Tabrizi, Mina; Fallah, Jalil; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six men and women, aged 18-60 years, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21 were recruited into the study. The patients randomly received either ondansetron (8 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. All patients received fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by 200 mg/day for the rest of the trial. The patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS and the adverse event checklists at baseline, and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth week. Forty-four patients completed the study. The Y-BOCS total score as well as the Y-BOCS obsession subscale score and compulsion subscale score showed significantly greater reduction in the ondansetron group than in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. In this 8-week double-blind randomized-controlled trial, ondansetron showed significant beneficial effect as an augmentative agent with fluvoxamine in patients with moderate to severe OCD and it was generally well tolerated. PMID:24850229

  8. Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Supports (MBPBS): Effects on Caregivers and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Karazsia, Bryan T.; Myers, Rachel E.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals’ behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the MBPBS training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof-of-concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation. PMID:26903906

  9. Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Supports (MBPBS): Effects on Caregivers and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Karazsia, Bryan T; Myers, Rachel E

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals' behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the MBPBS training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof-of-concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation. PMID:26903906

  10. Mindfulness-Based Program for Management of Aggression Among Youth: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth have shown indulgence in various high-risk behaviors and violent activities. Yoga-based approaches have been used for the management of psychological problems. The present work explores the role of mindfulness-based program in the management of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Sociodemographic information schedule, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and World Health Organization quality of life were administered on 50 subjects in the age range of 18-25 years at pre- and post-mindfulness-based program level. Results: It revealed the presence of feeling of well-being and ability to relax themselves; changes in score of anger, hostility, physical, and verbal aggression; and enhancement of quality of life in the physical and environment domains at 1 month follow-up. Conclusions: Mindfulness-based program has shown changes in aggression expression/control and implies integration of it in available program for the management of aggression among youth. PMID:27335516

  11. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-jae; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Methods Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Results Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats. PMID:26566500

  12. Protein Supplementation Increases Postexercise Plasma Myostatin Concentration After 8 Weeks of Resistance Training in Young Physically Active Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pacelli, Quirico F.; Neri, Marco; Toniolo, Luana; Cancellara, Pasqua; Canato, Marta; Moro, Tatiana; Quadrelli, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Bianco, Antonino; Reggiani, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth even if some studies have shown a counterintuitive positive correlation between MSTN and muscle mass (MM). Our aim was to investigate the influence of 2 months of resistance training (RT) and diets with different protein contents on plasma MSTN, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided in two groups: high protein (HP) and normal protein (NP) groups. Different protein diet contents were 1.8 and 0.85 g of protein·kg bw−1·day−1 for HP and NP, respectively. Subjects underwent 8 weeks of standardized progressive RT. MSTN, IGF-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were analyzed before and after the first and the last training sessions. Lean body mass, MM, upper-limb muscle area, and strength were measured. Plasma MSTN showed a significant increase (P<.001) after the last training in the HP group compared with NP group and with starting value. IGF-1 plasma concentration showed a positive correlation with MSTN in HP after the last training (r2=0.6456; P=.0295). No significant differences were found between NP and HP for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and strength and MM or area. These findings suggest a “paradoxical” postexercise increase of plasma MSTN after 8 weeks of RT and HP diets. This MSTN elevation correlates positively with IGF-1 plasma level. This double increase of opposite (catabolic/anabolic) mediators could explain the substantial overlapping of MM increases in the two groups. PMID:25133710

  13. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Frost, DM, Bronson, S, Cronin, JB, and Newton, RU. Changes in maximal strength, velocity, and power after 8 weeks of training with pneumatic or free weight resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 934-944, 2016-Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands. PMID:26418368

  14. Change in diet and oral hygiene over an 8-week period: effects on oral health and oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Roth, Dominik; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Follo, Marie; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Deimling, Daniela; Hellwig, Elmar; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor changes in oral health and oral biofilm composition in vivo during an experiment simulating prehistoric lifestyle and diet and poor oral hygiene. Thirteen subjects lived for a period of 8 weeks under Neolithic conditions. The following clinical parameters were recorded before and after the project: gingival and plaque index (Löe and Silness, Acta Odontol Scand 21:533, 1963; Silness and Löe, Acta Odontol Scand 22:121-135, 1964), probing pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. In addition, supragingival plaque samples were collected both before and after the project and were analysed quantitatively using multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The following plaque bacteria were evaluated: Streptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii. The plaque index increased significantly from 1.12 up to 1.55 over the 8-week period (gingival index before, 0.46; after, 0.93; p < 0.05). A strong correlation of both indices was recorded before (r = 0.77) and after (r = 0.83) participation in the study. Each of the children in the study showed a progression of carious lesions and/or new areas of demineralisation. The probing pocket depth and bleeding upon probing were not affected. All subjects yielded an intra-individual shift in biofilm composition. The proportion of F. nucleatum decreased across all subjects. The proportion of Veillonella spp. increased among the children. Poor oral hygiene and change of diet lead to an increase in oral plaque and gingival inflammation. The inter-individual comparison indicated a shift in bacterial composition. PMID:19626350

  15. An Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approach to Social Phobia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…

  16. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Anxiety and Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Witt, Ashley A.; Oh, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although mindfulness-based therapy has become a popular treatment, little is known about its efficacy. Therefore, our objective was to conduct an effect size analysis of this popular intervention for anxiety and mood symptoms in clinical samples. Method: We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and…

  17. Pilot of a Learning Management System to Enhance Counselors' Relational Qualities through Mindfulness-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness-based practices are associated with increased attentional qualities, improved self-focus styles, enhanced empathic understanding, and strengthened self-compassion, making these practices a viable addition to counselor training programs. However, current mindfulness training models are primarily designed for relief of psychological…

  18. A Mindfulness-Based Health Wellness Program for Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are often overweight or obese because of their delayed satiety response. Three individuals with PWS participated in a long-term, multicomponent mindfulness-based health wellness program to reduce their obesity by changing their lifestyles. The components included (a) physical exercise, (b) food…

  19. Using a Mindfulness-Based Procedure in the Community: Translating Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Winton, Alan S. W.; McKeegan, Gerald F.; Singh, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Maladaptive behaviors, such as aggressive and disruptive behaviors, are a significant risk factor for maintaining community placement by individuals with intellectual disabilities. When experienced researchers provide training to individuals with intellectual disabilities on a mindfulness-based strategy, "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet," the…

  20. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Recurrent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyken, Willem; Byford, Sarah; Taylor, Rod S.; Watkins, Ed; Holden, Emily; White, Kat; Barrett, Barbara; Byng, Richard; Evans, Alison; Mullan, Eugene; Teasdale, John D.

    2008-01-01

    For people at risk of depressive relapse, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has an additive benefit to usual care (H. F. Coelho, P. H. Canter, & E. Ernst, 2007). This study asked if, among patients with recurrent depression who are treated with antidepressant medication (ADM), MBCT is comparable to treatment with maintenance ADM (m-ADM)…

  1. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Applied to Binge Eating: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sarah; Huss, Debra B.

    2005-01-01

    Binge eating is a common problem associated with distress and dysfunction. Mindfulness-based interventions are attracting increasing attention, and the recent empirical literature suggests that they may be effective for a variety of disorders. Current theories about the etiology and maintenance of binge eating suggest that mindfulness training may…

  2. Mindfulness-Based Awareness and Compassion: Predictors of Counselor Empathy and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Cheryl L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based awareness and compassion were examined as predictors of empathy and anxiety among 152 master's-level counseling interns. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis supported that awareness and compassion differentially contributed to explaining the variance in counselor empathy and anxiety. Implications for counselor…

  3. "Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out": A Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This brief report describes a mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) intervention, "Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out," which was piloted in 2010 and has since been offered at the Abramson Cancer Center at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. The author adapted the original MBAT intervention using a walkabout conceptual model, which was…

  4. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Supporting People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Sarah K.; Webb, Thomas L.; Rayner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have used mindfulness-based interventions to influence the behavior of people with intellectual disabilities, to improve their quality of life, and to reduce challenging behavior. The present review critically evaluates 18 studies and assesses the clinical and academic impact of their findings. Strengths identified included…

  5. Mindfulness-Based Therapy in Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; van Ham, Nadia C.; Nyklicek, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of a modified MBT protocol (MBT-AS) in…

  6. Depression, Craving, and Substance Use Following a Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses…

  7. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Further Issues in Current Evidence and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Mark G.; Russell, Ian; Russell, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    The authors respond to the article by H. F. Coelho, P. H. Canter, and E. Ernst (2007), which reviewed the current status of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). First, they clarify the randomization procedures in the 2 main MBCT trials. Second, they report posttreatment and follow-up data to show that trial participants allocated to…

  8. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Evaluating Current Evidence and Informing Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Helen F.; Canter, Peter H.; Ernst, Edzard

    2007-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a recently developed class-based program designed to prevent relapse or recurrence of major depression (Z. V. Segal, J. M. G. Williams, & J. Teasdale, 2002). Although research in this area is in its infancy, MBCT is generally discussed as a promising therapy in terms of clinical effectiveness. The aim…

  9. A Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Psychoeducational Group Manual for Problem Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Abigail; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on problem gambling in adults and includes a detailed mindfulness-based psychoeducational group manual for problem gambling, complete with an extensive group counselling consent form, assessment and screening protocols, 10 user-friendly lesson plans, templates for a…

  10. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  11. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  12. The effects of 8 weeks of endurance running on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in female runners.

    PubMed

    Auersperger, Irena; Knap, Bojan; Jerin, Ales; Blagus, Rok; Lainscak, Mitja; Skitek, Milan; Skof, Branko

    2012-02-01

    Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week's recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p=.02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p<.001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p=.01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p<.001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p<.001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation. PMID:22248501

  13. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs. psycho-education for patients with major depression who did not achieve remission following antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Alberto; Castagner, Vittoria; Andrisano, Costanza; Serretti, Alessandro; Mandelli, Laura; Porcelli, Stefano; Giommi, Fabio

    2015-04-30

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) showed efficacy for currently depressed patients. However, most of the available studies suffer from important methodological shortcomings, including the lack of adequate control groups. The present study aims to compare MBCT with a psycho-educational control group designed to be structurally equivalent to the MBCT program but excluding the main putative "active ingredient" of MBCT (i.e., mindfulness meditation practice) for the treatment of patients with major depression (MD) who did not achieve remission following at least 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Out of 106 screened subjects, 43 were randomized to receive MBCT or psycho-education and were prospectively followed for 26 weeks. MD severity was assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Measures of anxiety, mindfulness, and quality of life were also included. All assessments were performed at baseline, 4, 8, 17 and 26-weeks. Both HAM-D and BDI scores, as well as quality of life and mindfulness scores, showed higher improvements, which were particularly evident over the long-term period, in the MBCT group than in the psycho-education group. Although limited by a small sample size, the results of this study suggest the superiority of MBCT over psycho-education for non-remitted MD subjects. PMID:25744325

  14. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  15. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  16. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger. PMID:25595501

  17. Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top-level adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course of lower and upper limb plyometric training would enhance characteristics important to competition, including peak power output (Wpeak), jump performance, muscle volume, and ball throwing velocity. Study participants (23 men, age: 17.4 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 79.9 ± 11.5 kg, height: 1.79 ± 6.19 m, body fat: 13.8 ± 2.1%) were randomly assigned between controls (C; n = 11) and an experimental group (E, n = 12). Measures preintervention and postintervention included force-velocity ergometer tests for upper (Wupper peak) and lower limbs (Wlower peak), force platform determinations of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) characteristics (jump height, maximal force, initial velocity, and average power), video filming of sprint velocities (first step [V1S], first 5 m [V5m], and 25-30 m [Vmax]), and anthropometric estimates of leg muscle volume. E showed gains relative to C in Wupper peak and Wlower peak (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001), SJ (height p < 0.01; force p ≤ 0.05), CMJ (height p < 0.01; force p < 0.01 and relative power p ≤ 0.05), and sprint velocities (p < 0.001 for V1S, V5m, and Vmax). E also showed increases in leg and thigh muscle volumes (p < 0.001), but arm muscle volumes did not differ from control. We conclude that introduction of biweekly plyometric training into the standard regimen improved components important to handball performance, particularly explosive actions, such as sprinting, jumping, and ball throwing velocity. PMID:24149768

  18. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  19. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Quality of Life of Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghati Barog, Zahra; Younesi, Seyyed Jalal; Sedaghati, Amir Hosein; Sedaghati, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The findings demonstrated that parents of children with cerebral palsy experience elevated levels of distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptom and subjective symptom of stress and low quality of life. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of this condition. Many studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an intervention that has shown efficacy in improving quality of life. In this study, the effect of Mindfulness –Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on increasing quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy has been examined. Method: Three mothers of CP children with low scores on quality of life in WHOQOL-BREF inventory participated in this single- case study. Results: Findings revealed that the MBCT program elevated quality of life of the participants. The improvement quotient for quality of life of each participant was good . Conclusion: The results have implication for efficacy of mindfulness for improvement of psychosocial life of families of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:26884784

  20. Minding the Interpersonal Gap: Mindfulness-based Interventions in the Prevention of Ostracism

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    Ostracism is a ubiquitous phenomenon, occurring across a broad range of social contexts and detrimentally impacting personal outcomes. Through enhanced present-moment attention and awareness, mindfulness-based interventions may help prevent this harmful behavior. The current research examined the role of state mindfulness in reducing the propensity to commit ostracism. This relationship was investigated in two studies: a field-based quasi-experiment (Study 1, n=51) and a laboratory-based experiment (Study 2, n=100). Both studies supported the utility of brief mindfulness-based interventions in reducing the propensity to ostracize others. The current studies support the relevance of mindfulness in addressing the substantial problem of ostracism. Among other benefits, fostering mindfulness in a variety of contexts may help reduce personal and social costs associated with this type of incivility. This research represents the first known attempt to utilize a personal resource (mindfulness) to decrease the degree to which individuals ostracize others. PMID:25460238

  1. Mindfulness-based hypnosis: blending science, beliefs, and wisdoms to catalyze healing.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2014-01-01

    We live in a global village, comprised of people with diverse cultural and religious orientations. How do we integrate these different beliefs and values into our clinical practice? Mindfulness-based psychotherapy (MBP), an evidence-based psychological intervention, provides a secular template for assimilating various cultural beliefs and wisdoms in therapies. MBP represents a cross-fertilization between Western psychological practice and Eastern meditative disciplines. Guided by MBP, this article describes how intention, mindfulness, acceptance, gratitude, and the "heart" can be combined with cognitive hypnotherapy to catalyze healing of emotional disorders-particularly depression. This integrated approach is referred to as mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy (MBCH) as it assimilates cognitive hypnotherapy with mindfulness strategies. MBCH represents an attempt to broaden the comprehensiveness of hypnotherapy as an integrated form of psychotherapy. Additionally, based on new understanding of the heart as a complex information center, an innovative hypnotherapeutic strategy for generating psychophysiological coherence and psychological well-being is described. PMID:24693836

  2. Minding the interpersonal gap: mindfulness-based interventions in the prevention of ostracism.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Alex T; Jones, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism is a ubiquitous phenomenon, occurring across a broad range of social contexts and detrimentally impacting personal outcomes. Through enhanced present-moment attention and awareness, mindfulness-based interventions may help prevent this harmful behavior. The current research examined the role of state mindfulness in reducing the propensity to commit ostracism. This relationship was investigated in two studies: a field-based quasi-experiment (Study 1, n=51) and a laboratory-based experiment (Study 2, n=100). Both studies supported the utility of brief mindfulness-based interventions in reducing the propensity to ostracize others. The current studies support the relevance of mindfulness in addressing the substantial problem of ostracism. Among other benefits, fostering mindfulness in a variety of contexts may help reduce personal and social costs associated with this type of incivility. This research represents the first known attempt to utilize a personal resource (mindfulness) to decrease the degree to which individuals ostracize others. PMID:25460238

  3. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mollard, R C; Luhovyy, B L; Panahi, S; Nunez, M; Hanley, A; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low in energy density, supporting their inclusion in the diet for the management of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults. Body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood parameters and 24 h food intakes were measured at weeks 1, 4 and 8. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were measured after a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8. At week 8, both groups reported reductions in energy intake, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following the glucose load (P < 0·05). However, HDL, fasting C-peptide and insulin AUC responses were dependent on diet (P < 0·05). HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively, in the pulse group, but decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group. Insulin AUC decreased in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males (P < 0·05). In conclusion, frequent consumption of pulses in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetSyn and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction. PMID:22916807

  4. Colonization of 8-week-old conventionally reared goats by Escherichia coli O157 : H7 after oral inoculation.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, R M; Ahmed, N My; Best, A; Clifford, D; Weyer, U; Cooley, W A; Johnson, L; Pearson, G R; Woodward, M J

    2005-05-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 infections of man have been associated with consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk and direct contact with kid goats on petting farms, yet little is known about colonization of goats with this organism. To assess the contribution of flagella and intimin of E. coli O157 : H7 in colonization of the goat, 8-week-old conventionally reared goats were inoculated orally in separate experiments with 1x10(10) c.f.u. of a non-verotoxigenic strain of E. coli O157 : H7 (strain NCTC 12900 Nal(r)), an aflagellate derivative (DMB1) and an intimin-deficient derivative (DMB2). At 24 h after inoculation, the three E. coli O157 : H7 strains were shed at approximately 5x10(4) c.f.u. (g faeces)(-1) from all animals. Significantly fewer intimin-deficient bacteria were shed only on days 2 (P = 0.003) and 4 (P = 0.014), whereas from day 7 to 29 there were no differences. Tissues from three animals inoculated with wild-type E. coli O157 : H7 strain NCTC 12900 Nal(r) were sampled at 24, 48 and 96 h after inoculation and the organism was cultured from the large intestine of all three animals and from the duodenum and ileum of the animal examined at 96 h. Tissues were examined histologically but attaching-effacing (AE) lesions were not observed at any intestinal site of the animals examined at 24 or 48 h. However, the animal examined at 96 h, which had uniquely shed approximately 1x10(7) E. coli O157 : H7 (g faeces)(-1) for the preceding 3 days, showed a heavy, diffuse infection with cryptosporidia and abundant, multifocal AE lesions in the distal colon, rectum and at the recto-anal junction. These AE lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry to be associated with E. coli O157 : H7. PMID:15824429

  5. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  6. The effectiveness of self-help mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a student sample: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lever Taylor, Billie; Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Jones, Fergal

    2014-12-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) involves approximately twenty hours of therapist contact time and is not universally available. MBCT self-help (MBCT-SH) may widen access but little is known about its effectiveness. This paper presents a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of MBCT-SH for students. Eighty students were randomly assigned to an eight-week MBCT-SH condition or a wait-list control. ANOVAs showed significant group by time interactions in favour of MBCT-SH on measures of depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life, mindfulness and self-compassion. Post-intervention between-group effect sizes ranged from Cohen's d = 0.22 to 1.07. Engagement with MBCT-SH was high: participants engaged in mindfulness practice a median of two to three times a week and 85% read at least half the intervention book. Only 5% of participants dropped out. This is the first published RCT of MBCT-SH and benefits were found relative to a control group. MBCT-SH has the potential to be a low-cost, readily available and highly acceptable intervention. Future research should include an active control condition and explore whether findings extend to clinical populations. PMID:25302763

  7. The Potential for Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Workplace Mental Health Promotion: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Feng-Ying; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to intensively evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on mental illness risks (including psychological distress, prolonged fatigue, and perceived stress) and job strain (job control and job demands) for employees with poor mental health. Methods A longitudinal research design was adopted. In total, 144 participants were randomized to the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group participated in MBI for eight weeks. Measurements were collected for both groups at five time points: at pre-intervention (T1), at mid-intervention (T2), at the completion of intervention (T3), four weeks after intervention (T4), and eight weeks after intervention (T5). Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A linear mixed model with two levels was employed to analyze the repeated measurement data. Results Compared with the control group, the intercepts (means at T3) for the intervention group were significantly lower on psychological distress, prolonged fatigue, and perceived stress when MBI was completed. Even with the demographic variables controlled, the positive effects remained. For growth rates of prolonged fatigue and perceived stress, participants in the intervention group showed a steeper decrease than did the participants in the control group. Regarding job strain, although the intercept (mean at T3) of job demands showed a significant decline when BMI was completed, the significance disappeared when the demographic variables were controlled. Moreover, the other results for job control and job demands did not show promising findings. Conclusion As a workplace health promotion program, the MBI seems to have potential in improving mental illness risks for employees with poor mental health. However, there was insufficient evidence to support its effect on mitigating job strain. Further research on maintaining the positive effects on mental health for the long term and on

  8. Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Eddy; Hudon, Carol; Goulet, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The present article is based on the premise that the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) from its prodromal phase (mild cognitive impairment; MCI) is higher when adverse factors (e.g., stress, depression, and metabolic syndrome) are present and accumulate. Such factors augment the likelihood of hippocampal damage central in MCI/AD aetiology, as well as compensatory mechanisms failure triggering a switch toward neurodegeneration. Because of the devastating consequences of AD, there is a need for early interventions that can delay, perhaps prevent, the transition from MCI to AD. We hypothesize that mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) show promise with regard to this goal. The present review discusses the associations between modifiable adverse factors and MCI/AD decline, MBI's impacts on adverse factors, and the mechanisms that could underlie the benefits of MBI. A schematic model is proposed to illustrate the course of neurodegeneration specific to MCI/AD, as well as the possible preventive mechanisms of MBI. Whereas regulation of glucocorticosteroids, inflammation, and serotonin could mediate MBI's effects on stress and depression, resolution of the metabolic syndrome might happen through a reduction of inflammation and white matter hyperintensities, and normalization of insulin and oxidation. The literature reviewed in this paper suggests that the main reach of MBI over MCI/AD development involves the management of stress, depressive symptoms, and inflammation. Future research must focus on achieving deeper understanding of MBI's mechanisms of action in the context of MCI and AD. This necessitates bridging the gap between neuroscientific subfields and a cross-domain integration between basic and clinical knowledge. PMID:24893317

  9. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  10. Mindfulness-based interventions with social workers and the potential for enhanced patient-centered care: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is well documented in the mental health, medical, and education literature. There is minimal research on the use of mindfulness with social workers. As demonstrated in other professional and helping fields, mindfulness may enhance clinical skills, reduce burnout, and increase job satisfaction among social workers. In the health care field mindfulness appears integral to patient and family relationships and personal resilience. The evolving and expanding role of hospital social workers may lead to increased work stress and greater demands from both the medical system and patients and families. Research with medical providers, such as physicians and nurses, suggests mindfulness may help in reducing stress, enhancing relationships, and fostering the self-reflection required to provide patient-centered care. We systematically reviewed the existing literature to begin understanding both mindfulness qualities and practices and the effectiveness of MBIs among social workers as well as the relationship of mindfulness to patient-centered care. PMID:26745592

  11. Adapting Ancient Wisdom for the Treatment of Depression: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Group Training

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Maggie; Bitner, Robin; Peng, Tracy; Coffelt, Nicole; McLane, Maura; Eisendrath, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines and discusses two models of training for group Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) which we have called In vivo and Intensive. MBCT training and practice focuses on present moment experience versus content, focused on gaining a metacognitive perspective on one's thoughts and internal processes. Trainees and trainers share their reflections on the training process as well as the experiential and acceptance-based framework of MBCT reflected in the training process itself. Suggestions for optimizing training across multiple mental health disciplines and settings are also discussed. PMID:25309026

  12. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions. PMID:25769764

  13. Adapting Ancient Wisdom for the Treatment of Depression: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Group Training.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Maggie; Bitner, Robin; Peng, Tracy; Coffelt, Nicole; McLane, Maura; Eisendrath, Stuart

    2010-12-01

    This paper outlines and discusses two models of training for group Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) which we have called In vivo and Intensive. MBCT training and practice focuses on present moment experience versus content, focused on gaining a metacognitive perspective on one's thoughts and internal processes. Trainees and trainers share their reflections on the training process as well as the experiential and acceptance-based framework of MBCT reflected in the training process itself. Suggestions for optimizing training across multiple mental health disciplines and settings are also discussed. PMID:25309026

  14. [MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY (MBCT) AND THE "THIRD WAVE" OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES (CBT)].

