Science.gov

Sample records for 8-week period participants

  1. Sertraline and periodic limb movements during sleep: an 8-week open-label study in depressed patients with insomnia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Li, Xueli; Ren, Yanzhen; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Wuhan; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might induce or exacerbate periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS). However, most of these studies were retrospective and cross-sectional studies with small sample sizes on a selective SSRI, fluoxetine. Because different SSRIs have different pharmacologic profiles, it was not certain if other SSRIs also might lead to PLMS. Data were taken from an open-label 8-week trial of sertraline in depressive patients with insomnia (n=31). Depressed patients were administered sertraline 50mg at 8:00am on the first day, and the dosage was subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200mg daily during the 8-week trial. All participants were tested by repeated polysomnography (PSG) (baseline, first day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Periodic leg movements (PLM) were visually counted and the PLM index (PLMI) was calculated. PLMS was defined as PLMI ⩾5, and significant PLMS was defined as PLMI ⩾15. Compared with baseline (PLMI, 3.6±1.5), all PLMI indices increased on the immediate administration of sertraline on the first day (PLMI, 5.1±3.9). From the 14th day onward, PLMI became stable and significantly higher than baseline and the first day (8.7±3.1 on the 14th day, 8.3±3.7 on the 28th day, and 8.5±3.6 on the 56th day; F[11.81]; P=.003). The clinical responses and PSG characteristics continuously improved during the 8-week trial. The PLMS group (PLMI ⩾5) had a higher arousal index (AI) than the non-PLMS group on the 14th day (9.4±5.5 vs 5.2±3.7; t test, 4.22; P=.03) and the 56th day (8.1±5.5 vs 4.3±3.7; z score, 3.11; P=.04); albeit, there was no significant clinical disturbances in the PLMS group. PLMS were increased during sertraline treatment, but only a few of the PLMS reached the significant level. This effect of sertraline on PLMS might be dosage dependent. Although the sertraline-induced PLMS did not seem to cause significant clinical disturbance, the PLMS group (PLMI

  2. Cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance responses induced by 8 weeks of basic training followed by 8 weeks of specialized military training.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nindl, Bradley C; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in cardiovascular and neuromuscular performances induced by 8 weeks of basic training (BT) period followed by 8 weeks of special training period (STP). Fifty-seven male soldiers (age: 19.2 ± 0.9 years, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 73.8 ± 12.4 kg) volunteered for tests of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal bilateral isometric force of the leg and arm extensor muscles. During the first 8 weeks, VO2peak increased by 5.6% (45.0 ± 8 vs. 48.8 ± 7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), but no further changes were observed during the next 8 weeks (49.1 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Maximal isometric force of the arm and leg extensors increased during the first 8 weeks (arm: 680 ± 182 vs. 774 ± 182 N; leg: 2,584 ± 724 vs. 2,730 ± 823 N) by 3.8% (p < 0.001) and 8.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, with no further increases by week 16 (arm: 718 ± 170 N; leg: 2,679 ± 967 N). Body fat percentage (pre: 10.4 ± 4, post-BT: 9.0 ± 4, post-STP: 9.3 ± 3%), and waist circumference decreased (83.4 ± 10, 80.9 ± 8, 80.8 ± 7 cm) during BT, whereas no changes were noticed thereafter. In conclusion, it was found that physical fitness of conscripts improved significantly during the Finnish military 8-week BT at the beginning of their military service. A plateau in the improvement of physical performance during STP is largely attributed to a lack of continued progression or periodization in their training program. For optimal improvements in physical performance during STP, it might be reasonable to include a structured physical training with greater intensity and training volume with optimal periodization than during BT.

  3. An 8-week Aquatic Exercise Program is Effective at Improving Gait Stability of the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Sung; Roh, Su Yeon; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aquatic exercise on the gait stability of the elderly using dynamic factors: center of mass (COM), velocity of center of mass (COMV), and center of pressure (COP). [Subjects] Eleven elderly participants (age: 77.18 ± 4.96 yrs, height: 149.48 ± 3.61 cm, body mass: 56.94 ± 6.62 kg, and leg length: 82.36 ± 2.98 cm), participated in this study. [Methods] To identify the 8-week aquatic training effect, 3-D motion analysis with 7 infrared cameras and one force plate, was performed. [Results] For the COM-COP inclination angles, significantly decreased medial inclination angles were shown in both the posterior and anterior swing phases. For the COMV-COP inclination angles, decreased medial inclination angles were shown in both the posterior and anterior swing phases, but significant difference was found only in the posterior phase. [Conclusion] The results suggest that 8 weeks aquatic exercise is effective at improving the gait stability of the elderly. Further studies should extend the training period to gain statistically significant results for the effect of aquatic exercise in the anterior-posterior direction. PMID:24396212

  4. The effects of an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention on executive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2014-09-01

    Few scientific studies have examined movement-based embodied contemplative practices such as yoga and their effects on cognition. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention on executive function measures of task switching and working memory capacity. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 118; mean age = 62.0) were randomized to one of two groups: a Hatha yoga intervention or a stretching-strengthening control. Both groups participated in hour-long exercise classes 3×/week over the 8-week study period. All participants completed established tests of executive function including the task switching paradigm, n-back and running memory span at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances showed significantly shorter reaction times on the mixed and repeat task switching trials (partial η(2) = .04, p < .05) for the Hatha yoga group. Higher accuracy was recorded on the single trials (partial η(2) = .05, p < .05), the 2-back condition of the n-back (partial η(2) = .08, p < .001), and partial recall scores (partial η(2) = .06, p < .01) of running span task. Following 8 weeks of yoga practice, participants in the yoga intervention group showed significantly improved performance on the executive function measures of working memory capacity and efficiency of mental set shifting and flexibility compared with their stretching-strengthening counterparts. Although the underlying mechanisms need to be investigated, these results demand larger systematic trials to thoroughly examine effects of yoga on executive function as well as across other domains of cognition, and its potential to maintain or improve cognitive functioning in the aging process. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Effects of an 8-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Executive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background. Few scientific studies have examined movement-based embodied contemplative practices such as yoga and their effects on cognition. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention on executive function measures of task switching and working memory capacity. Methods. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 118; mean age = 62.0) were randomized to one of two groups: a Hatha yoga intervention or a stretching–strengthening control. Both groups participated in hour-long exercise classes 3×/week over the 8-week study period. All participants completed established tests of executive function including the task switching paradigm, n-back and running memory span at baseline and follow-up. Results. Analysis of covariances showed significantly shorter reaction times on the mixed and repeat task switching trials (partial η2 = .04, p < .05) for the Hatha yoga group. Higher accuracy was recorded on the single trials (partial η2 = .05, p < .05), the 2-back condition of the n-back (partial η2 = .08, p < .001), and partial recall scores (partial η2 = .06, p < .01) of running span task. Conclusions. Following 8 weeks of yoga practice, participants in the yoga intervention group showed significantly improved performance on the executive function measures of working memory capacity and efficiency of mental set shifting and flexibility compared with their stretching–strengthening counterparts. Although the underlying mechanisms need to be investigated, these results demand larger systematic trials to thoroughly examine effects of yoga on executive function as well as across other domains of cognition, and its potential to maintain or improve cognitive functioning in the aging process. PMID:25024234

  6. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  7. Safety and efficacy of an 8-week regimen of grazoprevir plus ruzasvir plus uprifosbuvir compared with grazoprevir plus elbasvir plus uprifosbuvir in participants without cirrhosis infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (C-CREST-1 and C-CREST-2, part A): two randomised, phase 2, open-label trials.

    PubMed

    Gane, Edward J; Pianko, Stephen; Roberts, Stuart K; Thompson, Alexander J; Zeuzem, Stefan; Zuckerman, Eli; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Foster, Graham R; Agarwal, Kosh; Laursen, Alex L; Gerstoft, Jan; Gao, Wei; Huang, Hsueh-Cheng; Fitzgerald, Brian; Fernsler, Doreen; Li, Jerry J; Grandhi, Anjana; Liu, Hong; Su, Feng-Hsiu; Wan, Shuyan; Zeng, Zhen; Chen, Huei-Ling; Dutko, Frank J; Nguyen, Bach-Yen T; Wahl, Janice; Robertson, Michael N; Barr, Eliav; Yeh, Wendy W; Plank, Rebeca M; Butterton, Joan R; Esteban, Rafael

    2017-08-09

    New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies with pan-genotypic efficacy are needed. The goals of part A of C-CREST-1 and C-CREST-2 were to compare the efficacies of two doses (300 mg or 450 mg once daily) of uprifosbuvir (MK-3682; NS5B inhibitor) in an 8-week regimen combined with grazoprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor; 100 mg once daily) and an NS5A inhibitor, either elbasvir (50 mg once daily) or ruzasvir (MK-8408; 60 mg once daily), and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of these combination regimens in individuals infected with genotypes 1, 2, or 3. Part A of these phase 2, randomised, multicentre, open-label, clinical trials enrolled participants from 11 countries, aged 18 years or older, chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3, with HCV RNA of at least 10 000 IU/mL, without evidence of cirrhosis, who had not received previous treatment for HCV infection. Within each HCV genotype, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) with a block size of 4, to open-label treatment to one of four treatment groups: grazoprevir (100 mg/day) plus ruzasvir (60 mg/day) plus uprifosbuvir (300 mg/day); grazoprevir (100 mg/day) plus ruzasvir (60 mg/day) plus uprifosbuvir (450 mg/day); grazoprevir (100 mg/day) plus elbasvir (50 mg/day) plus uprifosbuvir (300 mg/day); or grazoprevir (100 mg/day) plus elbasvir (50 mg/day) plus uprifosbuvir (450 mg/day), according to a computer-generated allocation schedule. Randomisation was centrally implemented using an interactive voice response system and integrated web response system. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants achieving sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12; HCV RNA less than the lower limit of quantitation at 12 weeks after the end of all study therapy) in the per-protocol analysis set, which included all participants who were randomised and received at least one dose of study drug. The trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02332707 and NCT02332720. 241 participants were

  8. Brain structural properties predict psychologically mediated hypoalgesia in an 8-week sham acupuncture treatment for migraine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jixin; Mu, Junya; Liu, Qianqian; Dun, Wanghuan; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies described brain structural changes that comprise the mechanisms underlying individual differences in migraine development and maintenance. However, whether such interindividual variability in migraine was observed in a pretreatment scan is a predisposition for subsequent hypoalgesia to placebo treatment that remains largely unclear. Using T1-weighted imaging, we investigated this issue in 50 healthy controls (HC) and 196 patients with migraine without aura (MO). An 8-week double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled acupuncture was used, and we only focused on the data from the sham acupuncture group. Eighty patients participated in an 8-weeks sham acupuncture treatment, and were subdivided (50% change in migraine days from baseline) into recovering (MOr) and persisting (MOp) patients. Optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional connectivity analysis were performed to evaluate brain structural and functional changes. At baseline, MOp and MOr had similar migraine activity, anxiety and depression; reduced migraine days were accompanied by decreased anxiety in MOr. In our findings, the MOr group showed a smaller volume in the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and decreased mPFC-related functional connectivity was found in the default mode network. Additionally, the reduction in migraine days after placebo treatment was significantly associated with the baseline gray matter volume of the mPFC which could also predict post-treatment groups with high accuracy. It indicated that individual differences for the brain structure in the pain modulatory system at baseline served as a substrate on how an individual facilitated or diminished hypoalgesia responses to placebo treatment in migraineurs. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4386-4397, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Muscle metabolism during exercise in dogs after 8-week confinement.

    PubMed

    Kruk, B; Brzezinska, Z; Nazar, K; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H; Falecka-Wieczorek, I; Greenleaf, J E

    1996-09-01

    Several indicators of muscle metabolism were measured in dogs during exercise following 8 weeks of confinement in cages. Muscle tissue samples were studied at rest and following exercise for adenine nucleotides, creatine phosphate, creatine, glycogen, pyruvate, and lactate. Results indicate that confinement results in less efficient metabolic responses to exercise, decreased muscle glycogen at rest, and changes in the equilibrium between ATP breakdown and resynthesis during exercise.

  10. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention.

  11. 10 CFR 603.665 - Periodic audits of nonprofit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...

  12. 10 CFR 603.665 - Periodic audits of nonprofit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...

  13. 10 CFR 603.665 - Periodic audits of nonprofit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...

  14. 10 CFR 603.665 - Periodic audits of nonprofit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...

  15. 10 CFR 603.665 - Periodic audits of nonprofit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...

  16. Follow up of some anthropometric and ergometric parameters during 8 week resistance training.

    PubMed

    Drapsin, Miodrag; Barak, Otto; Popadié-Gaćesa, Jelena; Klasnja, Aleksandar; Naumović, Nada; Grujić, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Muscle cell adaptation to physical activity is well known. Hypertrophy is one of the basic changes but metabolic changes are following the anatomic ones as well. The aim of the study was to follow up the changes of the ergometric parameters and surface area of the thigh muscles evoked by the heavy resistance strength training. The study included 15 male subjects, who took part in the heavy resistance strength training lasting 8 weeks. Anthropometric (surface area of the thigh muscles) and ergometric (peak power) parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the 8 week period in order to evaluate the changes in the thigh muscles. The surface area of the thigh muscles increased significantly (p < 0.05) (the left leg 9.26 +/- 10.32 cm2 and the right leg 9.07 +/- 0.57 cm2). Metabolic changes were assessed via Wingate test and also showed significant increase (p < 0.05). This finding indirectly indicates the increase in anaerobic capacity of the trained muscles. The heavy resistance training evidently influenced the changes in the trained muscles. After the 8 week period both antropometric and metabolic changes were evident, and significant.

  17. The activity of satellite cells and myonuclei following 8 weeks of strength training in young men with suppressed testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kvorning, T; Kadi, F; Schjerling, P; Andersen, M; Brixen, K; Suetta, C; Madsen, K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate how suppression of endogenous testosterone during an 8-week strength training period influences the activity of satellite cells and myonuclei. Twenty-two moderately trained young men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded intervention study. The participants were randomized to treatment with a GnRH analogue, goserelin (n = 12), which suppresses testosterone or placebo (n = 10) for 12 weeks. The strength training period of 8 weeks started after 4 weeks of treatment and included exercises for all major muscles. Biopsies were obtained from the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. Testosterone resting level in goserelin was 10-20 times lower compared with placebo, and the training-induced increase in the level of testosterone was abolished in goserelin. Training increased satellite cells number in type II fibres by 20% in placebo and by 52% in goserelin (P < 0.01), whereas the myonuclear number significantly increased by 12% in type II fibres in placebo and remained unchanged in goserelin (P < 0.05). No changes in satellite cells and myonuclei were seen in type I fibres in either group. Data from the microarray analysis indicated that low testosterone affects the bone morphogenetic proteins signalling, which might regulate proliferation vs. differentiation of satellite cells. Eight weeks of strength training enhances the myonuclear number in type II fibres, and this is largely blocked by the suppression of testosterone. The data indicate that low testosterone levels could reduce the differentiation of satellite cells to myonuclei via the bone morphogenetic proteins signalling pathway, resulting in reduced increases in lean leg mass. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effect of 8 week pilates exercise on body composition in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cakmakçi, O

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 8-weeks modern pilates mat and ball exercise program on body mass, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio on sedentary obese women total of 58 health sedentary obese women volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: pilates training group (PTG; N = 34) and control group (CG; N = 27). A pilates training program was applied to the subjects one hour per day four days per week during 8 weeks. The subjects in the control group did not participate in the training and participated only in the pre and post test measurements. BMI, waist circumference, Waist-hip ratio, 4-site skinfold thickness (Biceps, Triceps, Supscapula and Iliac), fat percentage, resting metabolic rate, Lean body mass and flexibility were assessed before and after the pilates training program. The SPSS statistical program (version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were run on each of the dependent variables. For all analyses, the criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p < 0.05. 8 weeks of pilates training program has been found to be effective on weight, Body mass index, Lean body mass, waist-hip ratio, biceps, triceps, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate, and flexibility in PTG (p < 0.05). The control group showed no significant differences in the same measures post-intervention. As a result there was a positive effect of Modern Pilates mat and ball exercises of reducing obesity, body composition parameters and flexibility at sedentary obese women.

  19. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry.

  20. Fitness Changes After an 8-Week Fitness Coaching Program at a Regional Youth Detention Facility.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, John; Kukay, Jake

    2016-01-01

    A Surgeon General's report states that there is a favorable relationship between exercise and chronic disease. Research suggests that exercise programs for elderly inmates may have a positive effect on the number of infirmary visits, which in turn may have a long-term effect on inmate health care costs. This exploratory descriptive double case study sought to add to the minimal information in peer-reviewed research journals by examining the effects of fitness coaching on two juveniles at a youth detention facility in Southwest Montana. The results showed that both participants made fitness improvements following the 8-week program and both perceived positive effects on self-concept and overall sense of well-being from participating in this program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Effect of 8-week high-intensity stretching training on biceps femoris architecture.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandro R; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have reported no changes on muscle architecture (MA) after static stretching interventions; however, authors have argued that stretching duration and intensity may not have been sufficient. A high-intensity stretching intervention targeting the knee flexors with an 8-week duration was conducted to observe the effects on biceps femoris long head (BF) architecture. Participants (n = 5) performed an average of 3.1 assisted-stretching sessions per week, whereas a control group (n = 5) did not perform stretching. The knee extension passive maximal range of motion (ROM), and BF fascicle length (FL), fascicle angle, and muscle thickness were assessed before and after the intervention. A significant increase was observed for FL (+12.3 mm, p = 0.04) and maximal ROM (+14.2°, p = 0.04) for the stretching group after the intervention. No significant changes were observed for the control group in any parameter. An 8-week high-intensity stretching program was observed to efficiently increase the BF FL, as well as the knee extension maximal ROM. Stretching intensity and duration may play an important role on MA adaptation.

  2. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training.

  3. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  4. Early antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida presenting with a "step" in the posterior contour of an 8-week embryo.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Chander; Hegde, Amogh; Shah, Jatin; Sheth, Jayesh

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of spina bifida in the upper thoracic spine with an accompanying meningocoele suspected at 8 weeks' gestation via transvaginal sonography and confirmed at 13 weeks' gestation via 3-dimensional sonography. The fetal cranial vault and intracranial structures were normal. The only finding in the 8-week sonogram was a subtle angulation or "step" in the posterior contour of the embryo; this may be attributed to kyphosis, which often accompanies this condition. The presence of a "step" in the fetal contour must alert the sonologist to the possibility of spina bifida. To our knowledge, this is the earliest antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  6. The effects of an 8-week stabilization exercise program on lumbar movement sense in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jean-Alexandre; Preuss, Richard; Henry, Sharon M; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Larivière, Christian

    2016-01-14

    Lumbar stabilization exercises have gained popularity and credibility in patients with non-acute low back pain. Previous research provides more support to strength/resistance and coordination/stabilisation programs. Some authors also suggest adding strength/resistance training following motor control exercises. However, the effect of such a lumbar stabilization program on lumbar proprioception has never been tested so far. The present study investigated the effects of an 8-week stabilization exercise program on lumbar proprioception in patients with low back pain (LBP) and assessed the 8-week test-retest reliability of lumbar proprioception in control subjects. Lumbar proprioception was measured before and after an 8-week lumbar stabilization exercise program for patients with LBP. Control subjects participated in the same protocol but received no treatment. The lumbar proprioception measure showed moderate reliability. Patients with LBP and control subjects demonstrated no differences in lumbar proprioception at baseline. Participants from both groups showed better proprioception following the 8-week interval, demonstrating the presence of learning between testing days. The improvement of lumbar proprioception seen in both groups was ascribed to motor learning of the test itself. The effect of lumbar stabilization exercises on lumbar proprioception remains unknown because the LBP group did not show lumbar proprioception impairments.

  7. Improvement of Interoceptive Processes after an 8-Week Body Scan Intervention.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dana; Messner, Matthias; Pollatos, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Interoceptive processes are defined as ability to detect sensations arising within the body. There is a growing body of research investigating ways of improving interoceptive processes. One promising approach increasing the attention to bodily sensations is the body scan (BS), a method stemming from mindfulness-based stress reduction. Research so far revealed only heterogenous findings of meditational practice and mindfulness-based stress reduction on interoceptive processes. Even more importantly, there is no study considering the effect of an 8-week BS intervention on interoceptive processes and the distinguishable subdomains of interoception. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to examine the effects of a BS intervention on different interoceptive subdomains over 8 weeks of training in two different samples. Methods: In study 1, healthy participants executed a 20 min standardized audiotaped BS in the BS intervention group (n = 25) each day over 8 weeks. The control group (n = 24) listened to an audio book for the same amount of time. In study 2, the BS group (n = 18) was compared to an inactive control group (n = 18). In both studies, three measurement points were realized and interoceptive accuracy (IAc) - using a heartbeat perception task - as well as interoceptive sensibility (IS) - using confidence ratings for the heartbeat perception task and the subscale 'interoceptive awareness' of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) - were assessed. Results: In study 1, we found, as a descriptive trend, IAc and confidence ratings to be increased irrespective of the condition. However, post hoc analysis revealed a significant improvement of IAc between T1 and T3 in the BS intervention only. IS revealed to be unaffected by the interventions. In study 2, we observed a significant positive effect of the BS intervention on IAc and confidence ratings compared to the inactive controls. As in study 1, IS (EDI-2) was unaffected by the intervention

  8. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  9. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  10. Hatha Yoga Practice Improves Attention and Processing Speed in Older Adults: Results from an 8-Week Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is well documented across various aspects of cognitive function, including attention and processing speed, and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity play an important role in preventing cognitive decline and maintaining or even improving cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention on attention and processing speed among older adults. Participants (n = 118; mean age, 62 ± 5.59) were randomly assigned to an 8-week Hatha yoga group or a stretching control group and completed cognitive assessments-Attention Network Task, Trail Making Test parts A and B, and Pattern Comparison Test-at baseline and after the 8-week intervention. Analyses of covariance revealed significantly faster reaction times for the yoga group on the Attention Network Task's neutral, congruent, and incongruent conditions (p ≤ 0.04). The yoga intervention also improved participants' visuospatial and perceptual processing on the Trail Making Test part B (p = 0.002) and pattern comparison (p < 0.001) tests. These results suggest that yoga practice that includes postures, breathing, and meditative exercises lead to improved attentional and information processing abilities. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely speculative, more systematic trials are needed to explore the extent of cognitive benefits and their neurobiological mechanisms.

  11. Eating glutinous brown rice twice a day for 8 weeks improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Nagai, Y; Uehara, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ishii, S; Kato, H; Tanaka, Y

    2017-05-08

    We recently reported that eating glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day improved the whole-day glucose profile and postprandial plasma glucose level compared with eating white rice (WR) or standard brown rice. However, it was unknown whether eating GBR could maintain improvement of glycemic control for a longer period. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of GBR intake for 8 weeks on glycemic control in outpatients with diabetes mellitus. This was an open-label randomized crossover study in outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Among the 18 subjects registered in this study, 2 were excluded from analysis. After a 1-week observation period while eating WR twice a day, the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. One group ate GBR as a staple food twice a day for 8 weeks and then switched to WR for the next 8 weeks, while the other group ate WR first and then switched to GBR. A mixed meal tolerance test was performed at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of dietary intervention to evaluate plasma glucose and serum C-peptide. None of the subjects failed to complete the study because of disliking the taste of GBR. Hemoglobin A1c (7.5-7.2%, P=0.014) and glycoalbumin (20.4-19.4%, P=0.029) both decreased significantly when the patients were eating GBR. Additionally, the 30-min postprandial plasma glucose level (194-172 mg dl(-1), P=0.031) and the incremental area under the concentration vs time curve of serum C-peptide (31.3-22.1 ng min ml(-1), P=0.023) during the mixed meal tolerance test were also decreased significantly by intake of GBR. In contrast, there were no changes of glycemic control during the WR period. We confirmed that GBR was well tolerated for 8 weeks and improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance. PMID:28149424

  13. Medial orbital gyrus modulation during spatial perspective changes: Pre- vs. post-8 weeks mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation exercises the ability to shift to an "observer perspective". That means learning to observe internally and externally arising stimulations in a detached perspective. Both before and after attending a 8-weeks mindfulness training (MT) participants underwent an fMRI experiment (serving as their own internal control) and solved a own-body mental transformation task, which is used to investigate embodiment and perspective taking (and an non-bodily mental transformation task as control). We found a stimulus×time-points interaction: the own-body mental transformation task (vs. non-bodily) in the post (vs. pre-MT) significantly increased activations in the medial orbital gyrus. The signal change in the right medial orbital gyrus significantly correlated with changes in a self-maturity personality scale. A brief MT caused increased activation in areas involved in self related processing and person perspective changes, together with an increase in self-maturity, consistently with the aim of mindfulness meditation that is exercising change in self perspective.

  14. Heartburn treatment in primary care: randomised, double blind study for 8 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Hatlebakk, Jan G; Hyggen, Arild; Madsen, Per H; Walle, Per O; Schulz, Tom; Mowinckel, Petter; Bernklev, Tomm; Berstad, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects and tolerability of omeprazole and cisapride with that of placebo for control of heartburn in primary care patients. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Setting 65 primary care practices in Norway. Participants 483 untreated patients with complaints of heartburn ⩾3 days a week, with at most grade 1 reflux oesophagitis. Interventions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cisapride 20 mg twice daily, or placebo for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Adequate control of heartburn, defined as ⩽1 day of the past 7 days with no more than mild heartburn, after 4 weeks of treatment. Results In the all patients treated analysis, adequate control of heartburn was achieved in 71% of patients taking omeprazole, 22% taking cisapride, and 18% taking placebo after 4 weeks of treatment (omeprazole v cisapride and placebo, P<0.0001; cisapride v placebo, non-significant). Results were comparable in patients with or without reflux oesophagitis. In patients treated with omeprazole only, symptom control was achieved significantly more often in patients positive for Helicobacter pylori. Antacid use was 2-3 times greater in patients taking cisapride or placebo than in those taking omeprazole. Relief of non-reflux symptoms did not significantly differ between the three groups. Significantly more patients taking cisapride reported adverse events than those taking omeprazole or placebo. Conclusions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily was highly effective in relieving heartburn whereas cisapride 20 mg twice daily was not significantly more effective than placebo. Key messagesIn primary care patients, heartburn is commonly treated empiricallyMost randomised clinical trials of treatment for heartburn have been conducted in specialist care, and documentation for empirical treatment is limitedOmeprazole was significantly more effective than cisapride or placebo in controlling heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux after 2, 4, and 8 weeks

  15. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  16. (-)-Epicatechin combined with 8 weeks of treadmill exercise is associated with increased angiogenic and mitochondrial signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Kruger, Adele; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Malek, Moh H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an 8 week endurance training program with and without (-)-epicatechin treatment and to determine whether there is a possible cumulative effect on protein markers of angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thirty-four 14-month old male mice (C57BL/6N) were randomized into four groups: control (C); (-)-epicatechin only ((-)-Epi); control with endurance training (CE); and (-)-epicatechin with endurance training ((-)-Epi-Ex). Mice in the training groups performed treadmill exercise for 8 weeks (5 × /week for 60 min/session), whereas mice in the (-)-epicatechin group received 1.0 mg/kg of body mass twice daily during the training period. At 8 weeks, distance ran on the treadmill increased by 46, 69, and 84% in the (-)-Epi, CE, and (-)-Epi-Ex groups, respectively compared to the control group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Furthermore, the (-)-Epi-Ex group had significantly higher exercise capacity than the (-)-Epi and CE group. For angiogenic regulators, the (-)-Epi-Ex group had significantly higher VEGF-R2 protein expression with a concomitant reduction in TSP-1 protein expression than the exercise group. Interestingly, FoxO1 protein expression was significantly reduced for all three experimental groups compared to the control group. Protein markers such as PGC-1β and TFAM were significantly higher in the (-)-Epi-Ex group compared to the three other groups. These findings suggest that (-)-epicatechin treatment combined with 8 weeks of endurance training provide a cumulative effect on a number of angiogenic and mitochondrial signaling which functionally translates to enhanced exercise tolerance.

  17. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  18. 7 CFR 1205.27 - Participation in the sign-up period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... county FSA office lists may participate in the sign-up period. Eligible producers must date and sign... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in the sign-up period. 1205.27 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.27 Participation in...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.27 - Participation in the sign-up period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation in the sign-up period. 1205.27 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.27 Participation in the sign-up period. The sign-up period will be from September 4, 2007, through November 30, 2007....

  20. 7 CFR 1205.27 - Participation in the sign-up period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation in the sign-up period. 1205.27 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.27 Participation in the sign-up period. The sign-up period will be from September 4, 2007, through November 30, 2007....

  1. 7 CFR 1205.27 - Participation in the sign-up period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation in the sign-up period. 1205.27 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.27 Participation in the sign-up period. The sign-up period will be from September 4, 2007, through November 30, 2007....

  2. 7 CFR 1205.27 - Participation in the sign-up period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation in the sign-up period. 1205.27 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.27 Participation in the sign-up period. The sign-up period will be from September 4, 2007, through November 30, 2007....

  3. Subgroup Differences in Response to 8 Weeks of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Thomas R.; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir promises tremendous benefits, but high cost may impede implementation of this regimen. Subgroups with excellent response to 8 weeks of treatment might respond to a shorter course. In ION-3, 423 previously untreated HCV genotype 1-infected patients without cirrhosis had outcome data after receiving ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 8 weeks. After reanalyzing published ION-3 data, we found that sustained virologic response (SVR) rates varied significantly by gender (P = .002) and rs12979860 genotype (Ptrend = .03), exceeding 98% in women and rs12979860-CC individuals. The very high SVR rates in these subgroups suggest that these factors might be considered in selecting patients to receive 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and support shorter trials of this regimen in selected patients. PMID:25734178

  4. Rel8: demonstrating the feasibility of delivering an 8-week social skills program in a public mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Wauchope, Bronwyn; Terlich, Alissa; Lee, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    As community mental health services integrate recovery-oriented practices, treatments that focus on skills development and social integration are desirable. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of implementing "Rel8", an 8-week social skills training group adapted to suit a public community mental health setting. A retrospective audit was conducted of quantitative and qualitative data from four groups run between 2011 and 2013. Pre- and post-group measures were collected, assessing self-rated friendships and confidence with social skills and clinician-rated social skill performance. Qualitative feedback about group participation was also collected through use of a developed questionnaire. Analysis revealed significant improvements in participants' confidence with their social skills following group participation, with a trend also found for improved social skill performance. "Rel8", an adapted 8-week social skills training group, is a feasible program in the context of community mental health services. The program added to the recovery-centred practice of the community mental health service while also adding to the diversity of clinician skills for psychosocial-oriented practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  6. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  7. 38 CFR 21.6074 - Computing the period of vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computing the period of... Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Duration of Training § 21.6074 Computing the period of vocational training program participation. (a) Computing the participation period. The number of months...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computing the period for... Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program participation. (a) Computing the participation period. To compute the number of months and days of an eligible...

  9. Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting.