    PubMed

    Garay, Cristian Javier; Korman, Guido Pablo; Keegan, Eduardo Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the reasons that led to the incorporation of mindfulness as part of a cognitive therapy approach to the prevention of relapse of recurrent depressive disorders. It describes the context in which models focused on the contents of cognition gave way to models focused on cognitive processes. We highlight the problems encountered by the standard cognitive model when trying to account for the cognitive vulnerability of individuals who, having experienced a depressive episode, are in remission. We briefly describe the theoretical foundations of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and its therapeutic approach. PMID:26323114

  15. Is mindfulness-based therapy an effective intervention for obsessive-intrusive thoughts: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Tough, Megan; Bocci, Laura; Thorne, Kirsty; Herlihy, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural interventions in improving the experience of obsessions and compulsions, some people do not benefit from this approach. The present research uses a case series design to establish whether mindfulness-based therapy could benefit those experiencing obsessive-intrusive thoughts by targeting thought-action fusion and thought suppression. Three participants received a relaxation control intervention followed by a six-session mindfulness-based intervention which emphasized daily practice. Following therapy all participants demonstrated reductions in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores to below clinical levels, with two participants maintaining this at follow-up. Qualitative analysis of post-therapy feedback suggested that mindfulness skills such as observation, awareness and acceptance were seen as helpful in managing thought-action fusion and suppression. Despite being limited by small participant numbers, these results suggest that mindfulness may be beneficial to some people experiencing intrusive unwanted thoughts and that further research could establish the possible efficacy of this approach in larger samples. PMID:20041421

  16. The Evolution of Mindfulness-Based Physical Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Daniela L.; Collins, Nerissa M.; Olsen, Molly M.; Croghan, Ivana; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of breast cancer are faced with a multitude of medical and psychological impairments during and after treatment and throughout their lifespan. Physical exercise has been shown to improve survival and recurrence in this population. Mind-body interventions combine a light-moderate intensity physical exercise with mindfulness, thus having the potential to improve both physical and psychological sequelae of breast cancer treatments. We conducted a review of mindfulness-based physical exercise interventions which included yoga, tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong, in breast cancer survivors. Among the mindfulness-based interventions, yoga was significantly more studied in this population as compared to tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong. The participants and the outcomes of the majority of the studies reviewed were heterogeneous, and the population included was generally not selected for symptoms. Yoga was shown to improve fatigue in a few methodologically strong studies, providing reasonable evidence for benefit in this population. Improvements were also seen in sleep, anxiety, depression, distress, quality of life, and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting in the yoga studies. Tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong were not studied sufficiently in breast cancer survivors in order to be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22997532

  17. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods: The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results: The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders. PMID:26877751

  18. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

  19. The evolution of mindfulness-based physical interventions in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Stan, Daniela L; Collins, Nerissa M; Olsen, Molly M; Croghan, Ivana; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of breast cancer are faced with a multitude of medical and psychological impairments during and after treatment and throughout their lifespan. Physical exercise has been shown to improve survival and recurrence in this population. Mind-body interventions combine a light-moderate intensity physical exercise with mindfulness, thus having the potential to improve both physical and psychological sequelae of breast cancer treatments. We conducted a review of mindfulness-based physical exercise interventions which included yoga, tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong, in breast cancer survivors. Among the mindfulness-based interventions, yoga was significantly more studied in this population as compared to tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong. The participants and the outcomes of the majority of the studies reviewed were heterogeneous, and the population included was generally not selected for symptoms. Yoga was shown to improve fatigue in a few methodologically strong studies, providing reasonable evidence for benefit in this population. Improvements were also seen in sleep, anxiety, depression, distress, quality of life, and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting in the yoga studies. Tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong were not studied sufficiently in breast cancer survivors in order to be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22997532

  20. Individual Mindfulness-Based Psychotherapy for Cannabis or Cocaine Dependence: A Pilot Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based approaches may be effective treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs), but they have only been investigated for SUDs in the group setting. Methods A novel 10-week individual mindfulness-based psychotherapy was provided weekly to participants. Tolerability and therapeutic feasibility were assessed by retention rates, incidence of adverse events or clinical worsening, and abstinence rates at the end of the protocol. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled overall, and 19 completed (74% overall retention rate). Of the 14 cannabis dependent patients enrolled in the study, 11 completed (79%), and 8 achieved abstinence (57% by intent-to-treat analysis) at 10 weeks. Of the 11 cocaine dependent patients, 8 completed (73%), and 6 achieved abstinence (55% by ITT) at 10 weeks. Abstinence rates were substantially greater than those of historical comparison groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that mindfulness training can be tolerably and feasibly extended to the individual psychotherapy setting for the treatment of cocaine or cannabis dependence. PMID:24131158

  1. Mindfulness-Based Functional Therapy: a preliminary open trial of an integrated model of care for people with persistent low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, Robert; Slater, Helen; O'Sullivan, Peter; Thornton, Jennifer; Finlay-Jones, Amy; Rees, Clare S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study investigated the feasibility and clinical utility of implementing a novel, evidence-informed, interdisciplinary group intervention—Mindfulness Based Functional Therapy (MBFT)—for the management of persistent low back pain (LBP) in primary care. MBFT aimed to improve physical and psychological functioning in patients with persistent LBP. Design: A single-group repeated measures design was utilized to gather data about feasibility, effect sizes, clinically significant changes and patient satisfaction. Setting: A community sample of 16 adults (75% female), mean (SD) age 47.00 (9.12) years (range 26–65 years), with mean (SD) LBP duration of 8.00 (9.00) years participated, using a simulated primary care setting at Curtin University in Australia. Intervention: MBFT is an 8-week group intervention co-facilitated by psychology and physiotherapy disciplines. Content includes: mindfulness meditation training, cognitive-functional physiotherapeutic movement retraining, pain education, and group support. Main outcome measures: Several validated self-report measures were used to assess functional disability, emotional functioning, mindfulness, pain catastrophizing, health-related quality of life at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months follow-up. Results: Adherence and satisfaction was high, with 85% of participants highly satisfied with MBFT. Clinical significance analysis and effect size estimates showed improvements in a number of variables, including pain catastrophizing, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical condition, and depression, although these may have occurred due to non-intervention effects. Conclusions: MBFT is feasible to implement in primary care. Preliminary findings suggest that a randomized controlled trial is warranted to investigate its efficacy in improving physical and emotional functioning in people with disabling persistent LBP. PMID:25136324

  2. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Ko-Hung; Huang, Hsin-Chia; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  3. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  4. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  5. Standardised Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Healthcare: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of RCTs

    PubMed Central

    Gotink, Rinske A.; Chu, Paula; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories. Objective To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, using the standardized MBSR or MBCT programs. We used PRISMA guidelines to assess the quality of the included reviews and performed a random effects meta-analysis with main outcome measure Cohen’s d. All types of participants were considered. Results The search produced 187 reviews: 23 were included, covering 115 unique RCTs and 8,683 unique individuals with various conditions. Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015). Limitations include heterogeneity within patient categories, risk of publication bias and limited long-term follow-up in several studies. Conclusion The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children. PMID:25881019

  6. Evaluating the Mindfulness-based Coping Program: An Effectiveness Study Using a Mixed Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Since more than 450 million people worldwide suffer from mental disorders, interventions that promote mental health have been called for. Mindfulness-based coping (MBC) is an intervention based on coping skills from cognitive behavioral therapy integrating mindfulness practices. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the MBC program for psychiatric outpatients. The study employed a mixed research method with a qualitative approach using semi-structured patient interviews and clinical assessments from patients’ therapists and a quantitative approach using instruments measuring mindful coping, mental ill health, and life satisfaction. The study sample included 38 psychiatric outpatients from a district psychiatric outpatient service in Norway. Results suggested that although use of the different skills varied, participants had a positive experience with the program and positive changes in psychological functioning were observed. Findings provide knowledge regarding the design of interventions integrating mindfulness to promote more adequate psychological coping. PMID:25478104

  7. Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spek, Annelies A; van Ham, Nadia C; Nyklíček, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of a modified MBT protocol (MBT-AS) in high-functioning adults with ASD. 42 participants were randomized into a 9-week MBT-AS training or a wait-list control group. Results showed a significant reduction in depression, anxiety and rumination in the intervention group, as opposed to the control group. Furthermore, positive affect increased in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Concluding, the present study is the first controlled trial to demonstrate that adults with ASD can benefit from MBT-AS. PMID:22964266

  8. Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools

  9. Experiencing Wellness Within Illness: Exploring a Mindfulness-Based Approach to Chronic Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Doran, Natasha J

    2014-04-11

    In this article I explore how mindfulness-based techniques affect perceptions and management of back pain and discuss these findings in relation to embodiment theory and liminality. Sixteen volunteers attending Breathworks for persistent back pain took part in this study. The theme of "embodied awareness" formed the core category, as all participants reported a change in their experience of pain. Such embodied changes are described in relation to five subthemes: unpacking the pain experience, changing relationship to pain, letting go of the label, self-compassion and acceptance, and wellness within illness. Learning to respond rather than react, and living moment by moment enabled participants to replace a cycle of suffering with one of acceptance. Rather than fearing pain, participants found ways to move through it and live with it. Although some expressed finding a sense of wellness despite ongoing pain, all participants reported greater acceptance and a better quality of life. PMID:24728110

  10. Review and Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based iPhone Apps

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. Objective This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It also aimed to describe features of selected high-quality mindfulness apps. Methods A search for “mindfulness” was conducted in iTunes and Google Apps Marketplace. Apps that provided mindfulness training and education were included. Those containing only reminders, timers or guided meditation tracks were excluded. An expert rater reviewed and rated app quality using the MARS engagement, functionality, visual aesthetics, information quality and subjective quality subscales. A second rater provided MARS ratings on 30% of the apps for inter-rater reliability purposes. Results The “mindfulness” search identified 700 apps. However, 94 were duplicates, 6 were not accessible and 40 were not in English. Of the remaining 560, 23 apps met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The median MARS score was 3.2 (out of 5.0), which exceeded the minimum acceptable score (3.0). The Headspace app had the highest average score (4.0), followed by Smiling Mind (3.7), iMindfulness (3.5) and Mindfulness Daily (3.5). There was a high level of inter-rater reliability between the two MARS raters. Conclusions Though many apps claim to be mindfulness-related, most were guided meditation apps, timers, or reminders. Very few had high ratings on the MARS subscales of visual aesthetics, engagement, functionality or information quality. Little evidence is available on the efficacy of the apps in developing mindfulness. PMID:26290327

  11. Frontal-Subcortical Volumetric Deficits in Single Episode, Medication-Naïve Depressed Patients and the Effects of 8 Weeks Fluoxetine Treatment: A VBM-DARTEL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingtao; Wu, Feng; Tang, Yanqing; Ren, Ling; Kong, Dongyan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. Methods 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC) acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV) difference between groups was examined. Results Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected). Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected). No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. Conclusions This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset. PMID:24427263

  12. Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: A review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, M P J; Pots, W T M; Bohlmeijer, E T

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Whereas numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effectiveness of face-to-face MBIs in the context of mental health and well-being, thus far a quantitative synthesis of the effectiveness of online MBIs is lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall effects of online MBIs on mental health. Fifteen randomised controlled trials were included in this study. A random effects model was used to compute pre-post between-group effect sizes, and the study quality of each of the included trials was rated. Results showed that online MBIs have a small but significant beneficial impact on depression (g=0.29), anxiety (g=0.22), well-being (g=0.23) and mindfulness (g=0.32). The largest effect was found for stress, with a moderate effect size (g=0.51). For stress and mindfulness, exploratory subgroup analyses demonstrated significantly higher effect sizes for guided online MBIs than for unguided online MBIs. In addition, meta-regression analysis showed that effect sizes for stress were significantly moderated by the number of intervention sessions. Effect sizes, however, were not significantly related to study quality. The findings indicate that online MBIs have potential to contribute to improving mental health outcomes, particularly stress. Limitations, directions for future research and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27111302

  13. Clinical and Benefit-Cost Outcomes of Teaching a Mindfulness-Based Procedure to Adult Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a mindfulness-based procedure, called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet", were evaluated as a cognitive-behavioral intervention for physical aggression in 6 offenders with mild intellectual disabilities. They were taught a simple meditation technique that required them to shift their attention and awareness from the precursors of…

  14. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  15. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  16. Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in Preschool Children through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function,…

  17. Mindfulness-Based Parent Training: Strategies to Lessen the Grip of Automaticity in Families with Disruptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Jean E.

    2005-01-01

    Disagreements and conflicts in families with disruptive children often reflect rigid patterns of behavior that have become overlearned and automatized with repeated practice. These patterns are mindless: They are performed with little or no awareness and are highly resistant to change. This article introduces a new, mindfulness-based model of…

  18. Expanding the Scope of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Evidence for Effectiveness in a Heterogeneous Psychiatric Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sheryl M.; Bieling, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (e.g., MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1990; MBCT; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002) have demonstrated effectiveness in a number of distinct clinical populations. However, few studies have evaluated MBCT within a heterogeneous group of psychiatric adult outpatients. This study examined whether a wider variety of patients…

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy versus Unrestricted Services for Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Freda; Surawy, Christina; Muse, Kate; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and acceptability of existing psychological interventions for health anxiety (hypochondriasis) are limited. In the current study, the authors aimed to assess the impact of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on health anxiety by comparing the impact of MBCT in addition to usual services (unrestricted services) with…

  20. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  1. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Mindfulness in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idusohan-Moizer, H.; Sawicka, A.; Dendle, J.; Albany, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical…

  2. Psychological Treatments for Provoked Vestibulodynia: Integration of Mindfulness-Based and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Cara R; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic and distressing genital pain condition involving sharp pain to the vulvar vestibule with lifetime prevalence as high as 12%. PVD is the most prevalent cause of pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) in premenopausal women, and gives rise to considerable sexual and relational concerns. As intercourse for women with PVD is either painful or impossible, PVD has pronounced negative effects on women's romantic relationship adjustment and sexual intimacy, as well as their emotional well-being and sense of sexual self-efficacy. Given the low efficacy and high side-effect profile of medications for the treatment of PVD, attention has shifted toward psychological interventions over the past decade. Psychological treatments for PVD have the advantage of targeting both the experience of pain and its many psychosexual consequences, such as reduced desire and arousal. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) currently represents one of the most popular first-line psychological interventions for PVD. Mindfulness has been increasingly used alongside, or instead of CBT for a variety of health-related conditions, particularly with respect to chronic pain disorders and more recently in women with PVD. This review provides a detailed overview of CBT and mindfulness-based approaches in treating PVD. PMID:27019368

  3. Centering prayer as an alternative to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Knabb, Joshua J

    2012-09-01

    In the last two decades, mindfulness has made a significant impact on Western secular psychology, as evidenced by several new treatment approaches that utilize mindfulness practices to ameliorate mental illness. Based on Buddhist teachings, mindfulness offers individuals the ability to, among other things, decenter from their thoughts and live in the present moment. As an example, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) teaches decentering and mindfulness techniques to adults in an eight-session group therapy format so as to reduce the likelihood of depression relapse. Yet, some Christian adults may prefer to turn to their own religious heritage, rather than the Buddhist tradition, in order to stave off depression relapse. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present centering prayer, a form of Christian meditation that is rooted in Catholic mysticism, as an alternative treatment for preventing depression relapse in adults. I argue that centering prayer overlaps considerably with MBCT, which makes it a suitable treatment alternative for many Christians in remission from depressive episodes. PMID:20924682

  4. Cognitive-behavioral, behavioral, and mindfulness-based therapies for menopausal depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Green, Sheryl M; Key, Brenda L; McCabe, Randi E

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a natural transition that all women go through in their lives that is often accompanied by a number of physical and emotional symptoms. Upwards of 40% of women report depression symptoms associated with menopause (Timur & Sahin, 2010) [1]. Treatments for menopausal depression include pharmacological agents such as antidepressants and hormone therapy (HT) as well as psychological approaches. This paper provides a review of cognitive-behavioral, behavioral, and mindfulness based (CBBMB) therapies in treating depression during the menopausal transition. After conducting an electronic database search, only two studies specifically using CBBMB methods were found, both had positive results. Since so few studies existed that specifically evaluated CBBMB treatments for menopausal depression (n=2), a larger net was cast. Studies that assessed depression symptoms as an outcome measure in an evaluation of CBBMB treatments for hot flashes or menopausal symptoms more broadly, were included. The review revealed that interventions targeting hot flashes or menopausal symptoms using CBBMB methods mostly proved to have had a positive impact on depression symptoms in the mild range of severity. Directions for future research are discussed including the need for more CBBMB interventions targeting depression during the menopausal transition to establish their efficacy. PMID:25458709

  5. The Implementation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Learning From the UK Health Service Experience.

    PubMed

    Crane, Rebecca S; Kuyken, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an effective depression prevention programme for people with a history of recurrent depression. In the UK, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has suggested that MBCT is a priority for implementation. This paper explores the exchange, synthesis and application of evidence and guidance on MBCT between the academic settings generating the evidence and delivering practitioner training and the practice settings where implementation takes place. Fifty-seven participants in a workshop on MBCT implementation in the NHS were asked for their experience of facilitators and obstacles to implementation, and a UK-wide online survey of 103 MBCT teachers and stakeholders was conducted. While MBCT is starting to become available in the NHS, this is rarely part of a strategic, coherent or appropriately resourced approach. A series of structural, political cultural, educational, emotional and physical/technological obstacles and facilitators to implementation were identified. Nearly a decade since NICE first recommended MBCT, only a small number of mental health services in the UK have systematically implemented the guidance. Guiding principles for implementation are set out. We offer an implementation resource to facilitate the transfer of MBCT knowledge into action. PMID:23956806

  6. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention with racial and ethnic minority women.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Greenfield, Brenna L; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the treatment of addiction have been acknowledged for several years, yet little is known about which empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders are more or less effective in treating racial and ethnic minority clients. The current study was a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of two evidence-based treatments, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) and relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addiction treatment program for women referred by the criminal justice system (n=70). At 15-week follow-up, regression analyses found that racial and ethnic minority women in MBRP, compared to non-Hispanic and racial and ethnic minority women in RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days (d=.31) and lower addiction severity (d=.65), based on the Addiction Severity Index. Although the small sample size is a limitation, the results suggest that MBRP may be more efficacious than traditional treatments for racial and ethnic minority women. PMID:24018224

  7. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes. PMID:22692117

  8. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. PMID:26239913

  9. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  10. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  11. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Affective Memory Recall Dynamics in Depression: A Mechanistic Model of Rumination

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Marieke Karlijn; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and overgeneral memory bias, and persistence or stickiness of negative mind states. Current measures of rumination, most-often self-reports, do not capture these different aspects of ruminative tendencies, and therefore are limited in providing detailed information about the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods: we developed new insight into the potential mechanisms of rumination, based on three model-based metrics of free recall dynamics. These three measures reflect the patterns of memory retrieval of valenced information: the probability of first recall (Pstart) which represents initial affective bias, the probability of staying with the same valence category rather than switching, which indicates strength of positive or negative association networks (Pstay), and probability of stopping (Pstop) or ending recall within a given valence, which indicates persistence or stickiness of a mind state. We investigated the effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; N = 29) vs. wait-list control (N = 23) on these recall dynamics in a randomized controlled trial in individuals with recurrent depression. Participants completed a standard laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to induce negative mood and activate ruminative tendencies. Following that, participants completed a free recall task consisting of three word lists. This assessment was conducted both before and after treatment or wait-list. Results: while MBCT participant’s Pstart remained relatively stable, controls showed multiple indications of depression-related deterioration toward more negative and less positive bias. Following the intervention, MBCT participants decreased in their tendency

  12. Biomarkers of Resilience in Stress Reduction for Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lap; Bloom, Patricia A; Vega, Joan G; Yemul, Shrishailam; Zhao, Wei; Ward, Libby; Savage, Evan; Rooney, Robert; Patel, Divyen H; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-06-01

    Caregiving for a dementia patient is associated with increased risk of psychological and physical health problems. We investigated whether a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training course for caregivers that closely models the MBSR curriculum originally established by the Center of Mindfulness at the University of Massachusetts may improve the psychological resilience of non-professional caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty adult non-professional caregivers of dementia patients participated in an 8-week MBSR training course. Caregiver stress, depression, burden, grief, and gene expression profiles of blood mononuclear cells were assessed at baseline and following MBSR. MBSR training significantly improved the psychological resilience of some of the caregivers. We identified predictive biomarkers whose expression is associated with the likelihood of caregivers to benefit from MBSR, and biomarkers whose expression is associated with MBSR psychological benefits. Our biomarker studies provide insight into the mechanisms of health benefits of MBSR and a basis for developing a personalized medicine approach for applying MBSR for promoting psychological and cognitive resilience in caregivers of dementia patients. PMID:26984114

  13. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  14. Changes in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor at 8 weeks after sorafenib administration as predictors of survival for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Shuya; Muraoka, Masaru; Nakata, Toru; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Yasui, Yutaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Hosokawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Takashi; Ueda, Ken; Kuzuya, Teiji; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2014-01-01

    Background A new predictive biomarker for determining prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who receive sorafenib is required, because achieving a reduction in tumor size with sorafenib is rare, even in patients who have a favorable prognosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a sorafenib target. In the current study, the authors examined changes in plasma VEGF concentrations during sorafenib treatment and determined the clinical significance of VEGF as a prognostic indicator in patients with HCC. Methods Plasma VEGF concentrations were serially measured in 63 patients with advanced HCC before and during sorafenib treatment. A plasma VEGF concentration that decreased >5% from the pretreatment level at 8 weeks was defined as a “VEGF decrease.” An objective tumor response was determined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1 month after the initiation of therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Results Patients who had a VEGF decrease at week 8 (n = 14) had a longer median survival than those who did not have a VEGF decrease (n = 49; 30.9 months vs 14.4 months; P = .038). All patients who had a VEGF decrease survived for >6 months, and the patients who had both a VEGF decrease and an α-fetoprotein response (n = 6) survived during the observation period (median, 19.7 months; range, 6.5-31.0 months). In univariate analyses, a VEGF decrease, radiologic findings classified as progressive disease, and major vascular invasion were associated significantly with 1-year survival; and, in multivariate analysis, a VEGF decrease was identified as an independent factor associated significantly with survival. Conclusions A plasma VEGF concentration decrease at 8 weeks after starting sorafenib treatment may predict favorable overall survival in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:24122122

  15. Comparing Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy With Treatment as Usual for Opioid Dependents: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah; Noroozi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to high burden of opioid abuse in Iran, Ministry of Health has launched a large-scale opioid maintenance treatment program, delivered through a network of certified drug treatment centers. To promote opioid pharmacotherapies, there is an urgent need to develop and introduce evidence-based psychosocial interventions into the network. Patients and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of adding mindfulness-based group therapy to opioid pharmacotherapies as compared to opioid pharmacotherapies alone. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and percentage of weekly morphine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepine negative tests. Discussion: This is the first RCT that explores the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention group therapy among opioid dependent clients in Iran. The feasibility of group therapy and comparison of outcomes in intervention and control groups should be discussed in the outcome article. PMID:26251659

  16. CALM Pregnancy: results of a pilot study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for perinatal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Janice H; Guarino, Anthony; Chenausky, Kerry; Klein, Lauri; Prager, Joanna; Petersen, Rebecca; Forget, Avery; Freeman, Marlene

    2014-10-01

    Many women experience anxiety during pregnancy with potential negative effects on maternal, birth, and child outcomes. Because of potential risks of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications, efficacious non-pharmacologic approaches are urgently needed. However, no published studies of psychotherapeutic treatments for anxiety in pregnancy exist. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may substantially reduce anxiety and co-morbid symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. Coping with Anxiety through Living Mindfully (CALM) Pregnancy is an adaptation of MBCT designed to address anxiety in pregnant women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of the CALM Pregnancy intervention in pregnant women anxiety. Twenty-four pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or prominent symptoms of generalized anxiety participated in an open treatment trial of the CALM Pregnancy group intervention. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview, and self-report measures of anxiety, worry, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were completed at baseline and post-intervention. Qualitative feedback was elicited via questionnaire. Twenty-three participants completed the intervention with high attendance and good compliance with home practice. Completers showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in anxiety, worry, and depression, and significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness. Of the 17 participants who met GAD criteria at baseline, only one continued to meet criteria post-intervention. Participants regarded their experience in the intervention to be overwhelmingly positive. MBCT in the form of the CALM Pregnancy intervention holds potential to provide effective, non-pharmacological treatment for pregnant women with anxiety. These promising findings warrant further testing of the intervention with a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24449191

  17. The Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Primary Care: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Demarzo, Marcelo M.P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Cuijpers, Pim; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Mahtani, Kamal R.; Vellinga, Akke; Vicens, Caterina; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients. METHODS We performed a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials addressing the effect of MBIs in adult patients recruited from primary care settings. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Effect sizes were calculated with the Hedges g in random effects models. RESULTS The meta-analyses were based on 6 trials having a total of 553 patients. The overall effect size of MBI compared with a control condition for improving general health was moderate (g = 0.48; P = .002), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 59; P <.05). We found no indication of publication bias in the overall estimates. MBIs were efficacious for improving mental health (g = 0.56; P = .007), with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 78; P <.01), and for improving quality of life (g = 0.29; P = .002), with a low heterogeneity (I2 = 0; P >.05). CONCLUSIONS Although the number of randomized controlled trials applying MBIs in primary care is still limited, our results suggest that these interventions are promising for the mental health and quality of life of primary care patients. We discuss innovative approaches for implementing MBIs, such as complex intervention and stepped care. PMID:26553897

  18. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in Reducing Aggression of Individuals at the Juvenile Correction and Rehabilitation Center

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Atefeh; Nikmanesh, Zahra; Farnam, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the present era, delinquency in children and adolescents is undoubtedly a difficult and upsetting issue attracting the attention of many experts such as psychologists, sociologists, and criminologists. These experts often try to answer why a number of children and adolescents engage in various crimes such as aggressive and anti-social crimes. They also try to find out how these crimes can be prevented. Objectives: The present study investigates the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy training (MBCT) in reducing aggression in a juvenile correction and rehabilitation center of Zahedan province during years 1991 to 1992. Materials and Methods: This experimental study included an experimental and a control group with a pretest, posttest, and follow-up approach. The Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire (1992) was used for data collection. The sample group included 22 (10 experimental and 12 control groups) adolescent males in a juvenile correction and rehabilitation center of Zahedan province who were selected through a census method. Using a matching method based on the pre-test scores of the aggression questionnaire, they were then divided into two equivalent categories and were randomly assigned to the two groups. Mindfulness-based cognitive training took the group training in 8 sessions administered on experimental group. The follow-up test was conducted two weeks after the end of the posttest sessions. The results were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: The results of ANCOVA showed that mindfulness-based cognitive training could significantly reduce aggression during posttest and follow-up test phases in the experimental group, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Moreover, the results indicated the effectiveness of this method in significantly reducing anger, physical aggression, and hostility during posttest and follow-up test phases (P < 0.05). However, no significant reduction was observed in the verbal aggression subscale

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Extended-Release Quetiapine Fumarate in Youth with Bipolar Depression: An 8 Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanjeev; Earley, Willie R; Liu, Sherry; DelBello, Melissa P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of adolescent schizophrenia and pediatric bipolar mania. Large, placebo-controlled studies of interventions in pediatric bipolar depression are lacking. The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine extended-release (XR) in patients 10–17 years of age, with acute bipolar depression. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated quetiapine XR (dose range, 150–300 mg/day) in pediatric outpatients with an American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (current or most recent episode depressed) treated for up to 8 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00811473). The primary study outcome was mean change in Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R) total score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included CDRS-R-based response and remission rates. Results: Of 193 patients randomized to treatment, 144 patients completed the study (75.3% of quetiapine XR group [n=70]; 74.0% of placebo group [n=74]). Least squares mean changes in CDRS-R total score at week 8 were: −29.6 (SE, 1.65) with quetiapine XR and −27.3 (SE, 1.60) with placebo, a between-treatment group difference of −2.29 (SE, 1.99; 95% CI, −6.22, 1.65; p=0.25; mixed-model for repeated measures analysis). Rates of response and remission did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The safety profile of quetiapine XR was broadly consistent with the profile reported previously in adult studies of quetiapine XR and pediatric studies of quetiapine immediate-release (IR). Potentially clinically significant elevations in clinical chemistry values included triglycerides (9.3%, quetiapine XR; 1.4%, placebo group) and thyroid stimulating hormone (4.7%, quetiapine XR; 0%, placebo group). An adverse event

  20. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  1. Effect of levan supplement in orange juice on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profile of healthy subjects: results of an 8-week clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Akiva, Ira; Rokhkind, Evgenia; Naor, Etty; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nachum

    2012-07-01

    Levan is a commonly used dietary fiber of the fructans group. Its impact on health remains undetermined. This double blind controlled study aimed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks' daily consumption of 500 mL of natural orange juice enriched with 11.25 g of levan compared to the same amount of natural orange juice without levan on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms and metabolic profiles of 48 healthy volunteers. The statistical analyses compared between- and within-group findings at baseline, 4 weeks and study closure. The compared parameters were: weight, blood pressure, blood laboratory tests, daily number of defecations, scores of stool consistency, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, dyspepsia, vomiting and heartburn. Despite a higher fiber level recorded in the study group, there was no significant difference in the effect of the two kinds of juices on the studied parameters. Both juices decreased systolic and diastolic pressures, increased sodium level (within normal range), stool number, and bloating scores, and decreased gas scores. In conclusion, levan itself had no effect on weight, gastrointestinal symptoms or metabolic profile of healthy volunteers. Its possible effect on obese, hypertensive or hyperlipidemic patients should be investigated in further studies. PMID:22852055

  2. Urodynamic parameters and plasma LH/FSH in spayed Beagle bitches before and 8 weeks after GnRH depot analogue treatment.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Barth, Andrea; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2006-12-01

    The pathophysiology of urinary incontinence due to spaying remains unknown. Incontinent bitches can be treated successfully with depot preparations of GnRH-analogues and there are differences in plasma gonadotropin levels between continent and incontinent spayed bitches. It is therefore assumed that the supraordinated hormones, GnRH, FSH, and/or LH, have an effect on the urodynamic parameters. In this study, the potential influence of these hormones on the lower urinary tract was investigated by measuring urethral pressure profiles and cystometry. Simultaneously, plasma concentrations in 10 spayed Beagle bitches were determined 5 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after treatment with the GnRH analogue leuprolide. Within 1 week of GnRH analogue administration, plasma FSH and LH levels decreased from 72.5 and 7.7 to 7.75 and 0.72ng/mL, respectively. These plasma gonadotropin levels correspond with those of intact bitches during anoestrus. Urethral pressure profiles indicated that the treatment had no significant effect on maximum urethral closure pressure, functional and total length of the urethra, or area of the closure pressure curve. The data obtained by cystometry regarding mean bladder threshold volume showed a significant increase from 109 to 172mL. The improvement in bladder function after the application of GnRH-application is presumably a direct effect of the GnRH as a relationship between the plasma gonadotropin levels and the urodynamic parameters could not demonstrated. PMID:16876857

  3. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. PMID:26720411

  4. Response of BAX, Bcl-2 Proteins, and SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA Expression to 8-Week Treadmill Running in the Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Hui; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Yan-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise training on Bax and Bcl-2 protein content and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aging rats. Eight 18 months old male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 5 days weekly for 8 weeks on a treadmill, and eight sedentary rats served as controls. Gastrocnemius muscles were dissected 2 days after the last training session. The mRNA content of PGC-1α, caspase-3, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2, and SIRT1 was estimated by RT-PCR with GAPDH used as an internal control. The protein expression of BAX and Bcl-2 was assessed by Western immunoblot. After training, significant (p < 0.05) increases were noted for the gastrocnemius muscle weights, the gastrocnemius mass/body mass ratio, the bcl-2/BAX ratio, the Bcl-2 protein and the SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2 mRNA content in the trained gastrocnemius, relative to the control samples. No difference was found in the BAX protein between control and trained muscles, whereas the caspase-3 mRNA content decreased by 50 %, in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained animals. Exercise training may inhibit age-induced myonuclear apoptosis by stimulating SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA expression, thereby preventing sarcopenia in aging rat. PMID:27526155

  5. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke. PMID:27184585

  6. Acute responses to opioidergic blockade as a biomarker of hedonic eating among obese women enrolled in a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Lustig, Robert H; Brown, Rashida R; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Moran, Patricia J; Dallman, Mary; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-08-01

    There are currently no commonly used or easily accessible 'biomarkers' of hedonic eating. Physiologic responses to acute opioidergic blockade, indexed by cortisol changes and nausea, may represent indirect functional measures of opioid-mediated hedonic eating drive and predict weight loss following a mindfulness-based intervention for stress eating. In the current study, we tested whether cortisol and nausea responses induced by oral ingestion of an opioidergic antagonist (naltrexone) correlated with weight and self-report measures of hedonic eating and predicted changes in these measures following a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention. Obese women (N = 88; age = 46.7 ± 13.2 years; BMI = 35.8 ± 3.8) elected to complete an optional sub-study prior to a 5.5-month weight loss intervention with or without mindfulness training. On two separate days, participants ingested naltrexone and placebo pills, collected saliva samples, and reported nausea levels. Supporting previous findings, naltrexone-induced cortisol increases were associated with greater hedonic eating (greater food addiction symptoms and reward-driven eating) and less mindful eating. Among participants with larger cortisol increases (+1 SD above mean), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = -0.95, SE(b) = 0.40, 95% CI [-1.74, -0.15], p = .021. Naltrexone-induced nausea was marginally associated with reward-based eating. Among participants who endorsed naltrexone-induced nausea (n = 38), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.85, -0.77], p = .024, and trended toward reduced reward-based eating, binge eating, and weight, post-intervention. Single assessments of naltrexone-induced cortisol increases and nausea responses may be useful time- and cost-effective biological markers to

  7. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus the health-enhancement program (HEP) for adults with treatment-resistant depression: a randomized control trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability in the developed world, yet broadly effective treatments remain elusive. Up to 40% of patients with depression are unresponsive to at least two trials of antidepressant medication and thus have “treatment-resistant depression” (TRD). There is an urgent need for cost-effective, non-pharmacologic, evidence-based treatments for TRD. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an effective treatment for relapse prevention and residual depression in major depression, but has not been previously studied in patients with TRD in a large randomized trial. Methods/Design The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether MBCT is an effective augmentation of antidepressants for adults with MDD who failed to respond to standard pharmacotherapy. MBCT was compared to an active control condition, the Health-Enhancement Program (HEP), which incorporates physical activity, functional movement, music therapy and nutritional advice. HEP was designed as a comparator condition for mindfulness-based interventions to control for non-specific effects. Originally investigated in a non-clinical sample to promote stress reduction, HEP was adapted for a depressed population for this study. Individuals age 18 and older with moderate to severe TRD, who failed to respond to at least two trials of antidepressants in the current episode, were recruited to participate. All participants were taking antidepressants (Treatment as usual; TAU) at the time of enrollment. After signing an informed consent, participants were randomly assigned to either MBCT or HEP condition. Participants were followed for 1 year and assessed at weeks 1–7, 8, 24, 36, and 52. Change in depression severity, rate of treatment response and remission after 8 weeks were the primary outcomes measured by the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Severity Rating (HAM-D) 17-item scale. The participant-rated Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomology

  8. Kind attention and non-judgment in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy applied to the treatment of insomnia: state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Larouche, M; Côté, G; Bélisle, D; Lorrain, D

    2014-10-01

    Psychophysiological insomnia is characterized by acquired sleep difficulties and/or a state of hypervigilance when going to bed. This mental and physiological condition prevents sleep onset regardless of the presence of anxious or depressive disorders. Despite the fact that cognitive behavioural therapies have been shown to be effective for this disorder, some people are not responding to this treatment. It is therefore important to explore new ways of increasing the effectiveness of current treatments. Approaches based on mindfulness, which promote a non-judgemental acceptance of the living experience, are increasingly reported in the literature to be effective in the treatment of various physical and psychological health conditions, being particularly efficient in reducing the stress and discomfort associated with these problems. This article focuses on some cognitive factors associated with maintaining insomnia and suggests that approaches based on mindfulness, through certain action mechanisms, may help to improve sleep. A review of recent studies on the application of mindfulness-based approaches to treat insomnia is hereby presented. Avenues for future research to improve insomnia treatment protocols based on mindfulness are suggested. PMID:25104242

  9. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  10. N-Acetylaspartate Reduction in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Following 8 weeks of Risperidone Treatment in First-Episode Drug-Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xiaofen; Hu, Maolin; Li, Zongchang; Cao, Hongbao; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Zhou, Jun; Sang, Deen; Zhao, Hongzeng; Tang, Jinsong; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA) depletions documented in schizophrenia patients might be due to the disease progression or medications. Here we investigated longitudinal NAA changes in drug-naïve first-episode patients (FEP) who are relatively free from chronicity. Forty-two drug-naïve FEP and 38 controls were enrolled in this study to explore the effect of 8-week risperidone monotherapy on NAA. All spectra were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on a 3.0 T MRI and analyzed with LCModel. At baseline, patients presented no significant differences in NAA (P = 0.084) or NAA/Cr + Pcr (P = 0.500) compared to controls; NAA levels were negatively correlated with PANSS total scores (P = 0.001) and WCST-PE (P = 0.041). After treatment, patients demonstrated significant reductions of NAA (P < 0.001) and NAA/Cr + Pcr (P < 0.001), and significant improvement in PANSS-P (P < 0.001) and PANSS-G (P < 0.001) symptoms. We detected no significant correlations between NAA alterations and PANSS-P (P = 0.679) or PANSS-G (P = 0.668) symptom changes; nor did NAA/Cr + Pcr changes with alterations in PANSS-P (P = 0.677) and PANSS-G (P = 0.616). This is the first evidence that short-term risperidone treatment induces an acute reduction of MPFC NAA during the early phase of schizophrenia, which may be a previously unavailable biomarker to indicate risperidone with a similar pharmacological mechanism, although the functional significance is still unclear. PMID:25778460

  11. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD. PMID:26579947

  12. Efficacy of clorsulon for treatment of mature naturally acquired and 8-week-old experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Ramsey, R T; Loyacano, A F

    1984-05-01

    In a dose-titration study against experimentally induced 8-week-old Fasciola hepatica infection (study A), 20 calves were allotted to 5 groups, each of 4 calves, and treated with different doses of an injectable formulation of clorsulon or its vehicle: group 1--controls, no drug; group 2--2 mg of clorsulon /kg; group 3--4 mg of drug/kg; group 4--8 mg/kg; and group 5--16 mg/kg. Mean numbers of flukes recovered from 4 calves in each treatment group were as follows: group 1--112.2, group 2--42, group 3--4.8, group 4--3.0, and group 5--0.2. Percentages of fluke reductions for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 ( clorsulon -treated) calves were 62.6%, 95.7%, 97.3%, and 99.8%, respectively. Against naturally acquired mature (greater than 14-week-old) F hepatica infections (study B), a total of 161 flukes were recovered from 7 vehicle-treated control calves (group 6; mean fluke recovery = 23) and no flukes were recovered from 9 calves (group 7) given orally a formulation containing 7 mg of clorsulon /kg of body weight. Eggs were not found in the feces of clorsulon -treated calves at 20 to 21 days after treatment as compared with a mean of 7.4 eggs per gram (epg) in group 6 (control) calves. Mean bile egg recoveries were 13,532 (456 to 66,861) from group 6 calves as compared to recovery of a total of 162 (0 to 160) eggs from 3 of the 9 treated calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6732013

  13. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement. PMID:21869628

  14. An online, mindfulness-based, cognitive-behavioral therapy for female sexual difficulties: impact on relationship functioning.

    PubMed

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of an online treatment for female sexual difficulties as it relates to relationship functioning. Pursuing Pleasure was an online, mindfulness-based, cognitive behavioral therapy for female sexual difficulties. In Study 1, 26 women completed treatment and changes were compared with a waitlist control group (n = 31). In Study 2, 16 women from the control group then completed treatment. The authors did not use a control group in Study 2. Results demonstrated that both treatment groups observed significant improvements in sexual intimacy and communication, and emotional intimacy improved significantly in the Study 1 treatment group. Most improvements were maintained at follow-up. PMID:24308322

  15. An on-the-job mindfulness-based intervention for pediatric ICU nurses: a pilot.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Tina; Meyer, Rika M L; Grefe, Dagmar; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of a 5-minute mindfulness meditation for PICU nurses before each work-shift to investigate change in nursing stress, burnout, self-compassion, mindfulness, and job satisfaction was explored. Thirty-eight nurses completed measures (Nursing Stress Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Self-Compassion Scale) at baseline, post-intervention and 1 month after. The intervention was found to be feasible for nurses on the PICU. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant decreases in stress from baseline to post intervention and maintained 1 month following the intervention. Findings may inform future interventions that support on-the-job self-care and stress-reduction within a critical care setting. PMID:25450445

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid constituents collected at the atlanto-occipital site of xylazine hydrochloride sedated, healthy 8-week-old Holstein calves.

    PubMed Central

    St Jean, G; Yvorchuk-St Jean, K; Anderson, D E; Moore, W E

    1997-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported

  17. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  18. Improving Executive Function and its Neurobiological Mechanisms through a Mindfulness-Based Intervention: Advances within the Field of Developmental Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Lizhu; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.

    2014-01-01

    Poor executive function (EF) has been associated with a host of short- and long-term problems across the lifespan, including elevated rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, drug abuse, and antisocial behavior. Mindfulness-based interventions that focus on increasing awareness of one’s thoughts, emotions, and actions have been shown to improve specific aspects of EF, including attention, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. In this article, we apply a developmental neuroscience perspective to review research relevant to one specific mindfulness-based intervention, Integrative Body-Mind Training (IBMT). Randomized controlled trials of IBMT indicate improvements in specific EF components, and uniquely highlight the role of neural circuitry specific to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) as two brain-based mechanisms that underlie IBMT-related improvements. The relevance of improving specific dimensions of EF through short-term IBMT to prevent a cascade of risk behaviors for children and adolescents is described and future research directions are proposed. PMID:25419230

  19. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Body Awareness in Patients with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Marasha; Lazar, Sara W.; Hug, Kiran; Mehling, Wolf E.; Hölzel, Britta K.; Sack, Alexander T.; Peeters, Frenk; Ashih, Heidi; Mischoulon, David; Gard, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness. PMID:27445929

  20. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Body Awareness in Patients with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Depression.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marasha; Lazar, Sara W; Hug, Kiran; Mehling, Wolf E; Hölzel, Britta K; Sack, Alexander T; Peeters, Frenk; Ashih, Heidi; Mischoulon, David; Gard, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the "Self-Regulation" and "Not Distracting" scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by "Not Distracting." These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness. PMID:27445929

  1. Improving Executive Function and its Neurobiological Mechanisms through a Mindfulness-Based Intervention: Advances within the Field of Developmental Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Lizhu; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T

    2012-12-01

    Poor executive function (EF) has been associated with a host of short- and long-term problems across the lifespan, including elevated rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, drug abuse, and antisocial behavior. Mindfulness-based interventions that focus on increasing awareness of one's thoughts, emotions, and actions have been shown to improve specific aspects of EF, including attention, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. In this article, we apply a developmental neuroscience perspective to review research relevant to one specific mindfulness-based intervention, Integrative Body-Mind Training (IBMT). Randomized controlled trials of IBMT indicate improvements in specific EF components, and uniquely highlight the role of neural circuitry specific to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) as two brain-based mechanisms that underlie IBMT-related improvements. The relevance of improving specific dimensions of EF through short-term IBMT to prevent a cascade of risk behaviors for children and adolescents is described and future research directions are proposed. PMID:25419230

  2. Adapting Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sapana R.; Carmody, James; Simpson, H. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses (i.e., obsessions) and by repetitive mental or behavioral acts (i.e., compulsions) performed to prevent or reduce distress. Efficacious treatments for OCD include psychotropic medications and exposure and response prevention…

  3. Staying Well: A Follow Up of a 5-Week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Programme for a Range of Psychological Issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melanie; Heads, Gary

    2015-11-01

    112 women and 37 men, with an average age of 50 years were referred for MBSR training with a range of chronic psychological issues. All participants completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (Tennant et al. in Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 5:63, 2007) before and after the mindfulness training programme. A significant overall effect of pre/post training was found and this difference was not related to a specific disorder. The results suggest that a 'brief' dose of MBSR can have a positive impact on measures of well-being in a manner that is not related to patient characteristics. A follow-up of 28 participants confirms that participation in the 5-week Living Mindfully MBSR programme significantly enhances psychological well-being immediately after training, and this benefit is maintained up to 4 years after training. Continued practice in mindfulness meditation showed an insignificant relationship to well-being scores at follow up. Qualitative data suggest that the 5 week MBSR is an effective means of developing emotion regulation and psychological well-being. PMID:25595955

  4. Diurnal Glycemic Patterns during an 8-Week Open-Label Proof-of-Concept Trial of Empagliflozin in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin A.; Partridge, Helen; Tschirhart, Holly; Zinman, Bernard; Mazze, Roger; Fagan, Nora; Kaspers, Stefan; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; Broedl, Uli C.; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently reported improved glycemic control with reduced insulin dose in subjects with type 1 diabetes treated with the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin. To further characterize the effects, we analyzed diurnal glycemic patterns by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods In an 8-week single-arm open-label pilot study of empagliflozin, we compared ambulatory glucose profiles produced from CGM data during 2-week intervals in a placebo run-in baseline period, end-of-treatment, and post-treatment. Change in glycemic exposure was evaluated by area under the median curve according to time of day (AUCTOTAL 12:00am-11:55pm; AUCDAY 7:05am-10:55pm, AUCNIGHT 11:00pm-7:00am), as well as glycemic variability, glycemic stability and time-in-target (≥70 to ≤140mg/dL). Results The 40 patients (26 on insulin pump) were aged 24±5 years and BMI 24.5±3.2 kg/m2. Consistent with the observed HbA1c decrease (8.0±0.9% to 7.6±0.9%, p<0.0001), normalized AUCTOTAL CGM decreased from 153.7±25.4 to 149.0±30.2mg/dL∙h at end-of-treatment (p = 0.31), and significantly increased post-treatment (164.1±29.5mg/dL∙h, p = 0.02). The numerical decrease in normalized AUCNIGHT (152.0±36.6 to 141.9±34.4mg/dL∙h, p = 0.13) exceeded AUCDAY (154.5±24.5 to 152.6±30.4mg/dL∙h, p = 0.65). Trends toward lower glycemic variability (83.1±18.9 to 75.6±28.6mg/dL, p = 0.06) and little change in glycemic stability (10.8±3.6 to 10.3±4.5mg/dL/h, p = 0.51) were observed. When empagliflozin was discontinued, these worsened relative to baseline (89.3±19.3mg/dL, p = 0.04 and 11.8±3.7mg/dL/hr, p = 0.08). Time-in-target numerically increased (40.2±11.9 to 43.1±13.5%, p = 0.69) at end-of-treatment but reversed post-treatment. Findings were similar on stratification of pump and MDI subjects. Conclusions We observed that empagliflozin was associated with patterns of improved nighttime glycemia more prominent than daytime. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials

  5. Qigong and mindfulness-based mood recovery: exercise experiences from a single case.

    PubMed

    Jouper, John; Johansson, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    Sara, the participant in this single case study, had to leave work due to burnout. She is now recovered and working, but still complains of disturbed moods and worries about getting burned out again. The aim of this study was to, by way of Qigong and mindfulness exercise, increase the participant's positive mood to a functional level and to increase exercise experiences by combining mindfulness and Qigong practice. The professional practice intervention was planned to last twelve weeks, combining mindfulness practice and three different Qigong exercise techniques. Exercise behavior was noted daily, stress-energy and wellness were followed up weekly, and mindfulness was followed up after four, nine and 12 weeks. Sara feels that her moods (more energy, wellness and joy, as well as less stress and worry) have stabilized at a high level (good to very good), and her mindfulness score also improved to a high level (4.2 on a six-point scale). Sara also states that she enjoys life more: accepts stressful situations as they are, is less worried about becoming burned out again, and is more open to life. Exercise professionals may use mindfulness practice and Qigong exercise when recovering moods, probably even better in preventing burnout syndromes. PMID:23294686

  6. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  7. [Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder--an adaptation of the original program].

    PubMed

    Külz, Anne Katrin; Rose, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has shown to be effective in the relapse prevention and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. However, MBCT has not yet been applied in OCD (Obsessive-compulsive Disorder). This article proposes an adaptation of the eight-session group program for patients with residual symptoms after cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) with exposure. It has proven feasible and was considered helpful by patients within the framework of a pilot study 1. Apart from an overview of the modified manual, OCD-specific elements are presented in detail and illustrated on the base of work sheets. The manual indicates that MBCT could be a useful supplement to CBT and is well applicable to the therapeutic needs of patients with OCD. PMID:23959536

  8. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner. PMID:25471318

  9. Exploring the Feasibility and Benefits of Arts-Based Mindfulness-Based Practices with Young People in Need: Aiming to Improve Aspects of Self-Awareness and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coholic, Diana A.

    2011-01-01

    Research in mindfulness-based methods with young people is just emerging in the practice/research literature. While much of this literature describes promising approaches that combine mindfulness with cognitive-behavioral therapy, this paper describes an innovative research-based group program that teaches young people in need mindfulness-based…

  10. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  11. Treatment-Specific Changes in Decentering Following Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy versus Antidepressant Medication or Placebo for Prevention of Depressive Relapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieling, Peter J.; Hawley, Lance L.; Bloch, Richard T.; Corcoran, Kathleen M.; Levitan, Robert D.; Young, L. Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Segal, Zindel V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether metacognitive psychological skills, acquired in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), are also present in patients receiving medication treatments for prevention of depressive relapse and whether these skills mediate MBCT's effectiveness. Method: This study, embedded within a randomized efficacy trial of MBCT,…

  12. A Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children: Promoting Mindful Attention to Enhance Social-Emotional Resiliency in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Randye J.; Lee, Jennifer; Rosa, Dinelia; Miller, Lisa F.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children (MBCT-C) is a manualized group psychotherapy for children ages 9-13 years old, which was developed specifically to increase social-emotional resiliency through the enhancement of mindful attention. Program development is described along with results of the initial randomized controlled trial. We…

  13. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  14. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  15. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  16. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  17. An open trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the prevention of perinatal depressive relapse/recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dimidjian, Sona; Goodman, Sherryl H; Felder, Jennifer N; Gallop, Robert; Brown, Amanda P; Beck, Arne

    2015-02-01

    Pregnant women with histories of depression are at high risk of depressive relapse/recurrence during the perinatal period, and options for relapse/recurrence prevention are limited. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has strong evidence among general populations but has not been studied among at-risk pregnant women to prevent depression. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of depression symptom severity and relapse/recurrence associated with MBCT adapted for perinatal women (MBCT-PD). Pregnant women with depression histories were recruited from obstetrics clinics in a large health maintenance organization at two sites and enrolled in MBCT-PD (N = 49). Self-reported depressive symptoms and interview-based assessments of depression relapse/recurrence status were measured at baseline, during MBCT-PD, and through 6-months postpartum. Pregnant women reported interest, engagement, and satisfaction with the program. Retention rates were high, as were rates of completion of daily homework practices. Intent to treat analyses indicated a significant improvement in depression symptom levels and an 18 % rate of relapse/recurrence through 6 months postpartum. MBCT-PD shows promise as an acceptable, feasible, and clinically beneficial brief psychosocial prevention option for pregnant women with histories of depression. Randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the efficacy of MBCT-PD for the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25298253

  18. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Group Therapy on Marital Satisfaction and General Health in Woman With Infertility.

    PubMed

    Abedi Shargh, Najmeh; Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohammad Davoud; Mahmudian, Khadije; Ahovan, Masood; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Gangali, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Infertility affects around 80 million people around the world and it has been estimated that psychological problems in infertile couples is within the range of 25-60%. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy on consciousness regarding marital satisfaction and general health in woman with infertility. Recent work is a clinical trial with a pre/posttest plan for control group. Covering 60 women who were selected by in access method and arranged randomly in interference (30) and control (30) groups. Before and after implementation of independent variable, all subjects were measured in both groups using Enrich questionnaire and marital satisfaction questionnaire. Results of covariance analysis of posttest, after controlling the scores of pretest illustrated the meaningful difference of marital satisfaction and mental health scores in interference and control groups after treatment and the fact that MBCT treatment in infertile women revealed that this method has an appropriate contribution to improvement of marital satisfaction and mental health. Necessary trainings for infertile people through consultation services can improve their mental health and marital satisfaction and significantly help reducing infertile couples' problems. PMID:26493418

  19. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for co-morbid depression in drug-dependent males.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Asl, Navidreza; Barahmand, Usha

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed at examining the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in decreasing depression symptoms in dully diagnosed males (drug dependent males with co-morbid depression).An experimental research design with pre- and post-tests and a control group was used. The sample of the study comprised 33 drug-dependent men who also endorsed depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). All the selected individuals were assigned randomly to either the intervention group or control group (16 to the intervention and 17 to the control group). The intervention group experienced eight 2-h sessions of training in MBCT. At the end of the training, the subjects were once again evaluated using the BDI-II. Analysis of co-variance was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that MBCT did contribute to a significant decrease in the depression symptoms of the dully diagnosed individuals. It is recommended that the MBCT be used for treating depression in drug-dependent males undergoing detoxification and treatment for their drug dependence. PMID:25439972

  20. Discontinuation of antidepressant medication after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurrent depression: randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Huijbers, Marloes J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Spijker, Jan; Ruhé, Henricus G.; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van Oppen, Patricia; Nolen, Willem A.; Ormel, Johan; Kuyken, Willem; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Blom, Marc B. J.; Schene, Aart H.; Rogier, A.; Donders, T.; Speckens, Anne E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and maintenance antidepressant medication (mADM) both reduce the risk of relapse in recurrent depression, but their combination has not been studied. Aims To investigate whether MBCT with discontinuation of mADM is non-inferior to MBCT+mADM. Method A multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00928980). Adults with recurrent depression in remission, using mADM for 6 months or longer (n = 249), were randomly allocated to either discontinue (n = 128) or continue (n = 121) mADM after MBCT. The primary outcome was depressive relapse/recurrence within 15 months. A confidence interval approach with a margin of 25% was used to test non-inferiority. Key secondary outcomes were time to relapse/recurrence and depression severity. Results The difference in relapse/recurrence rates exceeded the non-inferiority margin and time to relapse/recurrence was significantly shorter after discontinuation of mADM. There were only minor differences in depression severity. Conclusions Our findings suggest an increased risk of relapse/recurrence in patients withdrawing from mADM after MBCT. PMID:26892847

  1. Mindfulness-based intervention for prodromal sleep disturbances in older adults: Design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, David S.; O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent among older adults, often persist untreated, and are predictive of health detriments. Given the limitations of conventional treatments, non-pharmacological treatments such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are gaining popularity for sleep ailments. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of MBIs on sleep in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. This article details the design and methodology of a 6-week parallel-group RCT calibrated to test the treatment effect of the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) program versus sleep hygiene education for improving sleep quality, as the main outcome, in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. Older adults with current sleep disturbances will be recruited from the urban Los Angeles community. Participants will be randomized into two standardized treatment conditions, MAPs and sleep hygiene education. Each condition will consist of weekly 2-hour group-based classes over the course of the 6-week intervention. The primary objective of this study is to determine if mindfulness meditation practice as engaged through the MAPs program leads to improved sleep quality relative to sleep hygiene education in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. PMID:24993561

  2. Re-Training the Addicted Brain: A Review of Hypothesized Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Addiction has generally been characterized as a chronic relapsing condition. Several laboratory, preclinical, and clinical studies have provided evidence that craving and negative affect are strong predictors of the relapse process. These states, as well as the desire to avoid them, have been described as primary motives for substance use. A recently developed behavioral treatment, Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), was designed to target experiences of craving and negative affect and their roles in the relapse process. MBRP offers skills in cognitive behavioral relapse prevention integrated with mindfulness meditation. The mindfulness practices in MBRP are intended to increase discriminative awareness, with a specific focus on acceptance of uncomfortable states or challenging situations without reacting “automatically.” A recent efficacy trial found that those randomized to MBRP, as compared to those in a control group, demonstrated significantly lower rates of substance use and greater decreases in craving following treatment. Furthermore, individuals in MBRP did not report increased craving or substance use in response to negative affect. Importantly, areas of the brain that have been associated with craving, negative affect, and relapse have also been shown to be affected by mindfulness training. Drawing from the neuroimaging literature, we review several plausible mechanisms by which MBRP might be changing neural responses to the experiences of craving and negative affect, which subsequently may reduce risk for relapse. We hypothesize that MBRP may affect numerous brain systems and may reverse, repair, or compensate for the neuroadaptive changes associated with addiction and addictive behavior relapse. PMID:22775773

  3. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Group Therapy on Marital Satisfaction and General Health in Woman With Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shargh, Najmeh Abedi; Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohammad Davoud; Mahmudian, Khadije; Ahovan, Masood; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Gangali, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Infertility affects around 80 million people around the world and it has been estimated that psychological problems in infertile couples is within the range of 25-60%. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy on consciousness regarding marital satisfaction and general health in woman with infertility. Recent work is a clinical trial with a pre/posttest plan for control group. Covering 60 women who were selected by in access method and arranged randomly in interference (30) and control (30) groups. Before and after implementation of independent variable, all subjects were measured in both groups using Enrich questionnaire and marital satisfaction questionnaire. Results of covariance analysis of posttest, after controlling the scores of pretest illustrated the meaningful difference of marital satisfaction and mental health scores in interference and control groups after treatment and the fact that MBCT treatment in infertile women revealed that this method has an appropriate contribution to improvement of marital satisfaction and mental health. Necessary trainings for infertile people through consultation services can improve their mental health and marital satisfaction and significantly help reducing infertile couples’ problems. PMID:26493418

  4. Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based kindness curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the lifespan, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification . Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings. PMID:25383689

  5. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus Unrestricted Services for Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis)