    PubMed

    Hoddy, Kristin K; Gibbons, Catherine; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi; Gabel, Kelsey; Finlayson, Graham; Varady, Krista A

    2016-12-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF; 25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with an ad libitum intake "feed day") is effective for weight loss. Whether or not ADF modulates hunger, fullness and gut peptides in a way that enhances dietary compliance and weight loss, remains unknown. Accordingly, this study examined the effect of ADF on postprandial appetite ratings and gut peptides. Obese subjects (n = 59) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol where food was provided on the fast day. Body weight decreased (P < 0.0001) by 3.9 ± 0.6 kg after 8 weeks of diet. Reductions (P < 0.05) in fat mass (-2.2 ± 0.2 kg), fat free mass (-1.4 ± 0.2 kg), visceral fat mass (-0.1 ± 0.1 kg), and resting metabolic rate (RMR; -104 ± 28 kcal/day) were also observed. Fasting leptin and insulin decreased (P < 0.05), while AUC ghrelin levels increased (P < 0.05). Despite these metabolic changes, there was no increase in subjective hunger by the end of the study. Furthermore, fullness and PYY increased (P < 0.05). Fat free mass and RMR were not related to hunger or ghrelin at any time point. These findings suggest that the absence of a compensatory increase in hunger in conjunction with an increase in sensations of fullness may contribute to the weight loss efficacy of an 8-week ADF regimen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs・hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs・hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  11. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of participation onsite during a... Participants § 79.33 Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. (a... his or her onsite participation; (vi) The dates of the claimant's assignment onsite; and (vii) As full...

  12. The effect of an 8-week stabilization exercise program on the lumbopelvic rhythm and flexion-relaxation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shahvarpour, Ali; Henry, Sharon M; Preuss, Richard; Mecheri, Hakim; Larivière, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Lumbar stabilization exercise programs should normalize the aberrant movements patterns often observed in patients with low back pain. This study aimed to determine the effect of an 8-week lumbar stabilization program on EMG/kinematics measures of the aberrant movement patterns in such patients. A secondary goal was to assess the 8-week test-retest reliability of these measures. The patients followed an 8-week lumbar stabilization program while no intervention was carried out on the controls. Before and after this period, kinematics of the spine along with the EMG of paraspinal muscles were recorded during trunk maximal flexion-extension. ANOVAs tested the effect of the intervention in the patients, relative to the controls. Within the patients, correlation of the EMG/kinematics measures with the change in disability and pain following the intervention was investigated. A significant reduction in pain (Hedges's g effect size=2.31) and improvement in function (g=1.74) was reported in the patients. While EMG/kinematics measures disclosed impairments in the patients at baseline compared to the controls, no change was observed over the intervention. Nevertheless, the change of lumbar range of motion was positively correlated (r=0.42; P=0.015) with the change in disability. Although pain and disability decreased following the intervention, the EMG/kinematics measures did not change concomitantly suggesting that the patients learned to stiffen the lumbar spine during the treatment, and this technique was applied even if pain and disability unequivocally decreased after the treatment, which would not necessarily be beneficial to the patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  14. The athletic performance of elite rugby league players is improved after an 8-week small-sided game training intervention.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Laurent B; Rivière, Maxence; de Villarreal, Eduardo S; Haff, G Gregory

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a small-sided game training intervention on the intermittent shuttle running performance, speed, and repeated sprint ability of elite rugby league players during the competitive phase of a rugby league season. Ten elite rugby league players from a Stobart Super League team academy underwent 2 small-sided game sessions per week over an 8-week period. Each session consisted of four 10-minute blocks of 1 small-sided game, interspersed with a 3-minute recovery. Changes in physical performance were assessed before and after the training intervention with an intermittent shuttle running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test), speed tests (10-, 20-, and 40-m linear sprints) and a repeated sprint ability test (8 × 20-m linear sprint, departing every 20 seconds). Results showed that the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (+1.29%), 10-m (-3.17%), 20-m (-1.37%), and 40-m (-0.96%) sprint times and mean sprint time (-2.11%), total sprint time (-2.11%), and percentage of sprint decrement (7.10 vs. 5.93%) during the repeated sprint ability test were significantly improved after the training intervention. Based on these results, it was concluded that an 8-week small-sided game training intervention was an effective method for improving the physical performance of elite rugby league players during the competitive phase of the season.

  15. 32 CFR 37.665 - Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits? 37.665 Section 37.665 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... participants to have periodic audits? Yes, expenditure-based TIAs are assistance instruments subject to...

  16. 10 CFR 603.655 - Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. 603.655 Section 603.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.655 Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. If an expenditure-based...

  17. 10 CFR 603.655 - Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. 603.655 Section 603.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.655 Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. If an expenditure-based...

  18. 10 CFR 603.655 - Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. 603.655 Section 603.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.655 Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. If an expenditure-based...

  19. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.33 Section 79.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Participants § 79.33 Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. (a... atmospheric nuclear testing as a member of the armed forces or an employee or contractor employee of the DoD...

  20. 10 CFR 603.655 - Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.655 Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. If an expenditure-based... during the first year of the award, when the participant has its IPA do its next financial statement...

  1. 10 CFR 603.655 - Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.655 Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants. If an expenditure-based... during the first year of the award, when the participant has its IPA do its next financial statement...

  2. Long-term overactivity in the abdominal oblique muscles after 8 weeks bed-rest- possible implications for musculosketletal health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belavy, D. L.; Richardson, C. A.; Wilson, S.; Darnell, R.; Hides, J.; Toppenberg, R.; Elmann-Larsen, B.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D.

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the human lumbo-pelvic (LP) muscles with unloading has received little attention in microgravity research, even though this body region has evolved with the development of upright posture in 1-g. This study used a specific movement task to examine the function of four LP muscles during 8-weeks of bed-rest and one-year follow-up. The main finding was the development of overactivity in the abdominal internal oblique muscle in the follow-up period. This finding implies that the L-P muscle changes occurring during bedrest do not recover on return to the 1-g environment. These results may have implications for musculo-skeletal health for those in sedentary lifestyles on Earth.

  3. Physiological hypertrophy of the FHL muscle following 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Troy A; Farrar, Roger P

    2004-02-01

    In humans, progressive resistance exercise is recognized for its ability to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In an attempt to develop an animal model which mimics human progressive resistance exercise, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to climb a 1.1-m vertical (80 degree incline) ladder with weights secured to their tail. The rats were trained once every 3 days for 8 weeks. Each training session consisted of 4-9 (6.02 +/- 0.23) climbs requiring 8-12 dynamic movements per climb. Based on performance, the weight carried during each session was progressively increased. Over the course of 8 weeks, the maximal amount of weight the rats could carry increased 287%, p

  4. Supplementary management of benign prostatic hypertrophy with Prostaquil. An 8-week registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hosoi, M; Errichi, B M; Francis, S; Cornelli, U

    2015-10-22

    The aim of this registry was to evaluate the management of initial symptoms of benign prostatic hyperthrophy (BPH) in otherwise healthy subjects, using Prostaquil® (Alchem) in a 8-week registry. Prostaquil was used at the dosage of 200 mg/day. The product includes Pygeum extract (100 mg) and Saw palmetto oil (35 mg). The two resulting groups standard management and supplement) were comparable. No side effects or comparability problems were observed and compliance was optimal with more than 95% of the capsules correctly used. Empting, frequency, intermittency, urgency, weak flow, straining, nocturia were all significantly improved with Prostaquil (p<0.05) and the improvement - globally and evaluating any single item - was significantly superior to the one observed in controls (p<0.05). Quality of life with the supplement was also significantly better in comparison with controls (p<0.05). The residual vescical volume was 94.7;5,8 ml in the supplement group at inclusion and decreased to 39.3;5 ml (p<0.05) at 8 weeks. This decrease was equivalent to a reduction of 58.5%(vs a decrease of 27.9% in controls)(p<0.05; ANOVA). In conclusion, the most common symptoms of BPH are controlled by Prostaquil a new standardized supplement including Pygeum.

  5. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  6. Feasibility and Impact of an 8-Week Integrative Yoga Program in People with Moderate Multiple Sclerosis–Related Disability

    PubMed Central

    Kietrys, David; Fogerite, Susan Gould; Silva, Mariella; Logan, Kristen; Barone, Donald A.; Parrott, J. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background: This pilot study determined the feasibility of a specifically designed 8-week yoga program for people with moderate multiple sclerosis (MS)–related disability. We explored the program's effect on quality of life (QOL) and physical and mental performance. Methods: We used a single-group design with repeated measurements at baseline, postintervention, and 8-week follow-up. Feasibility was examined through cost, recruitment, retention, attendance, and safety. Outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI), 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), Timed 25-Foot Walk test (T25FW), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSTS), Multidirectional Reach Test (MDRT), maximum expiratory pressure, and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test-3″ (PASAT-3″). Results: Fourteen participants completed the study. The program was feasible. There were significant main effects on the 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey Mental Component Summary (SF-36 MCS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Bladder Control Scale (BLCS), Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), Mental Health Inventory (MHI), MSWS-12, T25FW, NHPT, PASAT-3″, 6MWT, FTSTS, and MDRT-Back. Improvements were found on the SF-36 MCS, MFIS, BLCS, PDQ, MHI, and MSWS-12 between baseline and postintervention. The effect on PDQ persisted at follow-up. Improvements were found on the T25FW, NHPT, 6MWT, FTSTS, and MDRT-Back between baseline and postintervention that persisted at follow-up. The PASAT-3″ did not change between baseline and postintervention but did between postintervention and follow-up. Conclusions: The yoga program was safe and feasible. Improvements in certain measures of QOL and performance were seen at postintervention and follow-up. PMID:28243184

  7. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Aman, Michael; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Hollway, Jill A; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J; Swiezy, Naomi B; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-08-01

    Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1-2 year follow-up period. In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5-17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in those taking risperidone at follow

  8. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  9. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.33 Section 79.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.33 Proof of...

  10. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.33 Section 79.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.33 Proof of...

  11. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed.

  12. Effects of shock waves on the microcirculation in critical limb ischemia (CLI) (8-week study).

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, M T; Belcaro, G; Nicolaides, A N; Cesarone, M R; Incandela, L; Marlinghaus, E; Griffin, M; Capodanno, S; Ciccarelli, R

    2000-08-01

    Shock waves (SWs) are used to control and decrease pain in several clinical conditions (e.g., painful elbow and shoulder, etc). This clinical effect may be due to cellular stunning of the tissues (particularly nervous components) in the area treated with SW. It may also be the consequence of unknown metabolic actions on tissues, which may include changes in cellular permeability and the liberation of proteins and mediators locally acting on pain and nerve endings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in pain and the microcirculation improvement induced by SWs treatment in an 8-week study in patients with chronic limb ischemia (CLI). Patients with CLI (15 with rest pain only and 15 with rest pain and limited distal necrosis) were included. The treatment was based on a 30-minute SWs session, three times weekly for 2 weeks. Clinical and microcirculatory evaluation were performed with laser Doppler Po2 and Pco2 measurements. Pain was measured with an analogue scale line. A Minilith SL1 (Storz Medical, Switzerland) litotriptor was used. The parabolic reflector is coupled to the skin with a silicon water cushion. Focal pressure was adjusted between 6 and 70 Mpa in eight steps. The energy flux density was variable from 0.03 to 0.5 mJ/mm2. Focal diameter and distance were defined (depth of target within the patient's foot of about 70 mm). The coded intensity used in this study was between 6 and 8 and the application time was 20 min (at four impulses per second). Twenty-eight of the 30 patients with CLI (15 with rest pain only and 13 with necrosis) completed the study. The treatment was well tolerated. Blood pressure was unchanged after 8 weeks while the increase in laser Doppler flux was significant (p<0.05) (at all measurements after treatment). The ORACLE score at 1 and 8 weeks was decreased (p<0.05). The same trend was observed with the analogue scale line for pain (p<0.05). PO2 increased (p<0.05) and Pco2 decreased (p<0.05). Tibial pressure did not

  13. Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Iain M; Hartwell, Matthew

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive performance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed (CS) and driving distance (DD) before and after an 8-week training program. The control group (n = 5) continued their normal training, while the experimental group (n = 6) performed 2 sessions per week of weight training and plyometrics. Controls showed no significant (p > or = 0.05) changes, while experimental subjects showed a significant increase (p < or = 0.05) in CS and DD. The changes in golf drive performance were attributed to an increase in muscular force and an improvement in the sequential acceleration of body parts contributing to a greater final velocity being applied to the ball. It was concluded that specific combined weights and plyometrics training can help increase CS and DD in club golfers.

  14. Dentin hypersensitivity reduction of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride: an 8-week clinical study on Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Que, Kehua; Fu, Yingying; Lin, Lin; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Yun Po; Panagakos, Fotinos S; DeVizio, William; Mateo, Luis R

    2010-05-01

    To present the results of an 8-week dentin hypersensitivity clinical study in which the efficacy of a new Pro-Argin formula toothpaste, with gentle whitening benefits, containing 8.0% arginine, a high cleaning calcium carbonate system, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) was compared to that of a commercial Pro-Argin formula toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP and a negative control toothpaste containing calcium carbonate and 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP. An 8-week clinical study, with 121 subjects, was conducted in Chengdu, Sichuan, China, using a double-blind, stratified, three-treatment design. Tactile and air blast sensitivity assessments were used to compare the efficacy of the three products. This clinical study demonstrated that the new Pro-Argin formula toothpaste provided a significant reduction in dentin hypersensitivity when used over a period of 8 weeks. The study also showed that the new toothpaste provided significantly greater reductions (P < 0.05) in dentin hypersensitivity in response to tactile (64.4%, 71.1%, and 61.0%) and air blast (40.7%, 58.8%, and 74.4%) stimuli than the negative control toothpaste containing 1450 ppm fluoride after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of product use, respectively. The results for the new toothpaste did not differ significantly from those of the positive control toothpaste at all time points in the study.

  15. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  16. Self-reported symptoms 8weeks after discharge: A comparison of takotsubo syndrome and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wallström, Sara; Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-12-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is a form of acute, reversible heart failure that has gained increasing attention. It affects mostly postmenopausal women, and its acute onset and symptoms mimic acute myocardial infarction. The distinct feature of takotsubo syndrome is the ballooning of a ventricle, but the complete pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Both short-term and long-term survival are affected, but little is known about the illness experience and self-reported residual symptoms after discharge from hospital. To measure and compare self-reported residual symptoms between patients with takotsubo syndrome and those with acute myocardial infarction. Questionnaire data measuring self-reported symptoms were collected from 48 patients with takotsubo syndrome and 79 patients with acute myocardial infarction 8weeks after discharge. A multivariate adjusted complete case regression model was used to compare the frequency and severity of symptoms. Self-reported symptoms 8weeks after discharge differed little between patients with takotsubo syndrome and those with acute myocardial infarction. Both groups reported symptoms, including pain, fatigue, breathlessness, and sleep disturbance. At onset there were significant differences between the groups concerning previous diabetes mellitus, cardiac troponin T, ejection fraction and Killip class. There were no significant between-group differences in frequency or severity of symptoms after adjusting for these differences. Patients with takotsubo syndrome experience residual symptoms after discharge. Symptoms in several cardiovascular diseases predict quality of life, re-admission, and mortality. Symptom management should be integrated into follow-up care for patients with takotsubo syndrome. One way of achieving this is through person-centered care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of an 8-week meditation program on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward religious/spiritual self-representations.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Campanella, Fabio; Eleopra, Roberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-11-01

    Explicit self-representations often conflict with implicit and intuitive self-representations, with such discrepancies being seen as a source of psychological tension. Most of previous research on the psychological effects of mindfulness-meditation has assessed people's self-attitudes at an explicit level, leaving unknown whether mindfulness-meditation promotes changes on implicit self-representations. Here, we assessed the changes in implicit and explicit self-related religious/spiritual (RS) representations in healthy participants following an 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation (MOM) program. Before and after meditation, participants were administered implicit (implicit association test) and explicit (self-reported questionnaires) RS measures. Relative to control condition, MOM led to increases of implicit RS in individuals whit low pre-existing implicit RS and to more widespread increases in explicit RS. On the assumption that MOM practice may enhance the clarity of one's transcendental thoughts and feelings, we argued that MOM allows people to transform their intuitive feelings of implicit RS as well as their explicit RS attitudes.

  18. Effects of 8-week swimming training on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wen-Xue; Liu, Hai-Bin; Gao, Feng-Shan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    Exercise has been found to either reduce or increase arterial stiffness. Land-based exercise modalities have been documented as effective physical therapies to decrease arterial stiffness. However, these land-based exercise modalities may not be suitable for overweight individuals, in terms of risks of joint injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8-week swimming training and 4-week detraining on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults. Twenty young male adults who were overweight were recruited and engaged in 8-week of swimming training and 4-week detraining. Five individuals withdrew due to lack of interest and failure to follow the training protocol. Body Fat Percentage (BFP) and carotid hemodynamic variables were measured on a resting day at the following intervals: baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks after swimming training and 4 weeks after detraining. A repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the differences between baseline and each measurement. When significant differences were detected, Tukey's test for post hoc comparisons was used. Eight-week swimming training at moderate intensity decreased BFP, including the trunk and four extremities. Additionally, the BFP of the right and left lower extremities continued to decrease in these overweight adults 4 weeks after ceasing training. Carotid arterial stiffness decreased, while there were no significant changes in arterial diameters. Blood flow velocity, flow rate, maximal and mean wall shear stress increased, while systolic blood pressure and peripheral resistance decreased. No significant differences existed in minimal wall shear stress and oscillatory shear stress. Eight-week swimming training at moderate intensity exhibited beneficial effects on systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness and blood supply to the brain in overweight adults. Moreover, maximal and mean wall shear stress increased after training. It is worth noting that these

  19. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  20. The Effects of 8-Week Plyometric Training on Physical Performance in Young Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Sanz-Rivas, David; Moya, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an 8-week (conducted biweekly for a total of 16 sessions) plyometric training program (PT) (e.g., upper- and lower-body exercises) combined with regular tennis training on physical qualities in young tennis players. Sixty tennis players between the ages of 12 and 13 years (age 12.5 ± 0.3 years, weight 44.2 ± 7.0 kg, height 156.6 ± 7.1 cm) were allocated to either the control group (standard in-season regimen) (CG; n = 30) or the experimental group, which received an additional PT (TG; n = 30) for 30-60 min as a substitute for some tennis training within the usual 90-min practice. Pre- and posttests included: anthropometric measures; vertical countermovement jump (CMJ); standing long jump (SLJ); 20 m sprint time (with 5 and 10 m splits); a modified 505 agility test; overhead medicine ball throw; and serve velocity test. After the training intervention, the TG showed significant (p < .01) improvements in all the parameters analyzed, with percentages of change and effect sizes ranging from 3.1% to 10.1% and 0.4 (small) to 1.3 (moderate), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the CG after the training intervention. PT was shown as an important stimulus for enhancing explosive actions in young tennis players.

  1. Neuromuscular adaptations to 8-week strength training: isotonic versus isokinetic mode.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Anthony; Cornu, Christophe; Guével, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies attempted to compare the effectiveness of isokinetic and isotonic training. However, they have provided conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of isotonic versus isokinetic standardized concentric strength training programs of the knee extensors on the neuromuscular system. The standardization of these two training programs was ensured by the equalization of the total external amount of work performed and the mean angular movement velocity. Thirty healthy male students were randomly assigned to the isotonic (IT; n = 11), the isokinetic (IK; n = 11) or the control (C; n = 8) group. Both IT and IK groups trained their dominant lower leg 3 sessions/week for 8 weeks on a dynamometer. The IT group exercised using a preset torque of 40% of the maximal voluntary isometric torque at 70 degrees (0 degrees = leg in horizontal position). The IK group exercised at a velocity ranging between 150 degrees and 180 degrees s(-1). Isotonic, isokinetic and isometric tests were performed on a dynamometer before and after strength training. Surface electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles was recorded during the tests. Significant strength increases in both dynamic and static conditions were noticed for IT and IK groups without any significant difference between the two trained groups. Agonist muscle activity also increased with training but no change in antagonist muscle co-activity was observed. The two training methods could be proposed by clinicians and athletic coaches to improve concentric muscle strength in dynamic and static conditions.

  2. Olanzapine or chlorpromazine plus lithium in first episode psychotic mania: An 8-week randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Conus, P; Berk, M; Cotton, S M; Kader, L; Macneil, C; Hasty, M K; Hallam, K; Lambert, M; Murphy, B P; McGorry, P D

    2015-11-01

    Treatment strategies for mental disorders may vary according to illness stage. However no data currently exist to guide treatment in first episode psychotic mania. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy profile of chlorpromazine and olanzapine, as add-on to lithium, in patients with a first episode of psychotic mania, expecting better safety profile and adherence to olanzapine but similar efficacy for both treatments. Data from 83 patients were collected in an 8-week randomised controlled trial on clinical variables, side effects, vital signs, and weight. Analyses of treatment differences over time were based on intent-to-treat principles. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival curves were used to analyse time-to-event data and mixed effects models repeated measures analysis of variance were used to determine treatment group differences over time on safety and efficacy measures. Ethics committee approval to delay informed consent procedure until recovery from the acute episode allowed the inclusion of 83 patients highly representative of those treated in the public sector. Contrary to our hypotheses, safety profile of both medications was similar. A signal for higher rate (P=.032) and earlier occurrence (P=.043) of mania remission was observed in the olanzapine group which did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Olanzapine and chlorpromazine have a similar safety profile in a uniquely representative cohort of patients with first episode psychotic mania. The possibility for a greater impact of olanzapine on manic symptoms leading to earlier remission of the episode needs exploration in a large sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 32 CFR 37.665 - Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits? 37.665 Section 37.665 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms...

  4. 42 CFR 485.641 - Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... clinical records; and (iii) The CAH's health care policies. (2) The purpose of the evaluation is to... and qualified entity identified in the State rural health care plan; (iv) In the case of distant-site... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and...

  5. 42 CFR 485.641 - Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... clinical records; and (iii) The CAH's health care policies. (2) The purpose of the evaluation is to... and qualified entity identified in the State rural health care plan; (iv) In the case of distant-site... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and...

  6. 34 CFR 303.343 - Participants in IFSP meetings and periodic reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participants in IFSP meetings and periodic reviews. 303.343 Section 303.343 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION...

  7. 34 CFR 303.343 - Participants in IFSP meetings and periodic reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Participants in IFSP meetings and periodic reviews. 303.343 Section 303.343 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION...

  8. 32 CFR 37.665 - Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits? 37.665 Section 37.665 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms...

  9. Improvement in running economy after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Cheng, Kuo-Hui; Lee, Yu-Ming; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Heng-Ju

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training on running economy (RE) and power performance. Twenty-four male collegiate athletes were recruited and randomly assigned to experimental (WBV) and placebo (PL) groups. The WBV subjects performed semisquat vibration training (30 Hz, ±1-2 mm, 3 times per week), whereas PL subjects performed identical training without vibration. The isometric maximum voluntary contraction tests were used to evaluate maximal isometric force (F(max)) and rate of force development (RFD) of lower extremities, before and after the intervention, and RE was measured on a level treadmill at 3 velocities (2.68, 3.13, and 3.58 m·s(-1)). The F(max) of the lower leg (plantar flexion, from 80.8 ± 24.5 to 99.0 ± 33.9 N·m, p < 0.05, η(2) = 0.567; dorsiflexion, from 38.1 ± 6.5 to 43.0 ± 7.7 N·m, p < 0.05), and the RFD of 0-200 milliseconds during plantar flexion (from 186.0 ± 69.2 to 264.6 ± 87.2 N·m·s(-1), p < 0.05, η(2) = 0.184) were significantly increased in the WBV group after training. The averaged RE values for the 3 running velocities were significantly improved after WBV training (pretraining vs. posttraining, 4.31 ± 0.33 vs. 4.65 ± 0.34 m·ml(-1)·kg(-1), p = 0.001, η(2) = 0.654); however, no significant differences were found in the PL group (pretraining vs. posttraining, 4.18 ± 0.26 vs. 4.26 ± 0.44 m·ml(-1)·kg(-1), p = 0.476). The WBV training significantly improved RE at selected speeds (∼5.0-8.5%, p < 0.05). These results indicated that short-term WBV training could be an effective stimulus to enhance RE and lower extremity power performance in competitive athletes.

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  11. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  12. The effects of a mid-winter 8-week course of sub-sunburn sunbed exposures on tanning, vitamin D status and colds.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, Frank R; Pavel, Stan

    2012-12-01

    Like UV irradiation, which generates vitamin D(3) in the skin, the hormonally active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), boosts innate immunity against viruses and bacteria. Epidemiologic studies have found high vitamin D levels to be associated with lower risk of infections of the upper respiratory tract (colds). We have therefore performed an intervention study in 105 young adults (ages 18-30 years; 91% female) over a mid-winter 8-week period (January-March 2010). The participants were randomised to 3 groups: (A) subjected to 3 times a week sub-sunburn sunbed exposure (n = 35), (B) daily vitamin D supplementation, @ 1000 IU (n = 37), and (C) a control group without any intervention (n = 33). The mean serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dropped from 62 to 55 nmol l(-1) in group C, while these levels rose from 62 to 109 and from 58 to 93 nmol l(-1) in groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.001). The skin on the chest darkened significantly in group A (mean difference in lightness, L*, equalled -5.7, p < 0.001), correlating significantly, but weakly, with increases in 25(OH)D (3.3 nmol l(-1) per unit drop in L*, R(2) = 0.17, p = 0.014). The percentage of self-reported colds with proper signs and symptoms was only slightly and not significantly reduced in groups A and B in comparison to group C: 57 and 51 versus 67%, respectively. Hence, the sub-sunburn sunbed treatment was effective in tanning and increasing the 25(OH)D serum level, more so than 1000 IU per day, but had no appreciable effect on colds.

  13. (–)–Epicatechin combined with 8 weeks of treadmill exercise is associated with increased angiogenic and mitochondrial signaling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Kruger, Adele; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Malek, Moh H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an 8 week endurance training program with and without (–)–epicatechin treatment and to determine whether there is a possible cumulative effect on protein markers of angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thirty-four 14-month old male mice (C57BL/6N) were randomized into four groups: control (C); (–)–epicatechin only ((–)–Epi); control with endurance training (CE); and (–)–epicatechin with endurance training ((–)–Epi-Ex). Mice in the training groups performed treadmill exercise for 8 weeks (5 × /week for 60 min/session), whereas mice in the (–)–epicatechin group received 1.0 mg/kg of body mass twice daily during the training period. At 8 weeks, distance ran on the treadmill increased by 46, 69, and 84% in the (–)–Epi, CE, and (–)–Epi-Ex groups, respectively compared to the control group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Furthermore, the (–)–Epi-Ex group had significantly higher exercise capacity than the (–)–Epi and CE group. For angiogenic regulators, the (–)–Epi-Ex group had significantly higher VEGF-R2 protein expression with a concomitant reduction in TSP-1 protein expression than the exercise group. Interestingly, FoxO1 protein expression was significantly reduced for all three experimental groups compared to the control group. Protein markers such as PGC-1β and TFAM were significantly higher in the (–)–Epi-Ex group compared to the three other groups. These findings suggest that (–)–epicatechin treatment combined with 8 weeks of endurance training provide a cumulative effect on a number of angiogenic and mitochondrial signaling which functionally translates to enhanced exercise tolerance. PMID:25821434

  14. Low participation ratio vibrational modes in a limit-periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoux, Catherine; Socolar, Joshua E. S.

    Motivated by the demonstration that patterned colloidal particles may form a limit-periodic phase, we study the nature of vibrational modes in a toy model based on the Taylor-Socolar tiling. We consider a triangular lattice of identical point masses with nearest neighbors connected by springs of two different strengths, where the pattern of spring constants reflects the limit-periodic structure of the tiling. Using calculations of the phonon spectra for crystalline approximants to the limit-periodic structure, we identify several hierarchies of modes shared by the full limit-periodic system that have arbitrarily low participation ratios. We present a heuristic explanation of the existence of such modes, which are robust in the presence of vacancies and small amounts of disorder in the spring constants. Supported by the NSF Research Triangle MRSEC (DMR-1121107).

  15. Effects of an 8-week weight-loss program on cardiovascular disease risk factors and regional body composition.

    PubMed

    Volek, J S; Gómez, A L; Love, D M; Weyers, A M; Hesslink, R; Wise, J A; Kraemer, W J

    2002-07-01

    To determine the influence of weight loss on multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Overweight women (n = 12; mean 44.2% fat) and men (n = 10; mean 30.7% fat) participated in an 8 week weight-loss program that included dietary, exercise, multi-vitamin/mineral supplementation, and behavior modification components. Measurement of total and regional body composition assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), circumferences and blood sampling for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine, insulin and leptin were performed before and after the weight loss intervention. Subjects increased their physical activity and decreased their energy intake, resulting in a mean decrease in body mass of - 4.3 +/- 3.4 kg in women and -4.7 +/- 3.1 kg in men. Fat accounted for 88 and 58% of the decrease in body mass in men and women, respectively. Proportionally, men lost significantly more fat mass from the trunk region compared to women. Serum total and LDL cholesterol were significantly decreased in men (-11 and -14%, respectively) but not women (-3 and -3%, respectively) and there were no changes in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols. Serum leptin was significantly decreased (-36%) and highly correlated to fat mass (r= 0.839). There were no changes in serum insulin and plasma homocysteine. These data indicate that short-term weight loss resulting from reducing percentage energy from fat, increasing physical activity and vitamin/mineral supplements including folic acid has a favorable effect on regional body composition and total and LDL cholesterol with minimal effects on HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine and insulin and the effects are greater in men compared to women. Supplementation with folic acid or emphasis on folic acid-rich foods may be an important component of a weight loss program to prevent increases in homocysteine.

  16. An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

    2014-09-01

    Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Atomoxetine treatment may decrease striatal dopaminergic transporter availability after 8 weeks: pilot SPECT report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Aynur Pekcanlar; Kaya, Gamze Capa; Baykara, Burak; Demir, Yusuf; Özek, Handan; Alsen, Sevay; Eren, Mine Sencan; Emiroglu, Neslihan Inal; Ertay, Turkan; Ozturk, Yesim; Miral, Suha; Durak, Hatice; Tufan, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The pathophysiology is thought to involve noradrenaline and dopamine. The role of dopamine transporter (DAT) was evaluated in imaging studies using mostly dopamine reuptake inhibitors. Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Here we report the results of a pilot study conducted to evaluate changes in striatal DAT after 8 weeks of atomoxetine treatment. Our results suggest that 8 weeks of atomoxetine treatment may change striatal DAT bioavailability as measured via SPECT but that change was not correlated with genotype or clinical improvement. PMID:26640376

  18. Habitually increasing physical activity in daily life during 8-week intervention reduces arterial stiffness in older women: a community-based pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Fujibayashi, Mami; Nanayama, Chika; Ogawa, Noriko; Itakura, Isako; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2017-05-05

    The recent Japanese official physical activity (PA) guidelines for health promotion recommend increasing PA by 10 minutes per day (Plus 10), which generally corresponds to about 1,000 steps per day. However, whether habitually increasing PA in daily life improves arterial stiffness in older people is unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of habitually increasing PA during an intervention on arterial stiffness in older women. Twenty-one older women (age, 76 ± 1 years) participated in supervised group activity and seated exercise for 60 min per session, once each week during an 8-week intervention. The women wore an activity monitor for 1 week to determine baseline values and for the 8 weeks of intervention. Arterial stiffness was assessed before and after the intervention using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Based on changes in steps between baseline and the intervention, the participants were assigned to Control (< 1,000 steps/day, n = 14) or PA-increased ((≥ 1,000 steps/day, n = 7) groups with changes of -138 ± 198 steps/day and 2,047 ± 580 steps/day, respectively. The CAVI was significantly reduced only in the PA-increased group (Pre, 9.2 ± 0.2; Post, 9.0 ± 0.2 units), and changes in CAVI were significantly inversely correlated with changes in step counts (rs = -0.62). Habitually increasing PA in daily life during 8-week intervention can induce a small but significant reduction in arterial stiffness among older women.