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Freda; Surawy, Christina; Muse, Kate; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and acceptability of existing psychological interventions for health anxiety (hypochondriasis) are limited. In the current study, the authors aimed to assess the impact of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on health anxiety by comparing the impact of MBCT in addition to usual services (unrestricted services) with unrestricted services (US) alone. Method: The 74 participants were randomized to either MBCT in addition to US (n = 36) or US alone (n = 38). Participants were assessed prior to intervention (MBCT or US), immediately following the intervention, and 1 year postintervention. In addition to independent assessments of diagnostic status, standardized self-report measures and assessor ratings of severity and distress associated with the diagnosis of hypochondriasis were used. Results: In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (N = 74), MBCT participants had significantly lower health anxiety than US participants, both immediately following the intervention (Cohen's d = 0.48) and at 1-year follow-up (d = 0.48). The per-protocol (PP) analysis (n = 68) between groups effect size was d = 0.49 at postintervention and d = 0.62 at 1-year follow-up. Mediational analysis showed that change in mindfulness mediated the group changes in health anxiety symptoms. Significantly fewer participants allocated to MBCT than to US met criteria for the diagnosis of hypochondriasis, both immediately following the intervention period (ITT 50.0% vs. 78.9%; PP 47.1% vs. 78.4%) and at 1-year follow-up (ITT 36.1% vs. 76.3%; PP 28.1% vs. 75.0%). Conclusions: MBCT may be a useful addition to usual services for patients with health anxiety. PMID:22708977

  6. Depression relapse prophylaxis with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Replication and extension in the Swiss health care system

    PubMed Central

    Bondolfi, Guido; Jermann, Françoise; der Linden, Martial Van; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Bizzini, Lucio; Rouget, Béatrice Weber; Myers-Arrazola, Lusmila; Gonzalez, Christiane; Segal, Zindel; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Bertschy, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a group intervention that integrates elements of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with components of mindfulness training to prevent depressive relapse. The efficacy of MBCT compared to Treatment As Usual (TAU), shown in two randomized controlled trials indicates a significant decrease in 1-year relapse rates for patients with at least three past depressive episodes. The present study is the first independent replication trial comparing MBCT + TAU to TAU alone across both language and culture (Swiss health care system). Methods Sixty unmedicated patients in remission from recurrent depression (≥ 3 episodes) were randomly assigned to MBCT + TAU or TAU. Relapse rate and time to relapse were measured over a 60 week observation period. The frequency of mindfulness practices during the study was also evaluated. Results Over a 14-month prospective follow-up period, time to relapse was significantly longer with MBCT + TAU than TAU alone (median 204 and 69 days, respectively), although both groups relapsed at similar rates. Analyses of homework adherence revealed that following treatment termination, the frequency of brief and informal mindfulness practice remained unchanged over 14 months, whereas the use of longer formal meditation decreased over time. Limitations Relapse monitoring was 14 months in duration and prospective reporting of mindfulness practice would have yielded more precise frequency estimates compared to the retrospective methods we utilized. Conclusions Further studies are required to determine which patient characteristics, beyond the number of past depressive episodes, may predict differential benefits from this therapeutic approach. PMID:19666195

  7. Treatment of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures: Updated Review and Findings From a Mindfulness-Based Intervention Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Baslet, Gaston; Dworetzky, Barbara; Perez1, David L.; Oser, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) were first described in the medical literature in the 19th century as seizure-like attacks not related to an identified central nervous system lesion and are currently classified as a conversion disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While a universally accepted and unifying etiological model does not yet exist, several risk factors have been identified. Management of PNES should be based on interdisciplinary collaboration, targeting modifiable risk factors. The first treatment phase in PNES is patient engagement, which is challenging given the demonstrated low rates of treatment retention. Acute interventions constitute the next phase in treatment and most research studies focus on short-term evidence-based interventions. Randomized controlled pilot trials support cognitive-behavioral therapy. Other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions have been less well-studied using controlled and uncontrolled trials. Within the discussion of acute interventions, we present a preliminary evaluation for feasibility of a mindfulness-based psychotherapy protocol in a very small sample of PNES patients. We demonstrated in 6 subjects that this intervention is feasible in real-life clinical scenarios and warrants further investigation in larger scale studies. The final treatment phase is long-term follow-up. Long-term outcome studies in PNES show that a significant proportion of patients remain symptomatic and experience continued impairments in quality of life and functionality. We believe that PNES should be understood as a disease that requires different types of intervention during the various phases of treatment. PMID:25465435

  8. Multi-dimensional modulations of α and γ cortical dynamics following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-02-01

    To illuminate candidate neural working mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in the treatment of recurrent depressive disorder, parallel to the potential interplays between modulations in electro-cortical dynamics and depressive symptom severity and self-compassionate experience. Linear and nonlinear α and γ EEG oscillatory dynamics were examined concomitant to an affective Go/NoGo paradigm, pre-to-post MBCT or natural wait-list, in 51 recurrent depressive patients. Specific EEG variables investigated were; (1) induced event-related (de-) synchronisation (ERD/ERS), (2) evoked power, and (3) inter-/intra-hemispheric coherence. Secondary clinical measures included depressive severity and experiences of self-compassion. MBCT significantly downregulated α and γ power, reflecting increased cortical excitability. Enhanced α-desynchronisation/ERD was observed for negative material opposed to attenuated α-ERD towards positively valenced stimuli, suggesting activation of neural networks usually hypoactive in depression, related to positive emotion regulation. MBCT-related increase in left-intra-hemispheric α-coherence of the fronto-parietal circuit aligned with these synchronisation dynamics. Ameliorated depressive severity and increased self-compassionate experience pre-to-post MBCT correlated with α-ERD change. The multi-dimensional neural mechanisms of MBCT pertain to task-specific linear and non-linear neural synchronisation and connectivity network dynamics. We propose MBCT-related modulations in differing cortical oscillatory bands have discrete excitatory (enacting positive emotionality) and inhibitory (disengaging from negative material) effects, where mediation in the α and γ bands relates to the former. PMID:26052359

  9. Antidepressant Monotherapy versus Sequential Pharmacotherapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, or Placebo, for Relapse Prophylaxis in Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Zindel V.; Bieling, Peter; Young, Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda; Cooke, Robert; Martin, Lawrence; Bloch, Richard; Levitan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Context Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a group-based psychosocial intervention designed to enhance self-management of prodromal symptoms associated with depressive relapse. Objective To compare rates of relapse in remitted depressed patients receiving MBCT against maintenance antidepressant pharmacotherapy, the current standard of care Design Patients who met remission criteria following 8 months of algorithm informed antidepressant treatment were randomized to either: Maintenance Antidepressant Medication (M-ADM), MBCT or placebo (PLA) and were followed for 18 months. Setting Outpatient clinics at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto and St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton. Participants One hundred sixty patients aged 18 to 65 meeting DSM-IV for major depressive disorder with a minimum of 2 past episodes. Of these, 84 achieved remission (52.5%) and were assigned to one of the 3 study conditions. Interventions Remitted patients either discontinued their antidepressants and attended eight weekly group sessions of MBCT, continued on their therapeutic dose of antidepressant medication or discontinued active medication onto placebo. Main Outcome Measure Relapse was defined as a return, for at least 2 weeks, of symptoms sufficient to meet the criteria for major depression on Module A of the SCID. Results Intention to treat analyses revealed a significant interaction between the quality of acute phase remission and subsequent prevention of relapse in randomized patients (p = .03). Among unstable remitters (defined as 1 or more HRSD >7 during remission) patients in both MBCT and M-ADM showed a 73% decrease in hazard compared to PLA (p = .03), whereas for stable remitters (all HRSD ≤ 7 during remission) there were no group differences in survival. Findings remained significant after accounting for the effects of past depressive episodes on relapse. Conclusion For depressed patients who are unwilling or unable to tolerate long term

  10. Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Kien Hoa; Trüschel, Anna; Jarl, Linnea; Magnusson, Susanna; Windahl, Tove; Johansson, Robert; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness. Design Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study. Setting General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements. Participants 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment. Intervention BA: An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application. Main outcome measures The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9). Results 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0 years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05). Conclusions The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the

  11. Mindfulness for Teachers: A Pilot Study to Assess Effects on Stress, Burnout, and Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Bonus, Katherine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of teachers in fostering children's academic learning and social-emotional well-being, addressing teacher stress in the classroom remains a significant challenge in education. This study reports results from a randomized controlled pilot trial of a modified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course (mMBSR) adapted…

  12. Effects of stress reduction on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients with early kidney disease - results of a randomized controlled trial (HEIDIS).

    PubMed

    Kopf, S; Oikonomou, D; Hartmann, M; Feier, F; Faude-Lang, V; Morcos, M; Häring, H-U; Herzog, W; Bierhaus, A; Humpert, P M; Nawroth, P P

    2014-06-01

    Current guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes focus on pharmacological treatment of glucose and cardio-vascular risk factors. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled intervention study was to examine the effects of a psychosocial intervention on clinical endpoints and risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and early diabetic kidney disease.110 patients were randomized to receive an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training (n = 53) compared to standard care (n = 57). The study was carried out open-labelled and randomization was performed computer-generated in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome of the study was the change in urinary albumin excretion (albumin-creatinine-ratio, ACR); secondary outcomes were metabolic parameters, intima media thickness (IMT), psychosocial parameters and cardiovascular events.89 patients (42 in control group and 47 in intervention group) were analysed after 3 years of follow-up. After 1 year, the intervention group showed a reduction of ACR from 44 [16/80] to 39 [20/71] mg/g, while controls increased from 47 [16/120] to 59 [19/128] mg/g (p = 0.05). Parallel to the reduction of stress levels after 1 year, the intervention-group additionally showed reduced catecholamine levels (p < 0.05), improved 24 h-mean arterial (p < 0.05) and maximum systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), as well as a reduction in IMT (p < 0.01). However, these effects were lost after 2 and 3 years of follow-up.This is the first study to show that a psychosocial intervention improves cardiovascular risk factors in high risk type 2 diabetes patients. Trial-Registration: NCT00263419 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00263419 TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov-Identifier: NCT00263419. PMID:24798861

  13. Stress.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself. PMID:18846841

  14. The effects of amount of home meditation practice in Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy on hazard of relapse to depression in the Staying Well after Depression Trial.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Crane, Rebecca S; Eames, Catrin; Fennell, Melanie J V; Silverton, Sarah; Williams, J Mark G; Barnhofer, Thorsten

    2014-12-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the associations between formal and informal mindfulness home practice and outcome in Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). In this study ninety-nine participants randomised to MBCT in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial completed self-reported ratings of home practice over 7 treatment weeks. Recurrence of Major Depression was assessed immediately after treatment, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12-months post-treatment. Results identified a significant association between mean daily duration of formal home practice and outcome and additionally indicated that participants who reported that they engaged in formal home practice on at least 3 days a week during the treatment phase were almost half as likely to relapse as those who reported fewer days of formal practice. These associations were independent of the potentially confounding variable of participant-rated treatment plausibility. The current study identified no significant association between informal home practice and outcome, although this may relate to the inherent difficulties in quantifying informal home mindfulness practice. These findings have important implications for clinicians discussing mindfulness-based interventions with their participants, in particular in relation to MBCT, where the amount of participant engagement in home practice appears to have a significant positive impact on outcome. PMID:25261599

  15. Ketamine, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Depression Specific Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in Management of Treatment Resistant Depression: Review and Some Data on Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Basant; Parikh, Tapan; Makani, Ramkrishna; Sahoo, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects about 121 million people worldwide and prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in US adults is 6.4%. Treatment resistant depression (TRD) accounts for approximately 12–20% of all depression patients and costs $29–$48 billion annually. Ketamine and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have useful roles in TRD, but their utility in long term is unknown. As per the latest literature, the interventions using Yoga and meditation including the mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been useful in treatment of depression and relapse prevention. We present a review of rTMS, ketamine, and MBCT and also report efficacy of a depression specific, innovative, and translational model of Yoga and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (DepS Y-MBCT), developed by the first author. DepS Y-MBCT as an adjunctive treatment successfully ameliorated TRD symptoms in 27/32 patients in an open label pilot trial in TRD patients. Considering the limitations of existing treatment options, including those of ketamine and rTMS when used as the sole modality of treatment, we suggest a “tiered approach for TRD” by combining ketamine and rTMS (alone or along with antidepressants) for rapid remission of acute depression symptoms and to use DepS Y-MBCT for maintaining remission and preventing relapse. PMID:26509083

  16. Ketamine, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Depression Specific Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in Management of Treatment Resistant Depression: Review and Some Data on Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Basant; Parikh, Tapan; Makani, Ramkrishna; Sahoo, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects about 121 million people worldwide and prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in US adults is 6.4%. Treatment resistant depression (TRD) accounts for approximately 12-20% of all depression patients and costs $29-$48 billion annually. Ketamine and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have useful roles in TRD, but their utility in long term is unknown. As per the latest literature, the interventions using Yoga and meditation including the mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been useful in treatment of depression and relapse prevention. We present a review of rTMS, ketamine, and MBCT and also report efficacy of a depression specific, innovative, and translational model of Yoga and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (DepS Y-MBCT), developed by the first author. DepS Y-MBCT as an adjunctive treatment successfully ameliorated TRD symptoms in 27/32 patients in an open label pilot trial in TRD patients. Considering the limitations of existing treatment options, including those of ketamine and rTMS when used as the sole modality of treatment, we suggest a "tiered approach for TRD" by combining ketamine and rTMS (alone or along with antidepressants) for rapid remission of acute depression symptoms and to use DepS Y-MBCT for maintaining remission and preventing relapse. PMID:26509083

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  18. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  19. A Single-Center, Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Effects of Poly-Gamma-Glutamate on Human NK Cell Activity after an 8-Week Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ-PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ-PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ-PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  20. A single-center, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of poly-gamma-glutamate on human NK cell activity after an 8-week oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly- γ -glutamate ( γ -PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ -PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ -PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ -PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  1. Pilot Evaluation of the Feasibility and Acceptability of StressOFF Strategies: A Single-Session School-Based Stress Management Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy J.; Heath, Nancy L.; Carsley, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the pilot evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of StressOFF Strategies, a "single-session" (45 min) adolescent-targeted, school-based psychoeducational program, which introduces cognitive behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based techniques. Five hundred and sixty-five Grade 9 students (57% female;…

  2. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  3. Effects of a Mindfulness Group on Latino Adolescent Students: Examining Levels of Perceived Stress, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michelle; Adams, Eve M.; Waldo, Michael; Hadfield, O. D.; Biegel, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the impact of mindfulness groups on 20 Latino middle school students who participated in 8-session structured groups using the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Teens curriculum. The participants' scores on the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; the Self-Compassion Scale; the Perceived Stress Scale; and the…

  4. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  5. CA19-9 decrease at 8 weeks as a predictor of overall survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, E. G.; Von Hoff, D. D.; Reni, M.; Arena, F. P.; Infante, J. R.; Bathini, V. G.; Wood, T. E.; Mainwaring, P. N.; Muldoon, R. T.; Clingan, P. R.; Kunzmann, V.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Tabernero, J.; Goldstein, D.; McGovern, D.; Lu, B.; Ko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A phase I/II study and subsequent phase III study (MPACT) reported significant correlations between CA19-9 decreases and prolonged overall survival (OS) with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC). CA19-9 changes at week 8 and potential associations with efficacy were investigated as part of an exploratory analysis in the MPACT trial. Patients and methods Untreated patients with MPC (N = 861) received nab-P + Gem or Gem alone. CA19-9 was evaluated at baseline and every 8 weeks. Results Patients with baseline and week-8 CA19-9 measurements were analyzed (nab-P + Gem: 252; Gem: 202). In an analysis pooling the treatments, patients with any CA19-9 decline (80%) versus those without (20%) had improved OS (median 11.1 versus 8.0 months; P = 0.005). In the nab-P + Gem arm, patients with (n = 206) versus without (n = 46) any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) of 40% versus 13%, and a median OS of 13.2 versus 8.3 months (P = 0.001), respectively. In the Gem-alone arm, patients with (n = 159) versus without (n = 43) CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed ORR of 15% versus 5%, and a median OS of 9.4 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.404), respectively. In the nab-P + Gem and Gem-alone arms, by week 8, 16% (40/252) and 6% (13/202) of patients, respectively, had an unconfirmed radiologic response (median OS 13.7 and 14.7 months, respectively), and 79% and 84% of patients, respectively, had stable disease (SD) (median OS 11.1 and 9 months, respectively). Patients with SD and any CA19-9 decrease (158/199 and 133/170) had a median OS of 13.2 and 9.4 months, respectively. Conclusion This analysis demonstrated that, in patients with MPC, any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 can be an early marker for chemotherapy efficacy, including in those patients with SD. CA19-9 decrease identified more patients with survival benefit than radiologic response by week 8. PMID:26802160

  6. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool. PMID:26864127

  7. An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of 3 Vilazodone Dose-Initiation Strategies Following Switch From SSRIs and SNRIs in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rele, Shilpa; Millet, Robert; Kim, Sungman; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Seonghwan; Masand, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vilazodone, a selective and potent 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, has been approved for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. The primary objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of switching to 3 different doses of vilazodone from an equivalent dose range of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in adult subjects with MDD. Method: This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 3-arm trial to compare vilazodone 10 mg/d, 20 mg/d, and 40 mg/d as starting doses. Data were collected from December 2012 to December 2013. There was no washout phase, prior medications were stopped at the baseline visit, and vilazodone was started the next day in adults with MDD (DSM-IV criteria). The 10-mg/d and 20-mg/d dose was increased to 40 mg/d by week 3 and week 1, respectively, and the 40-mg/d initiation dose continued unchanged. The primary efficacy measure was change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score between the 3 dose groups. The secondary efficacy measures were changes in Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S), CGI-Improvement (CGI-I), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) scores. Safety measures were obtained by spontaneously reported adverse events, vital signs recording, and laboratory tests. Multivariate tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Seventy subjects were randomized, and 60 subjects completed the study (n = 20 in each group). Overall, there was a significant reduction in MADRS score from baseline (26.08 ± 1.1) to week 8 (9.86 ± 1.2) in the entire sample (P < .001). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in CGI-S (P < .001), CGI-I (P < .001) and HDRS (P < .001) scores from baseline to the end of the trial. There were no significant differences between the 3 vilazodone dose-initiation groups in changes in MADRS scores (P = .95) or changes in CGI

  8. Therapeutic mechanisms of a mindfulness-based treatment for IBS: Effects on visceral sensitivity, catastrophizing, and affective processing of pain sensations

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Gaylord, Susan A.; Palsson, Olafur; Faurot, Keturah; Mann, J. Douglas; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional disorder characterized by abdominal pain and hypervigilance to gastrointestinal sensations. We hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT), which promotes nonreactive awareness of emotional and sensory experience, may target underlying mechanisms of IBS including affective pain processing and catastrophic appraisals of gastrointestinal sensations. Seventy five female IBS patients were randomly assigned to participate in either 8 weeks of MT or a social support group. A theoretically grounded, multivariate path model tested therapeutic mediators of the effect of MT on IBS severity and quality of life. Results suggest that MT exerts significant therapeutic effects on IBS symptoms by promoting nonreactivity to gut-focused anxiety and catastrophic appraisals of the significance of abdominal sensations coupled with a refocusing of attention onto interoceptive data with less emotional interference. Hence, MT appears to target and ameliorate the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of IBS. PMID:22161025

  9. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) Reduces the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Cognitions in Patients With a History of Suicidal Depression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In patients with a history of suicidal depression, recurrence of depressive symptoms can easily reactivate suicidal thinking. In this study, we investigated whether training in mindfulness, which is aimed at helping patients “decenter” from negative thinking, could help weaken the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions. Method: Analyses were based on data from a recent randomized controlled trial, in which previously suicidal patients were allocated to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), an active control treatment, cognitive psychoeducation (CPE), which did not include any meditation practice, or treatment as usual (TAU). After the end of the treatment phase, we compared the associations between depressive symptoms, as assessed through self-reports on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), and suicidal thinking, as assessed through the Suicidal Cognitions Scale (Rudd et al., 2001). Results: In patients with minimal to moderate symptoms at the time of assessment, comparisons of the correlations between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions showed significant differences between the groups. Although suicidal cognitions were significantly related to levels of symptoms in the 2 control groups, there was no such relation in the MBCT group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that, in patients with a history of suicidal depression, training in mindfulness can help to weaken the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking, and thus reduce an important vulnerability for relapse to suicidal depression. PMID:26302249

  10. The Effect of Beck’s Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Sociotropic and Autonomous Personality Styles in Patients With Depression

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Abbas; Gholami, Hossin; Narimani, Mohammad; Gamji, Masood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is characterized by a great risk of relapse and recurrence. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and cognitive therapy are efficacious psychosocial interventions for recurrent depression. Objectives: The aim of the present research was to compare the effect of Beck’s cognitive therapy (BCT) and MBCT on reduction of depression and sociotropic and autonomous personality styles in Iranian depressed patients. Patients and Methods: The study sample consisted of 30 subjects randomly selected from patients with depression in Mashhad city, Iran. The subjects were assigned randomly to experimental groups. The 2 techniques used for treatment were BCT and MBCT. The data collection instruments used in the research consisted of psychological interview, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the revised Personal Style Inventory (RPSI). The research data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: BCT and MBCT were effective in reducing depression, but BCT and MBCT did not cause any change in the sociotropic and autonomous personality styles in patients with depression. Conclusions: The results provide support for the role of BCT and MBCT plays in reducing depression. However, the results did not approve their role in changing sociotropic and autonomous personality styles in patients with depression. PMID:26834809

  11. Event-related brain potentials reflect increased concentration ability after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bostanov, Vladimir; Keune, Philipp M; Kotchoubey, Boris; Hautzinger, Martin

    2012-10-30

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) effectively prevents relapse/recurrence in major depression. The ability to deploy and maintain attention on a particular focus is considered as a prerequisite for 'mindful', 'metacognitive' awareness, and hence crucial for therapy success. Accordingly, sustained concentration is the skill most extensively taught in MBCT. The goal of the present study was to test whether this ability increases after MBCT, as assumed. The late component of the contingent negative variation (CNV), an event-related brain potential (ERP), known to reflect the allocation of attentional resources, was used as the measure of concentration ability. In the main phase of the study, 91 recurrently depressed patients in remission were randomly assigned to eight-week treatment by either MBCT or waiting (WAIT for delayed MBCT). The CNV response to an auditory test stimulus was measured pre- and post-treatment in a 'mindfulness task', in which patients were instructed to focus on their breath, as taught in MBCT. The late CNV (LCNV) was increased only after MBCT (and not after WAIT). This result reflects patients' improved ability to shift their attention toward current moment experience and away from potentially depressogenic thinking or rumination during mild dysphoric states-a known risk factor for depressive relapse/recurrence. PMID:22771173

  12. Time to gain trust and change—Experiences of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Peilot, Birgitta; Andréll, Paulin; Samuelsson, Anita; Mannheimer, Clas; Frodi, Ann; Sundler, Annelie J.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic pain disorders is complex. In the rehabilitation of these patients, coping with chronic pain is seen as important. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (CT) among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity. A phenomenological approach within a lifeworld perspective was used. In total, 10 patients were interviewed after completion of 7- to 13-month therapy. The findings reveal that the therapy and the process of interaction with the therapist were meaningful for the patients’ well-being and for a better management of pain. During the therapy, the patients were able to initiate a movement of change. Thus, CT with focus on attachment and mindfulness seems to be of value for these patients. The therapy used in this study was adjusted to the patients’ special needs, and a trained psychotherapist with a special knowledge of patients with chronic pain might be required. PMID:25138653

  13. Therapygenetics in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: do genes have an impact on therapy-induced change in real-life positive affective experiences?

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, J M; Lieverse, R; Menne-Lothmann, C; Viechtbauer, W; Pishva, E; Kenis, G; Geschwind, N; Peeters, F; van Os, J; Wichers, M

    2014-01-01

    Positive affect (PA) has an important role in resilience against depression and has been shown to increase with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of change in PA as well as develop insights that may benefit personalized medicine, the current study examined the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in change in PA in response to MBCT. Individuals (n=126) with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an MBCT group or treatment as usual. PA was assessed using experience sampling methodology (ESM). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to be involved in reward functioning were selected. SNPs in the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2), the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and the μ1 opioid receptor (OPRM1) significantly moderated the impact of treatment condition over time on PA. Genetic variation in the genes for CHRM2 and OPRM1 specifically had an impact on the level of PA following MBCT. The current study shows that variation in response to MBCT may be contingent on genetic factors associated with the regulation of PA. These findings contribute to our understanding of the processes moderating response to treatment and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24755993

  14. Modulation of induced frontocentral theta (Fm-θ) event-related (de-)synchronisation dynamics following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Speckens, Anne E M

    2014-10-01

    Depressive severity has been associated with attenuated neocortical frontal midline theta (Fm-θ) power/evoked activity. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has shown to be a successful novel intervention for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), albeit precise working mechanisms remain elusive. We examined the hypothesis that MBCT would have modulating effects upon evoked Fm-θ power, in addition to investigating possible mediation of induced event-related de/synchronisation (ERD/ERS) dynamics. Fifty one patients with a primary diagnosis of MDD (26 exposed to MBCT vs. 25 wait-list/WL controls) undertook a Go/NoGo task consisting of positive, negative and neutral words, further stratified into abstract versus trait adjective matrices. Depressive symptom severity and rumination were also examined. A pattern of enhanced induced Fm-θ synchronisation during the latter 400-800 ms temporal-window pre-to-post MBCT was observed; the contrary in the WL. Modulated ERD/ERS dynamics correlated to amelioration in depressive and rumination symptoms in the MBCT group. We propose the primary action pathway alluded to a neural disengagement mechanism enacting upon tonic neuronal assemblies implicated in emotional and self-related processing. Due to the complexity and presently undiscovered complete unified scientific understanding of neuro-oscillatory-dynamics, and associated clinical interplays; we hypothesise that the electro-cortical and connected clinical working pathways of MBCT in depression are multi-levelled constituting nonlinear and interdependent mechanisms, represented by mediated EEG synchronisation dynamics. PMID:25206931

  15. From Bench to Bedside: Understanding Stress-Obesity Research Within the Context of Translation to Improve Pediatric Behavioral Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Sato, Amy F; Fahrenkamp, Amy J

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that stress, including chronic stress and acute physiologic stress reactivity, is one contributor to the development and maintenance of obesity in youth. Little has been done to apply the literature on stress and obesity risk to inform the development of pediatric behavioral weight control (BWC) interventions. The aims of this review are to (1) discuss research linking stress and pediatric obesity, (2) provide examples of the implications of the stress-obesity research for pediatric BWC development, and (3) propose that a mindfulness-based approach may be useful in targeting stress reduction within pediatric BWC. PMID:27261542

  16. Web-based Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for reducing residual depressive symptoms: An open trial and quasi-experimental comparison to propensity score matched controls.