  19. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  20. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  1. AN 8-WEEK SUMMER INSTITUTE TRAINING PROGRAM TO RETRAIN OFFICE EDUCATION TEACHERS FOR TEACHING BUSINESS ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, FOREST C.

    AN 8-WEEK SEMINAR WAS HELD TO RETRAIN TEACHERS WITH A MINIMUM OF 3-YEARS' EXPERIENCE IN BUSINESS OR OFFICE EDUCATION TO TEACH BUSINESS DATA PROCESSING AND PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO ASSIST IN THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT NECESSARY FOR PREPARING COMPUTER PROGRAMERS AND APPLICATION ANALYSTS, AND TO DEVELOP COURSE MATERIAL,…

  2. 10 CFR 603.645 - Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.645 Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants. The...

  3. Impact of the 8-week Administration of Tofogliflozin for Glycemic Control and Body Composition in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Sachie; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Iwahashi, Yasuyuki; Seo, Akane; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Tamori, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The adverse effects of selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors generally appear within about two or three months after treatment initiation in Japan. Therefore, we investigated the impact of tofogliflozin, a class of SGLT2 inhibitors, on glycemic control and body composition during this period in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This single-arm open-label study enrolled 20 patients. Patients received tofogliflozin 20 mg once daily for 8 weeks. At week 8, changes from baseline in body weight, serum metabolic markers, and body composition were evaluated. Results A total of 17 patients completed the 8-week administration of tofogliflodin. No serious adverse events were noted. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) decreased significantly, from 7.8% to 7.3% with 8-week administration of tofogliflozin. Both the body weight and body mass index (BMI) also decreased. In addition, a decreased renal function of the boundary zone and hemoconcentration were detected. As for body composition, the free fat mass, total body water, extracellular water and intracellular water were all decreased significantly. Interestingly, the amount of fat mass did not change. The degree of improvement in HbA1c was correlated with the baseline fat mass and BMI. Conclusion An eight-week administration of tofogliflozin improved glycemic control and reduced the body weight and free fat mass in type 2 diabetic patients without affecting the fat mass. In this period, the hematocrit level and renal function should be monitored to guard against hemoconcentration and renal impairment, respectively. PMID:27853064

  4. An 8-week multimodal treatment program improves symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a real-world multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report outcomes from a 5-year real-world clinical experience with a multimodal treatment program in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients with symptomatic, radiographically confirmed knee OA resistant to traditional conservative treatments underwent a supervised 8-week multimodal treatment program consisting of low-impact aerobic exercise, muscle flexibility exercises, joint mobilization, physical therapy modalities, muscle strengthening and functional training, patient education, and a series of 3 or 5 weekly hyaluronic acid injections. Patients were evaluated at admission, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Patient-reported outcomes included knee pain severity using an 11-point (0–10) numerical scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Results A total of 3,569 patients completed an 8-week treatment course between January 2008 and April 2013 at 66 dedicated treatment centers in the United States. Knee pain severity assessed on a numeric scale decreased 59% on average, from 5.4±2.9 to 2.2±2.2 (P<0.001). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscores decreased by 44% to 51% (all P<0.001) during the 8-week program. The percentage of patients achieving the threshold for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index minimally perceptible clinical improvement was 79% for the Pain subscale, 75% for Function, and 76% for Stiffness. Favorable patient outcomes were reported in all subgroups, regardless of age, sex, body mass index, disease severity, or number of treatment cycles. Discussion A real-world 8-week multimodal treatment program results in clinically meaningful improvements in knee OA symptoms, with excellent generalizability across a broad range of patient characteristics. PMID:27774023

  5. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6-8 weeks of age: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, Ann Margaret; Skancke, Ellen Margrete; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-06-23

    Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6-8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 +/- 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6-8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  6. Learning by doing-teaching systematic review methods in 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianjing; Saldanha, Ian J; Vedula, S Swaroop; Yu, Tsung; Rosman, Lori; Twose, Claire; N Goodman, Steven; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the course "Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis" at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. A distinct feature of our course is a group project in which students, assigned to multi-disciplinary groups, conduct a systematic review. In-class sessions comprise didactic lectures, hands-on exercises, demonstrations, discussion, and group work. Students also work outside of class to complete the systematic review. Students evaluated the course at the end of the term. We also surveyed students from 2004 to 2012 to learn more about the long-term impact of the course. The course has been offered to more than 800 students since 1995. In our view, aspects that worked well include the hands-on approach, students working in a multidisciplinary group, intensive interaction with the teaching team, moving to an online approach, and continuous updates of the course content. A persistent issue is the constraint of time. 193 of 211 (91%) survey participants reported that the course is currently useful or as having an impact on their work. Our experiences have led us to remain committed to a hands-on approach. Our course serves as a bridge between classroom learning and real-world practice, and provides an example of teaching systematic review. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.56) by 3.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), per cent body fat significantly decreased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.42) by -1.2%, and interleukin-6 and white blood cell (WBC) count both significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by -0.4 pg · mL(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.96) and -2.1 × 10(9) cells · L(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.87), respectively. Large magnitude enhancements were observed in the HRQoL factors of physical functioning, general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. When interpreted in a community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults.

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks' treatment with terbinafine in children with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: a comparison of three doses.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T H

    2004-03-01

    Tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis is the most common mycosis of the scalp in preschool and school-aged children in Greece. To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of an 8-week course of oral terbinafine at different doses. Patients received oral terbinafine at doses ranging from 3.3 to 12.5 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks, as follows: group A, terbinafine 3.3 to 6.0 to 7.0 mg/kg/day (23 patients); group C, terbinafine > 7.0 to 12.5 mg/kg/day (37 patients). Fungal microscopy and cultures were performed 4 weeks before the start of the treatment, at the end of the treatment (week 8) and at a follow-up visit at week 16. At week 8 mycological cure was achieved in one patient (2.7%) in group A, in 21 patients (91.3%) in group B and in 34 patients (97.1%) in group C. At week 16 mycological cure was achieved in one patient (2.7%) in group A, in 22 patients (95.7%) in group B and in 35 patients (100%) in group C. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0005) between dose level and efficacy of terbinafine at the end of the treatment period and also at the follow-up visit at week 16. Five patients (three in group A and two in group C) discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The administration of terbinafine at a dose of either 6-7 or 7-12.5 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks is safe and effective for the treatment in children of tinea capitis caused by M. canis.

  9. 10 CFR 603.645 - Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants. 603.645 Section 603.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.645 Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants. The...

  10. 10 CFR 603.645 - Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants. 603.645 Section 603.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.645 Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants. The...

  11. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  12. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  13. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  14. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required.

  15. 10 CFR 603.645 - Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amounts or adjusts performance outcomes. The periodic audit provides some assurance that the reported... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit... Financial Matters § 603.645 Periodic audits and award-specific audits of for-profit participants....

  16. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    PubMed Central

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001), and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05) was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001), as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01) were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05), and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength

  17. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students.

  18. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  20. Alterations of Muscular Strength and Left and Right Limb Balance in Weightlifters after an 8-week Balance Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Hwun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Kwi Baek; Lee, Sung Soo; Shin, Ki ok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters' balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes' sport performance. PMID:24259879

  1. Ondansetron or placebo in the augmentation of fluvoxamine response over 8 weeks in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Zarei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed M R; Taghvaei, Rheleh; Maleki, Haleh; Tabrizi, Mina; Fallah, Jalil; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six men and women, aged 18-60 years, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21 were recruited into the study. The patients randomly received either ondansetron (8 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. All patients received fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by 200 mg/day for the rest of the trial. The patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS and the adverse event checklists at baseline, and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth week. Forty-four patients completed the study. The Y-BOCS total score as well as the Y-BOCS obsession subscale score and compulsion subscale score showed significantly greater reduction in the ondansetron group than in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. In this 8-week double-blind randomized-controlled trial, ondansetron showed significant beneficial effect as an augmentative agent with fluvoxamine in patients with moderate to severe OCD and it was generally well tolerated.

  2. Resistance Exercise with concurrent whole body vibration preserves isometric knee extension strength during 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, E. R.; Stegeman, D. F.; Gerrits, K.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D.; de Haan, A.

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle with respect to anatomical cross sectional area (CSA), neural activation level and isometric maximal voluntary torque (MVT) were determined in 18 healthy men subjected to 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest (BR) with (n = 9) and without (Ctrl; n = 9) 6 days/week resistance exercise concurrent with whole body vibration (RVE). For Ctrl, mean QF CSA decreased linearly over time to a reduction of 14.3 ± 4.9% at the end of BR. For RVE, exercise during BR significantly mitigated this reduction (3.9 ± 4.4%). Prior to and seven times during BR, MVT values were obtained together with neural activation levels, the latter by means of a superimposed stimulation technique. MVT was maintained for RVE during BR, whereas for Ctrl, MVT was significantly reduced by 14.2 ± 8.1% after 8 weeks. In contrast to previous reports, the maximal voluntary activation remained unaltered for both groups throughout the study. For Ctrl, the absence of a change in neural activation might be related to the repeated testing during the bed rest, which had presumably resulted in a habituation to the task. When both groups were pooled, a significant positive correlation (R= 0.62; P < 0.01) was observed between changes in CSA and changes in MVT.

  3. Oral Consumption of Vitamin K2 for 8 Weeks Associated With Increased Maximal Cardiac Output During Exercise.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Background • Vitamin K1 and K2 are not typically common in a Western diet because they are found in a variety of fermented foods. Vitamin K2 in particular has been demonstrated to restore mitochondrial function and has a key role in production of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that dietary supplementation with vitamin K2 could increase the function of muscle with high mitochondrial content (ie, skeletal and cardiac muscle). Objective • The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 wk of dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 could alter cardiovascular responses to a graded cycle ergometer test. Design • The study was a randomized controlled trial. Setting • The study took place in the Applied Physiology Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of North Texas (Denton, TX, USA). ParticipantsParticipants were aerobically trained males and female athletes (N = 26). Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned either to a control group that received a rice flour placebo or to an intervention group that received vitamin K2. For weeks 1 to 4, participants received 300 mg/d; for weeks 5 to 8, they received 150 mg/d. Subjects assigned to the control group received similar doses to mirror the intervention group. Subjects consumed the supplements during an 8-wk period while they maintained their typical exercise habits. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, participants completed a standard, graded exercise test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Before the test, participants were fitted with a mouth piece, and their oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory rate, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured. In addition, participants were fitted with skin-mounted electrodes that measured noninvasive cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate. To assess the cumulative exercise change, an area-under-the-curve (AUC) value was calculated

  4. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13 Section 79.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for...

  5. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13 Section 79.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for...

  6. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13 Section 79.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for...

  7. Effect of daily mixed nutritional supplementation on immune indices in soldiers undertaking an 8-week arduous training programme.

    PubMed

    Diment, Bethany C; Fortes, Matthew B; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Costa, Ricardo J S; Walters, Robert; Walsh, Neil P

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of a daily mixed nutritional supplement during an 8-week arduous training programme on immune indices and mediators including circulating leucocyte counts; bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation; interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol and saliva secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA). Thirty men (mean (SD): age 25 (3) years; body mass, 80.9 (7.7) kg) received a habitual diet (CON, n = 15) or received a habitual diet plus an additional food supplement (SUP, n = 15). From weeks 0-6, CON received 14.0 MJ day(-1) and SUP received 19.7 MJ day(-1), and during a final 2-week field exercise in weeks 7 and 8, CON received 17.7 MJ day(-1) and SUP received 21.3 MJ day(-1). Blood and saliva were taken at rest after an overnight fast at weeks 0, 6 and 8. Body mass loss over the 8 weeks was greater in CON (CON, 5.0 (2.3); SUP, 1.6 (1.5) kg: P < 0.001). Training-induced decreases in circulating total leucocytes (CON: weeks 0, 8.0 (2.1); weeks 8, 6.5 (1.6) 10(9) l(-1), P < 0.01), lymphocytes (21%, P < 0.01) and monocytes (20%, P < 0.01) were prevented by the nutritional supplement. Saliva SIgA secretion rate increased approximately twofold by week 8 in SUP (P < 0.01) and was greater at week 8 compared with CON (P < 0.01). Circulating neutrophils, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, IL-6 and cortisol were similar in CON and SUP at week 8. In conclusion, a daily mixed nutritional supplement prevented the decrease in circulating total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes and increased saliva SIgA output during an 8-week arduous training programme. The increase in saliva SIgA with nutritional supplementation during training may reduce susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

  8. Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, 2-center, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael S; Gibel, Anatoly; Shleifer, Tatyana; Boguslavsky, Igor; Zayed, Ahmad; Maayan, Rachel; Weizman, Abraham; Lerner, Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are reported to have a modulatory effect on neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and response to stress; they are associated with mood regulation and cognitive performance. We investigated the influence of PREG and DHEA on psychotic symptoms and cognitive functioning as an add-on to ongoing antipsychotic treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-center study compared 30 mg/d of PREG (PREG-30), 200 mg/d of PREG (PREG-200), 400 mg/d of DHEA, and placebo as an adjunctive treatment of 58 chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder patients (DSM-IV). The data were collected from February 2005 until June 2007. The outcome measures were symptomatic and neurocognitive changes, functioning, and tolerability as assessed primarily by the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Analyses are presented for 44 patients who completed 8 weeks of treatment and for 14 noncompleters. Compared with subjects who received placebo, those administered PREG-30 had significant reductions in positive symptom scores and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and improvement in attention and working memory performance, whereas subjects treated with PREG-200 did not differ on outcome variable scores for the study period. The general psychopathology severity and general functioning of patients receiving placebo and PREG-30 improved more than that of those subjects treated with DHEA, while EPS improved more in subjects treated with DHEA than in patients receiving placebo. Negative symptoms and akathisia were not significantly benefited by any treatment. The administration of PREG and DHEA was well tolerated. Low-dose PREG augmentation demonstrated significant amelioration of positive symptoms and EPS and improvement in attention and working memory performance of schizophrenia and

  9. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner.

  10. Bone formation around immediately loaded and submerged dental implants with a modified sandblasted and acid-etched surface after 4 and 8 weeks: a human histologic and histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Shibli, Jamil A; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    A high clinical and radiographic level of osseointegration has been reported for early and immediately loaded (IL) implants. The aim of this study was to analyze, histologically and histomorphometrically, the bone-titanium interface of IL and submerged titanium implants that were retrieved at 4 and 8 weeks after placement. Four patients underwent rehabilitation of the posterior mandible with fixed prostheses, and an additional implant was inserted distally in the mandible. In two patients, the additional implants were put into nonfunctional immediate loading with a fixed provisional prosthesis on the same day of the implant surgery, whereas in the other two patients, the implants were left submerged. The implant stability quotients at implant insertion were 70 and 67 for the submerged implants and 69 and 77 for the IL implants. Before retrieval, the IL implants were clinically osseointegrated and were not mobile. After 4 and 8 weeks, the four implants (two IL and two submerged) were retrieved with a 5-mm trephine and processed for histologic examination. After 4 weeks, the IL implant showed a bone-implant contact percentage (BIC) of 65.6%, while the BIC for the submerged implant was 54.7%. After 8 weeks, the BIC was 76.2% for the IL implant, while for the submerged implant it was 62.3%. Very high BICs were present after 4 and 8 weeks around both submerged and IL implants, with the latter showing a higher quantity of bone. IL did not impede bone formation in the early healing periods.

  11. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-Jae; Seong, Je Kyung; Song, Wook

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats.

  12. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... number; (iv) The site at which the claimant participated in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear... need not submit any additional documentation of onsite participation during the atmospheric detonation... atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. If the facts gathered by the DoD are insufficient to establish the...

  13. Dietary self-monitoring, but not dietary quality, improves with use of smartphone app technology in an 8-week weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S; Cunningham, Barbara K; Sterner, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Dietary self-monitoring is linked to improved weight loss success. Mobile technologies, such as smartphone applications (apps), might allow for improved dietary tracking adherence. The authors assessed the use of a popular smartphone app for dietary self-monitoring and weight loss by comparing it with traditional diet counseling and entry methods. Diet tracking and weight loss were compared across participants during an 8-week weight loss trial. Participants tracked intake using 1 of 3 methods: the mobile app "Lose It!", the memo feature on a smartphone, or a traditional paper-and-pencil method. App users (n = 19) recorded dietary data more consistently compared with the paper-and-pencil group (n = 15; P = .042) but not the memo group (n = 13). All groups lost weight over the course of the study (P = .001), and no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Smartphone apps could represent a novel and feasible dietary self-monitoring method for individuals. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hospital expenditure as a major driver of nurse labour force participation: evidence from a 10-year period in Canada.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991-1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991-2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors.

  15. 32 CFR 37.665 - Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.665 Must I require nonprofit...

  16. Description of exercise participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy across a 4-year period.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Laura K; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe (1) the types of exercise participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy; (2) the weekly duration of stretching, strengthening, and cardiovascular exercise; (3) how the level of activity compares with national health guidelines; and (4) the change in participation over 4 years. Participants included 126 males and 104 females (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.7 years) who reported physical activities in the previous week. Analyses included frequency counts and proportions, stacked bar graphs, and 2-way analyses of variance of exercise participation by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and sex. A significant main effect of GMFCS level was detected for light and moderate exercise. A significant interaction of GMFCS level and sex was found for stretching; females stretched more. An average of 9.4% and 11.4% of our sample participated in weekly levels of moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively. Pediatric physical therapists should promote increased exercise participation rates among youths with cerebral palsy.

  17. Long-term clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of an 8-week multimodal knee osteoarthritis management program incorporating intra-articular sodium hyaluronate (Hyalgan(®)) injections.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Sloniewsky, Michael J; Gibbons, Thomas E; Johnston, Janice G; Vosler, Kent D; Nasir, Saad

    2017-01-01

    Given the poor long-term effectiveness of focused nonsurgical knee osteoarthritis (OA) treatments, alternative therapies are needed for patients who have unsuccessfully exhausted nonsurgical options. A telephone interview was conducted in patients who participated in a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program (mean follow-up: 3.7 years, range: 2.7-4.9 years). The program consisted of five intra-articular knee injections of sodium hyaluronate (Hyalgan(®)), with each injection given 1 week apart, structured physical therapy, knee bracing, and patient education. Clinical outcomes included knee pain severity, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) subscores, current medication use, and history of total knee arthroplasty. Base-case, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the treatment program with comparisons made to historical literature controls undergoing usual care. A total of 218 patients (54%) provided long-term follow-up data. Knee pain severity decreased 60% and WOMAC subscores decreased 33%-42% compared to baseline (all p<0.001). Total knee arthroplasty was performed in 22.8% (81/356) of knees during followup. The treatment program was highly cost-effective compared to usual care with a base-case ICER of $6,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results of subgroup analyses, one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses, and second-order probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in ICERs ranging from $3,996 to $10,493 per QALY. The percentage of simulations with an ICER below willingness-to-pay limits was 97.2%, 98.9%, and 99.4% for the $50,000, $100,000, and $150,000 per QALY thresholds, respectively. Participation in a single 8-week knee OA treatment program, which included one cycle of five intra-articular knee injections of sodium hyaluronate given at weekly intervals, is highly cost-effective and provides clinically meaningful reductions

  18. Exercise capacity before and after an 8-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program in lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Janssen, Paul P; Willemsen, Sonja C P; Hochstenbag, Monique M H; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2006-05-01

    Although lung cancer is a highly prevalent type of cancer, the effects of an inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on pulmonary function and exercise capacity have never been studied in these patients. Pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance and peak exercise capacity of 10 patients with a severely impaired pulmonary function following treatment of lung cancer were assessed in this pilot study before and after an 8-week inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. At baseline, patients had a restrictive pulmonary function and an apparent exercise intolerance (median 6-min walking distance: 63.6% predicted; median peak cycling load: 58.5% predicted). Despite the lack of change in median pulmonary function [FEV1: -0.01L, p = 0.5469], functional exercise capacity [145 m; 43.2% of the initial values, p=0.0020] and peak exercise capacity [26 W; 34.4% of the initial values, p = 0.0078] improved significantly compared to baseline. Future trials have to corroborate the present findings. Nevertheless, patients with lung cancer have a clear indication to start a comprehensive rehabilitation program following intensive treatment of their disease. In fact, based on the results of the present pilot study it appears that these patients are good candidates for pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  19. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  20. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A; Vigotsky, Andrew D

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  1. 32 CFR 37.655 - Must I specify the frequency of IPAs' periodic audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I specify the frequency of IPAs' periodic audits of for-profit participants? 37.655 Section 37.655 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS...

  2. 77 FR 76064 - Reopening of Application Period for Participation in the Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Reopening of Application Period for Participation in the Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS....

  3. 78 FR 315 - Reopening of Application Period for Participation in the Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 2 (Thursday, January 3, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 315] [FR Doc No: C1-2012-30922] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Reopening of Application Period for Participation in the Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction...

  4. 32 CFR 37.655 - Must I specify the frequency of IPAs' periodic audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must I specify the frequency of IPAs' periodic audits of for-profit participants? 37.655 Section 37.655 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS...

  5. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering.

  6. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. chictr.org ChiCTR-IOR-15006278.

  7. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  8. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  9. Estrogen suppression in premenopausal women following 8 weeks of treatment with exemestane and triptorelin versus triptorelin alone.

    PubMed

    Jannuzzo, Maria Gabriella; Di Salle, Enrico; Spinelli, Riccardo; Pirotta, Nicoletta; Buchan, Peter; Bello, Akintunde

    2009-02-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists (e.g., triptorelin) reduce ovarian estrogen production in premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (e.g., exemestane) inhibit extraovarian production of estrogen and may further reduce circulating estrogens when combined with an LHRH agonist. Healthy premenopausal women were randomized to receive 3.75 mg triptorelin (T) on days 1 and 29 with 25 mg exemestane (EX) or matched placebo once daily for 8 weeks, from day 1 to day 56. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of T +/- EX on estradiol (E(2)) suppression by comparing the AUC(day 36-57 )for the 2 treatments. Secondary objectives included evaluation of estrone (E(1)), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) suppression; effects of EX on the T-induced gonadotrophin and estrogen flare; pharmacokinetics (PK); and safety. Twenty-eight (14 in each arm) were evaluable for efficacy and PK. Mean plasma estrogen levels (AUC(day 36-57)) were significantly lower for subjects who received T + EX than for subjects who received T alone (20.6 vs. 54.0 pg d/ml [-62%; P < 0.05], and 38.9 vs. 198.0 pg d/ml [-80%; P < 0.01] for E(2) and E(1), respectively). Coadministration of EX did not affect the initial flare or subsequent suppression of LH and FSH following the first dose of T, or the PK of T. Both treatments were well tolerated. Coadministration of T and EX resulted in greater estrogen suppression than when T was given alone. These findings could translate into improved clinical outcomes for premenopausal breast cancer patients receiving LHRH agonists.

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of overfeeding on ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity: testing the "adipose tissue expandability" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Darcy L; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Tam, Charmaine S; Covington, Jeffrey D; Xie, Wenting; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Ravussin, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The presence of large subcutaneous adipocytes in obesity has been proposed to be linked with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the "adipose tissue expandability" hypothesis, which holds that large adipocytes have a limited capacity for expansion, forcing lipids to be stored in nonadipose ectopic depots (skeletal muscle, liver), where they interfere with insulin signaling. This hypothesis has, however, been largely formulated by cross-sectional findings and to date has not been prospectively demonstrated in the development of insulin resistance in humans. Twenty-nine men (26.8 ± 5.4 years old; BMI 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) were fed 40% more than their baseline requirement for 8 weeks. Before and after overfeeding, insulin sensitivity was determined using a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were measured by (1)H-MRS and abdominal fat by MRI. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were collected to measure adipocyte size and markers of tissue inflammation. Subjects gained 7.6 ± 2.1 kg (55% fat) and insulin sensitivity decreased 18% (P < 0.001) after overfeeding. IHL increased 46% from 1.5% to 2.2% (P = 0.002); however, IMCL did not change. There was no association between adipocyte size and ectopic lipid accumulation. Despite similar weight gain, subjects with smaller fat cells at baseline had a greater decrease in insulin sensitivity, which was linked with upregulated skeletal muscle tissue inflammation. In experimental substantial weight gain, the presence of larger adipocytes did not promote ectopic lipid accumulation. In contrast, smaller fat cells were associated with a worsened metabolic response to overfeeding. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  12. Sertraline and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia: an 8-week, open-label study of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Tang, Yi; Li, Xueli; Liu, Wuhan; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-12-02

    Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may induce or exacerbate rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increase the risk of developing REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). However, most of these studies are retrospective and cross-sectional and employed small sample sizes and a mixture of SSRIs. In this 8-week open-label trial of sertraline in depressed patients (n = 31), depressed patients were administered 50mg sertraline at 8 am on the 1st day and subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200mg/day. All patients underwent repeated video-polysomnography (vPSG) (baseline, 1st day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Both tonic (submental) and phasic (submental and anterior tibialis) RSWA events were visually counted. Tonic RSWA increased from 3.2 ± 1.8% at baseline to 5.1 ± 2.3% on the 1st day and 10.4 ± 2.7% on the 14th day; after that, measurements were stable until the 56th day. A similar profile was observed for phasic RSWA. The increases in tonic RSWA (r = 0.56, P = 0.004) and phasic RSWA (submental: r = -0.51, P = 0.02; anterior tibialis: r = 0.41, P = 0.04) were correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency. All of RSWAs were not correlated with patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Sertraline may induce or exacerbate RSWA. In contrast to idiopathic RBD, sertraline-related RSWA had the specific characteristics of being correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency and no predominance of male sex and elder age, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms. The antidepressant-related RSWA should be a potential public health problem in the depressed patients. © 2013.

  13. Pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of steroid-induced rosacea: an 8-week split-face clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Li, K; Suh, D H

    2008-05-01

    Steroid-induced rosacea is a relatively common dermatosis that is caused by the prolonged application of topical steroid to the face. The purpose of this investigator-blind, split-face study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of steroid-induced rosacea. Patients were instructed to apply pimecrolimus 1% cream twice daily to the involved areas of a randomly allocated half side for the first 2 weeks, and to follow this by applying pimecrolimus 1% cream to both sides for a further 6 weeks. Fifteen of the 18 patients completed the 8-week study. After 1 week of application, a statistically significant improvement was observed for investigator's global assessments of erythema and papules on prior-treated sides (P-side). Later-treated sides (L-side) showed subsequent improvement after use of pimecrolimus on the L-side. Likewise, a statistically significant improvement was also observed for numbers of papules/pustules on P-sides after 1 week, and L-sides showed a significant improvement after application of pimecrolimus on the L-side. Comparative reflectance colorimetric assessments revealed that DeltaL*, Deltaa* and Deltab* tended to converge to zero during the first 4 weeks. A statistically significant improvement was observed for percentage area affected on P-sides after 1 week of application. The L-side showed a significant improvement after use of pimecrolimus cream on that side. The visual analogue scale of P-sides decreased more rapidly than those of L-sides. Cutaneous side-effects were mild and transient. This study suggests that pimecrolimus 1% cream is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for steroid-induced rosacea.

  14. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  15. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  16. The effect of 8-weeks proprioceptive exercise program in postural sway and isokinetic strength of ankle sprains of Tunisian athletes.

    PubMed

    Ben Moussa Zouita, A; Majdoub, O; Ferchichi, H; Grandy, K; Dziri, C; Ben Salah, F Z

    2013-12-01

    and better stability of the injured limb at slow and average (P<0.05). For the healthy limb, improvements varying from 1 to 39% were obtained between test and retest on all the variables. However, these variations were not statistically significant. Proprioceptive training exercises can effectively stabilize an unstable ankle above for muscular and postural control. However, 8 weeks does not assess whether we have achieved maximum effect. In addition, we do not know to what extent these effects will continue over time. It would be interesting to later re-evaluate the athletes for the effect of this treatment, which is based on a proprioceptive training program on a year or more. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads.

    PubMed

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001), and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05) was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001), as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01) were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05), and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term.

  18. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  19. Ziprasidone Vs Olanzapine in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Results of an 8-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grootens, K. P.; van Veelen, N. M. J.; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Verkes, R. J.; Kahn, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. Methods: The study was an 8-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, controlled multicenter trial (NCT00145444). Seventy-six patients with schizophreniform disorder, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosis < 5 y), and a maximum lifetime antipsychotic treatment <16 weeks participated in the study. Efficacy of ziprasidone (80–160 mg/d) and olanzapine 10–20 mg was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and the Heinrich Quality of Life Scale (HQLS); tolerability assessments included laboratory assessments, body weight, and electroencephalogram. Results: Olanzapine (n = 34) and ziprasidone (n = 39) showed equal efficacy as measured by the PANSS, CDSS, CGI, and HQLS. However, mean weight gain was significantly higher in the olanzapine group (6.8 vs 0.1 kg, P < .001). Ziprasidone was associated with decreasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and transaminases, while these parameters increased in the olanzapine group (all P values < .05). There were no significant differences in fasting glucose and prolactin levels or in cardiac or sexual side effects. Patients on ziprasidone used biperiden for extrapyramidal side effects more frequently (P < .05). Discussion: The results of this study indicate that ziprasidone and olanzapine have comparable therapeutic efficacy but differ in their side effect profile. However, there is a risk of a type II error with this sample size. Clinically significant weight gain and laboratory abnormalities appear early after initiating treatment and are more prominent with olanzapine, while more patients on ziprasidone

  20. The anaerobic endurance of elite soccer players improved after a high-intensity training intervention in the 8-week conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Ruzic, Lana; Leko, Goran

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in anaerobic endurance in elite First-league soccer players throughout 2 consecutive seasons, in 2 phases, with and without high-intensity situational drills. Eighteen soccer players were tested before and after the 8-week summer conditioning and again in the next season. The measured variables included 300-yard shuttle run test, maximal heart rate, and maximal blood lactate at the end of the test. During the first phase of the study, the traditional sprint training was performed only 2 x weeks and consisted of 15 bouts of straight-line sprinting. In the second year the 4 x 4 min drills at an intensity of 90-95% of HRmax, separated by periods of 3-minute technical drills at 55-65% of HRmax were introduced. Statistical significance was set at P

  1. Pimecrolimus vs. tacrolimus for the topical treatment of unresponsive oral erosive lichen planus: a 8 week randomized double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Carbone, M; Della Ferrera, F; Elia, A; Conrotto, D; Gambino, A; Comba, A; Calogiuri, P L; Broccoletti, R

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, affecting nearly 1-2% of the population; Proposed therapies are usually symptomatic and numerous drugs have been used, but recently, it has been published that there is insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of any specific treatment as being superior. To the best of our knowledge, direct evaluation of the efficacy of topically applied pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of atrophic-erosive OLP, refractory to topical steroids, is still lacking. To assess the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors for unresponsive OLP. An 8 week randomized, double-blind controlled trial, followed by a 6 month follow-up period. Patients were treated with either pimecrolimus 1% cream or tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, both mixed with an equivalent amount of 4% hydroxyethyl cellulose gel. The medications were to be applied twice daily for 2 months. Each patient was examined at the beginning of therapy, and then every 2 weeks during the treatment and every 3 months of follow-up. Main outcome measures were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of topically applied pimecrolimus and tacrolimus; (ii) to evaluate which is more cost-effective; (iii) to determine which drug is faster in reducing signs and symptoms and (iv) which gives the longest remission. Thirty patients were involved in the study. Both drugs were effective at inducing clinical improvement, with no statistical difference. Pimecrolimus creams revealed a significantly better stability of the therapeutic effectiveness (P = 0.031). Both medications would currently appear to be a treatment of choice for patients with unresponsive atrophic-erosive OLP. Pimecrolimus seemed to be more effective in providing long-term resolution of signs and symptoms. Future efforts are however needed to obtain more objective evidence of the benefit of these medications in the treatment of immunologically mediated oral mucosal lesion. © 2013 The Authors Journal of

  2. Changes in disability, physical/mental health states and quality of life during an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical efficacy requires verification using a randomised controlled study

  3. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  4. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  5. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L; Landbloom, Ronald P; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Mathews, Maju

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12-17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (-4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; -5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean -0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by -16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by -11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were maintained in the OLE, the primary end-point did not achieve

  6. Effects of an 8-week yoga program on sustained attention and discrimination function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chien-Chih

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether a yoga exercise intervention influenced the sustained attention and discrimination function in children with ADHD. Forty-nine participants (mean age = 10.50 years) were assigned to either a yoga exercise or a control group. Participants were given the Visual Pursuit Test and Determination Test prior to and after an eight-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 40 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy rate and reaction time of the two tests were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. These findings suggest that alternative therapies such as yoga exercises can be complementary to behavioral interventions for children with attention and inhibition problems. Schools and parents of children with ADHD should consider alternatives for maximizing the opportunities that children with ADHD can engage in structured yoga  exercises. PMID:28097075

  7. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  8. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  9. The Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey-Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    branchecl -chain mino ac ids ( BCAA ) may a lso improve cogni t ive per formance dur ing latigue. Blornstrand, Hassmdn, Eckblorn, and News- holme (1q91...1991) and Hassmdn, Blornstrand, Eck- blom, and Newsholme (1994) observecl that participants supplemented with BCAAs scored better on both mood lcvels...whey and casein, whey and BCAAs . or’ placebo ver’ I 0 weeks of R1’. ’fhey obser"ved a significant incrcase in l-RM BP in all 3 groups with no

  10. The 2- and 8-week effects of decompressive brace use in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, Eric M; Streb, Robert; Werner, Marc; Kremenic, Ian; Penna, James

    2016-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a prevalent disease. Unloading the affected compartment using a brace is a treatment option. To determine whether a decompressive knee brace alters loading in medial knee osteoarthritis following 2 and 8 weeks of use. Within subjects; pre- and post-testing. A total of 15 individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis attended four sessions: baseline, fitting, 2 weeks after fitting (post), and 8 weeks after fitting (final). A gait analysis was performed at baseline (without knee brace), post and final. Knee adduction impulse, first and second peak knee adduction moment, knee motion, and walking velocity were calculated. Participants also recorded hours and steps taken while wearing the brace. On average, the brace was worn for more than 6 h/day. Through use of repeated-measures analysis of variance, it was determined that the knee adduction impulse and second peak knee adduction moment were reduced (p < 0.05) at post and final compared to baseline (36% and 34% reduction in knee adduction impulse, 26% reduction in second peak knee adduction moment for post and final, respectively). Furthermore, participants walked faster with increased knee motion during stance. The studied decompressive brace was effective in reducing potentially detrimental forces at the knee-knee adduction impulse and second peak knee adduction moment during the stance phase of gait. The data from this study suggest that use of a medial unloading brace can reduce potentially detrimental adduction moments at the knee. Clinicians should use this evidence to advocate for use of this noninvasive treatment for people presenting with medial knee osteoarthritis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  11. Use of packaged entrees as part of a weight-loss diet in overweight men: an 8-week randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hannum, S M; Carson, L A; Evans, E M; Petr, E L; Wharton, C M; Bui, L; Erdman, J W

    2006-03-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a weight-loss diet by using packaged portion-controlled entrees vs. a self-selected diet based on the United States Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid (FGP). Sixty healthy overweight men (body mass index (BMI) 26-42 kg/m2; aged 24-60 years) were randomized into two groups for an 8-week intervention. Group E consumed two portion-controlled entrees daily, plus recommended servings from the FGP. Group P consumed a self-selected diet consisting of a recommended number of servings from the FGP. Diets were designed to be isocaloric (1700 kcal) and identical in macronutrient composition (55% carbohydrate, 25% protein and 20% fat). Participants were instructed to make no changes in physical activity levels. Each group was blinded to the protocol of the other group, and received separate diet instructions, but no behavioural or diet counselling. Outcomes included weight, BMI, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein. Fifty-one men completed the study. The portion-control group E (n = 25) experienced greater decreases in weight (-7.4 +/- 3.1 vs. -5.1 +/- 4.0 kg), BMI (-2.4 +/- 1.0 vs. -1.6 +/- 1.3 kg/m2), fat mass (-3.6 +/- 1.8 vs. -2.5 +/- 1.8 kg), waist circumference (-6.6 +/- 3.3 vs. -4.3 +/- 2.9 cm) and diastolic BP (-6.0 +/- 7.2 vs. + 0.2 +/- 10.1 mmHg) than group P (n = 26) (p < 0.05). Consumption of a packaged entree diet resulted in greater losses of weight and fat mass, and reduced BP. Use of packaged entrees as part of a weight-loss diet is an effective means of achieving portion control and enhancing losses of weight and fat mass in overweight men.

  12. A multifunctional diet improves cardiometabolic-related biomarkers independently of weight changes: an 8-week randomized controlled intervention in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Juscelino; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2016-10-01

    A multifunctional diet (MFD) was previously shown to reduce blood lipids, CRP and blood pressure in a 4-week intervention under weight-maintenance conditions. Here, MFD effects were evaluated in an 8-week intervention with no restriction for weight changes. Healthy subjects consumed MFD (23 subjects) or a control diet (CD) devoid of the functional components (24 subjects) in a "free-living" randomized controlled experiment. MFD included several functional concepts: low-glycemic-impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds and plant stanols. Measured outcomes were fasting blood values of lipids, glucose, insulin, GGT, CRP, HbA1c, PAI-1, GLP-1, GLP-2, body weight, blood pressure and breath hydrogen. At baseline, participants were 51-72 years old, with BMI between 25 and 34 and fasting glycemia  ≤ 6.1 mmol/L. Consumption of both diets resulted in similar weight loss after 8 weeks (-4 %; P  <  0.001). Compared to baseline, consumption of MFD reduced total serum cholesterol (-26 %; P  <  0.0001), LDL cholesterol (-35 %; P  <  0.0001), triglycerides (-16 %; P  < 0.05), LDL/HDL (-27 %; P  <  0.0001) and ApoB/ApoA1 (-15 %; P  <  0.0001). There were important net differences between diets, which remained significant after adjustment for body weight. Reduced systolic blood pressure, circulating GGT, HbA1c and insulin concentrations were observed with both MFD and CD with no difference between diets. The Reynolds cardiovascular risk score was decreased by 36 % (P  <  0.0001) with MFD. MFD increased breath hydrogen levels (120 %; P  <  0.05). Consumption of MFD decreased blood lipids and improved several other aspects of the cardiometabolic risk profile. This effect was not dependent on weight loss.

  13. The Seated Inactivity Trial (SIT): Physical Activity and Dietary Outcomes Associated With 8 Weeks of Imposed Sedentary Time.

    PubMed

    Cull, Brooke J; Haub, Mark D; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Lawler, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Sara K

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary time is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases and mortality. It is unknown whether active adults alter their dietary and/or physical activity behaviors in response to imposed sedentary time, possibly modifying risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether imposed sedentary time would alter typical behaviors of active adults. Sixteen physically active, young adults were randomized to the no-intervention control (CON, n = 8) group or the sedentary-intervention (SIT, n = 8) group. SIT participants attended monitored sedentary sessions (8 wk, 10 h/wk). Assessments including diet and physical activity occurred at baseline, week 4, and week 9. There were no differences (P > .05) between CON and SIT groups for step counts or time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity when comparing a week during imposed sedentary time (week 4) to baseline and week 9. At week 4, caloric intake was not different from baseline (P > .05) in either group. Caloric intake decreased significantly (P > .05) in SIT from baseline to week 9. Active adults did not alter physical activity or dietary behaviors during the imposed sedentary intervention. However, SIT reduced caloric intake from baseline to week 9, indicating a possible compensatory response to imposed sitting in active adults.

  14. The influence of 8 weeks of whey-protein and leucine supplementation on physical and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Thomas B; Smith, Jessica; Herrera, Monica; Lebegue, Breck; Pinchak, Andrea; Fischer, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of whey-protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit participants completed a modified Air Force fitness test, a computer-based cognition test, and a dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry scan for body composition before and after supplementing their daily diet for 8 wk with either 19.7 g of whey protein and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo (P). Bench-press performance increased significantly from Week 1 to Week 8 in the WPL group, whereas the increase in the P group was not significant. Push-up performance increased significantly for WPL, and P showed a nonsignificant increase. Total mass, fat-free mass, and lean body mass all increased significantly in the WPL group but showed no change in the P group. No differences were observed within or between groups for crunches, chin-ups, 3-mile-run time, or cognition. The authors conclude that supplementing with whey protein and leucine may provide an advantage to people whose performance benefits from increased upper body strength and/or lean body mass.

  15. The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Knechtle, Beat; Fenzl, Matthias; Schlegel, Christian; Konrad, Manuela; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls) attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject’s weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001). Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001). The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017) but not in girls (P > 0.05). The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05). Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adjustments of the chronically positive imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure of obese children and adolescents living in obesogenic environments should be addressed in a multisectoral approach. Future research in multicomponent childhood and adolescent weight loss programs should be directed towards a better understanding of the underlying complex dynamics in energy homeostasis which promote weight loss and changes in body composition due to high intensity exercise interventions. PMID:23525602

  16. Effects of weight loss and seafood consumption on inflammation parameters in young, overweight and obese European men and women during 8 weeks of energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Ramel, A; Martinez, J A; Kiely, M; Bandarra, N M; Thorsdottir, I

    2010-09-01

    In vitro studies have shown that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) can affect inflammation; however, results from intervention studies in overweight or obese individuals are contradicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of weight loss and seafood consumption on inflammation parameters during energy restriction. In this 8-week intervention trial, 324 subjects (aged 20-40 years, body mass index 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland) were randomized to one of four energy-restricted diets (-30% relative to estimated requirements): salmon (3 x 150 g/week, 2.1 g LC n-3 PUFA per day); cod (3 x 150 g/week, 0.3 g LC n-3 PUFA per day); fish oil capsules (1.3 g LC n-3 PUFA per day); and control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood). Body weight, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), glutathione reductase and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGEF2alpha) were measured at baseline and end point. Subjects experienced weight loss (-5.2+/-3.2 kg, P<0.001). Taken together for all subjects, there were significant decreases in all inflammation parameters. On a group level, salmon consumption was most effective, three of the four inflammation parameters decreased in the salmon group (high-sensitivity CRP=-32.0%; IL-6=-18.4%; PGEF2alpha=-18.5%; all P<0.05). Cod consumption decreased high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 (-21.5 and -10.8%, respectively, both P<0.05). Changes in the other two groups were not significant, which can be partly explained by the large s.d. The mean concentrations of inflammation parameters decreased during a period of weight loss and dietary intervention. In our study, salmon consumption was most effective, three of the four measured inflammation parameters decreased significantly in the salmon group.

  17. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: A randomised controlled weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    Truby, Helen; Hiscutt, Rebecca; Herriot, Anne M; Stanley, Manana; deLooy, Anne; Fox, Kenneth R; Baic, Susan; Robson, Paula J; Macdonald, Ian; Taylor, Moira A; Ware, Robert; Logan, Catherine; Livingstone, MBE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of commercial weight loss programmes on macronutrient composition and micronutrient adequacy over a 2 month period. Design Adults were randomly allocated to follow the Slim Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points Programme, Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, or Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan. Setting A multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects 293 adults, mean age 40.3 years and a mean BMI 31.7 (range 27–38) were allocated to follow one of the four diets or control group. Subjects completed a 7-day food and activity diary at baseline (prior to randomisation) and after 2 months. Diet records were analysed for nutrient composition using WinDiets (research version). Results A significant shift in the macronutrient composition of the diet with concurrent alteration of the micronutrient profile was apparent with all diets. There was no evidence to suggest micronutrient deficiency in subjects on any of the dietary regimens. However, those sub-groups with higher needs for specific micronutrients, such as folate, iron or calcium may benefit from tailored dietary advice. Conclusion The diets tested all resulted in considerable macronutrient change and resulted in an energy deficit indicating dietary compliance. Health professionals and those working in community and public health should be reassured of the nutritional adequacy of the diets tested. Trial Registration Number NCT00327821 PMID:18764946

  18. Safety and efficacy of esreboxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: An 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M; Chatamra, Krai; Hirsch, Ian; Stoker, Malcolm

    2010-08-01

    Esreboxetine is an investigational, highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has been reported to have antinociceptive effects in preclinical pain models. This study assessed the efficacy and safety profile of esreboxetine in the management of fibromyalgia. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients aged ≥18 years who met American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia. Eligible patients were required to have a score ≥40 mm on the 100-mm visual analog scale of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire at screening and randomization, and a mean score ≥4 on an 11-point pain rating scale (from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst possible pain) based on the weekly mean pain score in the week before randomization. After a 1-week baseline period and a 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in period, patients were randomized to receive esreboxetine or placebo for 8 weeks, followed by a 1-week follow-up period. Esreboxetine dosing was started at 2 mg/d and was escalated by 2 mg/d every 2 weeks until attainment of a dose of 8 mg/d or the maximum tolerated dose. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from baseline to week 8 in weekly mean pain scores, as derived from patients' daily pain ratings on the 11-point scale. Additional primary efficacy outcomes included changes in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total score and the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC). The safety profile was evaluated based on observed and spontaneously reported adverse events, laboratory tests, and other safety measures. One hundred thirty-four patients were randomized to each study group, but 1 patient in the placebo group did not receive treatment. Thus, the study population consisted of 267 patients (89.5% female; 88.4% white; mean age, ∼50 years [range, 20-84 years]). Twenty-seven patients in each group discontinued the study. Adverse events were the most common reason for discontinuation in the esreboxetine

  19. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  20. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) 5 mg in generalized anxiety disorder: results of an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Anthony J; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Yan, Mingjin; Sheehan, David V

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the current clinical study, conducted in the United States (US), was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 5mg vs placebo in adults with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; HAM-A total score ≥20 and MADRS score ≤16). Subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5mg (n=152) or placebo (n=152) for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using change from baseline in HAM-A total scores after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo, using mixed-model repeated measures (MMRM) analyses. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. A total of 304 subjects were randomized (mean age, 41.2 years). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the reduction in HAM-A total score from baseline between the Vortioxetine (n=145) and placebo (n=145) groups. There were no statistically significant differences in any key secondary efficacy outcome between vortioxetine and placebo. Factors potentially contributing to the differences between the results of this study and those of one of identical design conducted outside the US are discussed. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea, headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. Nausea was more frequently reported in the vortioxetine group (25% vs 4.6% for the placebo group). Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity. In conclusion, in this trial, vortioxetine did not improve symptoms of GAD (compared with placebo) over 8 weeks of treatment. Vortioxetine was well tolerated in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. An 8-week thoracic spine stabilization exercise program improves postural back pain, spine alignment, postural sway, and core endurance in university students:a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Toprak Çelenay, Şeyda; Özer Kaya, Derya

    2017-04-18

    To investigate the effects of an 8-week thoracic stabilization exercise program on back pain, spinal alignment, postural sway, and core endurance in university students. University students were randomly allocated into exercise (n: 28) and control (n: 25) groups. The exercise program was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Postural pain, spinal alignment, postural sway, and core endurance were assessed via visual analogue scale, Spinal Mouse, Biodex Balance System, and McGill's trunk muscle endurance tests at the baseline and after 8 weeks of training. Differences were observed for postural pain, thoracic and lumbar curvature, dynamic stability index (eyes closed), and core endurance scores in the exercise group between baseline and week 8 (P < 0.05) and all the parameters were significantly different when compared to those of the control group (P < 0.05). The program decreased postural pain, spinal curvatures, and postural sway, and increased core endurance in university students. The program can be effective in postural pain and misalignment of spine problems related to core weakness and balance disorders.

  2. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. PMID:27660489

  3. Perceived Participation, Experiences from Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Their Transition Period from Hospital to Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that participation should be achieved at the end of the rehabilitation process. However, there is a lack of consensus on the definition, the conceptualization and the measurement of participation. This study aims to add to the existing body of knowledge of participation by exploring the "person perceived participation" in…

  4. Perceived Participation, Experiences from Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Their Transition Period from Hospital to Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that participation should be achieved at the end of the rehabilitation process. However, there is a lack of consensus on the definition, the conceptualization and the measurement of participation. This study aims to add to the existing body of knowledge of participation by exploring the "person perceived participation" in…

  5. 32 CFR 37.645 - Must I require periodic audits, as well as award-specific audits, of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not add specific requirements for periodic audits because the Federal audits should be sufficient to... those for-profit participants, as discussed in § 37.915(a), gives the necessary access in the event that...

  6. 32 CFR 37.655 - Must I specify the frequency of IPAs' periodic audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.655..., when the participant has its IPA do its next financial statement audit, unless the participant already...

  7. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Belza, A; Frandsen, E; Kondrup, J

    2007-01-01

    A combination of tyrosine, capsaicin, catechines and caffeine may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and promote satiety, lipolysis and thermogenesis. In addition, dietary calcium may increase fecal fat excretion. To investigate the acute and subchronic effect of a supplement containing the above mentioned agents or placebo taken t.i.d on thermogenesis, body fat loss and fecal fat excretion. In total, 80 overweight-obese subjects ((body mass index) 31.2+/-2.5 kg/m(2), mean+/-s.d.) underwent an initial 4-week hypocaloric diet (3.4 MJ/day). Those who lost>4% body weight were instructed to consume a hypocaloric diet (-1.3 MJ/day) and were randomized to receive either placebo (n=23) or bioactive supplement (n=57) in a double-blind, 8-week intervention. The thermogenic effect of the compound was tested at the first and last day of intervention, and blood pressure, heart rate, body weight and composition were assessed. Weight loss during the induction phase was 6.8+/-1.9 kg. At the first exposure the thermogenic effect of the bioactive supplement exceeded that of placebo by 87.3 kJ/4 h (95%CI: 50.9;123.7, P=0.005) and after 8 weeks this effect was sustained (85.5 kJ/4 h (47.6;123.4), P=0.03). Body fat mass decreased more in the supplement group by 0.9 kg (0.5; 1.3) compared with placebo (P<0.05). The bioactive supplement had no effect on fecal fat excretion, blood pressure or heart rate. The bioactive supplement increased 4-h thermogenesis by 90 kJ more than placebo, and the effect was maintained after 8 weeks and accompanied by a slight reduction in fat mass. These bioactive components may support weight maintenance after a hypocaloric diet.

  8. 8-week evaluation of anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis benefits of a unique multi-directional power toothbrush versus a sonic control toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Goyal, C Ram; Qaqish, J; Biesbrock, Aaron R

    2012-09-01

    To assess the ability of a novel multi-directional power toothbrush to control plaque and gingivitis when compared to a marketed sonic power toothbrush control. This was a randomized and controlled, examiner-blinded, parallel group, 8-week study at a single center, in adult subjects with mild-to-moderate gingivitis. Pre-treatment gingivitis levels and plaque coverage were evaluated at baseline using the Lobene Modified Gingival Index (MGI), the Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Qualified subjects were randomly assigned to either a novel multi-directional power toothbrush with a wireless display (Oral-B Professional Deep Sweep + SmartGuide TRICLEAN 5000, also marketed as Oral-B TriZone) or the marketed control sonic toothbrush (Philips Sonicare FlexCare). After a supervised brushing at the clinical site at baseline, subjects brushed unsupervised at home twice daily according to manufacturer instructions with the assigned test brush and standard sodium fluoride dentifrice. After 8 weeks, subjects were recalled to assess toothbrush efficacy via the MGI and GBI gingivitis and RMNPI plaque evaluations. A total of 128 evaluable subjects completed the study. After 8 weeks of brushing, both test toothbrushes provided statistically significant reductions compared to baseline in mean whole mouth MGI and GBI, and in RMNPI whole mouth and interproximal (approximal) sites (P < 0.001). The novel multi-directional power brush consistently produced significantly superior anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque reductions relative to pre-treatment versus the sonic control brush: the Week 8 adjusted mean relative reductions were 30% and 29% greater for whole mouth MGI and GBI, respectively (P < 0.001); and were 44% and 77% greater for the RMNPI whole mouth and interproximal regions, respectively (P < or = 0.003). Both toothbrushes were well-tolerated.

  9. Efficacy of lanreotide Autogel® administered every 4–8 weeks in patients with acromegaly previously responsive to lanreotide microparticles 30 mg: a phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, T; Astorga, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective and design Depot somatostatin analogues are well accepted as either adjuvant or primary therapy for acromegaly, and their long dosage intervals facilitate adherence to treatment. Our objective was to evaluate whether lanreotide Autogel® 120 mg, every 4–8 weeks, was as effective in controlling acromegaly as lanreotide microparticles 30 mg, every 1–2 weeks. Patients design and measurements Patients who had used lanreotide microparticles 30 mg, ≥ 2 months prestudy, and had responded to treatment were recruited to this open, prospective, multicentre phase III trial. Three to five injections of lanreotide Autogel® 120 mg were administered. Lanreotide Autogel® 120 mg was injected every 4, 6 or 8 weeks in patients previously receiving lanreotide microparticles every 7, 10 or 14 days, respectively. GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels were assessed one dosing interval after the final injections. Results Ninety-eight patients were enrolled and 93 completed. Steady-state GH concentrations demonstrated similar efficacy between the formulations (upper 95% confidence interval of the quotient, 77·7%). Mean (SE) GH levels were lower with lanreotide Autogel® than with lanreotide microparticles (3·8 (0·5) vs 4·3 (0·5) ng/ml; P < 0·001). GH levels < 2·5 ng/ml were observed in 54% and 46% of patients; 40% and 35% having GH < 2·5 ng/ml and normalized IGF-1 with lanreotide Autogel® and microparticles, respectively. Symptoms were controlled better with lanreotide Autogel® and treatment was well accepted. Conclusions Lanreotide Autogel® 120 mg every 4–8 weeks, is at least as effective and as well tolerated in acromegaly as lanreotide microparticles 30 mg injected every 7–14 days. PMID:16918950

  10. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  11. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in generalized anxiety disorder: results of an 8-week, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Yan, Mingjin; Sheehan, David V

    2012-12-01

    Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant, with anxiolytic properties observed in preclinical studies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 5mg vs placebo in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Adults with a primary diagnosis of GAD (HAM-A total score ≥20 and MADRS score ≤16) received vortioxetine 5mg or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in HAM-A total scores from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo. Key secondary measurements were HAD anxiety subscore, CGI-I, SDS total score, HAM-A response rates, HAM-A total score for subjects whose baseline HAM-A total score was ≥25, and SF-36 social functioning subscore. HAM-A remission rates were also measured. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. In total, 301 subjects (mean age, 45.2 years; 31% male) were randomized (1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5mg (n=150) or placebo (n=151). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction from baseline in HAM-A total score for the vortioxetine group (-14.30) compared with placebo recipients (-10.49) (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed for all key secondary outcomes favoring vortioxetine treatment (vs placebo), using a mixed model for repeated measurements (MMRM) analysis. Active treatment resulted in a significantly higher rate of remission. Vortioxetine was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related AEs were nausea, headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. In sum, vortioxetine was safe and effective in treating adults with GAD in this multinational population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 37 - What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs? C Appendix C to Part 37 National Defense Department... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. C Appendix C to Part 37—What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 37 - What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs? C Appendix C to Part 37 National Defense Department... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. C Appendix C to Part 37—What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 37 - What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs? C Appendix C to Part 37 National Defense Department... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. C Appendix C to Part 37—What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic...

  15. Comparable efficacy and safety of 8 weeks treatment with agomelatine 25-50mg or fluoxetine 20-40mg in Asian out-patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shu, L; Sulaiman, A H; Huang, Y S; Fones Soon Leng, C; Crutel, V Strijckmans; Kim, Y S

    2014-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine, using fluoxetine as an active comparator, in Asian patients suffering from moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either agomelatine (25-50mg/day, n=314) or fluoxetine (20-40mg/day, n=314) during an 8-week treatment period. The main outcome measure was the change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 items (HAM-D17) scores. Secondary efficacy criteria included scores on Clinical Global Impression Severity of illness (CGI-S) and Improvement of illness (CGI-I), patient sleeping improvement using the self-rating Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) and anxiety using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores. Tolerability and safety evaluations were based on emergent adverse events. Agomelatine and fluoxetine exert a comparable antidepressant efficacy in the Asian population. Mean changes over 8 weeks were clinically relevant and similar in both groups (-14.8±7.3 and -15.0±8.1 on HAM-D17 scale in agomelatine and fluoxetine groups, respectively). The between-group difference reached statistical significance on non-inferiority test (p=0.015). Clinically relevant decreases in CGI-S and CGI-I scores were observed over the treatment period in both groups. The two treatments were equally effective on the symptoms of both anxiety and sleep. The good tolerability profile and safety of both doses of agomelatine was confirmed in the Asian population. Agomelatine and fluoxetine are equally effective in the treatment of MDD-associated symptoms in Asian depressed patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivational Factors Underlying Problem Solving: Comparing Wolf and Dog Puppies' Explorative and Neophobic Behaviors at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikő; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wolves have been shown to be better in independent problem-solving tasks than dogs, however it is unclear whether cognitive or motivational factors underlie such differences. In a number of species problem solving has been linked to both persistence in exploration and neophobia, suggesting both these aspects may underlie dog-wolf differences in problem solving. Indeed adult wolves have been shown to be more likely to approach a novel object and more persistent in their investigation of it, but also slower in making contact with it and more fearful of it than dogs. Methods: In the current study we investigated potential differences in equally-raised dogs' and wolves' explorative and neophobic behaviors in a novel environment and with novel objects at 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Results: Results showed that wolves were more persistent in exploring both the environment and the objects than dogs, and this was the case at all ages. There were no differences in the frequency of fear-related behaviors and time spent in proximity to humans. Stress-related behaviors were similarly expressed at 5 and 6 weeks, although wolves showed a higher frequency of such behaviors at 8 weeks. Discussion: Overall, results with puppies confirm those with adult animals: wolves appear to be more explorative than dogs. Such motivational differences need to be taken into account when comparing dogs and wolves in cognitive tasks. PMID:28232814

  17. A prospective 8 week trial of nasal interfaces vs. a novel oral interface (Oracle) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Ritu; Kline, Lewis R

    2003-07-01

    To compare efficacy, compliance rates, and side effects of a new strapless oral interface, the Oracle, with available nasal masks over 8 weeks of use for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). A total of 38 patients with OSAHS (respiratory disturbance index (RDI) >/=15/h) were enrolled after the diagnostic polysomnogram for subsequent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. After randomization, therapeutic pressures during a titration study were determined for 21 patients in the oral group and 17 patients in the nasal group. Comparisons for nasal and oral interfaces were made for baseline patient characteristics, average hours of CPAP use, side effects from therapy, and among questionnaires evaluating patients' subjective responses to therapy at months 1 and 2. No significant difference was observed in the average hours of CPAP use between the oral (4.5+/-2.1; 5.5+/-2.6) and nasal groups (4.0+/-2.6; 4.8+/-2.5) for either month 1 or 2 (P>0.05). The dropout rates were similar for both groups after 8 weeks of therapy. However, patients in the nasal group had higher occurrences of side effects such as nasal congestion, dryness, and air leaks, whereas patients in the oral group experienced more oral dryness and gum pain. Oral delivery of CPAP with the Oracle is an effective and suitable alternative for patients with OSAHS.

  18. Effect of an 8-weeks aerobic training program in elderly on oxidative stress and HSP72 expression in leukocytes during antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Simar, D; Malatesta, D; Mas, E; Delage, M; Caillaud, C

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of aerobic training in the context of antioxidant supplementation on systemic oxidative stress and leukocytes heat shock protein (Hsp)72 expression in the elderly. Sixteen septuagenarians (8 males and 8 females, mean age 74.6) were supplemented with Vitamin C and E (respectively 500 and 100mg per day) and randomly assigned either to sedentary (AS) or individualized aerobically trained (AT) group for 8 weeks. Plasma Vitamin C and E concentrations and aerobic fitness, as well as resting and post graded exercise (GXT) Hsp72 expression in leukocytes, plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) were measured pre and post training / supplementation. At the end of the intervention, the two groups showed a significant increase in resting plasma vitamin C and E (approximately 50 and 20% increase respectively) and a significant decrease in both resting and post GXT plasma TBARS and AOPP (approximately 25 and 20% decrease respectively). These changes were of similar magnitude in the two groups. The reduced oxidative stress was concomitant with a 15% decreased expression of Hsp72 in monocytes and granulocytes in both groups. This study provides evidence that in elderly, increased concentration of antioxidant vitamins C and E is associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and leukocytes Hsp72. In this context, 8 weeks of aerobic training has no impact on oxidative stress or leukocytes Hsp72 expression in elderly people.

  19. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments.

  20. Motivational Factors Underlying Problem Solving: Comparing Wolf and Dog Puppies' Explorative and Neophobic Behaviors at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikő; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wolves have been shown to be better in independent problem-solving tasks than dogs, however it is unclear whether cognitive or motivational factors underlie such differences. In a number of species problem solving has been linked to both persistence in exploration and neophobia, suggesting both these aspects may underlie dog-wolf differences in problem solving. Indeed adult wolves have been shown to be more likely to approach a novel object and more persistent in their investigation of it, but also slower in making contact with it and more fearful of it than dogs. Methods: In the current study we investigated potential differences in equally-raised dogs' and wolves' explorative and neophobic behaviors in a novel environment and with novel objects at 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Results: Results showed that wolves were more persistent in exploring both the environment and the objects than dogs, and this was the case at all ages. There were no differences in the frequency of fear-related behaviors and time spent in proximity to humans. Stress-related behaviors were similarly expressed at 5 and 6 weeks, although wolves showed a higher frequency of such behaviors at 8 weeks. Discussion: Overall, results with puppies confirm those with adult animals: wolves appear to be more explorative than dogs. Such motivational differences need to be taken into account when comparing dogs and wolves in cognitive tasks.