    PubMed

    Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Felder, Jennifer N; Boggs, Jennifer M; Gallop, Robert; Segal, Zindel V

    2014-09-18

    Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has been shown to effectively prevent relapse and reduce residual depressive symptoms (RDS), yet it faces barriers to dissemination. The present study examined Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), the first web-based approach to deliver the core content of MBCT. Of the 107 recurrently depressed individuals screened, 100 elected to enroll in the study and received MMB in an 8-session open trial with 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptom severity, rumination and mindful awareness, and program engagement. A quasi-experimental comparison between MMB participants and propensity matched case-controls receiving usual depression care (UDC) (N = 100) also was conducted. The full sample and the subgroup with residual depressive symptoms (N = 42) showed significantly reduced depressive severity, which was sustained over six months, and improvement on rumination and mindfulness. Examination of acceptability of MMB indicated that 42% of participants within the full sample and 36% of the RDS subgroup completed all 8 sessions and 53% within the full sample and 50% within the RDS subgroup completed at least 4 sessions, and that participants engaged with daily mindfulness practice. MMB also was associated with significant reduction in RDS severity as compared to quasi-experimental propensity matched controls. Although the use of a non-randomized design, with potential unmeasured differences between groups, and short interval of clinical follow-up were limitations, findings from this study support the web-based delivery of MBCT and suggest clinical benefits for participants with histories of depression and with RDS, relative to those receiving usual care alone. PMID:25461782

  17. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment. PMID:26742022

  18. Accessibility and implementation in UK services of an effective depression relapse prevention programme – mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT): ASPIRE study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a cost-effective psychosocial prevention programme that helps people with recurrent depression stay well in the long term. It was singled out in the 2009 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Depression Guideline as a key priority for implementation. Despite good evidence and guideline recommendations, its roll-out and accessibility across the UK appears to be limited and inequitably distributed. The study aims to describe the current state of MBCT accessibility and implementation across the UK, develop an explanatory framework of what is hindering and facilitating its progress in different areas, and develop an Implementation Plan and related resources to promote better and more equitable availability and use of MBCT within the UK National Health Service. Methods/Design This project is a two-phase qualitative, exploratory and explanatory research study, using an interview survey and in-depth case studies theoretically underpinned by the Promoting Action on Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Interviews will be conducted with stakeholders involved in commissioning, managing and implementing MBCT services in each of the four UK countries, and will include areas where MBCT services are being implemented successfully and where implementation is not working well. In-depth case studies will be undertaken on a range of MBCT services to develop a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Guided by the study’s conceptual framework, data will be synthesized across Phase 1 and Phase 2 to develop a fit for purpose implementation plan. Discussion Promoting the uptake of evidence-based treatments into routine practice and understanding what influences these processes has the potential to support the adoption and spread of nationally recommended interventions like MBCT. This study could inform a larger scale implementation trial and feed into

  19. Preventing relapse in recurrent depression using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, antidepressant medication or the combination: trial design and protocol of the MOMENT study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse and recurrence. The most commonly used strategy to prevent relapse/recurrence is maintenance treatment with antidepressant medication (mADM). Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is at least as effective as mADM in reducing the relapse/recurrence risk. However, it is not yet known whether combination treatment of MBCT and mADM is more effective than either of these treatments alone. Given the fact that most patients have a preference for either mADM or for MBCT, the aim of the present study is to answer the following questions. First, what is the effectiveness of MBCT in addition to mADM? Second, how large is the risk of relapse/recurrence in patients withdrawing from mADM after participating in MBCT, compared to those who continue to use mADM after MBCT? Methods/design Two parallel-group, multi-center randomized controlled trials are conducted. Adult patients with a history of depression (3 or more episodes), currently either in full or partial remission and currently treated with mADM (6 months or longer) are recruited. In the first trial, we compare mADM on its own with mADM plus MBCT. In the second trial, we compare MBCT on its own, including tapering of mADM, with mADM plus MBCT. Follow-up assessments are administered at 3-month intervals for 15 months. Primary outcome is relapse/recurrence. Secondary outcomes are time to, duration and severity of relapse/recurrence, quality of life, personality, several process variables, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Discussion Taking into account patient preferences, this study will provide information about a) the clinical and cost-effectiveness of mADM only compared with mADM plus MBCT, in patients with a preference for mADM, and b) the clinical and cost-effectiveness of withdrawing from mADM after MBCT, compared with mADM plus MBCT, in patients with a preference for MBCT

  20. Determinants of Retention in 8-Week-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Eleanor Vander; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eight-week-old infants learned to execute an operant footkick to produce crib mobile movement in one of two conditions: training duration on (1) varied within single session and (2) consistent across multiple sessions. Results, in contrast with data from 3-month-olds, demonstrated that conditions of original learning influence immediate and…

  1. Enhancing Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th…

  2. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong).

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (-52.3% [2.8%] vs -0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was -51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: -59.8% to -43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (-10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was -10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: -14.1 to -6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large pill burden. PMID

  3. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (−52.3% [2.8%] vs −0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was −51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: −59.8% to −43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (−10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was −10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: −14.1 to −6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large

  4. Stress echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    Echocardiography stress test; Stress test - echocardiography; CAD - stress echocardiography; Coronary artery disease - stress Echocardiography; Chest pain - stress echocardiography; Angina - stress echocardiography; ...

  5. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). PMID:26867697

  6. Enhancing Cognitive and Social–Emotional Development Through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature—identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25546595

  7. Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25546595

  8. Examining the Factor Structure of the 39-Item and 15-Item Versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Before and After Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for People With Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) requires reliable and valid measures of mindfulness. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-39) is a measure of mindfulness commonly used to assess change before and after MBIs. However, the stability and invariance of the FFMQ factor structure have not yet been tested before and after an MBI; pre to post comparisons may not be valid if the structure changes over this period. Our primary aim was to examine the factor structure of the FFMQ-39 before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in adults with recurrent depression in remission using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, we examined whether the factor structure of the 15-item version (FFMQ-15) was consistent with that of the FFMQ-39, and whether it was stable over MBCT. Our secondary aim was to assess the general psychometric properties of both versions. CFAs showed that pre-MBCT, a 4-factor hierarchical model (excluding the “observing” facet) best fit the FFMQ-39 and FFMQ-15 data, whereas post-MBCT, a 5-factor hierarchical model best fit the data for both versions. Configural invariance across the time points was not supported for both versions. Internal consistency and sensitivity to change were adequate for both versions. Both FFMQ versions did not differ significantly from each other in terms of convergent validity. Researchers should consider excluding the Observing subscale from comparisons of total scale/subscale scores before and after mindfulness interventions. Current findings support the use of the FFMQ-15 as an alternative measure in research where briefer forms are needed. PMID:27078186

  9. Examining the factor structure of the 39-item and 15-item versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with recurrent depression.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Crane, Catherine; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Karl, Anke; Cavanagh, Kate; Kuyken, Willem

    2016-07-01

    Research into the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) requires reliable and valid measures of mindfulness. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-39) is a measure of mindfulness commonly used to assess change before and after MBIs. However, the stability and invariance of the FFMQ factor structure have not yet been tested before and after an MBI; pre to post comparisons may not be valid if the structure changes over this period. Our primary aim was to examine the factor structure of the FFMQ-39 before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in adults with recurrent depression in remission using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, we examined whether the factor structure of the 15-item version (FFMQ-15) was consistent with that of the FFMQ-39, and whether it was stable over MBCT. Our secondary aim was to assess the general psychometric properties of both versions. CFAs showed that pre-MBCT, a 4-factor hierarchical model (excluding the "observing" facet) best fit the FFMQ-39 and FFMQ-15 data, whereas post-MBCT, a 5-factor hierarchical model best fit the data for both versions. Configural invariance across the time points was not supported for both versions. Internal consistency and sensitivity to change were adequate for both versions. Both FFMQ versions did not differ significantly from each other in terms of convergent validity. Researchers should consider excluding the Observing subscale from comparisons of total scale/subscale scores before and after mindfulness interventions. Current findings support the use of the FFMQ-15 as an alternative measure in research where briefer forms are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078186

  10. The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 1: Clinical Implications for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Khusid, Marina A; Vythilingam, Meena

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly utilized in the management of mental health conditions. This first review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for mental health conditions frequently seen after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 52 systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were included. The Strength of Recommendation (SOR) Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of evidence for each clinical condition. Adjunctive mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective for decreasing symptom severity during current depressive episode, and for reducing relapse rate in recovered patients during maintenance phase of depression management (SOR moderate [SOR B]). Adjunctive mindfulness-based stress reduction is effective for improving symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and mindfulness in veterans with combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (SOR B). Currently, there is no sufficient data to recommend MBIs for generalized anxiety disorder (SOR B). MBIs are safe, portable, cost-effective, and can be recommended as an adjunct to standard care or self-management strategy for major depressive disorder and PTSD. Future large, well-designed randomized clinical trials in service members and veterans can help plan for the anticipated increase in demand for behavioral health services. PMID:27612338

  11. Stress and stress counselling.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report by the 1989 National Association of Clinical Tutors Wyeth Travelling Fellow to the United States of America. The stresses of postgraduate training and attempts to modify these are described, including stress counselling. The significance of stress and the relevance of the findings for postgraduate training in the United Kingdom are considered. PMID:2235808

  12. A Cost-Effective Mindfulness Stress Reduction Program: A Randomized Control Trial for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Kip, Kevin E; Reich, Richard R; Craig, Benjamin M; Mogos, Mulubrhan; Ramesar, Sophia; Paterson, Carly L; Farias, Jerrica R; Pracht, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer survivors continue to experience residual symptoms including anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, and pain. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction intervention for breast cancer survivors was examined. The cost of the program was assessed from the societal perspective, accounting for both direct medical and patient opportunity costs. The cost per quality-adjusted life year was relatively low compared to the cost-utility findings of other published breast cancer interventions. The program appears to provide for significantly improved health-related quality of life at a comparativelv low cost. PMID:26477119

  13. Stress Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress Management Banner 1 - To Stress or Not to Stress - ... Decide But We Can Help What Is Stress Management? Banner 2 - Stress Continuum Graphic Banner Live life ...

  14. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…

  15. Can we respond mindfully to distressing voices? A systematic review of evidence for engagement, acceptability, effectiveness and mechanisms of change for mindfulness-based interventions for people distressed by hearing voices

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Clara; Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Adapted mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could be of benefit for people distressed by hearing voices. This paper presents a systematic review of studies exploring this possibility and we ask five questions: (1) Is trait mindfulness associated with reduced distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices? (2) Are MBIs feasible for people distressed by hearing voices? (3) Are MBIs acceptable and safe for people distressed by hearing voices? (4) Are MBIs effective at reducing distress and disturbance in people distressed by hearing voices? (5) If effective, what are the mechanisms of change through which MBIs for distressing voices work? Fifteen studies were identified through a systematic search (n = 479). In relation to the five review questions: (1) data from cross-sectional studies showed an association between trait mindfulness and distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices; (2) evidence from qualitative studies suggested that people distressed by hearing voices could engage meaningfully in mindfulness practice; (3) MBIs were seen as acceptable and safe; (4) there were no adequately powered RCTs allowing conclusions about effectiveness to be drawn; and (5) it was not possible to draw on robust empirical data to comment on potential mechanisms of change although findings from the qualitative studies identified three potential change processes; (i) reorientation of attention; (ii) decentring; and (iii) acceptance of voices. This review provided evidence that MBIs are engaging, acceptable, and safe. Evidence for effectiveness in reducing distress and disturbance is lacking however. We call for funding for adequately powered RCTs that will allow questions of effectiveness, maintenance of effects, mechanisms of change and moderators of outcome to be definitively addressed. PMID:26321980

  16. Can we respond mindfully to distressing voices? A systematic review of evidence for engagement, acceptability, effectiveness and mechanisms of change for mindfulness-based interventions for people distressed by hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Clara; Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Adapted mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could be of benefit for people distressed by hearing voices. This paper presents a systematic review of studies exploring this possibility and we ask five questions: (1) Is trait mindfulness associated with reduced distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices? (2) Are MBIs feasible for people distressed by hearing voices? (3) Are MBIs acceptable and safe for people distressed by hearing voices? (4) Are MBIs effective at reducing distress and disturbance in people distressed by hearing voices? (5) If effective, what are the mechanisms of change through which MBIs for distressing voices work? Fifteen studies were identified through a systematic search (n = 479). In relation to the five review questions: (1) data from cross-sectional studies showed an association between trait mindfulness and distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices; (2) evidence from qualitative studies suggested that people distressed by hearing voices could engage meaningfully in mindfulness practice; (3) MBIs were seen as acceptable and safe; (4) there were no adequately powered RCTs allowing conclusions about effectiveness to be drawn; and (5) it was not possible to draw on robust empirical data to comment on potential mechanisms of change although findings from the qualitative studies identified three potential change processes; (i) reorientation of attention; (ii) decentring; and (iii) acceptance of voices. This review provided evidence that MBIs are engaging, acceptable, and safe. Evidence for effectiveness in reducing distress and disturbance is lacking however. We call for funding for adequately powered RCTs that will allow questions of effectiveness, maintenance of effects, mechanisms of change and moderators of outcome to be definitively addressed. PMID:26321980

  17. Stress and stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Straub, Heather; Qadir, Sameen; Miller, Greg; Borders, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stress contributes to preterm birth (PTB), through direct physiological mechanisms or behavioral pathways. This review identified interventions to prevent PTB through decreased maternal stress. Studies were grouped according to intervention: group prenatal care (11 studies), care coordination (8 studies), health insurance expansion (4 studies), expanded prenatal education/support in the clinic (8 studies), home visitation (9 studies), telephone contact (2 studies), or stress-reduction strategies (5 studies). Group prenatal care had the most evidence for PTB prevention. Comparative studies of PTB prevention through different models of prenatal care and maternal support, education, empowerment, stress-reduction, and coping strategies are needed. PMID:24979355

  18. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  19. Physiological Changes in Cultured Sorghum Cells in Response to Induced Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ronald J.; Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Puryear, Jeffrey D.; Smith, Roberta H.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cultivars Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were grown as callus cultures under induced, prolonged water stress (8 weeks), with polyethylene glycol in the medium. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and organic acids in callus were measured at the end of the growth period to determine differences in response to prolonged water stress. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and malate were the predominant solutes detected in all callus at all water potentials. All cultivars had high levels of solutes in the absence of water stress and low levels in the presence of prolonged water stress. However, at low water potentials, low levels of solutes were observed in drought-tolerant cultivar callus and high solute levels were observed in drought-susceptible cultivar callus. Estimated sucrose concentrations were significantly higher in water-stressed, susceptible cultivar callus. Large solute concentrations in susceptible cultivar callus were attributed to osmotic adjustment and/or reduced growth during water stress. PMID:16664867

  20. The Effects of Meditation on Perceived Stress and Related Indices of Psychological Status and Sympathetic Activation in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Their Caregivers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Innes, K. E.; Selfe, T. K.; Brown, C. J.; Rose, K. M.; Thompson-Heisterman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of an 8-week meditation program on perceived stress, sleep, mood, and related outcomes in adults with cognitive impairment and their caregivers. Methods. Community-dwelling adults with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or early-stage Alzheimer's disease, together with their live-in caregivers, were enrolled in the study. After a brief training, participants were asked to meditate for 11 minutes, twice daily for 8 weeks. Major outcomes included measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), sleep (General Sleep Disturbance Scale), mood (Profile of Mood States), memory functioning (Memory Functioning Questionnaire), and blood pressure. Participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results. Ten participants (5 of 6 dyads) completed the study. Treatment effects did not vary by participant status; analyses were thus pooled across participants. Adherence was good (meditation sessions completed/week: X = 11.4 ± 1.1). Participants demonstrated improvement in all major outcomes, including perceived stress (P < 0.001), mood (overall, P = 0.07; depression, P = 0.01), sleep (P < 0.04), retrospective memory function (P = 0.04), and blood pressure (systolic, P = 0.004; diastolic, P = 0.065). Conclusions. Findings of this exploratory trial suggest that an 8-week meditation program may offer an acceptable and effective intervention for reducing perceived stress and improving certain domains of sleep, mood, and memory in adults with cognitive impairment and their caregivers. PMID:22454689

  1. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  2. A Yoga and Compassion Meditation Program Reduces Stress in Familial Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Danucalov, M. A. D.; Kozasa, E. H.; Ribas, K. T.; Galduróz, J. C. F.; Garcia, M. C.; Verreschi, I. T. N.; Oliveira, K. C.; Romani de Oliveira, L.; Leite, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program—YCMP group) (n = 25) or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group) (n = 21). The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P < 0.05), anxiety (P < 0.000001), and depression (P < 0.00001) levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers. PMID:23690846

  3. A yoga and compassion meditation program reduces stress in familial caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Danucalov, M A D; Kozasa, E H; Ribas, K T; Galduróz, J C F; Garcia, M C; Verreschi, I T N; Oliveira, K C; Romani de Oliveira, L; Leite, J R

    2013-01-01

    Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program-YCMP group) (n = 25) or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group) (n = 21). The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P < 0.05), anxiety (P < 0.000001), and depression (P < 0.00001) levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers. PMID:23690846

  4. Mortality from heat stress in broiler chickens influenced by anticoccidial drugs.

    PubMed

    McDougald, L R; McQuistion, T E

    1980-11-01

    The relationship of anticoccidial drug to heat stress mortality in broilers was studied in a replicated floor-pen experiment during a period of hot weather in Georgia. Overall mortality during the 8-week study averaged 6% in unmedicated and monensin-medicated birds or lasalocid-medicated birds, 10% in arprinocid-medicated birds, and 36% in nicarbazin-medicated birds. Most of the death losses were attributed to heat stress. Maximum death losses coincided with three periods of hot weather, when the birds were 22, 33, or 49 days old. Of 114 dead birds in the nicarbazin treatment, 68 were male and 46 were female. PMID:7465511

  5. Group online mindfulness training: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Yun, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction training is attractive, but training with an expert teacher is often inconvenient and costly. This proof-of-concept project assessed the feasibility of providing a hybrid of free online mindfulness-based stress reduction training with small group peer facilitation. Six medical students asked a family medicine resident with 5 years of meditation experience but no formal training as a teacher to facilitate 8 weekly group sessions using a free online mindfulness-based stress reduction course. They completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires online. Six of the 7 trainees completed at least half the sessions. Completers and noncompleters had similar age (29 years), gender (about half male), and health status. Changes in the expected direction were observed for perceived stress, mindfulness, resilience, and confidence in providing calm, compassionate care. The hybrid of online mindfulness-based stress reduction training with peer support is feasible. Additional research is warranted to formally evaluate the impact of this approach. PMID:25305208

  6. Childhood Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a Move What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias How to Talk to Your ... About School? 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety Anxiety Disorders Can Stress Affect My Weight? Stress Contact Us Print Resources ...

  7. Oxidative Stress-Dependent Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamez-Mendez, Ana María; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is involved in several cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial Endothelium vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agonists play a key role in regulation of vascular tone. In this study, we evaluated coronary vascular response in an 8 weeks diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice model. Coronary perfusion pressure in response to acetylcholine in isolated hearts from obese mice showed increased vasoconstriction and reduced vasodilation responses compared with control mice. Vascular nitric oxide assessed in situ with DAF-2 DA showed diminished levels in coronary arteries from obese mice in both basal and acetylcholine-stimulated conditions. Also, released prostacyclin was decreased in heart perfusates from obese mice, along with plasma tetrahydrobiopterin level and endothelium nitric oxide synthase dimer/monomer ratio. Obesity increased thromboxane A2 synthesis and oxidative stress evaluated by superoxide and peroxynitrite levels, compared with control mice. Obese mice treated with apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, reversed all parameters to normal levels. These results suggest that after 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, the increase in oxidative stress lead to imbalance in vasoactive substances and consequently to endothelial dysfunction in coronary arteries. PMID:26381906

  8. Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout and teaching efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Bonus, Katherine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of teachers in fostering children's academic learning and social-emotional well-being, addressing teacher stress in the classroom remains a significant challenge in education. The present study reports results from a randomized controlled pilot trial of a modified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course (mMBSR) adapted specifically for teachers. Results suggest the course may be a promising intervention, with participants showing significant reductions in psychological symptoms and burnout, improvements in observer-rated classroom organization and performance on a computer task of affective attentional bias, and increases in self-compassion. In contrast, control group participants showed declines in cortisol functioning over time and marginally significant increases in burnout. Furthermore, changes in mindfulness were correlated in the expected direction with changes across several outcomes (psychological symptoms, burnout, sustained attention) in the intervention group. Implications of these findings for the training and support of teachers are discussed. PMID:24324528

  9. Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout and teaching efficacy.

    PubMed

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B; Pinger, Laura; Bonus, Katherine; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    Despite the crucial role of teachers in fostering children's academic learning and social-emotional well-being, addressing teacher stress in the classroom remains a significant challenge in education. The present study reports results from a randomized controlled pilot trial of a modified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course (mMBSR) adapted specifically for teachers. Results suggest the course may be a promising intervention, with participants showing significant reductions in psychological symptoms and burnout, improvements in observer-rated classroom organization and performance on a computer task of affective attentional bias, and increases in self-compassion. In contrast, control group participants showed declines in cortisol functioning over time and marginally significant increases in burnout. Furthermore, changes in mindfulness were correlated in the expected direction with changes across several outcomes (psychological symptoms, burnout, sustained attention) in the intervention group. Implications of these findings for the training and support of teachers are discussed. PMID:24324528

  10. Principal Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Larry

    This paper describes the symptoms and ways of coping with chronic stress and briefly discusses effects of job related stress on school principals. Although stress is a normal condition, the symptoms should be identified. Under long-term stress individuals may experience six types of reactions, such as feelings of fatique and difficulty sleeping.…

  11. Cancer-Related Stress and Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Kavita D.; Ryan, Julie L.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Devine, Katie; Trevino, Lara; Gewandter, Jennifer; Morrow, Gary R.; Mustian, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    A cancer diagnosis elicits strong psychophysiological reactions that characterize stress. Stress is experienced by all patients but is usually not discussed during patient-healthcare professional interaction; thus underdiagnosed, very few are referred to support services. The prevalence of CAM use in patients with history of cancer is growing. The purpose of the paper is to review the aspects of cancer-related stress and interventions of commonly used complementary and alternative techniques/products for amelioration of cancer-related stress. Feasibility of intervention of several CAM techniques and products commonly used by cancer patients and survivors has been established in some cancer populations. Efficacy of some CAM techniques and products in reducing stress has been documented as well as stress-related symptoms in patients with cancer such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, acupuncture, energy-based techniques, and physical activity. Much of the research limitations include small study samples and variety of intervention length and content. Efficacy and safety of many CAM techniques and some herbs and vitamin B and D supplements need to be confirmed in further studies using scientific methodology. Several complementary and alternative medicine therapies could be integrated into standard cancer care to ameliorate cancer-related stress. PMID:22844341

  12. Caregiver Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Pew Research ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Return to ...

  13. Feeling Stressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... other physical activity. Can stress lead to more serious problems? top Stress that's too much for you to handle may play a role in some serious problems. These problems include eating disorders , hurting yourself , ...

  14. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... sections Take Action: Get Support 8. Talk to friends and family. Tell your friends and family if you are feeling stressed. They may be able to help. Learn how friends and family can help you feel less stressed. ...

  15. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota prevents the onset of physical symptoms in medical students under academic examination stress.

    PubMed

    Kato-Kataoka, A; Nishida, K; Takada, M; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Shimizu, K; Kushiro, A; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Miyazaki, K; Kuwano, Y; Rokutan, K

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on psychological, physiological, and physical stress responses in medical students undertaking an authorised nationwide examination for promotion. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 and 23 healthy medical students consumed a fermented milk containing LcS and a placebo milk, respectively, once a day for 8 weeks until the day before the examination. Psychophysical state, salivary cortisol, faecal serotonin, and plasma L-tryptophan were analysed on 5 different sampling days (8 weeks before, 2 weeks before, 1 day before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the examination). Physical symptoms were also recorded in a diary by subjects during the intervention period for 8 weeks. In association with a significant elevation of anxiety at 1 day before the examination, salivary cortisol and plasma L-tryptophan levels were significantly increased in only the placebo group (P<0.05). Two weeks after the examination, the LcS group had significantly higher faecal serotonin levels (P<0.05) than the placebo group. Moreover, the rate of subjects experiencing common abdominal and cold symptoms and total number of days experiencing these physical symptoms per subject were significantly lower in the LcS group than in the placebo group during the pre-examination period at 5-6 weeks (each P<0.05) and 7-8 weeks (each P<0.01) during the intervention period. Our results suggest that the daily consumption of fermented milk containing LcS may exert beneficial effects preventing the onset of physical symptoms in healthy subjects exposed to stressful situations. PMID:26689231

  16. Controlling Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2004-01-01

    Stress occurs among all groups in a school community and can affect morale, performance, and leadership ability. This article discusses how educators must deal with and control stress. Principals must address their own stress to create a healthy school culture. Moreover, the author presents two survival strategies that can provide support and…

  17. Understanding Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellott, Fred K.

    Stress affects everyone in his/her work and everyday life. Some persons are more effective when they are under a certain level of stress, but there are limits to the amount of stress under which one can perform effectively. Competition within complex organizations today is a risk factor not often recognized by the organizations. All organizations…

  18. A Web-Based Mindfulness Stress Management Program in a Corporate Call Center

    PubMed Central

    Allexandre, Didier; Bernstein, Adam M.; Walker, Esteban; Hunter, Jennifer; Roizen, Michael F.; Morledge, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week web-based, mindfulness stress management program (WSM) in a corporate call center and added benefit of group support. Methods: One hundred sixty-one participants were randomized to WSM, WSM with group support, WSM with group and expert clinical support, or wait-list control. Perceived stress, burnout, emotional and psychological well-being, mindfulness, and productivity were measured at baseline, weeks 8 and 16, and 1 year. Results: Online usage was low with participants favoring CD use and group practice. All active groups demonstrated significant reductions in perceived stress and increases in emotional and psychological well-being compared with control. Group support improved participation, engagement, and outcomes. Conclusion: A self-directed mindfulness program with group practice and support can provide an affordable, effective, and scalable workplace stress management solution. Engagement may also benefit from combining web-based and traditional CD delivery. PMID:26949875

  19. The Effects of Multivitamin Supplementation on Diurnal Cortisol Secretion and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Wetherell, Mark A.; Scholey, Andrew B.; Cox, Katherine H. M.; Fogg, Erin; White, David J.; Sarris, Jerome; Kras, Marni; Stough, Con; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years) were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime, at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks. Perceived Stress (PSS) was measured at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks, while blood serum measures of B6, B12 and homocysteine (HCy) as well as red cell folate (B9) were also collected at these time points. A significant interaction was found between treatment group and study visit for the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). Compared to placebo, at 16-weeks multivitamin supplementation was found to be associated with a near-significant trend towards an increased CAR. No significant differences in PSS were found between groups, with PSS increasing in both groups across the course of the study. Red cell folate was found to be significantly correlated with the CAR response at 16-weeks while HCy levels were not found to be associated with the CAR response, although HCy significantly correlated with waking cortisol levels at 8-weeks. A possible interpretation of the elevation in CAR associated with multivitamin supplementation is that this represents an adaptive response to everyday demands in healthy participants. PMID:24284609

  20. Mind-body Practices for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hwan; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Kravitz, Len; Mermier, Christine; Burge, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mind-body practices are increasingly used to provide stress reduction for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mind-body practice encompasses activities with the intent to use the mind to impact physical functioning and improve health. Methods This is a literature review using PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS to identify the effects of mind-body intervention modalities, such as yoga, taichi, qigong, mindfulness-based stress reduction, meditation, and deep breathing, as interventions for PTSD. Results The literature search identified 92 articles, only 16 of which were suitable for inclusion in this review. We reviewed only original, full text articles that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies have small sample size, but findings from the 16 publications reviewed here suggest that mind-body practices are associated with positive impacts on PTSD symptoms. Mind-body practices incorporate numerous therapeutic effects on stress responses, including reductions in anxiety, depression, and anger, and increases in pain-tolerance, self-esteem, energy levels, ability to relax, and ability to cope with stressful situations. In general, mind-body practices were found to be a viable intervention to improve the constellation of PTSD symptoms such as intrusive memories, avoidance, and increased emotional arousal. Conclusions Mind-body practices are increasingly employed in the treatment of PTSD and are associated with positive impacts on stress-induced illnesses such as depression and PTSD in most existing studies. Knowledge about the diverse modalities of mind-body practices may provide clinicians and patients with the opportunity to explore an individualized and effective treatment plan enhanced by mind-body interventions as part of ongoing self-care. PMID:23609463

  1. Experimental Verification of the Effects on Normal Domestic Cats by Feeding Prescription Diet for Decreasing Stress.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Kazuki; Kato, Maki; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet on the feline stress response by measuring plasma and urinary cortisol. A study diet was developed with a unique combination of nutrients that supports the management of stressful situations. The specific formulation of the diet included alpha-casozepine, which is believed to have an anxiolytic effect, and tryptophan supplementation. Tryptophan is the precursor for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Twenty-one indoor cats were fed with the study diet (n = 10) or a control diet (n = 11) for 8 weeks, after which physiological responses were evaluated. The study diet significantly increased the ratio of plasma tryptophan to large neutral amino acids and decreased urinary cortisol concentrations after being consumed daily for 8 weeks, but there was no effect on plasma cortisol levels following a stressful event (veterinary examination and blood draw). Further studies, such as behavioral analyses, are needed to clarify the effects of the study diet. PMID:25679747

  2. Long-term moderate exercise accelerates the recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Lung; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Jen, Chauying J; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term exercise on stress-evoked cardiovascular responses and to emphasize post-stress recovery effects. Male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of moderate treadmill training, with cardiovascular responses, autonomic nervous system activities and local Fos reactivity changes in the cardiovascular regulation center were monitored before, during and after immobilization stress. A spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters was used to examine autonomic nervous activities. We found that long-term exercise (i) lowered resting BP, HR and sympathetic activity, but increased resting parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); (ii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular and sympathetic responses along with increased BRS and (iii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked neuron activations in the paraventricular nucleus, but delayed it in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. We conclude that, in rats, long-term exercise accelerated recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses differentially altering hypothalamic and medullar neuron activities. PMID:26473638

  3. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.56) by 3.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), per cent body fat significantly decreased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.42) by -1.2%, and interleukin-6 and white blood cell (WBC) count both significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by -0.4 pg · mL(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.96) and -2.1 × 10(9) cells · L(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.87), respectively. Large magnitude enhancements were observed in the HRQoL factors of physical functioning, general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. When interpreted in a community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults. PMID:26571136

  4. In pursuit of resilience: stress, epigenetics, and brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    The brain is the central organ for adaptation to experiences, including stressors, which are capable of changing brain architecture as well as altering systemic function through neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems. Because the brain is the master regulator of these systems, as well as of behavior, alterations in brain function by chronic stress can have direct and indirect effects on cumulative allostatic overload, which refers to the cost of adaptation. There is much new knowledge on the neural control of systemic physiology and the feedback actions of physiologic mediators on brain regions regulating higher cognitive function, emotional regulation, and self-regulation. The healthy brain has a considerable capacity for resilience, based upon its ability to respond to interventions designed to open "windows of plasticity" and redirect its function toward better health. As a result, plasticity-facilitating treatments should be given within the framework of a positive behavioral intervention; negative experiences during this window may even make matters worse. Indeed, there are no magic bullets and drugs cannot substitute for targeted interventions that help an individual become resilient, of which mindfulness-based stress reduction and meditation are emerging as useful tools. PMID:26919273

  5. Debriefing Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie L.; Lance, Cynthia G.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion pf the stress associated with the educational use of games and simulations focuses on a study of graduate students that used the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to determine that people with certain personality types experience stress at different intensities. Also found that all participants, regardless of personality type, needed…

  6. Airplane Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Crook, L H

    1918-01-01

    Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.

  7. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  9. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress Learn some tips to protect workers including: acclimatization, rest breaks, and fluid recommendations. NIOSH Workplace Solution: ... Blog: Adjusting to Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes ...

  10. Students' Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirom, Arie

    1986-01-01

    A study of undergraduate students' perceived stresses, as solicited by graduate students, found the greatest stressors to be examination-related, followed by those related to meeting class assignments and to the teaching process. (MSE)

  11. The Effect of Stress Management Training on Hope in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Poorgholami, Farzad; Abdollahifard, Sareh; Zamani, Marzieh; Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic renal failure exposes patients to the risk of several complications, which will affect every aspect of patient’s life, and eventually his hope. This study aims to determine the effect of stress management group training on hope in hemodialysis patients. Method: In this quasi-experimental single-blind study, 50 patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis at Motahari Hospital in Jahrom were randomly divided into stress management training and control groups. Sampling was purposive, and patients in stress management training group received 60-minute in-person training by the researcher (in groups of 5 to 8 patients) before dialysis, over 5 sessions, lasting 8 weeks, and a researcher-made training booklet was made available to them in the first session. Patients in the control group received routine training given to all patients in hemodialysis department. Patients’ hope was recorded before and after intervention. Data collection tools included demographic details form, checklist of problems of hemodialysis patients and Miller hope scale (MHS). Data were analyzed in SPSS-18, using Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance, and paired t-test. Results: Fifty patients were studied in two groups of 25 each. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of age, gender, or hope before intervention. After 8 weeks of training, hope reduced from 95.92±12.63 to 91.16±11.06 (P=0.404) in the control group, and increased from 97.24±11.16 to 170.96±7.99 (P=0.001) in the stress management training group. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in hope scores after the intervention. Conclusion: Stress management training by nurses significantly increased hope in hemodialysis patients. This low cost intervention can be used to improve hope in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26925895

  12. Delayed myelination in an intrauterine growth retardation model is mediated by oxidative stress upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4.

    PubMed

    Reid, Mary V; Murray, Kaitlin A; Marsh, Eric D; Golden, Jeffrey A; Simmons, Rebecca A; Grinspan, Judith B

    2012-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with neurological deficits including cerebral palsy and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. The pathogenesis involves oxidative stress that leads to periventricular white matter injury with a paucity of mature oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. The molecular mechanisms underlying this damage remain poorly understood. We used a rat model of IUGR created by bilateral ligation of the uterine artery at embryonic Day 19 that results in fetal growth retardation and oxidative stress in the developing brain. The IUGR rat pups showed significant delays in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that resolved by 8 weeks. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points and returned to near normal by adulthood. Despite the apparent recovery, behavioral deficiencies were found in 8-week-old female animals, suggesting that the early transient myelination defects have permanent effects. In support of these in vivo data, oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured from postnatal IUGR rats retained increased BMP4 expression and impaired differentiation that was reversed with the BMP inhibitor noggin. Oxidants in oligodendrocyte cultures increased BMP expression, which decreased differentiation; however, abrogating BMP signaling with noggin in vitro and in BMP-deficient mice prevented these effects. Together, these findings suggest that IUGR results in delayed myelination through the generation of oxidative stress that leads to BMP4 upregulation. PMID:22710965

  13. The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Ha, Tae Min; Oh, Chang Young; Lee, UI Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Jungwon; Park, Jae-Oh; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT) program on participants’ stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8–10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student’s t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects. PMID:27479499

  14. The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Ha, Tae Min; Oh, Chang Young; Lee, Ui Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Jungwon; Park, Jae-Oh; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT) program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects. PMID:27479499

  15. Early life stress increases stress vulnerability through BDNF gene epigenetic changes in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Ly, Nguyen Ngoc; Lee, Chan Hong; Cho, Hye Yeon; Choi, Cheol Min; Nhu, Le Hoa; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Yoon, Bong June; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) exerts long-lasting epigenetic influences on the brain and makes an individual susceptible to later depression. It is poorly understood whether ELS and subsequent adult chronic stress modulate epigenetic mechanisms. We examined the epigenetic mechanisms of the BDNF gene in the hippocampus, which may underlie stress vulnerability to postnatal maternal separation (MS) and adult restraint stress (RS). Rat pups were separated from their dams (3 h/day from P1-P21). When the pups reached adulthood (8 weeks old), we introduced RS (2 h/day for 3 weeks) followed by escitalopram treatment. We showed that both the MS and RS groups expressed reduced levels of total and exon IV BDNF mRNA. Furthermore, RS potentiated MS-induced decreases in these expression levels. Similarly, both the MS and RS groups showed decreased levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at BDNF promoter IV, and RS exacerbated MS-induced decreases of H3 and H4 acetylation. Both the MS and RS groups had increased MeCP2 levels at BDNF promoter IV, as well as increased HDAC5 mRNA, and the combination of MS and RS exerted a greater effect on these parameters than did RS alone. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the MS + RS group was significantly higher than that of the RS group. Additionally, chronic escitalopram treatment recovered these alterations. Our results suggest that postnatal MS and subsequent adult RS modulate epigenetic changes in the BDNF gene, and that these changes may be related to behavioral phenotype. These epigenetic mechanisms are involved in escitalopram action. PMID:26877199

  16. Monascin from red mold dioscorea as a novel antidiabetic and antioxidative stress agent in rats and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Monascin is a major yellow compound from red mold dioscorea. We investigated monascin to test whether this compound acts as an antidiabetic and antioxidative stress agent in diabetic rats and Caenorhabditis elegans. The mechanisms by which monascin exerts its action in vivo were also examined. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were given monascin at 30 mg/kg/day and sacrificed after 8 weeks. Blood glucose and serum insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein and antioxidative enzymes in the pancreas of rats were measured. In addition, monascin was evaluated for stress resistance and potential associated mechanisms in C. elegans. Throughout the 8-week experimental period, significantly lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride, and total cholesterol and higher high-density lipoprotein levels were observed in monascin-treated rats. Monascin-treated rats showed higher serum insulin level, lower reactive oxygen species production, and higher activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the pancreas compared to diabetic control rats. In addition, monascin significantly induced the hepatic mRNA levels of FOXO3a, FOXO1, MnSOD, and catalase in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Monascin-treated C. elegans showed an increased survival rate during oxidative stress and heat stress treatments compared to untreated controls. Moreover, monascin extended the life span under high-glucose conditions and enhanced expression of small heat shock protein (sHSP-16.2), superoxide dismutase (SOD-3), and glutathione S-transferase (GST-4) in C. elegans. Finally, we showed that monascin affected the subcellular distribution of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, whereas it was unable to enhance oxidative stress resistance in the daf-16 deletion mutant in C. elegans. Mechanistic studies in rats and C. elegans suggest that the protective effects of monascin are mediated via regulation of the FOXO/DAF-16-dependent insulin signaling

  17. Changes in rat adipocyte and liver glucose metabolism following repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Shi, M X; Mitchell, T D; Smagin, G N; Thomas, S R; Ryan, D H; Harris, R B

    2001-04-01

    Rats exposed to repeated restraint weigh less than controls even 8 weeks after stress. Stress-induced weight loss is lean tissue, but the post-stress difference in weight between control and restrained rats is lean and fat mass. Whole-body glucose clearance is enhanced 1 day after stress, but adipocyte glucose utilization is inhibited and muscle glucose transport is unchanged. The studies described here demonstrated that glucose transport was increased in both restrained and pair-fed rats, but that glycogen synthesis was increased only in restrained rats, which may account for the improved whole-body glucose clearance. Adipocyte glucose transport was inhibited and adipose plasma membrane beta-adrenergic receptor number was increased 1 day post-stress in restrained rats when weight loss was lean tissue, but were not different from control rats 5 days post-stress, when both fat and lean tissue were reduced. Thus, repeated restraint induces reversible changes in adipocyte metabolism that may represent a transition from the catabolic state of stress to a new energetic equilibrium in rats that maintain a reduced body weight for an extended period of time. PMID:11368423

  18. Neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex following acute restraint stress: A dataset.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Lee, Johnny K; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-03-01

    This data article provides additional evidence on gene expression changes in the neuronal and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the medial prefrontal cortex following acute stress. Male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks were exposed to control or restraint stress conditions for up to four hours in the dark cycle after which the brain was removed and the medial prefrontal cortex isolated by cryodissection. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, gene expression data were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB, I kappa B alpha were determined using the ΔΔCT method relative to control animals. This data article presents complementary results related to the research article entitled 'Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum' [1]. PMID:26909371

  19. [Treating depression through mindfulness-based cognitive therapy].

    PubMed

    Dulong, Florent

    2015-11-01

    Mindfulness is the art of being fully present in what we are doing, without judgement and without expectation. A therapeutic education programme was created in the 1990s in order to combat depression and generalised anxiety disorder. In France, this programme will be used in psychiatry. Meditation and psychoeducation will enable patients with depression to gradually establish a detachment with regard to the psychological and emotional content. PMID:26548386

  20. Transitory activation of the central and ovarian norepinephrine systems during cold stress-induced polycystic ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Barros, P; Kalil, B; Leoni, G B; Del Bianco-Borges, B; Franci, C R; Szawka, R E; Lara, H E; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-01-01

    Cold stress-induced ovarian sympathetic activation is associated with the development of ovarian cysts in rats. Although we have hypothesised that polycystic ovary (PCO) features induced by cold stress, as prevented by lesion of the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), were a result of the increased activity of the ovarian norepinephrine (NE) system, this was not evident after 8 weeks of stress. In the present study, we investigated the temporal changes in LC and ovarian NE activities and steroid secretion in rats exposed to single (SS) or repeated (RS) cold stress. SS and 4 week (4W)-RS but not 8 week (8W)-RS increased c-Fos expression in the LC and ovarian NE release. Plasma oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels tended to increase in 4W-RS and were elevated in 8W-RS rats, which displayed PCO morphology. β-adrenergic receptor agonist increased steroid hormone release from the ovary of unstressed (US) but not from 8W-RS rats. To determine whether increased activity of noradrenergic system during the initial 4 weeks of RS would be sufficient to promote PCO, rats were exposed to 4 weeks of cold stress and kept in ambient temperature for the next 4 weeks (4W-RS/4W-US). Accordingly, PCO morphology, increased steroid secretion and decreased ovulation rate were found in 4W-RS/4W-US rats, strengthening the hypothesis that the initial increase in NE release triggers the development of PCO. The correlated activity of LC neurones and ovarian noradrenergic terminals and the induction of PCO in 4W-RS/4W-US rats provide functional evidence for a major role of NE in disrupting follicular development and causing the long-lasting endocrine abnormalities found in stress-induced PCO. PMID:22882492

  1. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorated Diabetic Nephropathy by Attenuating Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Cao, Aili; Wang, Li; Chen, Xia; Guo, Hengjiang; Chu, Shuang; Zhang, Xuemei; Peng, Wen

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress has a great role in diabetes and diabetes induced organ damage. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the onset of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesize that ER stress inhibition could protect against kidney injury through anti-oxidative effects. To test whether block ER stress could attenuate oxidative stress and improve diabetic nephropathy in vivo and in vitro, the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an ER stress inhibitor, on spontaneous diabetic nephropathy db/db mice, ER stress inducer or high glucose-triggered podocytes were studied. Mice were assigned to 3 groups (n=6 per group): control group (treated with vehicle), db/db group (treated with vehicle), and UDCA group (db/db mice treated with 40 mg/kg/d UDCA). After 8 weeks treatment, mice were sacrificed. Blood and kidneys were collected for the assessment of albumin/creatinine ratio, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), the expressions of SOD isoforms and glutathione peroxidase 1, as well as histopathological examination. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by 2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. The results showed that UDCA alleviated renal ER stress-evoked cell death, oxidative stress, renal dysfunction, ROS production, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and suppressed Bax in vivo and in vitro. Hence, inhibition ER stress diminishes oxidative stress and exerts renoprotective effects. PMID:27193377

  2. Your Pathology Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ...

  3. Guide to Understanding Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ...

  4. Guide to Understanding Lymphedema

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ...

  5. Insomnia and Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ...

  6. Guided imagery for stress and symptom management in pregnant african american women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Ruiz, R Jeanne; Elswick, R K; French, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI) intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC) completed measures and donated 5 cc of blood at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Participants also completed a daily stress scale. A mixed-effects linear model tested for differences between groups for self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue as well as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), a biologic marker of stress. Significant differences in perceived stress daily scores and at week 8 but not week 12 were found in the GI group compared to UC group. The GI group reported significantly less fatigue and anxiety than the UC group at week 8 but not week 12. There were no significant differences in CRH levels between groups. Results suggest that GI intervention may be effective in reducing perceived stress, anxiety, and fatigue measures among pregnant African American women. PMID:24719646

  7. Stress and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Stress and infertility It is not clear how exactly stress impacts ... How can stress impact a fertility patient? Sometimes, infertility patients respond to the stress of being unable ...

  8. Stress and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Stress and your health fact sheet ePublications Stress and your health fact sheet Print this fact ... a big difference in my life! What is stress? Stress is a feeling you get when faced ...

  9. Stress and your heart

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  10. Treadmill exercise alleviates chronic mild stress-induced depression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major cause of disability and one of the most common public health problems. In the present study, antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression in rats was investigated. For this, sucrose intake test, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were conducted. Following adaptation to the animal vivarium and two baseline fluid intake tests, the animals were divided into four groups: the control group, the CMS-induced depression group, the CMS-induced depression and exercise group, and the CMS-induced depression and fluoxetine-treated group. The animals in the CMS groups were exposed to the CMS conditions for 8 weeks and those in the control group were exposed to the control conditions for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of CMS, the rats in the CMS-induced depression and exercise group were made to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated CMS-induced depressive symptoms. Treadmill exercise restored sucrose consumption, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptotic cell death. The present results suggest the possibility that exercise may improve symptoms of depression. PMID:26730380

  11. Treadmill exercise alleviates chronic mild stress-induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a major cause of disability and one of the most common public health problems. In the present study, antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression in rats was investigated. For this, sucrose intake test, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were conducted. Following adaptation to the animal vivarium and two baseline fluid intake tests, the animals were divided into four groups: the control group, the CMS-induced depression group, the CMS-induced depression and exercise group, and the CMS-induced depression and fluoxetine-treated group. The animals in the CMS groups were exposed to the CMS conditions for 8 weeks and those in the control group were exposed to the control conditions for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of CMS, the rats in the CMS-induced depression and exercise group were made to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated CMS-induced depressive symptoms. Treadmill exercise restored sucrose consumption, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptotic cell death. The present results suggest the possibility that exercise may improve symptoms of depression. PMID:26730380

  12. Effect of chronic administration of forskolin on glycemia and oxidative stress in rats with and without experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Sánchez-Pastor, Enrique; Urzúa, Zorayda; Mancilla, Evelyn; Huerta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Forskolin is a diterpene derived from the plant Coleus forskohlii. Forskolin activates adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP levels. The antioxidant and antiinflammatory action of forskolin is due to inhibition of macrophage activation with a subsequent reduction in thromboxane B2 and superoxide levels. These characteristics have made forskolin an effective medication for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic forskolin administration on blood glucose and oxidative stress in 19 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes compared to 8 healthy male Wistar rats. Rats were treated with forskolin, delivered daily for 8 weeks. Glucose was assessed by measuring fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats and with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy rats. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8‑OHdG) in 24-h urine samples. In diabetic rats, without forskolin, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher at the end than at the beginning of the experiment (8 weeks). In both healthy and diabetic rats, forskolin treatment lowered the fasting glucose at the end of the experiment but no effect was found on oral glucose tolerance. The 8-OHdG levels tended to be less elevated in forskolin-treated than in untreated group. Our results showed that chronic administration of forskolin decreased fasting blood glucose levels; however, the reductions of 8-OHdG were not statistically significant. PMID:24688307

  13. Effect of Chronic Administration of Forskolin on Glycemia and Oxidative Stress in Rats with and without Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Sánchez-Pastor, Enrique; Urzúa, Zorayda; Mancilla, Evelyn; Huerta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Forskolin is a diterpene derived from the plant Coleus forskohlii. Forskolin activates adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP levels. The antioxidant and antiinflammatory action of forskolin is due to inhibition of macrophage activation with a subsequent reduction in thromboxane B2 and superoxide levels. These characteristics have made forskolin an effective medication for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic forskolin administration on blood glucose and oxidative stress in 19 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes compared to 8 healthy male Wistar rats. Rats were treated with forskolin, delivered daily for 8 weeks. Glucose was assessed by measuring fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats and with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy rats. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8‑OHdG) in 24-h urine samples. In diabetic rats, without forskolin, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher at the end than at the beginning of the experiment (8 weeks). In both healthy and diabetic rats, forskolin treatment lowered the fasting glucose at the end of the experiment but no effect was found on oral glucose tolerance. The 8-OHdG levels tended to be less elevated in forskolin-treated than in untreated group. Our results showed that chronic administration of forskolin decreased fasting blood glucose levels; however, the reductions of 8-OHdG were not statistically significant. PMID:24688307

  14. Catecholamines and stress.

    PubMed

    Palkovits, Miklós

    2014-03-30

    A brief survey is offering of debates on two long-standing questions in stress studies and theories: 1) question of stress nonspecificity (i.e. homo- or heterogeneity in stress responses), and 2) what is the functional role of central catecholamines in stress mechanisms, especially in stress signal-transduction and in the realization of stress responses. PMID:26118253

  15. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

  16. Chronic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laura M.; Baum, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between chronic stress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress syndrome in people living within five miles of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power station. Results provided evidence of substantive links between chronic stress and development of mild symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. (Author/BL)

  17. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows*

    PubMed Central

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (P<0.05). Adiponectin is strongly associated with AMPK. The increases of adiponectin and AMPK may be one of the mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in heat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat

  18. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (P<0.05). Adiponectin is strongly associated with AMPK. The increases of adiponectin and AMPK may be one of the mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in heat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat

  19. Inflammatory Stress Sensitizes the Liver to Atorvastatin-Induced Injury in ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Li, Beibei; Moorhead, John F.; Varghese, Zac; Ruan, Xiong Z.; Chen, Yaxi

    2016-01-01

    Statins, which are revolutionized cholesterol-lowing agents, have been reported to have unfavorable effects on the liver. Inflammatory stress is a susceptibility factor for drug-induced liver injury. This study investigated whether inflammatory stress sensitized the liver to statin-induced toxicity in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. We used casein injection in ApoE-/- mice to induce inflammatory stress. Half of the mice were orally administered atorvastatin (10mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. The results showed that casein injection increased the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). Atorvastatin treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in casein injection mice. Moreover, atorvastatin treatment exacerbated hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as increased hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in casein injection mice. However, above changes were not observed in atorvastatin treated alone mice. The protein expression of liver nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 target genes were increased, together with the enhancement of activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase in atorvastatin treated alone mice, but these antioxidant responses were lost in mice treated with atorvastatin under inflammatory stress. This study demonstrates that atorvastatin exacerbates the liver injury under inflammatory stress, which may be associated with the loss of adaptive antioxidant response mediated by Nrf2. PMID:27428373

  20. A critical period of vulnerability to adolescent stress: epigenetic mediators in mesocortical dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Minae; Lee, Richard S; Tanaka, Teppei; Okada, Kinya; Kano, Shin-Ichi; Sawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The molecular basis of vulnerability to stress during the adolescent period is largely unknown. To identify potential molecular mediators that may play a role in stress-induced behavioral deficits, we imposed social isolation on a genetically vulnerable mouse model. We report that 3-week (5-8 weeks of age) adolescent stress in combination with disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (Disc1) genetic risk elicits alterations in DNA methylation of a specific set of genes, tyrosine hydroxylase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and FK506 binding protein 5. The epigenetic changes in the mesocortical dopaminergic neurons were prevented when animals were treated with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486 during social isolation, which implicates the role for glucocorticoid signaling in this pathological event. We define the critical period of GR intervention as the first 1-week period during the stress regimen, suggesting that this particular week in adolescence may be a specific period of maturation and function of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons and their sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Our study may also imply the clinical significance of early detection and prophylactic intervention against conditions associated with adolescent social stress in individuals with genetic risk. PMID:26908623

  1. Inflammatory Stress Sensitizes the Liver to Atorvastatin-Induced Injury in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Li, Beibei; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Ruan, Xiong Z; Chen, Yaxi

    2016-01-01

    Statins, which are revolutionized cholesterol-lowing agents, have been reported to have unfavorable effects on the liver. Inflammatory stress is a susceptibility factor for drug-induced liver injury. This study investigated whether inflammatory stress sensitized the liver to statin-induced toxicity in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. We used casein injection in ApoE-/- mice to induce inflammatory stress. Half of the mice were orally administered atorvastatin (10mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. The results showed that casein injection increased the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). Atorvastatin treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in casein injection mice. Moreover, atorvastatin treatment exacerbated hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as increased hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in casein injection mice. However, above changes were not observed in atorvastatin treated alone mice. The protein expression of liver nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 target genes were increased, together with the enhancement of activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase in atorvastatin treated alone mice, but these antioxidant responses were lost in mice treated with atorvastatin under inflammatory stress. This study demonstrates that atorvastatin exacerbates the liver injury under inflammatory stress, which may be associated with the loss of adaptive antioxidant response mediated by Nrf2. PMID:27428373

  2. Combined environmental stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. H.; Mccally, M.

    1973-01-01

    Tolerance levels, physiological effects, and performance degradation during simultaneous or sequential exposures to two environmental stresses, and also three or more simultaneous stresses are described. Environmental stress combinations are characterized by four descriptors: order of occurrence, duration of exposure, severity of exposure, and type of interaction. Combined stress data and facilities for combined stress study are briefly mentioned.

  3. Interaction of vitamin E and exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Kang; Huang, Hui-Yu; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Tso, Tim K

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that free radicals are increased during intensive exercise. We hypothesized that vitamin E (vit E) deficiency, which will increase oxidative stress, would augment the training-induced adaptation of antioxidant enzymes. This study investigated the interaction effect of vit E and exercise training on oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in red quadriceps and white gastrocnemius of rats in a 2x2 design. Thirty-two male rats were divided into trained vit E-adequate, trained vit E-deficient, untrained vit E-adequate, and untrained vit E-deficient groups. The two trained groups swam 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 8 weeks. The two vit E-deficient groups consumed vit E-free diet for 8 weeks. Vitamin E-training interaction effect was significant on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both muscles. The trained vit E-deficient group showed the highest TBARS and GPX activity and the lowest SOD activity in both muscles. A significant vit E effect on glutathione reductase and catalase was present in both muscles. Glutathione reductase and catalase activities were significantly lower in the two vit E-adequate groups combined than in the two vit E-deficient groups combined in both muscles. This study shows that vit E status and exercise training have interactive effect on oxidative stress and GPX and SOD activities in rat skeletal muscles. Vitamin E deprivation augmented the exercise-induced elevation in GPX activity while inhibiting exercise-induced SOD activity, possibly through elevated oxidative stress. PMID:16644199

  4. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  5. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  6. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this ... you stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is ...

  7. Stress and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... main types of stress: Acute stress. This is short-term stress that goes away quickly. You feel it ... to tense, and increase your pulse. In the short term, these reactions are good because they can help ...

  8. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - stress ... over 2 cups of urine in their bladder. Stress incontinence occurs when the muscles that control your ... area or the prostate (in men) Unknown causes Stress incontinence is the most common type in women. ...

  9. Stress and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/emotional-wellbeing/mental-health/stress-how-to-cope-better-with-lifes-challenges.html. ... on Stress. Available at: www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/stress/index.shtml. Accessed April 17, 2014. US Department ...