  1. A randomized, double-blind trial of 2.5 mg and 5 mg vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) versus placebo for 8 weeks in adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula L; Chen, Yinzhong

    2013-03-01

    Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) is an investigational antidepressant. In vitro studies indicate that vortioxetine is a 5-HT(3), 5-HT(7), and 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist, 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist, 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter. This trial assessed the efficacy and tolerability of 2.5 and 5 mg vortioxetine for the treatment of MDD. Adults (N = 611) with MDD were randomized to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo, vortioxetine (2.5 or 5 mg) or active reference (duloxetine 60 mg). The primary measure was change from baseline in the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D24). Secondary endpoints included responder rate, Clinical Global Impression Scale-Global Improvement scale (CGI-I), and remission rate. Participants were monitored for adverse events (AEs), and treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction using the Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX) scale. Both doses of vortioxetine were associated with declines in HAM-D24 total scores compared to placebo but were not statistically significant. At 8 weeks, changes from baseline were [mean (SE)]: -10.50 (0.76) placebo, -12.04 (0.74) 2.5 mg vortioxetine, and -11.08 (0.74) 5 mg vortioxetine. Secondary outcome measures in the vortioxetine groups, including responder rate, CGI-I, and remission rate, were also not significantly different from placebo. Duloxetine treatment was associated with declines in HAM-D24 total score [-13.47(0.75); p = 0.005] as well as significant improvements in secondary outcome measures versus placebo (p ≤ 0.05). The most common AEs for vortioxetine were nausea, dry mouth, and headache. Rates of sexual dysfunction (ASEX) were 51.0%, 37.5%, 46.9%, and 33.3% in the vortioxetine 2.5 mg, vortioxetine 5 mg, duloxetine, and placebo groups, respectively. In this study of adults with MDD treated for 8 weeks with vortioxetine 2.5 mg or 5 mg per day, reductions in depression symptoms were not statistically significant compared with

  2. Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding at Least 8 Weeks Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawaii, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kristen M.; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L.; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004–2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and sociodemographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3 %. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95 % CI 0.43–0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.53–0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.52–0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.58–0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.61–0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95 % CI 0.64–0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95 % CI 0.65–0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates. PMID

  3. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at least 8 weeks among Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander race subgroups in Hawaii, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Donald K; Mitchell, Kristen M; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-07-01

    Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004-2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and socio-demographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3%. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.53-0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.52-0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.58-0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.61-0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates.

  4. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  5. A Prospective Study of Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporter Genes and the Response to Desvenlafaxine Over 8 Weeks in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ng, C H; Bousman, C; Smith, D J; Dowling, N; Byron, K; King, J; Sarris, J

    2016-09-01

    No studies to date have evaluated SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 genetic polymorphisms influencing antidepressant response to desvenlafaxine. We conducted an 8-week, open-label, prospective pilot study in 35 patients with major depressive disorder to assess the effects of genetic variations in SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 on both efficacy and side effect profile of desvenlafaxine. Results revealed that homozygotes for the SLC6A4 HTTLPR S allele showed a 33% HDRS reduction compared to a 58% reduction for L allele carriers (p=0.037). No results survived adjustments for covariates or multiple comparisons. While these results need to be interpreted cautiously, they provide preliminary support for the SLC6A4 HTTLPR polymorphism as potential modifier of desvenlafaxine efficacy.

  6. Comparing the Efficacy of 8 Weeks Treatment of Cipram® and its Generic Citalopram in Patients With Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khoonsari, Hasan; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Kargar, Mona; Moin, Mahdiyeh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Torkamandi, Hassan; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) suffer both anxiety and depression. Antidepressants, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are among agents of choice for treating this condition. Objectives: This study compared the efficacy of Cipram® with its generic, citalopram. Patients and Methods: Forty adult outpatients (between 18 to 55 years of age) with a diagnosis of MADD who met the trial criteria, entered this double-blind, randomized study. Subjects were assigned to receive either generic citalopram or Cipram® for 8 weeks. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) were utilized to assess depression and anxiety at baseline, weeks 4 and 8 of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 14.0. Results: Twenty patients received citalopram (mean dosages of 22 mg/day during the first 4 weeks and 33 mg/day during weeks 4 to 8) and 20 received Cipram® (mean dosages of 22 mg/day during the first 4 weeks and 29 mg/day during weeks 4 to 8). Both treatments were noted to be effective in improving the symptoms of MADD at weeks 4 and 8. The mean differences of HAM-D and HAM-A between Citalopram and Cipram® groups were significantly different at the end of week 4 (HAM-D: P = 0.038, HAM-A: P = 0.025), but not at the end of week 8 (HAM-D: P = 0.239, HAM-A: P = 0.204). Both medications were tolerated well by the patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that the efficacy of citalopram is similar to that of Cipram® in the treatment of MADD after 8 weeks. Meanwhile, Cipram® may reduce depression and anxiety quicker than its generic, citalopram. PMID:26288644

  7. Hygienic safety of reusable tap water filters (Germlyser) with an operating time of 4 or 8 weeks in a haematological oncology transplantation unit.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, Georg; Krüger, William H; Selepko, Christian; Rochow, Markus; Dölken, Gottfried; Kramer, Axel

    2007-05-23

    Microbial safe tap water is crucial for the safety of immunosuppressed patients. To evaluate the suitability of new, reusable point-of-use filters (Germlyser, Aquafree GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), three variations of a reusable filter with the same filter principle but with different outlets (with and without silver) and inner surface coating of the filter encasements (with and without nano-crystalline silver) were tested. The filter efficacy was monitored over 1, 4 and 8 weeks operating time in a haematological oncology transplantation unit equipped with 18 water outlets (12 taps, 6 showers). The filtered water fulfilled the requirements of absence of pathogens over time. From 348 samples, 8 samples (2.3%) exceeded 100 cfu/ml (no sample > or = 500 cfu/ml). As no reprocessed filter exhibited 100% filter efficacy in the final quality control after each reprocessing, these contaminations could be explained by retrograde contamination during use. As a consequence of the study, the manufacturer recommends changing filters after 4 weeks in high risk areas and after 8 weeks in moderate infectious risk areas, together with routine weekly alcohol-based surface disinfection and additionally in case of visible contamination. The filter efficacy of the 3 filters types did not differ significantly regarding total bacterial counts. Manual reprocessing proved to be insufficient. Using a validated reprocessing in a washer/disinfector with alkaline, acid treatment and thermic disinfection, the filters were effectively reprocessable and now provide tap water meeting the German drinking water regulations as well as the WHO guidelines, including absence of pathogens.

  8. Hygienic safety of reusable tap water filters (Germlyser®) with an operating time of 4 or 8 weeks in a haematological oncology transplantation unit

    PubMed Central

    Daeschlein, Georg; Krüger, William H; Selepko, Christian; Rochow, Markus; Dölken, Gottfried; Kramer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Background Microbial safe tap water is crucial for the safety of immunosuppressed patients. Methods To evaluate the suitability of new, reusable point-of-use filters (Germlyser®, Aquafree GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), three variations of a reusable filter with the same filter principle but with different outlets (with and without silver) and inner surface coating of the filter encasements (with and without nano-crystalline silver) were tested. The filter efficacy was monitored over 1, 4 and 8 weeks operating time in a haematological oncology transplantation unit equipped with 18 water outlets (12 taps, 6 showers). Results The filtered water fulfilled the requirements of absence of pathogens over time. From 348 samples, 8 samples (2.3%) exceeded 100 cfu/ml (no sample ≥ 500 cfu/ml). As no reprocessed filter exhibited 100% filter efficacy in the final quality control after each reprocessing, these contaminations could be explained by retrograde contamination during use. Conclusion As a consequence of the study, the manufacturer recommends changing filters after 4 weeks in high risk areas and after 8 weeks in moderate infectious risk areas, together with routine weekly alcohol-based surface disinfection and additionally in case of visible contamination. The filter efficacy of the 3 filters types did not differ significantly regarding total bacterial counts. Manual reprocessing proved to be insufficient. Using a validated reprocessing in a washer/disinfector with alkaline, acid treatment and thermic disinfection, the filters were effectively reprocessable and now provide tap water meeting the German drinking water regulations as well as the WHO guidelines, including absence of pathogens. PMID:17521416

  9. Applicability of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Viral Load Thresholds for 8-Week Treatments in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Johannes; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Maan, Raoel; Cloherty, Gavin; Berkowski, Caterina; Feld, Jordan J; Cornberg, Markus; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Zeuzem, Stefan; Manns, Michael P; Sarrazin, Christoph; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2016-05-15

    Interferon-free treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection may be shortened to 8 weeks in treatment-naive, noncirrhotic patients with baseline HCV RNA levels of <4 or <6 million (M) IU/mL based on post-hoc analyses of phase 3 trial data. The applicability of these viral load thresholds in clinical practice is unknown. Pretreatment and on-treatment serum samples (n = 740) from patients with HCV genotype 1 infection were included for HCV RNA analysis with 2 widely used assays, Cobas AmpliPrep/CobasTaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Abbott RealTime HCV (ART) assays. HCV RNA levels were significantly higher with CAP/CTM than with ART (overall difference, +0.11 log10 IU/mL; P < .001). In treatment-naive, noncirrhotic patients, discordance rates around the clinical cutoffs at 4M and 6M IU/mL were 23% and 18%, respectively. The mean differences between assays in discordant samples were 0.38 (4M) and 0.41 (6M) log10 IU/mL, respectively. Overall, 87% and 95% of treatment-naive, noncirrhotic patients, respectively, had baseline HCV RNA levels below 4M and 6M IU/mL with ART. These rates were significantly higher than those measured with CAP/CTM (64% and 78%, respectively; P < .001). Finally, discordance rates around the proposed thresholds in 2 consecutive samples of the same patient were in the range of 1%-2% for ART and 13%-17% for CAP/CTM. Selection of patients for 8-week regimens on the basis of a single HCV RNA determination may not be reliable because viral load levels around the proposed clinical thresholds show significant interassay and intrapatient variability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 32 CFR 37.645 - Must I require periodic audits, as well as award-specific audits, of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must I require periodic audits, as well as award-specific audits, of for-profit participants? 37.645 Section 37.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 37 - What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs? C Appendix C to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 37 - What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What Is the Desired Coverage for Periodic Audits of For-Profit Participants To Be Audited by IPAs? C Appendix C to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  13. Safety and efficacy comparison of minocycline microgranules vs lymecycline in the treatment of mild to moderate acne: randomized, evaluator-blinded, parallel, and prospective clinical trial for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Velazquez-Arenas, Luis Leobardo; de la Fuente-Garcia, Alberto; Trevino-Gomezharper, Carlos; Berber, Arturo

    2014-06-01

    Minocycline and lymecycline are used in the treatment of acne, but there is not enough evidence to support superior efficacy of one of them. 170 participants from 14 to 34 years old with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris were recruited. 84 had 100 mg of minocycline in a single daily dose for 8 weeks and 86 had 300 mg of lymecycline in a single daily dose for 8 weeks. Participants were evaluated at baseline, week 4 and week 8. 65 minocycline and 60 lymecycline patients were evaluable. The last observation carried forward for the count of non-inflammatory lesions changed from 37.5 ± 17.8 to 37.7 ± 17.8 in the minocycline group and from 36.9 ± 15.5 to 33.4 ± 19.3 in the lymecycline group (no significant changes); corresponding changes in inflammatory lesions were from 19.4 ± 12.4 to 12.2 ± 10.0 in the minocycline group and from 20.1 ± 11.3 to 12.6 ± 8.4 in lymecycline group (P< 0.05 comparing baseline vs. final in both groups). Porphyrin counts varied from 899.5 ± 613.9 to 233.5 ± 219.5 in the minocycline group and from 956.9 ± 661.8 to 411.8 ± 411.5 in the lymecycline group (P<0.05 between the groups at study end). 36 (42.9%) patients receiving minocycline suffered 55 adverse events (22 of them gastrointestinal), while 28 (33.3%) lymecycline patients had 37 adverse events (15 of them gastrointestinal). One patient in the lymecycline group withdrew the study due to gastritis, and one more patient in the same group experienced eosinophilia. There were no differences between the groups in non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts, and in the safety profile. Treatment with minocycline induced statistically significant decrease in facial porphyrin counts compared to the group treated with lymecycline (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00988026).

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Extended-Release Quetiapine Fumarate in Youth with Bipolar Depression: An 8 Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanjeev; Earley, Willie R; Liu, Sherry; DelBello, Melissa P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of adolescent schizophrenia and pediatric bipolar mania. Large, placebo-controlled studies of interventions in pediatric bipolar depression are lacking. The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine extended-release (XR) in patients 10–17 years of age, with acute bipolar depression. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated quetiapine XR (dose range, 150–300 mg/day) in pediatric outpatients with an American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (current or most recent episode depressed) treated for up to 8 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00811473). The primary study outcome was mean change in Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R) total score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included CDRS-R-based response and remission rates. Results: Of 193 patients randomized to treatment, 144 patients completed the study (75.3% of quetiapine XR group [n=70]; 74.0% of placebo group [n=74]). Least squares mean changes in CDRS-R total score at week 8 were: −29.6 (SE, 1.65) with quetiapine XR and −27.3 (SE, 1.60) with placebo, a between-treatment group difference of −2.29 (SE, 1.99; 95% CI, −6.22, 1.65; p=0.25; mixed-model for repeated measures analysis). Rates of response and remission did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The safety profile of quetiapine XR was broadly consistent with the profile reported previously in adult studies of quetiapine XR and pediatric studies of quetiapine immediate-release (IR). Potentially clinically significant elevations in clinical chemistry values included triglycerides (9.3%, quetiapine XR; 1.4%, placebo group) and thyroid stimulating hormone (4.7%, quetiapine XR; 0%, placebo group). An adverse event

  15. Confirmation of efficacy in providing relief from the pain of dentin hypersensitivity of an anhydrous dentifrice containing 0.454% with or without stannous fluoride in an 8-week randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Charles R; Jeffery, Peter; Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Mason, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of an anhydrous dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride and a negative control dentifrice containing 1,000 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate, at reducing dentin hypersensitivity over 8 weeks with twice-daily brushing. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel, two treatment group, stratified (by maximum baseline Schiff sensitivity score), 8-week clinical study carried out at a single site in 119 healthy subjects with at least two sensitive teeth, who met all study criteria at the screening and baseline visits. Clinical assessments of sensitivity to evaporative (air) [with Schiff sensitivity score and visual analogue scale (VAS)] and tactile (Yeaple probe) stimuli were employed to compare the efficacy of the test dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride to the negative control dentifrice at reducing sensitivity after 4 and 8 weeks treatment. Of the 119 subjects randomized to study treatment, 113 completed the study. At 4 and 8 weeks, between treatment analyses found the test dentifrice to be significantly better than the negative control dentifrice in relieving dentin hypersensitivity for all measures (Schiff: P < 0.0001 at 4 and 8 weeks; VAS score: P = 0.0003 at 4 weeks, P < 0.0001 at 8 weeks; tactile threshold: P = 0.0138 at 4 weeks, P < 0.0001 at 8 weeks).

  16. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke.

  17. Effect of micronutrients on behavior and mood in adults With ADHD: evidence from an 8-week open label trial with natural extension.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. A minority reported transitory mild side effects. Significant improvements were noted across informants (self, observer, clinician) on measures of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, mood, quality of life, anxiety, and stress all with medium to very large effect sizes (all ps < .01); however, the mean of inattention remained in a clinical range whereas the means on measures of mood and hyperactivity/impulsivity were normalized. Follow-up data showed maintenance of changes or further improvement for those who stayed on the micronutrients. Although this study, as an open trial, does not in itself prove efficacy, it provides preliminary evidence supporting the need for a randomized clinical trial of micronutrients as treatment for the more complex presentations of ADHD.

  18. Peripherally and centrally induced electromyographic changes in 8 weeks of horizonstal bed rest with and without resistance exercise with concurrent whole body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegeman, D. F.; Mulder, E. R.; Gerrits, K.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D. de Haan, A.

    2005-08-01

    We report on electromyographic (EMG) changes induced in the quadriceps femoris muscle in 19 healthy men (aged 24 - 43 years). The volunteers were subjected to 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest with (n = 9) and without (n = 10) countermeasure consisting of resistive-type of exercise with concurrent whole body vibration (RVE), all in supine position. The EMG responses were measured using a high-density surface EMG system. Muscle fiber conduction velocities (MFCV) and EMG amplitudes were obtained at maximal voluntary torque (MVT). No EMG amplitude change from pre- to post-bed rest was observed in Ctrl, whereas an unexpected substantial (33%) increase of EMG amplitude was observed in RVE. MFCV declined with 8.2% for Ctrl (P < 0.05) and declined with only 2% for RVE. This result can be explained reasonably by a reduced mean muscle fiber diameter on the basis of a reduced muscle cross sectional area. The EMG amplitude outcome may imply that part of the preservation of force in the RVE group is related to a training- induced increase in central nervous drive to the muscle.

  19. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of 8-week different-intensity walking exercises on serum hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Buyukyazi, G; Ulman, C; Çelik, A; Çetinkaya, C; Şişman, A R; Çimrin, D; Doğru, Y; Kaya, D

    2017-03-01

    Objective Hepcidin may be an important mediator in exercise-induced iron deficiency. Despite the studies investigating acute exercise effects on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism, we found no studies examining the chronic effects of walking exercises (WE) on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism in premenopausal women. The chronic effects of two 8-week different-intensity WE on hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and markers of iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women were examined. Methods Exercise groups (EG) [moderate tempo walking group (MTWG), n = 11; brisk walking group (BWG), n = 11] walked 3 days/week, starting from 30 to 51 min. Control group (CG; n = 8) did not perform any exercises. BWG walked at ∼70%-75%; MTWG at ∼50%-55% of HRRmax. VO2max, hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism markers were determined before and after the intervention. Results VO2max increased in both EGs, favoring the BWG. Hepcidin increased in the BWG (p < 0.01) and CG (p < 0.05). IL-6 decreased in the BWG and the MTWG (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). While iron, ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation levels did not change in any group, total iron binding capacity (p < 0.05), red blood cells (p < 0.05), and hematocrit (p < 0.01) increased only in the BWG. Conclusion Both WE types may be useful to prevent inflammation. However, brisk walking is advisable due to the positive changes in VO2max and some iron metabolism parameters, which may contribute to prevent iron deficiency. The increase in hepcidin levels remains unclear and necessitates further studies.

  1. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement.

  2. An open-label, rater-blinded, 8-week trial of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder with atypical features.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-J; Lee, B C; Seok, J-H; Jeon, H J; Paik, J-W; Kim, W; Kwak, K-P; Han, C; Lee, K-U; Pae, C-U

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness and tolerability of -bupropion hydrochloride extended release (XL) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with atypical features (AF).51 patients were prescribed bupropion XL for 8 weeks (6 visits: screening, baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8). The primary efficacy measure was a change of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD) from baseline to endpoint. Secondary efficacy measures included the SIGH-SAD atypical symptoms subscale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Epworth Sleepiness Questionnaire (ESQ). Response or remission was defined as ≥50% reduction or ≤7 in SIGH-SAD total scores, respectively, at end of treatment.The HAM-D-29 total score reduced by 55.3% from baseline (27.3±6.5) to end of treatment (12.2±6.3) (p<0.001). Atypical symptom subscale scores also reduced by 54.5% from baseline (9.2±3.0) to end of treatment (4.2±2.8) (p<0.001). At the end of treatment, 24.4% (n=10) and 51.2% (n=21) subjects were classified as remitters and responders, respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (13.7%), dry mouth (11.8%), dizziness (9.8%), and dyspepsia (9.8%).Our preliminary study indicates that bupropion XL may be beneficial in the treatment of MDD with atypical features. Adequately powered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to determine our results.

  3. Effects of a daily mixed nutritional supplement on physical performance, body composition, and circulating anabolic hormones during 8 weeks of arduous military training.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Matthew B; Diment, Bethany C; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Izard, Rachel; Walsh, Neil P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of a daily mixed nutritional supplement upon body composition, physical performance, and circulating anabolic hormones in soldiers undergoing arduous training. Thirty males received either a habitual diet alone (CON, n = 15) or with the addition of a daily mixed supplement (SUP, n = 15) of ∼5.1 MJ·d⁻¹ during 8 weeks of training. Body composition (DEXA), maximal dynamic lift strength (MDLS), and vertical jump (VJ) were assessed, and resting blood samples were collected before and after training. Blood analysis included insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1, IGF BP-1, and IGF BP-3), testosterone, and cortisol. There were no group differences at baseline. Body mass loss (mean ± SD) (CON 5.0 ± 2.3, SUP 1.6 ± 1.5 kg), lean mass loss (CON 2.0 ± 1.5, SUP 0.7 ± 1.5 kg), and fat mass loss (CON 3.0 ± 1.6, SUP 0.9 ± 1.8 kg) were significantly blunted by SUP. CON experienced significant decrements in MDLS (14%), VJ (10%), and explosive leg power (11%) that were prevented by SUP. Military training significantly reduced circulating IGF-1 (28%), testosterone (19%), and the testosterone:cortisol ratio (24%) with no effect of SUP. Circulating IGF BP-1 concentration and cortisol remained unchanged throughout, although SUP abolished the significant decrease in circulating IGF BP-3 (20%) on CON. In conclusion, a daily mixed nutritional supplement attenuated decreases in body mass and lean mass and prevented the decrease in physical performance during an arduous military training program.

  4. Effect of 8 Weeks of Overfeeding on Ectopic Fat Deposition and Insulin Sensitivity: Testing the “Adipose Tissue Expandability” Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Tam, Charmaine S.; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Xie, Wenting; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Bajpeyi, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The presence of large subcutaneous adipocytes in obesity has been proposed to be linked with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the “adipose tissue expandability” hypothesis, which holds that large adipocytes have a limited capacity for expansion, forcing lipids to be stored in nonadipose ectopic depots (skeletal muscle, liver), where they interfere with insulin signaling. This hypothesis has, however, been largely formulated by cross-sectional findings and to date has not been prospectively demonstrated in the development of insulin resistance in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-nine men (26.8 ± 5.4 years old; BMI 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were fed 40% more than their baseline requirement for 8 weeks. Before and after overfeeding, insulin sensitivity was determined using a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were measured by 1H-MRS and abdominal fat by MRI. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were collected to measure adipocyte size and markers of tissue inflammation. RESULTS Subjects gained 7.6 ± 2.1 kg (55% fat) and insulin sensitivity decreased 18% (P < 0.001) after overfeeding. IHL increased 46% from 1.5% to 2.2% (P = 0.002); however, IMCL did not change. There was no association between adipocyte size and ectopic lipid accumulation. Despite similar weight gain, subjects with smaller fat cells at baseline had a greater decrease in insulin sensitivity, which was linked with upregulated skeletal muscle tissue inflammation. CONCLUSIONS In experimental substantial weight gain, the presence of larger adipocytes did not promote ectopic lipid accumulation. In contrast, smaller fat cells were associated with a worsened metabolic response to overfeeding. PMID:25011943

  5. Efficacy of duloxetine on cognition, depression, and pain in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Joel; Wiltse, Curtis G; Siegal, Alan; Sheikh, Javaid; Xu, Jimmy; Dinkel, James J; Rotz, Benjamin T; Mohs, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    This study compared the effects of duloxetine, 60 mg/day, versus placebo on cognition, depression, and pain in elderly patients with recurrent major depressive disorder. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to duloxetine, 60 mg/day (N=207), or placebo (N=104) for 8 weeks in a double-blind study. The primary outcome measure was a prespecified composite cognitive score composed of four individual tests. Secondary measures included the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Visual Analogue Scale assessing pain, and standard safety and tolerability assessments. Patients had a median age of 72 years (range=65-90). Duloxetine demonstrated significantly greater improvement in the composite cognitive score versus placebo (least-squares mean change from baseline to endpoint: 1.95 versus 0.76), driven by improved verbal learning and memory. Duloxetine treatment showed significantly greater baseline-to-endpoint reductions in both Hamilton depression scale (-6.49 versus -3.72) and Geriatric Depression Scale (-4.07 versus -1.34) total scores compared with placebo. Hamilton depression scale response (37.3% versus 18.6%) and remission (27.4% versus 14.7%) rates at endpoint were significantly higher for duloxetine than for placebo. Duloxetine significantly improved Visual Analogue Scale scores for back pain and time in pain while awake versus placebo. Significantly fewer patients receiving duloxetine withdrew from the study because of lack of efficacy (2.9% versus 9.6%); the incidences of discontinuation due to adverse events were similar for duloxetine and placebo (9.7% versus 8.7%). Duloxetine improved cognition, depression, and some pain measures and was safe and well tolerated in elderly patients with recurrent major depressive disorder.

  6. Is increased hepatitis C virus case-finding combined with current or 8-week to 12-week direct-acting antiviral therapy cost-effective in UK prisons? A prevention benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natasha K; Vickerman, Peter; Brew, Iain F; Williamson, Joan; Miners, Alec; Irving, William L; Saksena, Sushma; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Mandal, Sema; O'Moore, Eamonn; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Prisoners have a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV), but case-finding may not have been cost-effective because treatment often exceeded average prison stay combined with a lack of continuity of care. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of increased HCV case-finding and treatment in UK prisons using short-course therapies. A dynamic HCV transmission model assesses the cost-effectiveness of doubling HCV case-finding (achieved through introducing opt-out HCV testing in UK pilot prisons) and increasing treatment in UK prisons compared to status quo voluntary risk-based testing (6% prison entrants/year), using currently recommended therapies (8-24 weeks) or interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antivirals (DAAs; 8-12 weeks, 95% sustained virological response, £3300/week). Costs (British pounds, £) and health utilities (quality-adjusted life years) were used to calculate mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We assumed 56% referral and 2.5%/25% of referred people who inject drugs (PWID)/ex-PWID treated within 2 months of diagnosis in prison. PWID and ex-PWID or non-PWID are in prison an average 4 and 8 months, respectively. Doubling prison testing rates with existing treatments produces a mean ICER of £19,850/quality-adjusted life years gained compared to current testing/treatment and is 45% likely to be cost-effective under a £20,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Switching to 8-week to 12-week IFN-free DAAs in prisons could increase cost-effectiveness (ICER £15,090/quality-adjusted life years gained). Excluding prevention benefit decreases cost-effectiveness. If >10% referred PWID are treated in prison (2.5% base case), either treatment could be highly cost-effective (ICER<£13,000). HCV case-finding and IFN-free DAAs could be highly cost-effective if DAA cost is 10% lower or with 8 weeks' duration. Increased HCV testing in UK prisons (such as through opt-out testing) is borderline cost-effective compared to status quo voluntary risk

  7. Psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) across a 3-year period for children and youth with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Golos, Anat; Bedell, Gary

    2016-04-06

    Children with traumatic brain injury are often restricted in their participation due to impairments and environmental barriers. Reliable and valid instruments are essential for monitoring their participation over time. To examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) across a 3-year period. A longitudinal prospective cohort study (USA) that included 926 children (0-18 years) with TBI and arm injury. Three measures were administered at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post-injury: The CASP, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and Adaptive Behavior Assessment Scale II (ABAS). Associations between the CASP and PedsQL and ABAS were moderate-to-high at all time periods. Internal consistency of the CASP and its sub-sections was high, with a pattern of gradual increase over time. Factor analyses indicated a clearer four factor solution at 3, 12 and 24 months resembling the four CASP sub-sections. Results provide evidence of convergent validity and internal consistency of the CASP and support its use for assessing participation of children with TBI over time. Prudence should be taken when considering use of factor scores due to differences in factor solutions found in this study and prior studies.

  8. An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Cariprazine in Patients With Bipolar I Depression.

    PubMed

    Durgam, Suresh; Earley, Willie; Lipschitz, Alan; Guo, Hua; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György; Vieta, Eduard; Calabrese, Joseph R; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2016-03-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cariprazine, an atypical antipsychotic candidate, in adult patients with acute bipolar I depression. This was an 8-week multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, fixed-dose study in adult patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing a current major depressive episode. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive placebo or cariprazine at 0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 mg/day. The primary and secondary efficacy parameters were change from baseline to week 6 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions severity subscale (CGI-S), respectively, analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures on the modified intent-to-treat population. The intent-to-treat population comprised 571 patients (141 in the placebo group and 140, 145, and 145 in the cariprazine 0.75-, 1.5-, and 3.0-mg/day groups). Cariprazine at 1.5 mg/day showed significantly greater improvement on MADRS total score change from baseline to week 6 compared with placebo; the least squares mean difference was -4.0 (95% CI=-6.3, -1.6; significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Cariprazine at 3.0 mg/day showed greater MADRS score reduction than placebo (-2.5, 95% CI=-4.9, -0.1; not significant when adjusted for multiple comparisons). The 0.75 mg/day dosage was similar to placebo. A similar pattern for significance was observed on the CGI-S (1.5 mg/day: least squares mean difference=-0.4, 95% CI=-0.6, -0.1; 3.0 mg/day: -0.3, 95% CI=-0.5, -0.0). The most common adverse events (≥10%) in cariprazine-treated patients were akathisia and insomnia; weight gain was slightly higher with cariprazine than with placebo. Cariprazine at 1.5 mg/day demonstrated consistent efficacy compared with placebo across outcomes and was generally well tolerated, suggesting efficacy for the treatment of bipolar I depression.

  9. Butylated hydroxytoluene can protect polyunsaturated fatty acids in dried blood spots from degradation for up to 8 weeks at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Hogg, Ryan C; Buzikievich, Lindy M; Stark, Ken D

    2013-02-20

    Dried blood spots (DBS) from fingertip prick blood can enable high throughput fatty acid profiling but may be prone to lipid peroxidation during storage. The use of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on chromatography paper can prevent polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) loss but examinations on the length of storage times possible are not comprehensive. In the first study, venous whole blood was saturated on paper strips pre-soaked with 0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/mL BHT and exposed to air for up to 28 days. In a second study, the effect of sealing DBS on 5.0 mg/mL BHT-soaked chromatography strips in capped test tubes or vacuum sealed polypropylene bags with and without nitrogen purging was examined over eight weeks. The fatty acid composition of the DBS were determined by gas chromatography and the effect of sample storage on omega-3 biomarkers were examined. PUFA and omega-3 biomarkers in DBS stored without BHT were dramatically reduced by day 3. In general, BHT delayed decreases in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid from baseline (3.2 ± 0.2 wt%) to 28 days (2.6 ± 0.03 wt%) of storage. In the % n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in total HUFA biomarker, BHT was more effective at preventing changes, particularly with 5.0 mg/mL BHT where no differences were detected up to 28 days. Sealed storage with BHT tended to increase the stability of the PUFA in DBS and nitrogen purging did not appear to provide additional benefits. The % n-3 HUFA in total HUFA biomarker also appeared to be more stable in the sealed storage study. The storage of DBS in sealed containers with BHT may prevent PUFA degradation for up to 8 weeks. The % n-3 HUFA in total HUFA biomarker appears to provide a more consistent assessment of omega-3 status throughout storage as compared with other omega-3 blood biomarkers.

  10. Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Andac, Chloe; Schwebke, Jane; Fredricks, David N; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria. High-risk women from the United States and Kenya with a recent vaginal infection received intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Vaginal fluid specimens were collected via polyester/polyethylene terephthalate swabs every other month and tested for bacteria, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effect of PPT on bacterium detection was assessed among all participants and stratified by country. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. The proportion of follow-up visits with detectable quantities was lower in the PPT arm versus the placebo arm for the following bacteria: BVAB1, BVAB2, Atopobium vaginae, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, and Megasphaera. The magnitude of reductions was greater among Kenyan participants as compared to US participants. Use of monthly PPT for 1 year reduced colonization with several bacteria strongly associated with BV. The role of PPT to improve vaginal health should be considered, and efforts to improve the impact of PPT regimens are warranted.