  10. What Is Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, B. Don

    1994-01-01

    After presenting positive and negative aspects of stress, the paper looks at definitions of stress that emphasize the environment, responses to the environment, individual characteristics, or a combination of these elements. A proposed definition of stress is offered. (SM)

  11. Juror stress.

    PubMed

    Hafemeister, T L

    1993-01-01

    That jurors may be harmed as a result of their carrying out their civic duties is receiving increased attention from the courts and the media (Sevilla & Beyers, 1990; Craver, 1993). The pilot tests reported here represent initial efforts to undertake a proactive project for identifying and mitigating the possible adverse effects of stress on jurors and to contribute to the understanding and treatment of secondary trauma for at-risk groups. In many ways juries are the black box of the legal system. Their decision-making process is typically shrouded in mystery. So that they may fully explore the issues and examine their consciences, jurors meet privately when reaching their decision and, beyond entering a verdict, are typically not required to provide the rationale for their verdict. Furthermore, jurors are often reluctant to discuss the bases for their verdicts after the trial is over and an unspoken code of honor may limit their willingness to critique their fellow jurors. Perhaps in part because we know so little about their decision-making process, as well as because of their intrinsic and symbolic importance to the legal system, there may be a tendency to take jurors for granted and to assume that they are relatively unaffected by their jury duties. Although jurors are expected to appear impassive and emotionally detached in court, for some trials it is only the rare individual who will not be emotionally moved by what he or she has seen and heard or by the gravity of the decision that is required. Several recent cases have provided a glimpse of what goes on within this black box and suggest that greater attention may need to be given to the needs of these jurors. PMID:8193058

  12. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  13. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  14. Modifying Resilience Mechanisms in At-Risk Individuals: A Controlled Study of Mindfulness Training in Marines Preparing for Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Douglas C.; Thom, Nathaniel J.; Stanley, Elizabeth A.; Haase, Lori; Simmons, Alan N.; Shih, Pei-an B.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Potterat, Eric G.; Minor, Thomas R.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Military deployment can have profound effects on physical and mental health. Few studies have examined whether interventions prior to deployment can improve mechanisms underlying resilience. Mindfulness-based techniques have been shown to aid recovery from stress and may affect brain-behavior relationships prior to deployment. The authors examined the effect of mindfulness training on resilience mechanisms in active-duty Marines preparing for deployment. Method Eight Marine infantry platoons (N=281) were randomly selected. Four platoons were assigned to receive mindfulness training (N=147) and four were assigned to a training-as-usual control condition (N=134). Platoons were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks after baseline, and during and after a stressful combat training session approximately 9 weeks after baseline. The mindfulness training condition was delivered in the form of 8 weeks of Mindfulness-Based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT), a program comprising 20 hours of classroom instruction plus daily homework exercises. MMFT emphasizes interoceptive awareness, attentional control, and tolerance of present-moment experiences. The main outcome measures were heart rate, breathing rate, plasma neuropeptide Y concentration, score on the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale, and brain activation as measured by functional MRI. Results Marines who received MMFT showed greater reactivity (heart rate [d=0.43]) and enhanced recovery (heart rate [d=0.67], breathing rate [d=0.93]) after stressful training; lower plasma neuropeptide Y concentration after stressful training (d=0.38); and attenuated blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in the right insula and anterior cingulate. Conclusions The results show that mechanisms related to stress recovery can be modified in healthy individuals prior to stress exposure, with important implications for evidence-based mental health research and treatment. PMID:24832476

  15. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    PubMed

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. PMID:26850311

  16. Gum Arabic extracts protect against hepatic oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Fedail, Jaafar S; Musa, Hassan H; Kamboh, Asghar Ali; Sifaldin, Amal Z; Musa, Taha H

    2015-12-01

    Gum Arabic (GA) from Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal is a branched-chain polysaccharide which has strong antioxidant properties, and has been used to reduce the experimental toxicity. Yet, the effects of GA on oxidative stress in type I diabetic rats have not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of GA on oxidative stress in Alloxan induced diabetes in rats. The rats were divided into 3 groups (n=20 of each): control group, diabetic group injected with allaoxan, and diabetic group given 15% GA in drinking water for 8 weeks. Oxidative damage to liver tissue was evaluated by measurement of key hepatic enzymes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and expression of oxidative stress genes. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in GA group compared to diabetic and control groups. Treatment of GA decreased liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased glutathione (GSH). In addition, GA was significantly (P<0.05) reduced the activities of key liver enzymes, including alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). SOD, GPx and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA were significantly increased in GA group compared to control and diabetic groups. Liver of all diabetic rats showed marked degeneration whereas slight degeneration was observed in GA treated rats compared to control. The results suggest that GA may protect liver by modulating the expression of oxidative stress genes, and thus can improve antioxidant status. PMID:26321624

  17. NADPH oxidase 3-associated oxidative stress and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in the cochleae of D-galactose-induced aged rats

    PubMed Central

    DU, ZHENGDE; LI, SHUO; LIU, LIN; YANG, QIONG; ZHANG, HONGWEI; GAO, CHUNSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cell apoptosis are heavily implicated in aging. Our previous study established a mimetic rat model of aging in the cochleae using D-galactose (D-gal), and revealed that chronic injection of D-gal can increase oxidative stress and mtDNA common deletions (CD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of reactive oxygen species and the occurrence of apoptosis in the cochleae of rats following 8 weeks of D-gal exposure. The results of the present study indicated that an elevated accumulation of the mtDNA CD and mitochondrial ultrastructural damage occurred in the cochleae of rats injected with D-gal for 8 weeks. In addition, the levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 3, P22phox and cleaved caspase 3, and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end-labelling-positive cells were increased in the cochleae of D-gal-treated rats, compared with the controls. These findings suggested that nitric oxide synthase NOX3-associated oxidative stress may contribute to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations and activate a caspase 3-dependent apoptotic signalling pathway in the cochleae during aging. The present study also provided novel insights into the development of age-associated hearing loss, also termed presbycusis. PMID:26498835

  18. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that happen when too much stress is placed on a part of the body, resulting in inflammation (pain and swelling), muscle strain, or tissue damage. This stress generally occurs from ...

  19. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  20. What Is Stress Management?

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone mark into the high-stress zone, it’s time to take a stress-management moment. Maybe that means that you call a ... you reserve your “high zone stress responses” for times when it’s more appropriate. When life and death are ... • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction FAQs ...

  1. Stress in Bangladeshi Bengoli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    This report discusses the stress patterns of Bengali as spoken in Bangladesh. One of the findings indicate that every word has stress in the first syllable, with additional stress in the first syllable of the first word of the phrase. The Bengali language does not have penultimate and antepenultimate stress. Because there is no rule for changing…

  2. Social stress-induced hypothyroidism is attenuated by antidepressant treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Emerson L; Silva-Almeida, Cláudio; Pestana, Fernanda M; Sonoda-Côrtes, Rafael; Araujo, Iracema G; Rodrigues, Nayana C; Mecawi, André S; Côrtes, Wellington S; Marassi, Michelle P; Reis, Luis Carlos; Rocha, Fábio F

    2012-01-01

    Although serotonergic system has been classically implicated in mood modulation, there has been relatively little study on the relationship between this system and thyroid hormones (TH) economy in stress models. When TH are studied, the effects of stress on thyroid function seems to be complex and depend on the kind and time of stress which counts for the elusiveness of mechanisms underlying changes in TH economy. Herein, we hypothesized that serum TH are affected in a time-dependent fashion after repeated social stressful stimuli and serotonergic system is implicated in these changes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible alterations in thyroid hormone economy and type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinase activity in a model of social defeat stress. Thereafter, we tested the responsiveness of these changes to fluoxetine treatment. Both short (STS) and a long-term (LTS) stress were performed. Blood samples were drawn just before and 1 (STS) or 4 and 8 weeks (LTS) after the beginning of stress to assess serum T4, T3 and corticosterone. Deiodinases activity was assessed at the end of each protocol. Stress-induced behavior studied in open field arena and hypercorticosteronemia were mainly observed in LTS (week 4). Stress-induced behavior was associated to hypothyroidism which occurred before, since week 1 in stressed group. Serum TH was restored to control levels in week 8, when behavior changes were not observed anymore, and was mainly associated with high brown adipose tissue D2 activity since thyroid and liver D1 activity were low or normal in the STS and LTS respectively in stressed rats compared to control. Antidepressant study revealed that fluoxetine treatment (10mg/kg po during four weeks) fully reversed stress-induced behavior and normalized serum T4, but not T3 levels and hypercorticosteronemia in stressed group compared to control. The current work adds new concepts concerning TH metabolism changes induced by social stress and suggests that

  3. Stress Management as an Adjunct to Physical Therapy for Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bruflat, Angela K.; Balter, Jaclyn E.; McGuire, Denise; Fethke, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic neck pain is prevalent in the workplace. Research suggests that psychosocial stress may contribute to the development of neck pain by causing excessive or prolonged muscle activity in some individuals. The purpose of this case report is to describe the rationale, development, and implementation of stress management as an adjunct to standard physical therapist management of chronic neck pain in a female office worker who responded to psychosocial stress with elevated muscle activity prior to treatment. Case Description A 44-year-old female office employee with an 8-year history of chronic neck pain participated in this case report. The patient was selected from a group of research participants who demonstrated elevated electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle in response to simulated occupational stressors. The multidisciplinary intervention consisted of 8 physical therapy sessions, supplemented by 8 stress management sessions that included EMG biofeedback and psychotherapy to facilitate muscle relaxation. Outcomes Neck disability decreased by 50%, trait anxiety decreased by 21%, and the duration of trapezius muscle rest in the workplace increased by 56% immediately after the 8-week intervention. These improvements were maintained 6 months after treatment, and the patient reported a complete absence of neck disability at the 2-year follow-up assessment. Discussion A sustained reduction in neck disability was observed for a patient with chronic neck pain after participating in a multidisciplinary intervention that combined physical therapy and stress management approaches to facilitate muscle relaxation in the workplace. Future clinical trials are needed to assess whether stress management is a useful adjunct therapy for patients with chronic neck pain who show elevated muscle activity in response to psychosocial stress. PMID:22700538

  4. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  5. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate if balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of older adults contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 older adults were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after eight weeks of training although fundamental gait characteristics such as walking velocity and step length were not changed. The results also indicated an increase in transitional acceleration of the whole body center of mass. The number of falls after eight weeks was reduced in training groups. These findings were found in conjunction with the improvements in knee flexor muscle and plantarflexor muscle strength. In conclusion, after training, older adults were less likely to initiate slips and more likely to recover from slips. PMID:19773670

  6. Mental Fitness for Life: Assessing the Impact of an 8-Week Mental Fitness Program on Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Sandra A.; Thompson, Wendy J. A.; Rogers, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    A mental fitness program taught goal setting, critical thinking, creativity, positive attitudes, learning, memory, and self-expression to adults over 50 (n=22). Pre/posttests of depression and cognition revealed significant impacts on mental fitness, cognitive confidence, goal setting, optimism, creativity, flexibility, and memory. Not significant…

  7. Daily consumption of Reliv Glucaffect for 8 weeks significantly lowered blood glucose and body weight in 50 subjects.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria; Silvia, Errichi; Ledda, Andrea; Stuard, Stefano; G, Vinciguerra; Dougall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Hastings, Carl; Schönlau, Frank

    2009-12-01

    A public change to healthier lifestyles with more physical activity and better nutrition, including caloric restriction, is required to address the obesity epidemic. Weight loss can be achieved by caloric restrictions; current research suggests that this may be achieved by consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates owing to the resulting prolonged satiety. Our rationale was to prolong the satiety of overweight volunteers by supplementation with a proprietary formulation Glucaffect which delays absorption of carbohydrates. Glucaffect provides potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors of herbal source such Pycnogenol, Madeglucyl and various others which obstruct absorption of carbohydrates, such as starch. Fifty overweight subjects received either Glucaffect or an inactive control product for eight weeks. Consumption of Glucaffect was found to statistically significantly lower blood-fasting glucose from baseline 145.3 mg/dL to 101.1 mg/dL (-30.4%) and Hba1c from 7.59% to 6.33% as compared to the control group where values decreased only marginally. The weight and the body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly from an average of 88.5 kg (BMI 26.8 kg/m2) to 81.3 kg (BMI 24.5 kg/m2) as compared to the control group. In conclusion, Glucaffect enabled subjects with metabolic syndrome to achieve healthy BMI and blood glucose levels. Glucaffect was well tolerated and no subject dropped out. PMID:19405040

  8. Newly cultured bacteria with broad diversity isolated from 8 week continuous culture enrichments of cow feces on complex polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fascinating functions of the mammalian intestinal microbiota is the fermentation of plant cell wall components. Eight week continuous culture enrichments of cow feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin were used to isolate bacteria from this community. A total of 459 bacterial isolates were ...

  9. Early predictors of a clinical response at 8 weeks in patients with first-episode psychosis treated with paliperidone ER.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young-Chul; Cui, Yin; Kim, Min-Gul; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Keon-Hak; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Identification of early clinical markers that predict later treatment outcomes in first-episode psychosis is highly valuable. The present study was conducted to determine the best time at which to predict the late treatment response in first-episode psychosis patients treated with paliperidone extended release (ER), the factors predicting early treatment responses (at Week 2 and Week 3) and the relationships between the paliperidone ER plasma concentrations at Week 2 and Week 3, and the treatment responses at Week 2, Week 3 and Week 8. Various criteria for assessing treatment response were employed. We determined the plasma paliperidone concentrations at Week 2 and Week 3, using validated high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The treatment response at Week 3 optimally predicted the later (Week 8) response, in terms of negative predictive value (NPV). Independent predictors for good treatment responses at Week 2 and Week 3 were: Female gender, a higher educational level, a higher Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) excited score, and/or a shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). The plasma paliperidone concentration at Week 3, but not Week 2, was a significant predictor of the late treatment response at Week 8. These results may help appropriate clinical decision-making for early non-responders after having their first episode of psychosis. PMID:27334812

  10. Feasibility of an 8-week African American Web-based Pilot Program Promoting Healthy Eating Behaviors: Family Eats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess log-on rates and change in mediating variables achieved from a web-based nutrition intervention for African American families, a parent and 9- to 12-year-old daughter (n=67 families) completed questionnaires measuring dietary change mediating variables. Overall log-on rate was 59%. Signifi...

  11. [Acupuncture and stress].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cisong; Zhu Yihui; Wei, Qin; Kou, Jun; Wen, Peipei

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between acupuncture and stress is discussed from three aspects, including is it possible for acupuncture stimulation to be a stressor, whether acupuncture will start stress reaction, and whether acupuncture effects contain some stress factors. It is believed that correct acupuncture manipulation will not cause stress response, however, under some circumstances, such as inaccurate manipulation, improper treatment or patients who are very nervous but do not receive effective intervention, acupuncture is likely to cause stress response. Acupuncture-induced stress response is totally different from acupuncture anti-stress. The possible stress factors in acupuncture effect are explored, which can provide a new angle for the research on action mechanism of acupuncture. From the view of stress to review acupuncture treatment, there are three enlightenments: emphasizing on communication between doctors and patients, avoiding over-pursuit of deqi and focusing on analysis of the body constitution. PMID:26054156

  12. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    PubMed Central

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Silva, Samuel T.; Boer, Patrícia A.; Cordellini, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load), stressed (2 h-immobilization), and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10). Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary). Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed). Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50) in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination. PMID:26083604

  13. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  14. Nurses' experiences, expectations, and preferences for mind-body practices to reduce stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. Methods We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included: demographic characteristics, health conditions and stress levels; experiences with mind-body practices; expected health benefits; training preferences; and willingness to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Results Of the 342 respondents, 96% were women and 92% were Caucasian. Most (73%) reported one or more health conditions, notably anxiety (49%); back pain (41%); GI problems such as irritable bowel syndrome (34%); or depression (33%). Their median occupational stress level was 4 (0 = none; 5 = extreme stress). Nearly all (99%) reported already using one or more mind-body practices to reduce stress: intercessory prayer (86%), breath-focused meditation (49%), healing or therapeutic touch (39%), yoga/tai chi/qi gong (34%), or mindfulness-based meditation (18%). The greatest expected benefits were for greater spiritual well-being (56%); serenity, calm, or inner peace (54%); better mood (51%); more compassion (50%); or better sleep (42%). Most (65%) wanted additional training; convenience (74% essential or very important), was more important than the program's reputation (49%) or scientific evidence about effectiveness (32%) in program selection. Most (65%) were willing to participate in a randomized trial of mind-body training; among these, most were willing to collect salivary cortisol (60%), or serum biomarkers (53%) to assess the impact of training. Conclusions Most nurses interested in mind-body training already engage in such practices. They have greater

  15. Temporal Stability of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criteria in a Problem Drinking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Terence M.; Rubin, Amy; Lachowicz, Mark; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin L.; Roy, Monica; Hermos, John; Helmuth, Eric; Rosenbloom, David

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) reformulated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) based partially on research showing there were four main factors that underlie the symptoms of the disorder. The primary aim of this study was to examine the temporal stability of the DSM-5 factors as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2010). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structure of DSM-5 PTSD, and temporal stability over three time points was examined to determine if the measure reflects a consistent construct over time. Our sample was 507 combat-exposed veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan who enrolled in an online intervention for problem drinking and combat-related stress (masked for review). We administered the PCL-5 at baseline, 8-week post intervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments. The DSM-5 model provided an adequate fit to the data at baseline. Tests of equality of form and equality of factor loadings demonstrated stability of the factor structure over time, indicating temporal stability. This study confirms the results of previous research supporting the DSM-5 model of PTSD symptoms (Elhai et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2012). This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal stability of the PCL-5, indicating its use in longitudinal studies will measure the same construct over time. PMID:24932642

  16. Use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Watanabe, Laine M; Moreno, Tamara J; Fredericson, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Pelvic stress injuries are a relatively uncommon form of injury that require high index of clinician suspicion and usually MRI for definitive diagnosis. We present a case report of a 21-year-old female elite runner who was diagnosed with pelvic stress injury and used an antigravity treadmill during rehabilitation. She was able to return to pain-free ground running at 8 weeks after running at 95% body weight on the antigravity treadmill. Ten weeks from time of diagnosis, she competed at her conference championships and advanced to the NCAA Championships in the 10,000-meters. She competed in both races without residual pain. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report on use of an antigravity treadmill in rehabilitation of bone-related injuries. Our findings suggest that use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury may result in appropriate bone loading and healing during progression to ground running and faster return to competition. Future research may identify appropriate protocols for recovery from overuse lower extremity injuries and other uses for this technology, including neuromuscular recovery and injury prevention. PMID:22920318

  17. Effects of yogurt containing Lactobacillus plantarum HOKKAIDO on immune function and stress markers.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Tetsuka, Kyohei; Kawasaki, Yo; Nakagawa, Ryoji; Satoh, Hiroki; Sato, Yuji; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum HOKKAIDO (HOKKAIDO strain) was isolated from well-pickled vegetables in Hokkaido, Japan. We report a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of L. plantarum HOKKAIDO on immune function and stress markers in 171 adult subjects. Subjects were divided into three groups: the L. plantarum HOKKAIDO yogurt group, the placebo-1 group who ingested yogurt without the HOKKAIDO strain, and the placebo-2 group who ingested a yogurt-like dessert without the HOKKAIDO strain. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed before and after 4 and 8 weeks of blinded ingestion. Although no significant differences in natural killer cell activity were observed, it was found that neutrophil ratio significantly decreased and lymphocytes tended to increase in the HOKKAIDO strain yogurt group compared with the yogurt-like dessert group. In addition, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, a stress marker, tended to improve in the HOKKAIDO strain yogurt group compared with the yogurt-like dessert group. These results suggest that the ingestion of HOKKAIDO strain yogurt tends to improve immune activity and decrease stress markers. PMID:27419093

  18. S-adenosylmethionine reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in a murine model of chronic severe asthma via suppression of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sun-Young; Hong, Gyong Hwa; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Sunjoo; Park, So Young; Shin, Bomi; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress has an important role in asthmatic airway inflammation and remodeling. A potent methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), is known to protect against tissue injury and fibrosis through modulation of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SAMe on airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. A mouse model was generated by repeated intranasal challenge with ovalbumin and Aspergillus fungal protease twice a week for 8 weeks. SAMe was orally administered every 24 h for 8 weeks. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis and histopathological examination. The levels of various cytokines and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) were measured in the lung tissue. Cultured macrophages and fibroblasts were employed to evaluate the underlying anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic mechanisms of SAMe. The magnitude of airway inflammation and fibrosis, as well as the total BAL cell counts, were significantly suppressed in the SAMe-treated groups. A reduction in T helper type 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines and HNE levels was observed in mouse lung tissue after SAMe administration. Macrophages cultured with SAMe also showed reduced cellular oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, SAMe treatment attenuated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced fibronectin expression in cultured fibroblasts. SAMe had a suppressive effect on airway inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic asthma, at least partially through the attenuation of oxidative stress and TGF-β-induced fibronectin expression. The results of this study suggest a potential role for SAMe as a novel therapeutic agent in chronic asthma. PMID:27256110

  19. S-adenosylmethionine reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in a murine model of chronic severe asthma via suppression of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Young; Hong, Gyong Hwa; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Sunjoo; Park, So Young; Shin, Bomi; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress has an important role in asthmatic airway inflammation and remodeling. A potent methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), is known to protect against tissue injury and fibrosis through modulation of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SAMe on airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. A mouse model was generated by repeated intranasal challenge with ovalbumin and Aspergillus fungal protease twice a week for 8 weeks. SAMe was orally administered every 24 h for 8 weeks. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis and histopathological examination. The levels of various cytokines and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) were measured in the lung tissue. Cultured macrophages and fibroblasts were employed to evaluate the underlying anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic mechanisms of SAMe. The magnitude of airway inflammation and fibrosis, as well as the total BAL cell counts, were significantly suppressed in the SAMe-treated groups. A reduction in T helper type 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines and HNE levels was observed in mouse lung tissue after SAMe administration. Macrophages cultured with SAMe also showed reduced cellular oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, SAMe treatment attenuated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced fibronectin expression in cultured fibroblasts. SAMe had a suppressive effect on airway inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic asthma, at least partially through the attenuation of oxidative stress and TGF-β-induced fibronectin expression. The results of this study suggest a potential role for SAMe as a novel therapeutic agent in chronic asthma. PMID:27256110

  20. Stress in childhood

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Pediatrics. Helping children handle stress. Available at http://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/emotional-wellness/Pages/Helping-Children-Handle-Stress.aspx. Accessed on May 14, 2014. American ...

  1. Stress and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder and poor socio-economic circumstances are known contributors to stress and its ... much! Please support the 36 Million Migraine Campaign today! Copyright © 2011 American Headache Society®. All rights reserved. ...

  2. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  3. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse Culture and Trauma Definitions References Resources Economic Stress Military and Veteran Families and Children Secondary ... us of what happened. Back to Top How Development Influences Posttraumatic Stress Responses Age, developmental maturity, and ...

  4. Weight loss-induced stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue is related to weight regain.

    PubMed

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Camps, Stefan G; Renes, Johan; Bouwman, Freek G; Westerterp, Klaas R; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2016-03-14

    Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. In total, eighteen healthy subjects underwent an 8-week diet programme with a 10-month follow-up. Participants were categorised as weight maintainers or weight regainers (WR) depending on their weight changes during the intervention. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after the diet and after the follow-up. In vitro differentiated SGBS adipocytes were starved for 96 h with low (0·55 mm) glucose. Levels of stress proteins were determined by Western blotting. WR showed increased expressions of β-actin, calnexin, heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP60 and HSP70. Changes of β-actin, HSP27 and HSP70 are linked to HSP60, a proposed key factor in weight regain after weight loss. SGBS adipocytes showed increased levels of β-actin and HSP60 after 96 h of glucose restriction. The increased level of cellular stress proteins in the adipose tissue of WR probably resides in the adipocytes as shown by in vitro experiments. Cellular stress accumulated in adipose tissue during weight loss may be a risk factor for weight regain. PMID:26759119

  5. Visualizing balloon stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winker, James A.

    1994-02-01

    In a structure as indeterminate as a partially inflalted balloon it is very difficult to determine either the stress at any given point or a stress pattern over an area. Finite element analysis for this purpose is under development, but this will not likely bear fruit for years. This paper describes a process using desktop computers to convert actual experimental stress data into graphic, visual displays. The results provide valuable insight into the nature of balloon stresses.

  6. Nuclear Stress Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Echocardiography Electrocardiogram Electrophysiology Studies Exercise Stress Test Holter Monitoring Intravascular Ultrasound Nuclear Ventriculography Optical ...

  7. Stress and Protists: No life without stress.

    PubMed

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We report a summary of the symposium "Stress and Protists: No life without stress", which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation - induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. PMID:27365178

  8. Learning during Stressful Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shors, Tracey J.

    2004-01-01

    Stressful life events can have profound effects on our cognitive and motor abilities, from those that could be construed as adaptive to those not so. In this review, I discuss the general notion that acute stressful experience necessarily impairs our abilities to learn and remember. The effects of stress on operant conditioning, that is, learned…

  9. Dealing with Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    This issue examines the causes and effects of stress among parents of handicapped children and offers guidance for reducing and/or avoiding stress. The factors contributing to parental stress are identified, including unfounded guilt feelings, prolonged dependency of the handicapped child, extended care requirements, marital discord and family…

  10. Organizational Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triesen, David; Williams, Mary-Jo

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine Canadian teachers' perceptions of work related stress and to assess the degree to which these stressors accounted for overall job stress. Results indicated the factors which most contributed to overall job stress were role overload, relationships with students, work load, and relationships with colleagues.…

  11. Stress, Hyperreactivity, and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have not yet agreed upon links between stress and illness. Levels of response mediated by the central nervous system are considered important in predicting and determining health consequences of stress. The paper uses the cardiovascular system to examine experimental evidence for the relationship between stress, health/illness, and…

  12. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  13. Alleviation of Drought Stress and Metabolic Changes in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) Colonized with Bacillus subtilis B26

    PubMed Central

    Gagné-Bourque, François; Bertrand, Annick; Claessens, Annie; Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major limiting factor of crop productivity worldwide and its incidence is predicted to increase under climate change. Drought adaptation of cool-season grasses is thus a major challenge to secure the agricultural productivity under current and future climate conditions. Endophytes are non-pathogenic plant-associated bacteria that can play an important role in conferring resistance and improving plant tolerance to drought. In this study, the effect of inoculation of the bacterial endophyte Bacillus subtilis strain B26 on growth, water status, photosynthetic activity and metabolism of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) subjected to drought stress was investigated under controlled conditions. Under both drought-stress and non-stressed conditions, strain B26 successfully colonized the internal tissues of timothy and had a positive impact on plant growth. Exposure of inoculated plant to a 8-week drought-stress led to significant increase in shoot and root biomass by 26.6 and 63.8%, and in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by 55.2 and 214.9% respectively, compared to non-inoculated plants grown under similar conditions. There was a significant effect of the endophyte on plant metabolism; higher levels of several sugars, notably sucrose and fructans and an increase of key amino acids such as, asparagine, glutamic acid and glutamine were recorded in shoots and roots of colonized plants compared to non-colonized ones. The accumulation of the non-protein amino acid GABA in shoots of stressed plants and in roots of stressed and unstressed plants was increased in the presence of the endophyte. Taken together, our results indicate that B. subtilis B26 improves timothy growth under drought stress through the modification of osmolyte accumulation in roots and shoots. These results will contribute to the development of a microbial agent to improve the yield of grass species including forage crops and cereals exposed to environmental stresses. PMID:27200057

  14. Alleviation of Drought Stress and Metabolic Changes in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) Colonized with Bacillus subtilis B26.