  11. Add-on Pregnenolone with L-Theanine to Antipsychotic Therapy Relieves Negative and Anxiety Symptoms of Schizophrenia: An 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kardashev, Adasa; Ratner, Yael; Ritsner, Michael S

    2015-07-28

    Pregnenolone (PREG) and L-Theanine (LT) have shown ameliorative effects on various schizophrenia symptoms. This is the first study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of augmentation of antipsychotic treatment among patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with PREG - LT. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of PREG - LT or placebo augmentation was conducted for 8 weeks with 40 chronic DSM-IV schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients with suboptimal response to antipsychotics. Oral PREG (50 mg/day) with LT (400 mg/day) or placebo were added to a stable regimen of antipsychotic medication from March 2011 to October 2013. The participants were rated using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Hamilton Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scales bi-weekly. The decrease of SANS and HAM-A scores were the co-primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included assessments of general functioning and side effects. Negative symptoms such as blunted affect, alogia, and anhedonia (SANS) were found to be significantly improved, with moderate effect sizes among patients who received PREG-LT, in comparison with the placebo group. Add-on PREG-LT also significantly associated with a reduction of anxiety scores such as anxious mood, tension, and cardiovascular symptoms (HAM-A), and elevation of general functioning (GAF). Positive symptoms, antipsychotic agents, concomitant drugs, and illness duration did not associate significantly with effect of PREG-LT augmentation. PREG-LT was well-tolerated. Pregnenolone with L-Theanine augmentation may offer a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of negative and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Further studies are warranted. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01831986.

  12. L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael S; Miodownik, Chanoch; Ratner, Yael; Shleifer, Tatyana; Mar, Maria; Pintov, Leonid; Lerner, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    L-theanine is a unique amino acid present almost exclusively in the tea plant. It possesses neuroprotective, mood-enhancing, and relaxation properties. This is a first study designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of L-theanine augmentation of antipsychotic treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 60 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. 400 mg/d of L-theanine was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment from February 2006 until October 2008. The outcome measures were the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) for neurocognitive functioning, and additional measures of general functioning, side effects, and quality of life. 40 patients completed the study protocol. Compared with placebo, L-theanine augmentation was associated with reduction of anxiety (P = .015; measured by the HARS scale) and positive (P = .009) and general psychopathology (P < .001) scores (measured by the PANSS 3-dimensional model). According to the 5-dimension model of psychopathology, L-theanine produced significant reductions on PANSS positive (P = .004) and activation factor (P = .006) scores compared to placebo. The effect sizes (Cohen d) for these differences ranged from modest to moderate (0.09-0.39). PANSS negative and CANTAB task scores, general functioning, side effect, and quality of life measures were not affected by L-theanine augmentation. L-theanine was found to be a safe and well-tolerated medication. L-theanine augmentation of antipsychotic therapy can ameliorate positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients. Further long-term studies of L-theanine are needed to substantiate the clinically significant benefits of L-theanine augmentation. © Copyright 2011 Physicians

  13. An improved dosage regimen of sertraline hydrochloride in the treatment for premature ejaculation: an 8-week, single-blind, randomized controlled study followed by a 4-week, open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Jiang, H-W; Fang, J; Wen, H; Gu, B; Liu, J; Zhang, L-M; Ding, Q; Zhang, Y-F

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of an improved dosage regimen of sertraline in patients with premature ejaculation (PE) and to examine whether the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) can be used as a measure of treatment response in these patients. A total of 218 PE patients were randomized into control (n = 61) and treatment (n = 157) groups to receive mycelium of cordyceps sinensis C4 and sertraline 50 mg daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Following this blinded stage, sixty-three patients chose to take sertraline 100 mg daily for an additional 4-week period, and 80 other patients continued treatment with sertraline 50 mg. Main outcome measures include intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), PEDT score and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) score. At weeks 4 and 8, mean IELT of patients who subsequently chose to take 100 mg of sertraline was significantly lower than that of patients who continued taking 50 mg of sertraline, although the IELT value was comparable between the two groups of patients at baseline. However, with an additional 4-week treatment, the mean IELT increased significantly more in the 100-mg group than in the 50-mg continuation group. Similar results were also obtained in the analyses of the PEDT and CGIC scores. Both regimens were well tolerated, and relapse rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. These findings suggest that PE patients not responding to an 8-week treatment with sertraline 50 mg can benefit from an additional 4-week treatment with sertraline 100 mg and that the PEDT may be a valid measure of treatment response in PE patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in children aged 4-48 months with atopic dermatitis: An 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Jie; Wu, Wei-Fong; Hung, Chia-Wei; Ku, Ming-Shiu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sun, Hai-Lun; Lu, Ko-Hsiu; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Lue, Ko-Huang

    2015-11-27

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in children aged 4-48 months with atopic dermatitis. The design of this study was a two-center, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of L. rhamnosus in children aged 4-48 months with atopic dermatitis diagnosed using Hanifin and Rajka criteria and with a Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) ≥ 15 at enrollment. The duration of this study was 8 weeks with a total of five visits. The enrolled patients were allocated into either a treatment group (one ComProbi capsule containing L. rhamnosus a day) or a control group (one capsule of placebo a day) at a ratio of 1:1. The primary endpoint was to compare the mean change from baseline in SCORAD after 8 weeks of treatment. The other secondary end points were to compare the following: the mean changes from baseline in SCORAD at postbaseline visits, the frequency and total amount of the use of corticosteroids during the 8-week treatment, the frequency of atopic dermatitis and the symptom-free duration, the mean changes from baseline in Infant Dermatitis Quality of Life Questionnaire at Week 4 and Week 8, and the mean changes from baseline in the Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaire at Week 4 and Week 8. The mean changes in SCORAD from baseline at Week 8 was -21.69 ± 16.56 in the L. rhamnosus group and -12.35 ± 12.82 in the placebo group for the intent-to-treat population (p = 0.014). For the per-protocol population, the mean change of SCORAD from baseline was -23.20 ± 15.24 in the L. rhamnosus group and -12.35 ± 12.82 in the placebo group (p = 0.003). Significant differences were demonstrated between groups at Week 8 in intensity in the intent-to-treat population and per-protocol population. Throughout the period, the amount of topical corticosteroids used showed no difference between groups. No significant

  15. Changes in total body and limb composition and muscle strength after a 6-8 weeks sojourn at extreme altitude (5000-8000 m).

    PubMed

    Sergi, G; Imoscopi, A; Sarti, S; Perissinotto, E; Coin, A; Inelmen, E M; Meral Inelmen, E; Zambon, S; Busetto, L; Seresin, C; Manzato, E

    2010-12-01

    Weight loss at extreme altitudes affects quantitative changes in fat-free mass (FFM), muscle mass and fat mass. No studies to date have focused on regional body composition and physical performance using reference methods after stays at extreme altitudes. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total and regional body composition, and muscle strength induced by the extreme altitudes. Eight men aged 38.8±5.8 who took part in two different Italian expeditions on Mt. Everest (group A) and on Gasherbrum II (group B). Before and after the expedition all participants underwent anthropometric measurements, total and regional body composition assessment by DEXA, and handgrip and knee extensor strength measurements by dynamometry. The variations in body composition mainly involved FFM, with a similar loss in group A (-2.4±1.9 kg; P<0.05) and group B (-2.4±1.2 kg; P<0.05). Most of the FFM loss involved the limbs (-2.1±1.4 kg; P<0.01), and especially the upper limbs (-1.6±1.1 kg; P<0.01). The isotonic knee extensor strength declined in 6 of the 8 study participants, with a mean drop of -4.4±6.1 kg. In conclusion, our study evidence that extreme altitudes induce weight loss due mainly to a loss of fat-free mass in the limb.

  16. Expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization after short- and long-term withdrawal periods: participation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Magendzo, Karin; Bustos, Gonzalo

    2003-03-01

    Repeated amphetamine administration results in behavioral sensitization, an enduring behavioral transformation expressed after short and long periods of withdrawal. To investigate the participation of the opioid system in amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, we studied the effect of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, on the expression of behavioral sensitization tested after short- (2 days) and long-term (14 days) withdrawal periods. In addition, using quantitative competitive RT-PCR, we examined the levels of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and delta-opioid receptor (DOR) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of behaviorally sensitized rats, at these two withdrawal times. This study showed that whereas naloxone did not modify the expression of behavioral sensitization tested after 2 days of withdrawal, it completely blocked the expression when tested after 14 days of withdrawal. DOR and MOR mRNA levels were not modified in the NAcSh of rats expressing behavioral sensitization after 2 or 14 days of withdrawal. Conversely, DOR and MOR mRNA levels were elevated in the VTA of animals expressing behavioral sensitization after 2 days of withdrawal. However, whereas DOR mRNA returned to control levels, MOR mRNA levels remained elevated in animals expressing behavioral sensitization after 14 days of withdrawal. These results indicate a striking difference between the role played by opioid receptors in the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, when tested after short- or long-term withdrawal periods. In addition, our results support the notion that repeated amphetamine-induced changes in opioid receptor expression may contribute to the perpetuation of psychostimulant abuse and/or relapse.

  17. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  18. Sports Participation and Health during Periods of Educational Transition: A Study of 30-35-Year-Olds in North-West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, David; Smith, Andy

    2014-01-01

    In view of the persistence of health inequalities and declines in leisure-sport participation over the life course, several quantitative investigations have explored the links between participation and other leisure activities, which have their foundations in childhood and youth, as a means of understanding adults' health behaviours. This paper…

  19. Sports Participation and Health during Periods of Educational Transition: A Study of 30-35-Year-Olds in North-West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, David; Smith, Andy

    2014-01-01

    In view of the persistence of health inequalities and declines in leisure-sport participation over the life course, several quantitative investigations have explored the links between participation and other leisure activities, which have their foundations in childhood and youth, as a means of understanding adults' health behaviours. This paper…

  20. 32 CFR 37.645 - Must I require periodic audits, as well as award-specific audits, of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37...

  1. 32 CFR 37.645 - Must I require periodic audits, as well as award-specific audits, of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37...

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial of the efficacy and tolerability of multiple doses of Lu AA21004 in adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Henigsberg, Neven; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Chen, Yinzhong; Thase, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Lu AA21004 is an investigational multimodal antidepressant. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of multiple doses of Lu AA21004 versus placebo in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Adults diagnosed with MDD (based on DSM-IV-TR criteria) with a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score ≥ 26 were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive Lu AA21004 1 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg or placebo for 8 weeks (between August 2008 and August 2009). The primary endpoint was reduction in 24-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24) total score after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo for Lu AA21004 10 mg. Additional outcomes included response and remission rates, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement scale (CGI-I), MADRS total score, and HDRS-24 total score in subjects with baseline Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) score ≥ 20. Adverse events were assessed throughout the study. A total of 560 subjects (mean age = 46.4 years) were randomized. There was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in HDRS-24 total score at week 8 for Lu AA21004 10 mg vs placebo (P < .001). There were improvements (nominal P values < .05 with no adjustment for multiplicity) in HDRS-24 total score, response and remission rates, CGI-I score, MADRS total score, and HDRS-24 total score in subjects with baseline HARS score ≥ 20 at week 8 for all Lu AA21004 treatment groups vs placebo. No significant differences were seen in SDS scores between any dose of Lu AA21004 and placebo. The most common adverse events were nausea, headache, and dizziness. After 8 weeks of treatment with Lu AA21004 10 mg, there was a significant reduction in HDRS-24 total score compared with placebo in adults with MDD. Lu AA21004 was well tolerated in this study. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00735709. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Benefits and Risks of Intergenerational Program Participation by Senior Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, D.; Sipsas-Herrmann, Athanasia; Stafford, Mary; Herrmann, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated changes in senior citizens who participated in a school-based intergenerational program with students. Over 8 weeks, 71 seniors taught 1 of 2 life-skills training programs. Participating seniors had significantly higher levels of positive psychosocial change at posttest time compared to nontrainers. Further analyses…

  4. Walking campaign: a model for developing participation in physical activity? Experiences from three campaign periods of the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP).

    PubMed

    Bjärås, G; Härberg, L K; Sydhoff, J; Ostenson, C G

    2001-01-01

    The Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP) is implementing a model for community-based intervention of type 2 diabetes in three municipalities, of which one has focused on increasing physical activity among the inhabitants. The purpose was to emphasize the integration of walking into daily routines. The campaign was promoted throughout residential areas, organizations and local media. Leaders for organized walking were recruited as volunteers by advertising in local media. After a short education in leadership, practice, and first aid, the 27 volunteers ran organized walking groups in several residential areas. During three of seven walking campaigns the participants were followed and evaluated. The study showed that those individuals who participated one to three times a week were predominantly married women with a good health and regular physical activity. Nevertheless, more important was that one third of the participants had never been exercising regularly before. Most remarkable was to find the voluntary leaders so easily recruited and their great interest to remain as leaders for walking tours.

  5. Effects of 8 weeks of vibration training at different frequencies (1 or 15 Hz) in senior sportsmen on torque and force development and of 1 year of training on muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Kern, H; Kovarik, J; Franz, C; Vogelauer, M; Löfler, S; Sarabon, N; Grim-Stieger, M; Biral, D; Adami, N; Carraro, U; Zampieri, S; Hofer, Ch

    2010-02-01

    To examine the effects of 8 weeks of vibration training at different frequencies (1 and 15 Hz) on maximal isometric torque and force development in senior sportsmen, and of 1 year of heavy-resistance and vibration trainings on muscle fibers. Seven healthy senior sportsmen (mean age: 69.0 +/- 5.4 years) performed an 8 weeks of strength training of knee extensors. Vibrations were applied vertically to the axis of movement during training. One leg of each subject was trained at a frequency of 1 Hz, while the other leg was trained at 15 Hz. Measures of isometric peak torque (at knee-angles of 60, 90 and 120 degrees ) and force development were recorded before and after training. Four sportsmen continued a year-long heavy-resistance training adding every second week a session of vibration training. After training, muscle biopsies were harvested from their quadriceps muscles and used for structural analyses. Morphometry of muscle fibers was performed by light microscopy. Immunohistochemistry using anti-MHCemb and anti-N-CAM antibodies was performed to measure potential muscle damage. Data from muscle morphometry were compared to that of a series of vastus lateralis biopsies harvested from 12 young sportsmen and four healthy elderly. Our results showed a significant increase in isometric peak torque at both 1 and 15 Hz vibration frequency in all three measured angles of the knee. There was no significant difference between the two frequencies, but we could find a higher increase in percentage of maximum power after the 1 Hz training. The results of force development showed a slight increase at the 1 Hz training in measured time frames from 0 to 50 and 200 ms, without statistical significance. A trend to significance was found at the 1 Hz training at the time window up to 200 ms. The 15 Hz training showed no significant changes of force development. Muscle biopsies show that the muscles of these well trained senior sportsmen contain muscle fibers which are 35% larger than

  6. An 8-week course of 45 mg of carbonyl iron daily reduces iron deficiency in female whole blood donors aged 18 to 45 years: results of a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marks, Denese C; Speedy, Joanna; Robinson, Kathryn L; Brama, Tania; Capper, Hugh R; Mondy, Phillip; Keller, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    Blood donation is known to contribute to iron deficiency in regular blood donors. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of postdonation iron replacement to mitigate iron deficiency in blood donors. A total of 282 female whole blood donors aged 18 to 45 were prospectively randomized in a double-blinded placebo controlled trial to receive an 8-week postdonation course of carbonyl iron (45 mg daily) or placebo. The primary endpoint was prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 15 ng/mL) at 12 weeks postdonation. Secondary endpoints were eligibility to donate based on capillary hemoglobin (Hb) and incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. Ferritin levels at Week 12 were significantly higher in donors receiving carbonyl iron (17.0 ± 10.9 ng/mL) compared with those receiving placebo (10.6 ± 8.4 ng/mL; p < 0.001). The proportion of iron-deficient donors was significantly lower in the carbonyl iron group (51.9%) compared to the placebo (80.5%; p < 0.001). The mean Hb level in the carbonyl iron group (134.6 ± 8.7 g/L) was significantly higher than in the placebo arm (130.0 ± 9.9 g/L; p < 0.001), significantly improving eligibility to donate at Week 12. Significantly more donors receiving carbonyl iron had at least one GI side effect (p < 0.001). Importantly, 86.7% of donors receiving carbonyl iron indicated that they would take iron on an ongoing basis. An 8-week postdonation course of 45 mg of carbonyl iron significantly reduced iron deficiency and was well tolerated in female whole blood donors. Postdonation iron replacement may have a role in a broader strategy to optimize donor iron status. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  8. Impact of Maternal HIV Seroconversion during Pregnancy on Early Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) Measured at 4-8 Weeks Postpartum in South Africa 2011-2012: A National Population-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Thu-Ha; Delaney, Kevin P.; Goga, Ameena; Jackson, Debra; Lombard, Carl; Woldesenbet, Selamawit; Mogashoa, Mary; Pillay, Yogan; Shaffer, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) depends on the timing of HIV infection. We estimated HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy (HSP) after having a HIV-negative result antenatally, and its contribution to early MTCT in South Africa (SA). Methods and Findings Between August 2011 and March 2012, we recruited a nationally representative sample of mother-infant pairs with infants aged 4-to-8 weeks from 578 health facilities. Data collection included mother interviews, child health-card reviews, and infant dried-blood-spots sample (iDBS). iDBS were tested for HIV antibodies and HIV-deoxyribonucleic-acid (HIV-DNA). HSP was defined as maternal self-report of an HIV-negative test during this pregnancy, no documented use of antiretroviral drugs and a matched HIV sero-positive iDBS. We used 20 imputations from a uniform distribution for time from reported antenatal HIV-negative result to delivery to estimate time of HSP. Early MTCT was defined based on detection of HIV-DNA in iDBS. Estimates were adjusted for clustering, nonresponse, and weighted by SA’s 2011 live-births. Results Of 9802 mother-infant pairs, 2738 iDBS were HIV sero-positive, including 212 HSP, resulting in a nationally weighted estimate of 3.3% HSP (95% Confidence Interval: 2.8%-3.8%). Median time of HIV-seroconversion was 32.8weeks gestation;28.3% (19.7%- 36.9%) estimated to be >36 weeks. Early MTCT was 10.7% for HSP (6.2%-16.8%) vs. 2.2% (1.7%-2.8%) for mothers with known HIV-positive status. Although they represent 2.2% of all mothers and 6.7% of HIV-infected mothers, HSP accounted for 26% of early MTCT. Multivariable analysis indicated the highest risk for HSP was among women who knew the baby’s father was HIV-infected (adjusted-hazard ratio (aHR) 4.71; 1.49-14.99), or who had been screened for tuberculosis (aHR 1.82; 1.43-2.32). Conclusions HSP risk is high and contributes significantly to early MTCT. Identification of HSP by repeat-testing at 32 weeks gestation, during labor, 6

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 5, 10, and 20 mg/day vortioxetine in adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akira; Aritomi, Yutaka; Sasai, Kiyofumi; Kitagawa, Tadayuki; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R

    2017-08-31

    This study assessed the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in adults with major depressive disorder. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 600 patients with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5, 10, or 20 mg, or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score at week 8, evaluated by the last observation carried forward method. Secondary endpoints included response (≥50% decrease in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score from baseline) and remission (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score ≤10), Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement, and change from baseline in Sheehan Disability Scale. Adverse events were summarized. Vortioxetine failed to show significant differences from placebo in the primary endpoint. Nominally significant improvements over placebo were observed for vortioxetine doses of 10 and 20 mg when the primary endpoint was evaluated using the mixed model for repeated measures as the secondary analysis, and 10 mg in secondary measures of response and patient functioning. Vortioxetine was well tolerated. Nausea, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, and insomnia each occurred at a >2-fold higher rate than placebo. Discontinuation symptom scores were comparable between all groups after 1 and 2 weeks following withdrawal of the study drug. While vortioxetine failed to meet significance versus placebo in the primary efficacy analysis, there was evidence of efficacy for the 10 and 20 mg doses in secondary analyses. Vortioxetine was safe and well tolerated. Additional studies appear warranted. This study has the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01255787. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. A long hangover from party drugs: residual proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats 8 weeks after γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or their combination.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Kashem, Mohammed A; Matsumoto, Izuru; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2010-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are popular party drugs that are used for their euphoric and prosocial effects, and sometimes in combination. Both drugs increase markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and can cause lasting impairments in hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. To gain further information on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these effects, the current study examined residual changes in hippocampal protein expression measured 8 weeks after chronic administration of GHB (500mg/kg), MDMA (5mg/kg) or their combination (GHB/MDMA). The drugs were administered once a day for 10 days in an environment with an elevated ambient temperature of 28 degrees C. Results showed significant changes in protein expression, relative to controls, in all three groups: MDMA and GHB given alone caused residual changes in 8 and 5 proteins respectively, while the GHB/MDMA combination significantly changed 6 proteins. The altered proteins had roles in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, intracellular signalling and cytoskeletal function. The largest change (-4.3-fold) was seen in the MDMA group with the protein C-crk: a protein implicated in learning-related neuroplasticity. The second largest change (3.0-fold) was seen in the GHB group in Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a protein that protects against oxidative stress. Two cytoskeletal proteins (Tubulin Folding Cofactor B and Tropomyosin-alpha-3 chain) and one plasticity related protein (Neuronal Pentraxin-1 NP1) were similarly changed in both the MDMA and the GHB groups, while two intracellular signalling proteins (alpha-soluble NSF-attachment protein and subunits of the V-type proton ATPase) were changed in both the MDMA/GHB and the MDMA groups. These results provide some insight into the molecular pathways possibly underlying the lasting cognitive deficits arising from GHB and/or MDMA use.

  11. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  12. CA19-9 decrease at 8 weeks as a predictor of overall survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, E G; Von Hoff, D D; Reni, M; Arena, F P; Infante, J R; Bathini, V G; Wood, T E; Mainwaring, P N; Muldoon, R T; Clingan, P R; Kunzmann, V; Ramanathan, R K; Tabernero, J; Goldstein, D; McGovern, D; Lu, B; Ko, A

    2016-04-01

    A phase I/II study and subsequent phase III study (MPACT) reported significant correlations between CA19-9 decreases and prolonged overall survival (OS) with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC). CA19-9 changes at week 8 and potential associations with efficacy were investigated as part of an exploratory analysis in the MPACT trial. Untreated patients with MPC (N = 861) received nab-P + Gem or Gem alone. CA19-9 was evaluated at baseline and every 8 weeks. Patients with baseline and week-8 CA19-9 measurements were analyzed (nab-P + Gem: 252; Gem: 202). In an analysis pooling the treatments, patients with any CA19-9 decline (80%) versus those without (20%) had improved OS (median 11.1 versus 8.0 months; P = 0.005). In the nab-P + Gem arm, patients with (n = 206) versus without (n = 46) any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) of 40% versus 13%, and a median OS of 13.2 versus 8.3 months (P = 0.001), respectively. In the Gem-alone arm, patients with (n = 159) versus without (n = 43) CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed ORR of 15% versus 5%, and a median OS of 9.4 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.404), respectively. In the nab-P + Gem and Gem-alone arms, by week 8, 16% (40/252) and 6% (13/202) of patients, respectively, had an unconfirmed radiologic response (median OS 13.7 and 14.7 months, respectively), and 79% and 84% of patients, respectively, had stable disease (SD) (median OS 11.1 and 9 months, respectively). Patients with SD and any CA19-9 decrease (158/199 and 133/170) had a median OS of 13.2 and 9.4 months, respectively. This analysis demonstrated that, in patients with MPC, any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 can be an early marker for chemotherapy efficacy, including in those patients with SD. CA19-9 decrease identified more patients with survival benefit than radiologic response by week 8. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  13. CA19-9 decrease at 8 weeks as a predictor of overall survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, E. G.; Von Hoff, D. D.; Reni, M.; Arena, F. P.; Infante, J. R.; Bathini, V. G.; Wood, T. E.; Mainwaring, P. N.; Muldoon, R. T.; Clingan, P. R.; Kunzmann, V.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Tabernero, J.; Goldstein, D.; McGovern, D.; Lu, B.; Ko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A phase I/II study and subsequent phase III study (MPACT) reported significant correlations between CA19-9 decreases and prolonged overall survival (OS) with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC). CA19-9 changes at week 8 and potential associations with efficacy were investigated as part of an exploratory analysis in the MPACT trial. Patients and methods Untreated patients with MPC (N = 861) received nab-P + Gem or Gem alone. CA19-9 was evaluated at baseline and every 8 weeks. Results Patients with baseline and week-8 CA19-9 measurements were analyzed (nab-P + Gem: 252; Gem: 202). In an analysis pooling the treatments, patients with any CA19-9 decline (80%) versus those without (20%) had improved OS (median 11.1 versus 8.0 months; P = 0.005). In the nab-P + Gem arm, patients with (n = 206) versus without (n = 46) any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) of 40% versus 13%, and a median OS of 13.2 versus 8.3 months (P = 0.001), respectively. In the Gem-alone arm, patients with (n = 159) versus without (n = 43) CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed ORR of 15% versus 5%, and a median OS of 9.4 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.404), respectively. In the nab-P + Gem and Gem-alone arms, by week 8, 16% (40/252) and 6% (13/202) of patients, respectively, had an unconfirmed radiologic response (median OS 13.7 and 14.7 months, respectively), and 79% and 84% of patients, respectively, had stable disease (SD) (median OS 11.1 and 9 months, respectively). Patients with SD and any CA19-9 decrease (158/199 and 133/170) had a median OS of 13.2 and 9.4 months, respectively. Conclusion This analysis demonstrated that, in patients with MPC, any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 can be an early marker for chemotherapy efficacy, including in those patients with SD. CA19-9 decrease identified more patients with survival benefit than radiologic response by week 8. PMID:26802160

  14. Postprandial renal haemodynamic effect of lixisenatide vs once-daily insulin-glulisine in patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin-glargine: An 8-week, randomised, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Smits, Mark M; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Danser, A H Jan; Diamant, Michaela; Joles, Jaap A; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2017-04-27

    To determine whether lixisenatide, a prandial short-acting glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), ameliorates postprandial glomerular hyperfiltration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with insulin-glulisine (iGlu). Postprandial renal haemodynamic effects of 8-week treatment with lixisenatide 20 µg vs once-daily titrated iGlu were measured in 35 overweight patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on insulin-glargine, with or without metformin [mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years, HbA1c 8.0% ± 0.9%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 85 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , median (IQR) urinary albumin/creatinine ratio 1.5 (0.9-3.0) mg/mmol]. After a standardised breakfast, GFR (primary endpoint) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined by inulin and para-aminohippuric acid renal clearance, respectively, based on timed urine sampling. Intrarenal haemodynamic functions were estimated using Gomez equations. Compared with iGlu, lixisenatide did not affect GFR [+0.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -9 to 9)], ERPF [-17 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (-61 to 26)], other (intra-)renal haemodynamics or renal damage markers, but increased fractional sodium excretion [+0.25% (0.09-0.41)] and urinary pH [+0.7 (0.3-1.2)]. Plasma renin, angiotensin-II and aldosterone were unchanged. Lixisenatide and iGlu reduced HbA1c similarly, by 0.8% ± 0.1% and 0.6% ± 0.1%, respectively, while postprandial glucose was lower with lixisenatide (P = .002). Compared with iGlu, lixisenatide reduced bodyweight [-1.4 kg (-2.5 to -0.2)] and increased postprandial mean arterial pressure [+9 mm Hg (4-14)]. Eight-week lixisenatide treatment does not affect postprandial (intra-)renal haemodynamics compared with iGlu when added to insulin-glargine in patients with T2DM without overt nephropathy. Prolonged lixisenatide treatment has a sustained natriuretic effect, which is in contrast to previous reports on long-acting GLP-1RA, reduces

  15. Effect of calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and calcium homeostasis in subjects with extensive psoriasis vulgaris: an open, non-controlled, 8-week trial.

    PubMed

    Silver, Shane; Tuppal, Raj; Gupta, Aditya K; Clonier, Fabrice; Olesen, Martin; Leeder, Randy; Taraska, Victoria

    2013-08-01

    The two-compound topical suspension/gel containing calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate is effective and safe in the treatment of psoriasis on the body and scalp within the general psoriasis patient population. To evaluate the systemic effects of once-daily use of two-compound topical suspension/gel on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and calcium homeostasis in subjects with extensive psoriasis vulgaris. An open-label, single-group, 8-week trial in 43 subjects with extensive psoriasis covering 15-30% of the body surface area. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected and a standard-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test was performed at baseline, weeks 4 and 8. Primary endpoints were serum cortisol 30 minutes after ACTH injection (HPA axis response abnormal at serum cortisol ≤18 μg/dL) and changes from baseline in albumin-corrected serum calcium (sCa), 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (24hCa) and urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Crea). Two (4.7%) subjects showed signs of adrenal suppression based on the ACTH stimulation test results at week 4; both were withdrawn from treatment and had normal serum cortisol 30-minute values at follow-up 4 weeks later. None of the subjects who continued treatment to week 8 showed signs of adrenal suppression. There were no clinically relevant mean changes from baseline to weeks 4 and 8 in sCa, 24hCa or Ca:Crea and no subject had sCa above the reference range. The two-compound topical suspension/gel containing calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate may be applied once daily to extensive psoriasis vulgaris without generally causing adrenal suppression or disturbance of calcium homeostasis, consistent with previous findings. In a small number of patients with extensive psoriasis treated with large volumes of topical suspension, adrenal suppression may be observed. In the real-world setting, it is anticipated that systemic side-effects would occur in only a few cases within the

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of a new extended-release formulation of nicotinic acid in Korean adults with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Young; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2011-10-01

    Nicotinic acid is an effective treatment for dyslipidemia. Patients are more tolerant of the extended-release form of nicotinic acid because it has a lower incidence of side effects, such as facial flushing, than the immediate-release formulation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an experimental extended-release formulation of nicotinic acid in Korean adults with mixed dyslipidemia as a regulatory requirement to allow marketing of this product in Korea. This study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, or high triglyceride levels were enrolled. Patients in the treatment group received 500 mg of extended-release niacin for 4 weeks and 1000 mg of extended-release niacin for the next 4 weeks. Twenty-five patients (24% males; mean [SD] age, 57.4 [6.9] years) comprised the treatment group, and 22 patients (5% males; mean [SD] age 61.8 [8.3] years) comprised the placebo group. After 8 weeks of treatment, HDL-C levels were increased significantly in the treatment group (17.6% vs -1.7%, respectively, from 35 [7] mg/dL to 42 [11] mg/dL in the treatment group and from 38 [6] mg/dL to 36 [7] mg/dL in the placebo group; P < 0.001). LDL-C levels were decreased significantly in the treatment group (-11.4% vs 3.6%, respectively, from 147 [33] mg/dL to 126 [22] mg/dL in the treatment group and from 146 [31] mg/dL to 148 [26] mg/dL in the placebo group; P = 0.003). The incidence of drug-related adverse events, including facial flushing in the treatment group, was not significantly different from that in the placebo group. The tested extended-release formulation of nicotinic acid increased HDL-C levels significantly but decreased LDL-C levels with a low incidence of facial flushing in this small, select group of Korean adults with mixed dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2011

  17. The combination of olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine besylate in controlling high blood pressure: COACH, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week factorial efficacy and safety study.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Melino, Michael; Karki, Sulekha; Lee, James; Heyrman, Reinilde

    2008-04-01

    Hypertension guidelines recommend the use of 2 agents having complementary mechanisms of action when >1 agent is needed to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combinations of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) and amlodipine besylate with those of the component monotherapies in patients with mild to severe hypertension. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial study. Patients who were naive to antihypertensive therapy or who underwent a washout of previous antihypertensive therapy for up to 2 weeks and had a seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) of 95 to 120 mm Hg were randomized to receive 1 of the following for 8 weeks: OM 10, 20, or 40 mg; amlodipine (AML) 5 or 10 mg; each possible combination of OM and AML; or placebo. The primary end point was the change from baseline in SeDBP at week 8, with secondary end points including the change in seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP), the proportion of patients reaching the BP goal (<140/90 mm Hg; <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes), and the proportions of the intention-to-treat population reaching BP thresholds of <120/80, <130/80, <130/85, and <140/90 mm Hg. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated, with a particular focus on the incidence and severity of edema. Of the 1940 randomized patients, 54.3% were male. The mean age of the study population was 54.0 years and 19.8% were aged >or=65 years. The mean baseline BP was 164/102 mm Hg, and 79.3% of patients had stage 2 hypertension. Combination therapy with OM and AML was associated with dose-dependent reductions in SeDBP (from -13.8 mm Hg with OM/AML 10/5 mg to -19.0 mm Hg with OM/AML 40/10 mg) and SeSBP (from -23.6 mm Hg with OM/AML 20/5 mg to -30.1 mm Hg with OM/AML 40/10 mg) that were significantly greater than the reductions with the corresponding component monotherapies (P<0.001). At week 8, the number of patients achieving the BP goal ranged from 57 of 163 (35

  18. Portable Myoelectric Brace Use Increases Upper Extremity Recovery and Participation But Does Not Impact Kinematics in Chronic, Poststroke Hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; McNally, Michael P; Hewett, Timothy E; Page, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of an 8-week regimen combining repetitive task-specific practice (RTP) with a myoelectric brace (RTP+Myomo) on paretic upper extremity (UE; use in valued activities, perceived recovery, and reaching kinematics) in 12 subjects (4 men; M age = 53.5 years; mean time poststroke = 61.7 months). Seven subjects were administered RTP+Myomo therapy, and 5 were administered RTP only. Both groups participated in individualized, 45-min therapy sessions occurring 3 days/week over an 8-week period. The arm, hand ability, activities of daily living, and perceptions of recovery subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), as well as UE reaching kinematics, assessed before and after the intervention. Subjects in the RTP+Myomo group showed greater improvements on all SIS subscales, with the recovery scale reaching statistical significance (p = .03). Subjects in the RTP-only group showed a greater increase in hand velocity in the reach up task (p = .02), but no changes were observed in the range of shoulder flexion or elbow extension during reaching. None of the changes in kinematic outcome measures significantly correlated with any of the changes in SIS subscales. RTP integrating myoelectric bracing may be more beneficial than RTP only in improving self-reported function and perceptions of overall recovery. The authors observed no changes in the range of elbow extension, and no relationship between self-reported improvements and changes in reaching kinematics.

  19. Retrospective analysis of 55,769 HbA1c EQA results obtained from professional laboratories and medical offices participating in surveys organized by two European EQA centers over a nine-year period.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Pierre-Alain; Deom, André; Kesseler, Dagmar; Cohen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    External Quality Assessment (EQA) is an essential tool for laboratories to monitor the performances of their analyses. It also allows a comparison of methods and types of laboratories (professional laboratories vs. medical offices). We, therefore, compared 55,769 HbA1c EQA results obtained between 1999 and 2008 by laboratories participating in EQA schemes organized by two European centers, Switzerland (center 1) and France (center 2). We used simple, nonparametrical statistics suited to EQA results to calculate the yearly and global precision performances. All the results, including the outliers, were included in the calculations. The best global precision performances were obtained by professional laboratories and medical offices using DCA POCT devices, followed by professional laboratories with the Integra, Hitachi, Cobas Mira, and HPLC groups of devices, and finally by both types of laboratories with the NycoCard POCT devices. When considering yearly precision performances, an overall improvement over time was observed for almost all diagnostic devices of center 1, whereas the trend was less clear for center 2. The HbA1c EQA results collected and analyzed over a 9-year period showed that the DCA POCT devices used either by professional laboratories or medical offices had better reproducibility than laboratory devices (other than POCT) and that a general improvement of yearly precision performances was observed, especially when frequent EQA schemes were organized. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. In-season training periodization of professional soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Villanueva, A; Martínez-Santos, R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal perceived respiratory and muscular training loads (i.e., sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL) completed by elite-oriented young professional soccer players. Twenty-four players (20.3 ± 2.0 years) belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga club participated in this study. Only the players that were available to train for a whole week with the team and also to play the weekly game were considered: Starters, players that participated in the match for at least 45 min and Non-Starters, players that did not participate or played less than 45 minutes in the match. The competitive period was analysed after the division into 5x6-8 week blocks and 35x1 week microcycles. Data were also analysed with respect to number of days before the immediate match. Weekly TL variation across the in-season blocks was trivial-small for both groups except between Block 2 and Block 3 (ES= moderate). Substantial TL differences (ES= small–very likely) were found between training days, the TL pattern being a progressive increase up to MD-3 followed by a decrease until MD-1. Except for the match, sRPEres-/sRPEmus-TL was very similar between Starters and Non-Starters. In summary, perceived TL across the season displayed limited variation. Coaches periodized training contents to attain the highest weekly TL 72 hours before the match to progressively unload the players between MD-3 and the match day. The data revealed that the TL arising from the weekly game was solely responsible for the observed higher weekly TL of Starters in comparison with Non-Starters. PMID:28566808

  1. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  2. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  3. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Your Period at School Do Periods Ever End? When Will I Get My Period? ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes ...

  4. The U.S. Antarctic Oversnow and Airborne Geophysical-Glaciological Research Program of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-58 Period from the View of a Research Scientist Participant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    resupply of the seven U.S. stations in Antarctica). The Filchner Ice Traverse, on which I participated, encountered many crevasses. Vehicles broke through thin snow bridges and one man fell deep into a crevasse. Fortunately there were no deaths and only one serious injury resulting from crevasse accidents on the U.S. Program. Because of hidden agenda related to the Cold War, U.S. (and possibly Soviet) scientists felt that Antarctic research was a duty rather than a privilege as today. The U.S. air program averaged 3.8 deaths/year from 1955-1961 in contrast to 0.1 death/year since about 1970. At least three U.S. scientists died in the early period of the U.S. program. When, if ever, do the ends justify the means? It is one thing if mature individual researchers, professional technicians, aviators, and others take risks with full awareness of the hazards. But it is quite another thing if relatively naive graduate students and new Ph.D.s looking for adventure, such as my colleagues and I in the 1956-1962 period, are sent into harm's way without knowing specifically what they will face, by ambitious senior researchers pursuing their personal scientific objectives, even though these may be of vital national and international importance. I have worked both sides of this street in the past 50 years.

  5. Determinants of Retention in 8-Week-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Eleanor Vander; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eight-week-old infants learned to execute an operant footkick to produce crib mobile movement in one of two conditions: training duration on (1) varied within single session and (2) consistent across multiple sessions. Results, in contrast with data from 3-month-olds, demonstrated that conditions of original learning influence immediate and…

  6. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  7. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  8. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…

  9. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  10. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    SciTech Connect

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  11. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 5. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    SciTech Connect

    Haasch, Richard; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  12. Assessment of hypersensitivity reduction of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, 0.243% NaF and specially-designed silica as compared to a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate and zinc lactate and to a dentifrice containing 0.243% NaF on dentin hypersensitivity reduction: an 8-week study.

    PubMed

    Chaknis, Patricia; Panagakos, Fotinos S; DeVizio, William; Sowinski, Joseph; Petrone, Dolores; Proskin, Howard

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the 8-week dentin hypersensitivity efficacy of three toothpastes: (1) a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride and specially-designed silica (Test Dentifrice 1); (2) a commercially-available dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride in a silica base with sodium hexametaphosphate and zinc lactate (Test Dentifrice 2); and (3) a commercially-available non-sensitive dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Negative Control Dentifrice). For this 8-week randomized controlled clinical study, qualifying subjects had to have at least two hypersensitive teeth with a tactile hypersensitivity score (Yeaple Probe) between 10 and 50 grams of force, and air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale). Subjects brushed twice daily for 1 minute, using the assigned toothpaste and toothbrush. Dentin hypersensitivity assessments, as well as examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, were conducted at the baseline examination and after 4 and 8 weeks of brushing. 118 subjects complied with the protocol, and completed the 8-week study. At baseline, the mean tactile sensitivity scores for toothpastes (1), (2) and (3) were 13.6, 14.1 and 13.1; at 4 weeks 28.75, 20.13, and 20.00; and after 8 weeks 33.1, 24.0 and 20.5, respectively. The mean air blast scores for toothpastes (1), (2), and (3) at baseline were 2.5, 2.5, and 2.4; at 4 weeks 1.25, 1.50 and 1.85; and after 8 weeks 0.99, 1.36 and 1.5, respectively. At all time points after the baseline examination, for both tactile and air blast sensitivity scores, the differences between Test Dentifrice 1 and the Negative Control Dentifrice were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The differences between Test Dentifrice 1 and Test Dentifrice 2 were statistically significant (P < 0.05) at 4 and 8 weeks after baseline examination for tactile sensitivity scores and at 8 weeks after baseline examination for air blast sensitivity

  13. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong).

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (-52.3% [2.8%] vs -0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was -51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: -59.8% to -43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (-10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was -10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: -14.1 to -6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large pill burden.

  14. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  15. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  16. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  17. Medicare program; rural health clinics: amendments to participation requirements and payment provisions; and establishment of a quality assessment and performance improvement program; suspension of effectiveness. Interim final rule with comment period; partial suspension of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    2006-09-22

    This interim final rule with comment period revises the rural health clinic (RHC) regulations to revert to those provisions set forth in regulations before publication of the December 24, 2003 RHC final rule. That final rule implemented certain provisions of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 to establish a process and criteria for disqualifying from the RHC program clinics that no longer meet basic location requirements (rural and medically underserved), and to require RHCs to establish quality assessment and performance improvement programs. That rule also prohibited "commingling" (the use of the space, professional staff, equipment, and other resources) of an RHC with another entity. [In addition, it addressed comments on the February 28, 2000 proposed rule. Since the publication of the RHC final rule exceeded the 3-year timeline for finalizing proposed rules set by the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, we are suspending the effectiveness of the current provisions by removing the RHC provisions set forth in the December 2003 final rule and reverting to those RHC provisions previously in effect.] We intend to reissue new proposed and final RHC rules to reinstate the current provisions. However, these revisions do not impact the effectiveness of the self-implementing provisions of the BBA or any provisions we had previously implemented or enforced through program memoranda.

  18. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Vinyasa Yoga on Affect and Stress among College Students Participating in an Eight-week Yoga Program: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Jennings, Ernestine; Thind, Herpreet; Becker, Bruce M; Bock, Beth C

    2014-01-01

    College students are vulnerable to a critical period in developmental maturation, facing rigorous academic work and learning how to function independently. Western aerobic exercise (WAE), such as running and bicycling, has been shown to improve mood and relieve stress. However, college students often have low levels of physical activity. Yoga is an ancient physical and mental practice that may affect mood and stress. However, rigorous studies examining the psychological effects of yoga are rare in peerreviewed Western journals. The aim of this research was to establish preliminary evidence for the acute effects of Vinyasa yoga on affect and stress in young-adult college students. Twenty healthy college students age 18 years and older were recruited to participate in this pilot study. Participants attended a Vinyasa yoga class at a local studio twice weekly for 8 weeks. Affect and stress were assessed before and after each yoga session. Measures included the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) and the Cohen Perceived Stress scale. Positive affect scores increased significantly (p < 0.05) for 14 of the 16 yoga sessions (mean increase = 23.2%). Negative affect decreased significantly from pre- to postyoga (p < 0.05) for 15 of the 16 sessions (mean decrease = 22%). Repeated measures ANOVAs examining pre-post composite scores across all 8 weeks showed significant changes in PANAS, but not stress scores. Findings suggest that yoga practice is associated with acute improvements in affect in a young-adult college population. Future research is needed to examine the extent to which different types of yoga address the needs of different college sub-populations (e.g., eating disordered, overweight/obese, sedentary, and smokers).

  19. Efficiency and safety of the combination of moxifloxacin, pretomanid (PA-824), and pyrazinamide during the first 8 weeks of antituberculosis treatment: a phase 2b, open-label, partly randomised trial in patients with drug-susceptible or drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Rodney; Diacon, Andreas H; Everitt, Daniel; van Niekerk, Christo; Donald, Peter R; Burger, Divan A; Schall, Robert; Spigelman, Melvin; Conradie, Almari; Eisenach, Kathleen; Venter, Amour; Ive, Prudence; Page-Shipp, Liesl; Variava, Ebrahim; Reither, Klaus; Ntinginya, Nyanda E; Pym, Alexander; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Mendel, Carl M

    2015-05-02

    New antituberculosis regimens are urgently needed to shorten tuberculosis treatment. Following on from favourable assessment in a 2 week study, we investigated a novel regimen for efficacy and safety in drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis during the first 8 weeks of treatment. We did this phase 2b study of bactericidal activity--defined as the decrease in colony forming units (CFUs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis-at eight sites in South Africa and Tanzania. We enrolled treatment-naive patients with drug-susceptible, pulmonary tuberculosis, who were randomly assigned by computer-generated sequences to receive either 8 weeks of moxifloxacin, 100 mg pretomanid (formerly known as PA-824), and pyrazinamide (MPa100Z regimen); moxifloxacin, 200 mg pretomanid, and pyrazinamide (MPa200Z regimen); or the current standard care for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis, isoniazid, rifampicin, PZA, and ethambutol (HRZE regimen). A group of patients with MDR tuberculosis received MPa200Z (DRMPa200Z group). The primary outcome was bactericidal activity measured by the mean daily rate of reduction in M tuberculosis CFUs per mL overnight sputum collected once a week, with joint Bayesian non-linear mixed-effects regression modelling. We also assessed safety and tolerability by monitoring adverse events. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01498419. Between March 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013 we enrolled 207 patients and randomly assigned them to treatment groups; we assigned 60 patients to the MPa100Z regimen, 62 to the MPa200Z regimen, and 59 to the HRZE regimen. We non-randomly assigned 26 patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis to the DRMPa200Z regimen. In patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the bactericidal activity of MPa200Z (n=54) on days 0-56 (0·155, 95% Bayesian credibility interval 0·133-0·178) was significantly greater than for HRZE

  20. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  1. Efficacy and safety of two fixed-dose combinations of S-amlodipine and telmisartan (CKD-828) versus S-amlodipine monotherapy in patients with hypertension inadequately controlled using S-amlodipine monotherapy: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, Phase III clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Cha, Tae-Joon; Hong, Taek-Jong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Nae-Hee; Yoon, Jung Han; Yoon, Namsik; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Jo, Sang-Ho; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and safety of CKD-828, a fixed-dose combination of S-amlodipine (the more active isomer of amlodipine besylate, which is calcium channel blocker) and telmisartan (long acting angiotensin receptor blocker), in patients with hypertension inadequately controlled with S-amlodipine monotherapy. Patients and methods Eligible patients (N=187) who failed to respond after 4-week S-amlodipine 2.5 mg monotherapy (sitting diastolic blood pressure [sitDBP] ≥90 mmHg) to receive CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (n=63), CKD-828 2.5/80 mg (n=63), or S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (n=61) for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint, mean sitDBP change from baseline to Week 8, was compared between the combination (CKD-828 2.5/40 mg and CKD-828 2.5/80 mg) and S-amlodipine monotherapy groups. The safety was assessed based on adverse events, vital signs, and physical examination findings. Results After the 8-week treatment, changes in sitDBP/systolic BP (SBP) were −9.67±6.50/−12.89±11.78, −10.72±6.19/−13.79±9.41, and −4.93±7.26/−4.55±11.27 mmHg in the CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (P<0.0001/P<0.0001), CKD-828 2.5/80 mg (P<0.0001/P<0.0001), and S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (P<0.0001/P=0.0027) groups, respectively, which were all significant BP reductions. At Week 8, the CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (sitDBP/SBP: P=0.0002/P<0.0001) and CKD-828 2.5/80 mg (sitDBP/SBP: P=0.0001/P<0.0001) showed superior BP-lowering effects to S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (P<0.001). At Week 4, all groups showed significant antihypertensive effects but both CKD-828 combinations (CKD-828 2.5/40 mg and CKD-828 2.5/80 mg) exhibited superior BP-lowering effects to that of S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (sitDBP/SBP: P=0.0028/P=0.0001 and P<0.0001/P=0.0012, respectively). The adverse event incidence was significantly lower in the CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (9.52%, P=0.0086) than in the S-amlodipine 2.5 mg group (27.87%) and increasing the telmisartan dose induced no unexpected adverse events, suggesting the safety of CKD

  2. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  4. 12 CFR 370.5 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 370.5 Section 370.5 Banks and... LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.5 Participation. (a) Initial period. All eligible entities are covered...) Subject to, and to comply with, any FDIC request to provide information relevant to participation in...

  5. Effect of hippotherapy on perceived self-competence and participation in a child with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Frank, Alana; McCloskey, Sandra; Dole, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    This case report highlights changes in self-competence and social acceptance, along with changes in functional skills, after an 8-week program of hippotherapy. A 6-year-old girl with mild ataxic cerebral palsy, level I Gross Motor Functional Classification System, exhibited typical impairments in body systems and functions that affected her participation in age-appropriate functional and leisure activities. The child's performance on the Gross Motor Function Measure-66, the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children were examined at baseline, after the 8-week intervention, and at a 2-month follow-up session. Data at 8 weeks demonstrated positive changes in all areas, with improvements continuing for 2 months after the program's completion. Hippotherapy not only may be an effective intervention to improve functional gross motor development but also may affect perceived self-competence and social acceptance, which may lead to increases in participation for children with mild cerebral palsy.

  6. Monaural occlusion alters sound localization during a sensitive period in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D; Knudsen, P F

    1984-04-01

    Sound localization was disrupted in young barn owls by chronically plugging one ear. Owls that were younger than 8 weeks of age at the time of ear plugging recovered normal localization accuracy while plugged, whereas those that were older than 8 weeks at the time of ear plugging did not. The end of the sensitive period for the adjustment of sound localization accuracy coincides with the maturation of the head and ears, suggesting that the exposure of the auditory system to stable, adult-like acoustic cues could play a role in bringing the sensitive period to a close. The results demonstrate that, early in development, associations between auditory cues and locations in space can be altered by experience.

  7. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  8. Prospective controlled cohort study to evaluate changes of function, activity and participation in patients with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy after Robot-enhanced repetitive treadmill therapy.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A S; Homburg, M; Warken, B; Auffermann, H; Koerte, I; Berweck, S; Jahn, K; Heinen, F; Borggraefe, I

    2014-07-01

    Robot-enhanced therapies are increasingly being used to improve gross motor performance in patients with cerebral palsy. To evaluate gross motor function, activity and participation in patients with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BS-CP) after Robot-enhanced repetitive treadmill therapy (ROBERT) in a prospective, controlled cohort study. Participants trained for 30-60 min in each of 12 sessions within a three-week-period. Changes in Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 66) scores, standardized walking distance, self-selected and maximum walking speed (ICF domain "Activity"), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM; "Participation") were measured. Outcome measures were assessed three weeks in advance (V1), the day before (V2) as well as the day after, and 8 weeks after ROBERT (V3 + V4). 18 patients with BS-CP participated; age 11.5 (mean, range: 5.0-21.8) years, body weight 36.4 (15.0-72.0) kg. GMFCS levels I-IV were: n = 4; 5; 8; 1. There was no significant difference comparing V1 and V2. GMFM 66 (total +2.5 points, Dimension D +3.8 and E +3.2) and COPM (Performance +2.1 points, Satisfaction +1.8 points) showed statistically significant improvements for V3 or V4 compared to V1 or V2 representing clinically meaningful effect sizes. Age, GMFCS level, and repeated ROBERT blocks correlated negatively with GMFM improvement, but not with COPM improvement. Following ROBERT, this prospective controlled cohort study showed significant and clinically meaningful improvements of function in ICF domains of "activity" and "participation" in patients with BS-CP. Further assessment in a larger cohort is necessary to allow more specific definition of factors that influence responsiveness to ROBERT program. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Federal participation in LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2004-11-10

    The federal government has been an active participant in the development and use of USGBC's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (LEED). This paper presents a review of this participation and some expectations for ongoing partnership.

  10. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  11. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  12. School Lunch Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchino, Lori; Ranney, Christine K.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in participation in National School Lunch Program in 1981-82 are of concern to hunger groups and legislators. Extent to which Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA) of 1980-81 contributes to participation decline was measured by simulation model in New York State. Results suggest that OBRA increased participation; declining…

  13. Widening Participation: What Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In this brief article, the author talks about what--other than money--works to widen higher education (HE) participation for adult learners. He also discusses the problems in trying to discover what works to widen participation for adults. One problem is that the decision to participate in any formal learning episode, including HE, is not a simple…

  14. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  15. 9 CFR 146.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.42 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type turkey slaughter... provisions of this subpart D. (b) Meat-type turkey slaughter plants that slaughter fewer than 2 million meat-type turkeys in a 12-month period are exempt from the special provisions of this subpart D. ...

  16. 9 CFR 146.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.42 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type turkey slaughter... provisions of this subpart D. (b) Meat-type turkey slaughter plants that slaughter fewer than 2 million meat-type turkeys in a 12-month period are exempt from the special provisions of this subpart D. ...

  17. 9 CFR 146.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.42 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type turkey slaughter... provisions of this subpart D. (b) Meat-type turkey slaughter plants that slaughter fewer than 2 million meat-type turkeys in a 12-month period are exempt from the special provisions of this subpart D. ...

  18. 9 CFR 146.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.42 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type turkey slaughter... provisions of this subpart D. (b) Meat-type turkey slaughter plants that slaughter fewer than 2 million meat-type turkeys in a 12-month period are exempt from the special provisions of this subpart D. ...

  19. 9 CFR 146.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.42 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type turkey slaughter... provisions of this subpart D. (b) Meat-type turkey slaughter plants that slaughter fewer than 2 million meat-type turkeys in a 12-month period are exempt from the special provisions of this subpart D. ...

  20. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  1. Does a period of detraining cause a decrease in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor?

    PubMed

    Goekint, Maaike; Roelands, Bart; De Pauw, Kevin; Knaepen, Kristel; Bos, Inge; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-12-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the neurotrophins promoting cognitive function and contributing to neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Available evidence suggests that exercise influences serum BDNF concentrations, but that the effect is transient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a period of aerobic training, followed by a period of detraining, can influence basal serum BDNF levels in humans. Sixteen young, sedentary subjects were assigned to an experimental group (n=9) and a control group (n=7). The experimental group performed an aerobic training program during 8 weeks, followed by 8 weeks of detraining, during which subjects returned to their previous, sedentary activity level. The control group remained physically inactive during 16 weeks. In both groups, performance on short-term (Digit Span test) and mid-term memory (Recall of Images) was assessed. Aerobic training significantly increased the VO(2) peak in the experimental group, and these values returned to baseline after 8 weeks of detraining. Basal serum BDNF was not influenced by 8 weeks of aerobic training and detraining did not seem to have an effect on basal peripheral BDNF concentrations. Both training and detraining did not clearly influence short-term memory performance on the Digit Span test and no differences were present between the experimental and control group on the mid-term memory test. Future studies should focus on patient groups and elderly to further investigate the effect of training and detraining on neurotrophic factors and cognitive function, and on the effects of training and detraining on the BDNF response to acute exercise.

  2. Marketing to increase participation in a Web-based continuing medical education cultural competence curriculum.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Carlos A; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2011-01-01

    CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of 2 marketing strategies in the context of an online CME cultural competence curriculum (www.c-comp.org). In an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design, 2 marketing strategies were tested: (1) wide dissemination to relevant organizations over a period of approximately 4 months, and (2) Internet paid search using Google Ads (5 consecutive 8-week periods--control 1, cultural/CME advertisement, control 2, hypertension/ content advertisement, control 3). Outcome measures were CME credit requests, Web traffic (visits per day, page views, pages viewed per visit), and cost. Overall, the site was visited 19,156 times and 78,160 pages were viewed. During the wide dissemination phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit decreased between the first (5.3%) and second (3.3%) halves of this phase (p = .04). During the Internet paid search phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit was highest during the cultural/CME advertisement period (control 1, 1.4%; cultural/CME ad, 4.3%; control 2, 1.5%; hypertension/content ad, 0.6%; control 3, 0.8%; p < .001). All measures of Web traffic changed during the Internet paid search phase (p < .01); however, changes were independent of the advertisement periods. The incremental cost for the cultural advertisement per CME credit requested was US $0.64. Internet advertisement focusing on cultural competence and CME was associated with about a threefold increase in requests for CME credit at an incremental cost of under US $1; however, Web traffic changes were independent of the advertisement strategy. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing

  3. Initial participation as a predictor for continuous participation in population-based colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Saraste, Deborah; Öhman, Daniel J; Sventelius, Marika; Elfström, K Miriam; Blom, Johannes; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess patterns and probabilities of participation in multiple rounds of colorectal cancer screening. Methods All individuals who were invited to participate in population-based colorectal cancer screening in the Stockholm-Gotland region in Sweden between 1 January 2008 and 30 September 2015 were included in the study. Guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing was used. All individuals invited to the three first consecutive screening rounds were included in the analysis. Results There were 346,168 individuals eligible for invitation to screening. The average participation rate during the follow-up period was 60%. Eligible individuals could be invited 1-4 times, depending on age at first invitation. Of 48,959 individuals invited to the three first consecutive rounds of screening, 71% participated at least once, and 50% participated in all three rounds. Participation at first invitation was a predictor for participation in subsequent rounds, and the likelihood of continuous participation following participation in the first round was 84%. Of those who attended the first and second rounds, 93% also participated in the third round. Similar patterns of consistency were seen among non-participants. For individuals not participating in the first screening round, the likelihood of consistent non-participation was 71. Conclusions Participation in the first round of screening is a strong predictor for participation in subsequent rounds. Therefore, reducing barriers for initial participation is a key for achieving consistent participation over several rounds in organized colorectal cancer screening programmes.

  4. 5 CFR 1651.19 - Beneficiary participant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... balance and the beneficiary participant's age, using the IRS Single Life Table, 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9, Q&A... participant must use the transfer form provided by the TSP. (h) Periodic statements. The TSP will furnish beneficiary participants with periodic statements in a manner consistent with part 1640 of this chapter. (i...

  5. 5 CFR 1651.19 - Beneficiary participant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... balance and the beneficiary participant's age, using the IRS Single Life Table, 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9, Q&A... participant must use the transfer form provided by the TSP. (h) Periodic statements. The TSP will furnish beneficiary participants with periodic statements in a manner consistent with part 1640 of this chapter. (i...

  6. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant...

  7. Patterns of public participation.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies.

  8. Absent menstrual periods - secondary

    MedlinePlus

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... bleeding. When they stop taking these hormones, their periods may not return for more than 6 months. ...

  9. Children's Participation in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article…

  10. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  11. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  12. Depression and Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.

  13. 15 CFR 16.7 - Participation in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... participant in the event that he does not appeal such notification by the end of the thirty (30) day period...) Participants may reproduce the Department of Commerce Label and Mark in advertising: Provided, That the...

  14. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  15. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  16. Medicare Program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system changes and FY2011 rates; provider agreements and supplier approvals; and hospital conditions of participation for rehabilitation and respiratory care services; Medicaid program: accreditation for providers of inpatient psychiatric services. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2010-08-16

    : We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. We are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and setting forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS. In addition, we are finalizing the provisions of the August 27, 2009 interim final rule that implemented statutory provisions relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. We are making changes affecting the: Medicare conditions of participation for hospitals relating to the types of practitioners who may provide rehabilitation services and respiratory care services; and determination of the effective date of provider agreements and supplier approvals under Medicare. We are also setting forth provisions that offer psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs increased flexibility in obtaining accreditation to participate in the Medicaid program. Psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs will have the choice of undergoing a State survey or of obtaining accreditation from a national accrediting organization whose hospital accreditation

  17. Participative Management at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Business Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This interview with the chief executive of Donnelly Mirrors, Inc. explains the basis of the company's leadership in participative management and discusses why it is more successful than traditional authority-based management styles. (Author/JG)

  18. Running-specific, periodized strength training attenuates loss of stride length during intense endurance running.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Rhea, Matthew R; Fleck, Steven J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a running-specific, periodized strength training program (performed over the specific period [8 weeks] of a 16-week macrocycle) on endurance-trained runners' capacity to maintain stride length during running bouts at competitive speeds. Eighteen well-trained middle-distance runners completed the study (personal bests for 1500 and 5000 m of 3 minutes 57 seconds +/- 12 seconds and 15 minutes 24 seconds +/- 36 seconds). They were randomly assigned to each of the following groups (6 per group): periodized strength group, performing a periodized strength training program over the 8-week specific (intervention) period (2 sessions per week); nonperiodized strength group, performing the same strength training exercises as the periodized group over the specific period but with no week-to-week variations; and a control group, performing no strength training at all during the specific period. The percentage of loss in the stride length (cm)/speed (m.s) (SLS) ratio was measured by comparing the mean SLS during the first and third (last) group of the total repetitions, respectively, included in each of the interval training sessions performed at race speeds during the competition period that followed the specific period. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in mean percentage of SLS loss between the 3 study groups, with the periodized strength group showing no significant SLS change (0.36 +/- 0.95%) and the 2 other groups showing a moderate or high SLS loss (-1.22 +/- 1.5% and -3.05 +/- 1.2% for the nonperiodized strength and control groups, respectively). In conclusion, periodized, running-specific strength training minimizes the loss of stride length that typically occurs in endurance runners during fatiguing running bouts.

  19. Why Latinas With Breast Cancer Select Specific Informal Caregivers to Participate With Them in Psychosocial Interventions.

    PubMed

    Badger, Terry; Segrin, Chris; Swiatkowski, Paulina; McNelis, Melissa; Weihs, Karen; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2016-06-28

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasons 88 Latinas with breast cancer selected specific supportive others to participate in an 8-week psychosocial intervention. Participants were asked one open-ended question during the baseline assessment for a larger clinical trial: "Could you tell me more about why you selected [insert name] to participate in the study with you?" A content analysis of the responses found three thematic categories: source of informational or emotional support, concern for the informal caregiver's welfare, and special characteristics or qualities of the informal caregiver. These findings reflected both the cultural value of familism, the woman's role as caregiver to the family (marianismo), and the man's role of provider (machismo). Findings provide support for including the supportive person identified by the patient during a health crisis rather than the provider suggesting who that should be. Psychosocial services designed and implemented through such a cultural lens are more likely to be successful.