    PubMed

    Gagné-Bourque, François; Bertrand, Annick; Claessens, Annie; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major limiting factor of crop productivity worldwide and its incidence is predicted to increase under climate change. Drought adaptation of cool-season grasses is thus a major challenge to secure the agricultural productivity under current and future climate conditions. Endophytes are non-pathogenic plant-associated bacteria that can play an important role in conferring resistance and improving plant tolerance to drought. In this study, the effect of inoculation of the bacterial endophyte Bacillus subtilis strain B26 on growth, water status, photosynthetic activity and metabolism of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) subjected to drought stress was investigated under controlled conditions. Under both drought-stress and non-stressed conditions, strain B26 successfully colonized the internal tissues of timothy and had a positive impact on plant growth. Exposure of inoculated plant to a 8-week drought-stress led to significant increase in shoot and root biomass by 26.6 and 63.8%, and in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by 55.2 and 214.9% respectively, compared to non-inoculated plants grown under similar conditions. There was a significant effect of the endophyte on plant metabolism; higher levels of several sugars, notably sucrose and fructans and an increase of key amino acids such as, asparagine, glutamic acid and glutamine were recorded in shoots and roots of colonized plants compared to non-colonized ones. The accumulation of the non-protein amino acid GABA in shoots of stressed plants and in roots of stressed and unstressed plants was increased in the presence of the endophyte. Taken together, our results indicate that B. subtilis B26 improves timothy growth under drought stress through the modification of osmolyte accumulation in roots and shoots. These results will contribute to the development of a microbial agent to improve the yield of grass species including forage crops and cereals exposed to environmental stresses. PMID:27200057

  15. Psychological stress alters the ultrastructure and increases IL-1β and TNF-α in mandibular condylar cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xin; Li, Qiang; Wu, Shun; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Min; Chen, Yong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Psychological factors can be correlated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), but the mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we examined the microstructural changes and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mandibular condylar cartilage of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a psychological stress animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, 210 ± 10 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups: psychological stress (PS, N = 48), foot shock (FS, N = 24), and control (N = 48). After inducing psychological stress using a communication box with the FS rats for 1, 3, or 5 weeks, PS rats were sacrificed and compared to their matched control littermates, which received no stress and were killed at the same times as the PS rats. Body and adrenal gland weight were measured and corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. After hematoxylin-eosin staining for histological observation, the ultrastructure of the TMJ was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Transcription and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated by ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The PS group showed a significantly higher adrenal gland weight after 3 weeks of stress and higher hormone levels at weeks 1, 3, and 5. Histopathological changes and thinning cartilage were apparent at weeks 3 and 5. In the PS group, TNF-α increased at 1, 3, and 5 weeks and IL-1β increased significantly after 1 and 3 weeks of stress, and then decreased to normal levels by 5 weeks. Psychological stress increased plasma hormone levels and RT-PCR indicated increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression in the TMJ in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest that cytokine up-regulation was accompanied by stress-induced cartilage degeneration in the mandibular condyle. The proinflammatory cytokines play a potential role in initiating the cartilage destruction that eventually leads to the TMDs. PMID:22714807

  16. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS. PMID:25126695

  17. Stress impacts telomere dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Ilmonen, Petteri; Penn, Dustin J

    2007-04-22

    Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes at the ends of chromosomes that control genomic integrity but appear to become shorter with age and stress. To test whether stress causes telomere attrition, we exposed the offspring of wild-caught house mice (Mus musculus) to stressful conditions and examined the changes in telomere length over six months. We found that females exposed to males and reproductive stress (either with or without crowding) had significantly shorter telomeres than controls, and males exposed to crowding stress had shorter telomeres than males that were not crowded. Our results indicate that stress alters telomere dynamics, causing attrition and hindering restoration, and these effects are sex dependent. Telomeres may thus provide a biomarker for assessing an individual's cumulative exposure or ability to cope with stressful conditions. PMID:17264051

  18. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress. PMID:19396238

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress May Play a Pivotal Role in Lipid Metabolic Disorders in a Novel Mouse Model of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lingyan; Ding, Shuyan; Li, Yujie; Wang, Laicheng; Chen, Wenbin; Bo, Tao; Wu, Kunpeng; Li, Congcong; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Chao; Gao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is becoming a global health problem due to its increasing prevalence and potential deleterious effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the lipid metabolic disorders in SCH have not been fully clarified. Additionally, progress in elucidating the exact pathogenesis of SCH has been hampered by the lack of optimized mouse models. Methimazole (MMI) was applied to construct a noninvasive SCH mouse model. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were administrated MMI through the drinking water. After 12 weeks, the MMI-treated mice showed the diagnostic criteria for SCH: increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels with constant thyroid hormone levels that persisted for approximately 8 weeks. Notably, SCH mice presented evident lipid metabolic disturbances, including dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Further analysis showed that hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) was induced in the SCH mice or by the elevation of TSH in vitro, likely via the IRE1α/XBP-1 pathway. Interestingly, when we used 4-phenyl butyric acid to repress ER stress in SCH mice for 4 weeks, dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation were both significantly alleviated. Our findings indicate that an optimized SCH mouse model could be established using MMI, and ER stress may play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolic abnormalities in SCH. PMID:27539723

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress May Play a Pivotal Role in Lipid Metabolic Disorders in a Novel Mouse Model of Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Ding, Shuyan; Li, Yujie; Wang, Laicheng; Chen, Wenbin; Bo, Tao; Wu, Kunpeng; Li, Congcong; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Chao; Gao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is becoming a global health problem due to its increasing prevalence and potential deleterious effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the lipid metabolic disorders in SCH have not been fully clarified. Additionally, progress in elucidating the exact pathogenesis of SCH has been hampered by the lack of optimized mouse models. Methimazole (MMI) was applied to construct a noninvasive SCH mouse model. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were administrated MMI through the drinking water. After 12 weeks, the MMI-treated mice showed the diagnostic criteria for SCH: increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels with constant thyroid hormone levels that persisted for approximately 8 weeks. Notably, SCH mice presented evident lipid metabolic disturbances, including dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Further analysis showed that hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) was induced in the SCH mice or by the elevation of TSH in vitro, likely via the IRE1α/XBP-1 pathway. Interestingly, when we used 4-phenyl butyric acid to repress ER stress in SCH mice for 4 weeks, dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation were both significantly alleviated. Our findings indicate that an optimized SCH mouse model could be established using MMI, and ER stress may play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolic abnormalities in SCH. PMID:27539723

  1. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  2. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  3. Interoception and stress

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, André; Vögele, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Afferent neural signals are continuously transmitted from visceral organs to the brain. Interoception refers to the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals by the central nervous system, which can finally result in the conscious perception of bodily processes. Interoception can, therefore, be described as a prominent example of information processing on the ascending branch of the brain–body axis. Stress responses involve a complex neuro-behavioral cascade, which is elicited when the organism is confronted with a potentially harmful stimulus. As this stress cascade comprises a range of neural and endocrine pathways, stress can be conceptualized as a communication process on the descending branch of the brain–body axis. Interoception and stress are, therefore, associated via the bi-directional transmission of information on the brain–body axis. It could be argued that excessive and/or enduring activation (e.g., by acute or chronic stress) of neural circuits, which are responsible for successful communication on the brain–body axis, induces malfunction and dysregulation of these information processes. As a consequence, interoceptive signal processing may be altered, resulting in physical symptoms contributing to the development and/or maintenance of body-related mental disorders, which are associated with stress. In the current paper, we summarize findings on psychobiological processes underlying acute and chronic stress and their interaction with interoception. While focusing on the role of the physiological stress axes (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and autonomic nervous system), psychological factors in acute and chronic stress are also discussed. We propose a positive feedback model involving stress (in particular early life or chronic stress, as well as major adverse events), the dysregulation of physiological stress axes, altered perception of bodily sensations, and the generation of physical symptoms, which may in turn facilitate

  4. Exposure to Heavy Ion Radiation Induces Persistent Oxidative Stress in Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to radiolysis of water molecules and is short lived. Persistent oxidative stress has also been observed after radiation exposure and is implicated in the late effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to determine if long-term oxidative stress in freshly isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is dependent on radiation quality at a dose relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Mice (C57BL/6J; 6 to 8 weeks; female) were irradiated with 2 Gy of γ-rays, a low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, and intestinal tissues and IEC were collected 1 year after radiation exposure. Intracellular ROS, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant activity in IEC were studied by flow cytometry and biochemical assays. Oxidative DNA damage, cell death, and mitogenic activity in IEC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Effects of γ radiation were compared to 56Fe radiation (iso-toxic dose: 1.6 Gy; energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon; LET: 148 keV/µm), we used as representative of high-LET radiation, since it's one of the important sources of high Z and high energy (HZE) radiation in cosmic rays. Radiation quality affected the level of persistent oxidative stress with higher elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide in high-LET 56Fe radiation compared to unirradiated controls and γ radiation. NADPH oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane damage, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were greater in 56Fe-irradiated mice. Compared to γ radiation oxidative DNA damage was higher, cell death ratio was unchanged, and mitotic activity was increased after 56Fe radiation. Taken together our results indicate that long-term functional dysregulation of mitochondria and increased NADPH oxidase activity are major contributing factors towards heavy ion radiation-induced persistent oxidative stress in IEC with potential for neoplastic transformation. PMID

  5. Psychosocial stress moderates the relationships between oxytocin, perinatal depression, and maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Tulandi, Togas; Abenhaim, Haim A; Levin, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    The hormone oxytocin (OT) is of particular interest in the study of childbearing women, as it has a role in the onset and course of labor and breastfeeding. Recent research has linked OT to maternal caregiving behavior towards her infant, and to postpartum depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that psychosocial adversity affects the oxytocin system. The present study investigated the relationship of endogenous OT in women during pregnancy and at 8weeks postpartum to psychosocial stress, maternal symptoms of depression, and maternal sensitive behavior. It was hypothesized that OT would mediate the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal interactive behavior. We also tested the hypothesis that psychosocial stress would moderate the relationship between OT and maternal depressive symptoms and sensitive behavior. A community sample of 287 women was assessed at 12-14weeks of gestation, 32-34weeks of gestation, and 7-9weeks postpartum. We measured plasma OT, maternal symptoms of depression and psychosocial stress. At the postpartum home visit, maternal behavior in interaction with the infant was videotaped, and then coded to assess sensitivity. In the sample as a whole, OT was not related to maternal depressive symptoms or to sensitive maternal behavior. However, among women who reported high levels of psychosocial stress, higher levels of plasma OT were associated with fewer depressive symptoms and more sensitive maternal behavior. These results suggest that endogenous OT may act as a buffer against the deleterious effects of stress, thereby protecting high risk women from developing depressive symptoms and promoting more sensitive maternal interactive behavior. PMID:24956026

  6. Impact of eight weeks endurance training on biochemical parameters and obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Reza; Jafari, Mahvash; Haghshenas, Rouhollah; Ravasi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] High-fat diets (HFD) feeding is an important risk factor for obesity that is accompanied with metabolic syndrome. Appropriate exercise is recommended for obesity prevention. The molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways activated in response to HFD and exercise are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks endurance training on some plasma biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in HFD induced obese rats. [Methods] Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the standard diet (SD) group, endurance training group with a standard diet (ESD), HFD group, and endurance training group with high-fat diet (EHFD). After 8 weeks, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture and plasma were used for determination of biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. [Results] HFD significantly increased malondialdehyde level and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase and the content of glutathione in the plasma. HFD also increased activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, endurance training showed protective effect on changes in these parameters. [Conclusion] These findings suggested that HFD alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance, as evidenced by reduction in the antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Endurance training can be beneficial for the suppression of obesity-induced oxidative stress in HFD rats through modulating antioxidant defense system and reduces the risk of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:27298810

  7. General stress response signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Gralla, Jay D.

    2008-01-01

    E. coli responds to stress by a combination of specific and general transcription signaling pathways. The general pathways typically require the master stress regulator sigma38 (rpoS). Here we show that the signaling from multiple stresses that relax DNA is processed by a non-conserved 8 amino acid tail of the sigma 38 C-terminal domain (CTD). By contrast, responses to stresses that accumulate potassium glutamate do not rely on this short tail, but still require the overall CTD. In vitro transcription and footprinting studies suggest that multiple stresses can target a poised RNA polymerase and activate it by unwrapping DNA from a nucleosome-like state, allowing the RNA polymerase to escape into productive mode. This transition can be accomplished by either the DNA relaxation or potassium glutamate accumulation that characterizes many stresses. PMID:18761624

  8. Luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Olson, Andrew C. K.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material fracture to stem cell fate. However, local stresses in a vast majority of systems cannot be measured due to the limitations of current techniques. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the CdSe-CdS core-shell tetrapod nanocrystal, a local stress sensor with bright luminescence readout. We calibrate the tetrapod luminescence response to stress and use the luminescence signal to report the spatial distribution of local stresses in single polyester fibers under uniaxial strain. The bright stress-dependent emission of the tetrapod, its nanoscale size, and its colloidal nature provide a unique tool that may be incorporated into a variety of micromechanical systems including materials and biological samples to quantify local stresses with high spatial resolution. PMID:21098301

  9. Working women and stress.

    PubMed

    Swanson, N G

    2000-01-01

    Occupational stress is a growing problem in US workplaces and may be a problem of particular magnitude for working women, in part because of sex-specific job stressors (sex discrimination and difficulties combining work and family). Although such stressors have received little research attention until recent years, new research indicates that these stressors may have a negative impact on health and well-being above and beyond the effects of general job stressors (work overload, skill underutilization, etc). A number of stress-reduction strategies have been shown to be useful for working women, ranging from the more common individual stress management techniques to higher-level interventions focused on removing the sources of occupational stress. This article provides a brief overview of occupational stress as it affects working women and presents research on approaches for reducing the negative effects of job stress. PMID:10808656

  10. Stress Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under the Aircraft Structural Integrity program, Langley Research Center and Stress Photonics developed an infrared-based stress measurement system for use in nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures. Stress Photonics commercialized the technology in the DeltaTherm 1000 system, used to compare designs and detect cracks in structures, especially for aging aircraft and bridges. The system combines digital signal processing technology with a special infrared camera to provide instantaneous thermal images and live differential images.

  11. Stress and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23799624

  12. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A computer code which can account for plastic deformation effects on stress generated in silicon sheet grown at high speeds is fully operative. Stress and strain rate distributions are presented for two different sheet temperature profiles. The calculations show that residual stress levels are very sensitive to details of the cooling profile in a sheet with creep. Experimental work has been started in several areas to improve understanding of ribbon temperature profiles and stress distributions associated with a 10 cm wide ribbon cartridge system.

  13. Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20 mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:22973406

  14. Stress fractures of the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S; Pellinen, P; Puranen, J

    1985-01-01

    Over a period of 11 years 15 cases of stress fractures of the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint were treated in athletes. The mean age of the patients was 22.3 years, and there were 9 males and 6 females in the series. All patients were athletes, who began to suffer from the symptoms during training without any trauma. Eight fractures were located in the medial, six in the lateral sesamoid bone, and in one case both sesamoids were affected. The diagnosis was performed on the basis of the history, symptoms, clinical examination, and radiological, or isotope scanning findings. Ten of the patients were treated conservatively by prescribing an avoidance of excessive physical activity and better training shoes. In five cases surgical excision of the fragmented painful sesamoid bone was performed. There were no complications in the series and the athletes could start gradually training 6-8 weeks after the operation. The histology showed fibrotic non-union at the fracture site and supported the diagnosis of stress fracture. Three of the conservatively treated athletes had mild symptoms in intensive training, others had a good end result. PMID:4051695

  15. Stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Heit, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Stress urinary incontinence, the complaint of involuntary leakage during effort or exertion, occurs at least weekly in one third of adult women. The basic evaluation of women with stress urinary incontinence includes a history, physical examination, cough stress test, voiding diary, postvoid residual urine volume, and urinalysis. Formal urodynamics testing may help guide clinical care, but whether urodynamics improves or predicts the outcome of incontinence treatment is not yet clear. The distinction between urodynamic stress incontinence associated with hypermobility and urodynamic stress incontinence associated with intrinsic sphincter deficiency should be viewed as a continuum, rather than a dichotomy, of urethral function. Initial treatment should include behavioral changes and pelvic floor muscle training. Estrogen is not indicated to treat stress urinary incontinence. Bladder training, vaginal devices, and urethral inserts also may reduce stress incontinence. Bulking agents reduce leakage, but effectiveness generally decreases after 1-2 years. Surgical procedures are more likely to cure stress urinary incontinence than nonsurgical procedures but are associated with more adverse events. Based on available evidence at this time, colposuspension (such as Burch) and pubovaginal sling (including the newer midurethral synthetic slings) are the most effective surgical treatments. PMID:15339776

  16. The stressed heart

    SciTech Connect

    Legato, M.J. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: Regulation of gene expression in the normal and overloaded heart; Cell stress and the initiation of growth; Subcellular growth of cardiocytes during hypertrophy; Microcirculation is the stressed heart; and The biochemistry of myocardial failure.

  17. Dealing with Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Here's How, 1983

    1983-01-01

    One of a series of practitioner-oriented newsletters, the document provides elementary school principals with tips for dealing with stress. Because principals spend approximately 80 percent of their workday in face-to-face interchanges (with staff, faculty, parents, and others), the article gives warning signals indicative of too much stress. A…

  18. Foster Parent Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Graham; Morrissette, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Research findings regarding foster-parent stress and implications for counselors and counselor educators are discussed. Eleven significant themes are reported from a qualitative and quantitative study of rural foster parents (N=156). Stressful events that affect the well-being of foster parents and their relationships with children and…

  19. Stress detection in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How can the status of plant stress be measured rapidly and accurately in the hundreds of trees managed within a commercial orchard? Two technologies have been developed over the past two decades that will provide useful information to detect plant stress in orchard systems: 1) Reflectance of visibl...

  20. Keeping Fit: Stress Relievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    With all the extra demands that are placed on teachers during the months of May and June, the end of the year can be an extremely stressful time. This article describes several tips for diminishing the effects of end of year stress. The following relaxation tips are described: (1) Neck and Upper Shoulder Stretch; (2) Superman Stretch; (3) Doorway…

  1. Steps To Beat Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Explains techniques for reducing stress: diaphragmatic breathing, relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, and meditation. Two sidebars define the fight-or-flight response and the camp administration's role in helping to lower stress through staff training and reduction of camp-wide stressors. (SAS)

  2. Correlates of School Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    As part of a continuing series of research studies on stress in schools, this study examined the construct validity of peripheral temperature at the fingertips as a measure of school stress. Measurements were made in classes selected at random from 11 volunteer schools in South Carolina. Three types of correlational studies were undertaken: (1)…

  3. Relaxation techniques for stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know. February 2013. Available at: nccih.nih.gov/health/stress/relaxation.htm . Accessed September 21, 2015. National Center ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Stress Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Risk/Stress Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdtfeger, Don; Howell, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies stress as a definite health hazard and risk factor involved in a variety of health situations. Proposes that stress identification efforts be considered in environmental analysis so that a more complete approach to risk assessment and management and health hazard prevention can occur. (ML)

  5. Stress in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  6. Release from Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    An overview of the most recent ideas on managerial stress is presented along with worksheets and exercises for a program to help educational administrators, their staffs, and secretaries cope with and reduce organizational and personal stress. Research cited includes the author's survey of 1,200 Oregon school administrators and over 200…

  7. Stress Management for Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi D'Annolfo; (3) "Cognitive…

  8. Stress and Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... weakness to stress. "The fact that we could increase these animals' ability to adapt to stress by blocking BDNF and its signals means that it may be possible to develop compounds that improve ... how to increase resistance in situations that might otherwise result in ...

  9. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A program to study stress generation mechanisms in silicon sheet growth was started. The purpose of the research is to define post-growth temperature profiles for the sheet that can minimize its stress during growth at high speeds, e.g., greater than 3 cm/min. The initial tasks described concern work in progress toward the development of computing capabilities to (1) model stress-temperature relationships in steady-state ribbon growth, and (2) provide a means to calculate realistic temperature fields in ribbon, given growth system component temperatures as boundary conditions. If it is determined that low stress configurations can be achieved, the modeling is to be tested experimentally by constructing low-stress growth systems for EFG silicon ribbon.

  10. Stress on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    A Stress Test designed to help college students increase awareness of stress and ways they deal with it is presented, along with suggestions to reduce stress. The stress test was presented at a workshop by George Washington University graduate students. The test's four scales measure ways that students cope with stress and the student's…

  11. Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... new tasks if they are putting you into overload. Think positive. Note what you’ve accomplished at ... TALK (1-800-273-8255). Stress: NIH Health Information Fact Sheet on Stress Psychological Stress and Cancer ...

  12. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  13. [Osteoporosis and stress].

    PubMed

    Kumano, Hiroaki

    2005-09-01

    There may be three ways of relationship between stress and osteoporosis. The first is that stress induces some physiological changes leading to osteoporosis. The second is that stress induces behavioral distortion of eating, drinking, exercise, and sleep habits, which leads to osteoporosis. The third is that osteoporosis, on the other hand, brings about anxiety, depression, loss of social roles, and social isolation, which leads to stress. The susceptible sex and age groups are postmenopausal women and young women. The abrupt decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women promotes reabsorption of bone, and it was also reported that the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is downstream of estrogen was related to the production of osteoclast and to the development of disability of the aged. Regarding the association with stress, while it was reported that depression or depressive states directly increased inflammation-induced cytokines including IL-6, it was also pointed out that stress-induced easy infectious may produce chronic infection, which indirectly increases inflammation-induced cytokines. Anorexia Nervosa that is assumed to be associated with adolescent developmental stress is noteworthy in young women. Amenorrhea is always present in this disease, and in addition to bone reabsorption associated with estrogen deficiency, the decrease of bone formation associated with malnutrition may be related to the development of osteoporosis. PMID:16137956

  14. Bolt Stress Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo, an engineer is using a new Ultrasonic Bolt Stress Monitor developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to determine whether a bolt is properly tightened. A highly accurate device, the monitor is an important tool in construction of such structures as pressure vessels, bridges and power plants, wherein precise measurement of the stress on a tightened bolt is critical. Overtightened or undertightened bolts can fail and cause serious industrial accidents or costly equipment break-downs. There are a number of methods for measuring bolt stress. Most widely used and least costly is the torque wrench, which is inherently inaccurate; it does not take into account the friction between nut and bolt, which has an influence on stress. At the other end of the spectrum, there are accurate stress-measuring systems, but they are expensive and not portable. The battery-powered Langley monitor fills a need; it is inexpensive, lightweight, portable and extremely accurate because it is not subject to friction error. Sound waves are transmitted to the bolt and a return signal is received. As the bolt is tightened, it undergoes changes in resonance due to stress, in the manner that a violin string changes tone when it is tightened. The monitor measures the changes in resonance and provides a reading of real stress on the bolt. The device, patented by NASA, has aroused wide interest and a number of firms have applied for licenses to produce it for the commercial market.

  15. Blueberry treatment attenuated cirrhotic and preneoplastic lesions and oxidative stress in the liver of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bingül, İlknur; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Aydın, A Fatih; Soluk-Tekkeşin, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-09-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer normally develops in stages that progress from cirrhosis and carcinoma. Increased oxidative stress is suggested to play a role in DEN-induced carcinogenicity. Blueberries (BB) contain high antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effect of BB supplementation on development of DEN-induced cirrhosis and neoplastic lesions in the liver. Rats were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg; i.p.) three times with an interval of 15 days at 4, 6, and 8 weeks and sacrificed 8 weeks after the last DEN injection. They were also fed on 8% BB (w/w) containing chow for 16 weeks. Hepatic damage markers in serum were determined together with hepatic histopathological examinations. Hydroxyproline (HYP), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione (GSH) levels, and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and their mRNA expressions were measured. Protein and mRNA expressions of glutathione transferase-pi (GST-pi) were evaluated as a marker of preneoplastic lesions. BB supplementation decreased hepatic damage markers in serum and hepatic MDA, DC, and PC levels, but SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and their mRNA expressions remained unchanged in DEN-treated rats. BB attenuated cirrhotic changes and decreased hepatic HYP levels and GST-pi expressions. Our results indicate that BB is effective in decreasing development of DEN-induced hepatic cirrhosis and preneoplastic lesions by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself without affecting activities and mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26684621

  16. Investigation of cytokines, oxidative stress, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers after orange juice consumption by normal and overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Grace K. Z. S.; Cesar, Thais B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal adiposity has been linked to metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation. Objective To test the hypothesis that consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) would improve metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine levels in normal and overweight subjects with increased waist circumference. Design Subjects were divided into two groups in accordance with their body mass index: normal and overweight. Both groups of individuals consumed 750 mL of OJ daily for 8 weeks. Body composition (weight, height, percentage of fat mass, and waist circumference); metabolic biomarkers (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and glycated hemoglobin); oxidative biomarkers (malondialdehyde and DPPH•); inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]); cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ); and diet were evaluated before and after consumption of OJ for 8 weeks. Results The major findings of this study were: 1) no alteration in body composition in either group; 2) improvement of the lipid profile, evidenced by a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C; 3) a potential stimulation of the immune response due to increase in IL-12; 4) anti-inflammatory effect as a result of a marked reduction in hsCRP; and 5) antioxidant action by the enhancement of total antioxidant capacity and the reduction of lipid peroxidation, in both normal and overweight subjects. Conclusions OJ consumption has a positive effect on important biomarkers of health status in normal and overweight subjects, thereby supporting evidence that OJ acts as functional food and could be consumed as part of a healthy diet to prevent metabolic and chronic diseases. PMID:26490535

  17. Chronic unpredicted mild stress-induced depression alter saxagliptin pharmacokinetics and CYP450 activity in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengchao; Wei, Hongyan; Duan, Jingjing; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study was to explore the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (Sax) in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats complicated with depression induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS). The comorbidity of diabetic patients with depression is becoming more and more epidemic. Whether depression mental disorder alters the pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes patients is not clear. Methods. Five-week-old male GK rats were kept in the cage for 7 weeks in a specific pathogen free (SPF)-grade lab until the emergence of diabetes and were then divided into two groups: control group and depression model group. Rats in the CUMS-induced depression group were exposed to a series of stressors for 8 weeks. Plasma serotonin and dopamine levels and behavior of open-field test were used to confirm the establishment of the depression model. All rats were given 0.5 mg/kg Sax orally after 8 weeks and blood samples were collected at different time points. The Sax concentration was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The CYP450 activity of the liver microsomes was determined by using cocktails of probe drugs in which the activities of CYP enzymes were assessed through the determination of the production of the probe drugs. Results. Statistically significant differences in Sax pharmacokinetics were observed for area under curve, clearance, peak concentration, peak time and mean residence time between the depression rats and the control rats, while no statistical differences were observed for half-time and distribution volume by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The CYP450 activity had different changes in the depression group. Conclusions. These results indicated that CUMS-induced depression alters the drug metabolic process of Sax and CYP450 activity of the liver microsomal enzymes in GK rats. PMID:26819853

  18. Chronic unpredicted mild stress-induced depression alter saxagliptin pharmacokinetics and CYP450 activity in GK rats

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhengchao; Wei, Hongyan; Duan, Jingjing; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study was to explore the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (Sax) in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats complicated with depression induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS). The comorbidity of diabetic patients with depression is becoming more and more epidemic. Whether depression mental disorder alters the pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes patients is not clear. Methods. Five-week-old male GK rats were kept in the cage for 7 weeks in a specific pathogen free (SPF)-grade lab until the emergence of diabetes and were then divided into two groups: control group and depression model group. Rats in the CUMS-induced depression group were exposed to a series of stressors for 8 weeks. Plasma serotonin and dopamine levels and behavior of open-field test were used to confirm the establishment of the depression model. All rats were given 0.5 mg/kg Sax orally after 8 weeks and blood samples were collected at different time points. The Sax concentration was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The CYP450 activity of the liver microsomes was determined by using cocktails of probe drugs in which the activities of CYP enzymes were assessed through the determination of the production of the probe drugs. Results. Statistically significant differences in Sax pharmacokinetics were observed for area under curve, clearance, peak concentration, peak time and mean residence time between the depression rats and the control rats, while no statistical differences were observed for half-time and distribution volume by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The CYP450 activity had different changes in the depression group. Conclusions. These results indicated that CUMS-induced depression alters the drug metabolic process of Sax and CYP450 activity of the liver microsomal enzymes in GK rats. PMID:26819853

  19. Assessment of Workplace Stress: Occupational Stress, Its Consequences, and Common Causes of Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    This chapter introduces teachers and other education professionals to the assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of what occupational stress is, and overview of the consequences of prolonged stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it presents methods for reducing occupational stress through…

  20. Validating Measures of Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, Loyd S.; Wolf, Glenda E.

    1982-01-01

    A validation study in the development of empirical measures of teacher stress is presented. Role-related, task-based, and environmental stress measures demonstrated internal consistency and provided reliable and valid multivariate assessment of teacher stress. (PN)