  20. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  1. Participating in Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... lifestyle changes, such as exercising more, getting more sleep, keeping mentally active, or eating nutritious foods, can ... become clear until more people have taken it over a longer period of time. home | health topics ...

  2. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  3. Analysis of operator participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarakovskiy, G. M.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of providing a psychological conception of the analysis of operator participation in a form that will allow the qualitative approach to be combined with the quantitative approach is examined. This conception is based on an understanding of the essence of human endeavor in automated control systems that now determine the development of society's productive forces and that are the main object of ergonomic research. Two main types of operator participation were examined; information retrieval with immediate service and information retrieval with delayed service.

  4. Analysis of operator participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarakovskiy, G. M.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of providing a psychological conception of the analysis of operator participation in a form that will allow the qualitative approach to be combined with the quantitative approach is examined. This conception is based on an understanding of the essence of human endeavor in automated control systems that now determine the development of society's productive forces and that are the main object of ergonomic research. Two main types of operator participation were examined; information retrieval with immediate service and information retrieval with delayed service.

  5. 5 CFR 1655.5 - Loan repayment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... general purpose loan is five years of scheduled payments. The maximum repayment period a participant may request for a residential loan is 15 years of scheduled payments. ... repayment period. (a) Minimum. The minimum repayment period a participant may request for a loan is one year...

  6. Family Participation in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

  7. Katimavik Participant Information Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The guide provides prospective participants with an overview of Katimavik, a 9-month community volunteer service and learning program for 17- to 21-year-olds sponsored since 1977 by the Canadian Government. The guide describes the application process and computerized random selection procedures; work projects, which may range from building…

  8. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  9. Family Participation. Chapter 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health research focuses on studies of family participation. Individual papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Measuring Satisfaction with Community-Based Services for Children with Severe Emotional Disturbances: A Comparison of Questionnaires for Children and…

  10. Participative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 6 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter makes a case for the use of participative decision-making (PDM) at the school-site level, outlines guidelines for its implementation, and describes the experiences of some schools with PDM systems. It begins by citing research indicating the advantages of PDM, including better decisions,…

  11. Participation through Maieutic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agger, Simona Ganassi

    City planners should take on a "maieutic" role, which is to say that they should encourage wide participation in a process that elicits and enlists the latent knowledge and desires of all citizens in a city-building effort. Planners must try to obtain a sense of (1) what the everyday life of people living in and using cities is like, and (2) the…

  12. Postcards Encourage Participant Updates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    logistic issues in conducting lon- gitudinal birth cohort studies : lessons learned from the centers for children’s environmental health and disease...information. 14. SUBJECT TERMS cohort studies , military personnel, patient participation, epidemiologic methods 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18a

  13. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed…

  14. Increasing Participation through Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Bridget; Wager, Anita A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many challenges teachers face is trying to differentiate instruction so all students have equal opportunities to participate, learn, and engage. To provide guidelines for differentiated instruction in mathematics, staff from the Madison Metropolitan School District in Wisconsin created a pedagogical framework for teaching called…

  15. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed…

  16. Effective Team Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Student Study Team (SST) is described as a California intervention model that encourages effective multidisciplinary team participation. The development, training, operation, and evaluation of such teams are discussed, and implementation recommendations are offered. The article includes a flow chart of the SST process, a meeting competency…

  17. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  18. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon...

  19. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon...

  20. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon...

  1. Attitudes of nursing students on consumer participation: the effectiveness of the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this article were to evaluate the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire, and measure nursing students' attitudes to consumer participation. Undergraduate nursing students (n = 116) completed the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire at the start of a course on recovery for mental health nursing practice. The current findings confirm an endorsement of consumer participation in individual care processes, but less agreement with participation in organizational-level processes, such as management of mental health services and education of providers. This article also confirms that the questionnaire can effectively measure attitudes to consumer participation. The participation of consumers is critical for achieving person-centered services mental health services. It is important that nursing education influence positive attitudes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of the Feasibility of a Home-Based TeleYoga Intervention in Participants with Both Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Donesky, DorAnne; Selman, Lucy; McDermott, Kelly; Citron, Tracie; Howie-Esquivel, Jill

    2017-09-01

    Test the feasibility and clinical outcomes of a home-based videoconferencing yoga intervention in participants diagnosed with both Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF). Yoga has potential benefit for symptom relief in participants with COPD and with HF; however, functional impairment and transportation issues can hinder access to typical yoga classes. A controlled, nonrandomized trial was conducted of an 8-week TeleYoga intervention versus an educational control (information leaflets mailed to participants with one weekly phone call). One-hour TeleYoga classes were implemented twice weekly via multipoint videoconferencing, which connected participants to live classes via an Internet connection to their televisions. Fourteen participants with COPD and HF took part in the pilot study (7 in the intervention group and 8 in the control). Intervention participants were adherent to classes, able to safely participate, and found the classes enjoyable after the 8-week program. Dyspnea after exercise improved in the intervention group. Despite their frailty, patients diagnosed with both COPD and HF were able to perform yoga safely in the home setting. TeleYoga was acceptable and adherence was good; however, technical issues were an important hindrance to participation.

  3. Sports participation with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Geh, Ndi; Selzer, Béla J; Bower, Regina; Himedan, Mai; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with Chiari I malformation (CM-I). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with the imaging finding of CM-I. METHODS A prospective survey was administered to 503 CM-I patients at 2 sites over a 46-month period. Data were gathered on imaging characteristics, treatment, sports participation, and any sport-related injuries. Additionally, 81 patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry and were included in a prospective group, with a mean prospective follow-up period of 11 months. RESULTS Of the 503 CM-I patients, 328 participated in sports for a cumulative duration of 4641 seasons; 205 of these patients participated in contact sports. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. One patient had temporary extremity paresthesias that resolved within hours, and this was not definitely considered to be related to the CM-I. In the prospective cohort, there were no permanent neurological injuries. CONCLUSIONS No permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries were observed in CM-I patients participating in athletic activities. The authors believe that the risk of such injuries is low and that, in most cases, sports participation by children with CM-I is safe.

  4. Poverty, health and participation.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, S

    2007-09-01

    Poverty is an important influence on health and despite continuing economic growth, poverty and health inequalities persist. Current public policy aims to reduce the inequalities in the health, by focussing on the social factors influencing health, improving access to health and personal social services for those who are poor or socially excluded and by improving the information and research base in respect of the health status and service access for the poor and socially excluded groups. It is important that processes for target setting and evaluation involve people experiencing poverty, at all levels through consultative and participative structures and processes and in the roll-out of primary care teams. A number of projects throughout the country aim to address health inequalities using community development. These are essentially about widening participation in the development, planning and delivery of health services and ensuring that the community is actively involved in the decision making process about health services in their area.

  5. 42 CFR 460.104 - Participant assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... informed that they are entitled to choose a qualified specialist for women's health services from the PACE organization's network to furnish routine or preventive women's health services. (c) Periodic reassessment—(1... participant's health and social status: (i) Primary care physician. (ii) Registered nurse. (iii)...

  6. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... adult’s. Starting your menstrual period is one of these changes. What is a menstrual period? When puberty begins, your brain signals your body to produce hormones . Some of these hormones prepare your body each month for a ...

  7. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions ... serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a hormone imbalance is ...

  8. Assessing Community Participation: Comparing Self-Reported Participation Data with Organizational Attendance Records.

    PubMed

    Christens, Brian D; Speer, Paul W; Peterson, N Andrew

    2016-06-01

    How well do self-reported levels of community and organizational participation align with recorded acts of community and organizational participation? This study explores this question among participants in social action community organizing initiatives by comparing responses on a community participation scale designed to retrospectively assess community participation (T1, n = 482; T2, n = 220) with individual participants' attendance records in various social action organizing activities over two 1-year periods. By testing the self-reported measure's overall and item-by-item association with documented participation in various types of organizing activities, we find that the self-report measure is positively, but weakly correlated with actual participation levels in community organizing activities. Moreover, associations between self-report and recorded acts of participation differ by types of activity. Examining this unique source of data raises important questions about how community participation is conceptualized and measured in our field. Implications are explored for theory and measurement of participation in community and organizational contexts.

  9. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  10. 29 CFR 783.47 - Off-duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... his watch or normal or regular working hours and his standby periods during which hours he is not..., crew, or cargo or for participation in life boat or fire drills will not render such off-duty periods...

  11. 29 CFR 783.47 - Off-duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... his watch or normal or regular working hours and his standby periods during which hours he is not..., crew, or cargo or for participation in life boat or fire drills will not render such off-duty periods...

  12. 29 CFR 783.47 - Off-duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... his watch or normal or regular working hours and his standby periods during which hours he is not..., crew, or cargo or for participation in life boat or fire drills will not render such off-duty periods...

  13. 29 CFR 783.47 - Off-duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... his watch or normal or regular working hours and his standby periods during which hours he is not..., crew, or cargo or for participation in life boat or fire drills will not render such off-duty periods...

  14. 29 CFR 783.47 - Off-duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... his watch or normal or regular working hours and his standby periods during which hours he is not..., crew, or cargo or for participation in life boat or fire drills will not render such off-duty periods...

  15. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  16. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  17. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  18. [Women's participation in science].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men.

  19. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  20. The Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    extension resistance training than did a carbohydrate placebo (22%). Protein and branched chain amino acids ( BCAA ) supplementation may also improve... BCAAs scored better on both mood levels and 2 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, Public Affairs Case File No. 09-189, 27 April 2009...supplemented subjects with whey and casein (WC), whey and BCAAs (WBC), or placebo (P) over 10 weeks of resistance training (RT). They observed a significant

  1. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  2. Learning by Doing--Teaching Systematic Review Methods in 8 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianjing; Saldanha, Ian J.; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Yu, Tsung; Rosman, Lori; Twose, Claire; Goodman, Steven N.; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to describe the course "Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis" at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Methods: A distinct feature of our course is a group project in which students, assigned to multi-disciplinary groups, conduct a systematic review. In-class sessions comprise…

  3. The benefits of yoga for rheumatoid arthritis: results of a preliminary, structured 8-week program.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Humeira; Chhabra, Vishwas; Leibman, Cathy; Mofti, Ayman; Kong, Kok Ooi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a bi-weekly Raj yoga program on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. Subjects were recruited from among RA patients in Dubai, United Arab Emirates by email invitations of the RA database. Demographic data, disease activity indices, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), and quality of life (QOL) by SF-36 were documented at enrollment and after completion of 12 sessions of Raj yoga. A total of 47 patients were enrolled: 26 yoga and 21 controls. Baseline demographics were similar in both groups. Patients who underwent yoga had statistically significant improvements in DAS28 and HAQ, but not QOL. Our pilot study of 12 sessions of yoga for RA was able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in RA disease parameters. We believe that a longer duration of treatment could result in more significant improvements.

  4. Learning by Doing--Teaching Systematic Review Methods in 8 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianjing; Saldanha, Ian J.; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Yu, Tsung; Rosman, Lori; Twose, Claire; Goodman, Steven N.; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to describe the course "Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis" at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Methods: A distinct feature of our course is a group project in which students, assigned to multi-disciplinary groups, conduct a systematic review. In-class sessions comprise…

  5. The Immediate Effects on Inter-rectus Distance of Abdominal Crunch and Drawing-in Exercises During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Mota, Patrícia; Pascoal, Augusto Gil; Carita, Ana Isabel; Bø, Kari

    2015-10-01

    Longitudinal descriptive exploratory study. To evaluate in primigravid women the immediate effect of drawing-in and abdominal crunch exercises on inter-rectus distance (IRD), measured at 4 time points during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. There is scant knowledge of the effect of different abdominal exercises on IRD in pregnant and postpartum women. The study included 84 primiparous participants. Ultrasound images were recorded with a 12-MHz linear transducer, at rest and during abdominal drawing-in and abdominal crunch exercises, at 3 locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at 4 time points: gestational weeks 35 to 41, 6 to 8 weeks postpartum, 12 to 14 weeks postpartum, and 24 to 26 weeks postpartum. Separate 2-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed for each exercise (drawing-in and abdominal crunch) and each measurement location to evaluate the immediate effects of exercises on IRD at each of the 4 time points. Similarly, 2-way ANOVAs were used to contrast the effects of the 2 exercises on IRD. Performing the drawing-in exercise caused a significant change in width of the IRD at 2 cm below the umbilicus, narrowing the IRD by a mean of 3.8 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 6.4 mm) at gestational weeks 35 to 41, and widening the IRD by 3.0 mm (95% CI: 1.4, 4.6 mm) at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum, by 1.8 mm (95% CI: 0.6, 3.1 mm) at 12 to 14 weeks postpartum, and by 2.5 mm (95% CI: 1.4, 3.6 mm) at 24 to 26 weeks postpartum (P<.01). Performing the abdominal crunch exercise led to a significant narrowing of the IRD (P<.01) in all 3 locations at all 4 time points, with the exception of 2 cm below the umbilicus at postpartum weeks 24 to 26. The average amount of narrowing varied from 1.6 to 20.9 mm, based on time and location. Overall, there was a contrasting effect of the 2 exercises, with the abdominal crunch exercise consistently producing a significant narrowing of the IRD. In contrast, the drawing-in exercise generally

  6. Yough, literacy and participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Arthur

    1985-12-01

    The number of illiterates in the world continues to grow. Simultaneously, there are few if any literacy efforts in the world today that do not depend upon the energies and skills (and sometimes ideas) of young people. Youth's participation in the provision of literacy, in some industrialized as well as in many developing countries, is classified according to three patterns: the project pattern, the programme pattern, and the campaign pattern. The project pattern is not seen to hold out the prospect of enabling youth to make serious inroads into growing illiteracy. Conversely, the campaign pattern seemed largely exceptional. Suggestions are made to draw on elements of both the project and the campaign patterns to show ways of enrichting, systematizing and generalizing the programme pattern.

  7. Researching participant recruitment times.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Rachel; Black, Polly

    2015-11-01

    Conducting research in emergency departments is relatively new, and there are a number of ethical and practical challenges to recruiting patients in these settings. In 2008, the Emergency Medicine Research Group Edinburgh (EMERGE) was set up at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh emergency department to support researchers and encourage the growth of research in emergency medicine. As part of a review of their working methods, the group's clinical nurse researchers undertook a small study to identify participant recruitment times. The results showed a significant difference between perceived and actual recruitment times, which has implications for planning staff numbers and budgets. This article describes the evaluation process and methods of data collection, and discusses the results.

  8. Community-Academic Partnership Participation.

    PubMed

    Meza, Rosemary; Drahota, Amy; Spurgeon, Emily

    2016-10-01

    Community-academic partnerships (CAPs) improve the research process, outcomes, and yield benefits for the community and researchers. This exploratory study examined factors important in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community stakeholders, previously contacted to participate in a CAP (n = 18), completed the 15-item Decision to Participate Questionnaire (DPQ). The DPQ assessed reasons for participating or declining participation in the ASD CAP. CAP participants rated networking with other providers, fit of collaboration with agency philosophy, and opportunity for future training/consultations as factors more important in their decision to participate in the ASD CAP than nonparticipants. Nonparticipants reported the number of requests to participate in research as more important in their decision to decline participation than participants. Findings reveal important factors in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs that may provide guidance on increasing community engagement in CAPs and help close the science-to-service gap.

  9. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  10. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  11. Periodic syndromes of childhood.

    PubMed

    Arav-Boger, R; Spirer, Z

    1997-01-01

    Periodic syndromes of childhood comprise a large group of disorders that require long-term follow-up to be diagnosed. Several disorders have fixed rhythmicity and are therefore identified more easily. Other disorders are usually diagnosed after a prolonged follow-up and exclusion of other more common childhood diseases. In general, most of the periodic fever syndromes have a benign prognosis, and their symptomatology tends to improve in the long term. Periodic syndromes without fever or chronic pain syndromes constitute not only a diagnostic dilemma but also a therapeutic challenge. A general diagnostic approach to the periodic syndromes is outlined in Figure 1.

  12. Gateway to total participation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.R.

    1991-12-01

    ``People Involvement`` activities are used to bridge all aspects of our Kansas City manufacturing business. This involvement is evident in the daily operation meetings conducted for information sharing, problem solving, concurrent engineering, and planning the work day as a business unit. Our business structure promotes total participation and fosters individual development and growth. This program illustrates the degree to which people can and should be involved in every facet of American industry. It taps capabilities not routinely used in manufacturing assignments and creates a working environment that strives to achieve a ``win-win`` situation for all. Our employee involvement program appropriately called ``People Involvement`` began on a single complex electrical product at the Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Aerospace Company approximately three years ago. The People involvement program is organized like a stand-alone company, and much of its success is based on the way it involves each employee as if they were an ``owner`` in the ``business.`` The group is structured to emphasize the importance of each member`s skill, regardless of position, and to include each member in all aspects of the project.

  13. Gateway to total participation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.R.

    1991-12-01

    People Involvement'' activities are used to bridge all aspects of our Kansas City manufacturing business. This involvement is evident in the daily operation meetings conducted for information sharing, problem solving, concurrent engineering, and planning the work day as a business unit. Our business structure promotes total participation and fosters individual development and growth. This program illustrates the degree to which people can and should be involved in every facet of American industry. It taps capabilities not routinely used in manufacturing assignments and creates a working environment that strives to achieve a win-win'' situation for all. Our employee involvement program appropriately called People Involvement'' began on a single complex electrical product at the Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Aerospace Company approximately three years ago. The People involvement program is organized like a stand-alone company, and much of its success is based on the way it involves each employee as if they were an owner'' in the business.'' The group is structured to emphasize the importance of each member's skill, regardless of position, and to include each member in all aspects of the project.

  14. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  15. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  16. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  17. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  18. Periodical assessment of electrophysiological recovery following sciatic nerve crush via surface stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxian; Wang, Hongkui; Mi, Daguo; Gu, Xiaosong; Hu, Wen

    2015-03-01

    When evaluating peripheral nerve regeneration, electrophysiological test is recognized as an optimal assessment, which is a quantitative, objective, and direct evidence reflecting function as compared to morphological examinations. In murine models of nerve regeneration, however, it remains a challenge to record compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) periodically and non-invasively, i.e., with no insult to the nerve. In the present study, we recorded CMAPs in the gastrocnemius muscle weekly until 8 weeks after sciatic nerve crush by stimulating the nerve in a surface manner, and the electric stimuli were delivered to the skin between ischial tuberosity and major trochanter using bipolar hook electrodes. The CMAPs were reproducibly recorded in this way from 3 weeks post-injury, and both amplitude and latency were well correlated to post-operative time. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed between CMAP amplitude and sciatic function index (SFI), a well-recognized assessment for sciatic nerve function. CMAP recordings by direct nerve stimulation at 8 weeks post-injury showed no significant difference in amplitude compared to surface stimulation, but the peak latency was relatively longer than the latter. This study indicated that non-invasive surface stimulation-based periodical recording of CMAPs was a practical electrophysiological approach to monitor the progression of peripheral nerve regeneration in murine models.

  19. 29 CFR 2530.204-2 - Accrual computation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participation are credited with a partial year of participation on a prorata basis. For example, if the plan... first accrual computation period under the plan as amended is treated as a partial accrual computation... partial accrual computation period, the following rules shall apply: (i) A plan having a minimum...

  20. Effects of Short-Term Free-Weight and Semiblock Periodization Resistance Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    South, Mark A; Layne, Andrew S; Stuart, Charles A; Triplett, N Travis; Ramsey, Michael; Howell, Mary E; Sands, William A; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Hornsby, W Guy; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; Stone, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    South, MA, Layne, AS, Stuart, CA, Triplett, NT, Ramsey, MW, Howell, ME, Sands, WA, Mizuguchi, S, Hornsby, WG, Kavanaugh, AA, and Stone, MH. Effects of short-term free-weight and semiblock periodization resistance training on metabolic syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2682-2696, 2016-The effects of short-term resistance training on performance and health variables associated with prolonged sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome (MS) were investigated. Resistance training may alter a number of health-related, physiological, and performance variables. As a result, resistance training can be used as a valuable tool in ameliorating the effects of a sedentary lifestyle including those associated with MS. Nineteen previously sedentary subjects (10 with MS and 9 with nonmetabolic syndrome [NMS]) underwent 8 weeks of supervised resistance training. Maximum strength was measured using an isometric midthigh pull and resulting force-time curve. Vertical jump height (JH) and power were measured using a force plate. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and type were examined using muscle biopsy and standard analysis techniques. Aerobic power was measured on a cycle ergometer using a ParvoMedics 2400 Metabolic system. Endurance was measured as time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. After training, maximum isometric strength, JH, jump power, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased by approximately 10% (or more) in both the metabolic and NMS groups (both male and female subjects). Over 8 weeks of training, body mass did not change statistically, but percent body fat decreased in subjects with the MS and in women, and lean body mass increased in all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Few alterations were noted in the fiber type. Men had larger CSAs compared those of with women, and there was a fiber-specific trend toward hypertrophy over time. In summary, 8 weeks of semiblock free-weight resistance training improved several performance variables and some cardiovascular factors

  1. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  2. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  3. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  4. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  5. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  6. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  7. Effects of periodic discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic capacity checks are assessed as well as the effects of periodic discharges on the cycle life and the performance of cells during the cycle life. Topics discussed include the effect of the amount of electrolyte on cell capacity at 35 C; battery design for spacecraft; electrolyte starvation theory; battery separator degradation; negative electrode stability; voltage regulation; operating temperatures; and integration of reconditioning systems using microprocessors.

  8. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  9. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  10. Children's Participation Rights in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mary Ann; Smith, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores children's participation in research, from the perspectives of researchers who have conducted research with children. Researchers' reports, gained using an email interviewing method, suggest that children's participation rights are particularly compromised when the potential child participants are considered vulnerable and…

  11. Determining an optimal testing strategy for infants at risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 during the late postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth; Chi, Benjamin H; Read, Jennifer S; Taha, Taha E; Sharma, Usha; Hoffman, Irving F; Pikora, Cheryl; Goldenberg, Robert; Fiscus, Susan A

    2008-11-12

    To determine the optimal time for a second HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification assay to detect late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 (first negative test at 4-8 weeks of age) in resource-limited settings. A longitudinal analysis of data from HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024. Children born to HIV-1-infected mothers enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024 were tested for HIV-1 infection at six intervals within the first year of life. Mothers and infants received nevirapine prophylaxis. We estimated the probability of being alive and having a positive test in each interval after 4-8 weeks and at 30 days after weaning, conditional on having acquired HIV during the late postnatal period. The interval with the highest probability was taken to be the optimal visit interval. A total of 1609 infants from HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024 had at least one HIV-1 diagnostic test and were included in the analysis. We found that testing at 1 month after weaning or 12 months of age (whichever comes first) identified 81% of those infected during the late postnatal period (after 4-8 weeks) through breastfeeding. In total, 93% (95% confidence interval 89, 98) of all infected infants would be detected if tests were performed at these two time points. In resource-limited settings, HIV-1 PCR testing at 4-8 weeks followed by a second test at 1 month after weaning or at 1 year of age (whichever comes first), led to the identification of the vast majority of HIV-1-infected infants.

  12. Mevalonate kinase deficiency and Dutch type periodic fever.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, J; Houten, S M; Waterham, H R; Wanders, R J; Rijkers, G T; Kimpen, J L; Duran, R; Poll-The, B T; Kuis, W

    2000-01-01

    Dutch type periodic fever (DPF) is an autosomal recessive hereditary fever syndrome. Cases have been reported worldwide, the majority from France and The Netherlands. From infancy the patients suffer fever attacks that recur every 2-8 weeks, often precipitated by immunizations, infections or emotional stress. Fever lasts 2-7 days and can be accompanied by malaise, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, skin rashes, arthralgia, arthritis, tender lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and oral and genital ulcers. Laboratory evaluation during fever shows granulocytosis and elevated acute phase reactants. DPF is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK). Besides DPF, the spectrum of MK deficiency includes a severe phenotype, mevalonic aciduria (MA). MA patients have less residual MK activity, leading to substantially higher urinary mevalonic acid excretion than in DPF. Mevalonic aciduria is characterized by mental retardation and dysmorphic features in addition to the clinical features of DPF. At the genomic level, several mutations of varying severity have been identified. The DPF phenotype is caused by one particular mild missense mutation. Most patients are compound heterozygotes for this mutation and a more severe mutation. The mechanism by which MK deficiency leads to fever is not understood. The vast majority of DPF patients have persistently elevated serum IgD and can be classified as having hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS). Conversely, most HIDS patients have MK deficiency and hence DPF, but the two disorders do not overlap entirely.

  13. How Do Students Participate in Synchronous and Asynchronous Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Muilenburg, Lin Y.; Tanner, Erica J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how graduate students participated in online discussions over a two-week period to determine the utility of synchronous and asynchronous modes of discussion. Types and amounts of communication statements participants made in chats and threaded discussions were analyzed. Results indicate that both types of discussion are liked and…

  14. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The disaster...

  15. Strategies to Increase Participation in Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines how focused organization, group roles, and gender grouping impact student participation when working in a cooperative group setting. Fifty-two sixth graders were studied for a period of nine weeks. Results show when students are organized in their cooperative groups, there will be an increase in student participation.…

  16. Inmigration to Maine. Motivations for Moving, Satisfactions, Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Louis A.

    Out-of-state persons moving to Maine during the July through December period of either 1980 or 1983 were queried to determine why they chose Maine, what their levels of satisfaction were with life in Maine, and in what activities they participated or planned to participate. The majority of the 417 survey respondents were from large counties in the…

  17. Participation in Quality Measurement Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Jennifer Lynn

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of improving patient care quality and reducing costs, many hospitals across the nation participate in quality measurements. The three programs most applicable to colon and rectal surgery are the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), and the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Participation in each is variable, although many hospitals are eligible and welcome to participate. Currently, SCIP is the only one with a financial incentive to participate. This article will focus on participation; however, the motivation for such is elusive in the literature. It is likely that a combination of resource utilization and faith in the concept that participation results in improvements in patient care actually drive participation. PMID:24587700

  18. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  19. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    PubMed

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  20. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  1. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including interest and dividends earned on funds not paid as premiums or used to margin the pool's commodity... during the reporting period; (v) The net asset value of the pool as of the end of the reporting period; and (vi)(A) The net asset value per outstanding participation unit in the pool as of the end of...

  2. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  3. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  4. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  5. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  6. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  7. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  8. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  9. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  10. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  11. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  12. Political participation of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p < .001) of political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p < .001). Resources (time/money/civic skills) significantly contributed to political participation (p < .001). Less than half (40%) felt they could impact local decisions, and fewer (32%) felt they could impact state or national government decisions. Most respondents (80%) indicated their nursing courses lacked political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  13. Temporal Prediction in lieu of Periodic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Charles E.; Wyart, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Predicting not only what will happen, but also when it will happen is extremely helpful for optimizing perception and action. Temporal predictions driven by periodic stimulation increase perceptual sensitivity and reduce response latencies. At the neurophysiological level, a single mechanism has been proposed to mediate this twofold behavioral improvement: the rhythmic entrainment of slow cortical oscillations to the stimulation rate. However, temporal regularities can occur in aperiodic contexts, suggesting that temporal predictions per se may be dissociable from entrainment to periodic sensory streams. We investigated this possibility in two behavioral experiments, asking human participants to detect near-threshold auditory tones embedded in streams whose temporal and spectral properties were manipulated. While our findings confirm that periodic stimulation reduces response latencies, in agreement with the hypothesis of a stimulus-driven entrainment of neural excitability, they further reveal that this motor facilitation can be dissociated from the enhancement of auditory sensitivity. Perceptual sensitivity improvement is unaffected by the nature of temporal regularities (periodic vs aperiodic), but contingent on the co-occurrence of a fulfilled spectral prediction. Altogether, the dissociation between predictability and periodicity demonstrates that distinct mechanisms flexibly and synergistically operate to facilitate perception and action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal predictions are increasingly recognized as fundamental instruments for optimizing performance, enabling mammals to exploit regularities in the world. However, the notion of temporal predictions is often confounded with the idea of entrainment to periodic sensory inputs. At the behavioral level, it is also unclear whether perceptual sensitivity and reaction time improvements benefit the same way from temporal predictions and periodic stimulation. In two behavioral experiments on human

  14. [Social participation after childhood craniopharyngioma].

    PubMed

    Olivari-Philiponnet, C; Roumenoff, F; Schneider, M; Chantran, C; Picot, M; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C; Bernard, J-C; Vuillerot, C

    2016-12-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign central nervous system tumor, which may be a source of multiple complications, from endocrinology to vision, neurology and neurocognitive functions. This morbidity can lead to reduced participation in life activities, as described in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The primary objective of this study was to measure participation in life activities in a population of children and young adults affected by childhood craniopharyngioma, using the LIFE-H questionnaire (Assessment of Life Habits), validated as a social participation measurement tool in various pediatric disabilities. We also describe complications in our population and examined the potential links between tumor characteristics, complications, and participation in life activities.

  15. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

  16. Students participate in JASON Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-02-01

    Students participate in the JASON Project's 2004-05 expedition, `Disappearing Wetlands' at SSC, conducting field lab experiments and watching live broadcasts from JASON Expedition Louisiana research sites.

  17. Characteristic periodicities of collective behavior at the foreign exchange market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.-H.; Hołyst, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    As the result of empirical investigations into the foreign exchange market a group structure of characteristic periodic decisions of market participants is found. In order to explain this finding at the microscopic level the agent-based model of a financial market in which N market participants trade M financial commodities is considered. If different sources of periodic information exist then the relationship among these characteristic periodic behaviors may be associated with a special structure where market participants perceive such information in the foreign exchange market.

  18. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of students' interest in particle physics as effect of participating in a Masterclass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedigk, Kerstin; Pospiech, Gesche

    2016-05-01

    The International Hands On Particle Physics Masterclasses are enjoying increasing popularity worldwide every year. In Germany a national program was brought to live in 2010, which offers these appreciated events to whole classes or courses of high school students all over the year. These events were evaluated concerning the issues of students' interest in particle physics and their perception of the events. How several interest variables interact with each other and the perception of the events is answered by structural equation modelling (sect. 5.2). The results give information about the events' effects on the students' interest development in particle physics, show which event features are important ( e.g. the authenticity) and give information about practical approaches to improve the effects of the Masterclasses. Section 5.3 deals with a group of participants which have a high interest in particle physics 6-8 weeks after the participation. The number of these students is remarkable large, with 26% of all participants. The investigation of this group shows that the Masterclass participation has the same positive effect on both sexes and all levels of physics education.

  20. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  1. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  2. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  3. Future Participants in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimene, Davice G.

    To establish a procedure for use in examining characteristics of future participants in adult education, a study focused on one characteristic--the highest level of education completed among participants in adult education activities. The process followed was to obtain reports from the National Center for Education Statitstics (NCES) (an official…

  4. Fiscal Management Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document is the participant's guide for fiscal management training for administrators managing an institution's Title IV program funds. The workshop is designed to prepare participants to understand an institution's responsibilities with regard to Title IV. It describes the recordkeeping requirements of the Title IV program and the accounting…

  5. Employers' concerns regarding research participation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alicia M; Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime R; Venditti, Pat; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2008-01-01

    Occupational health research depends on the cooperation and participation of employers. The authors describe employers' reasons for non-participation in a prospective study examining risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the usefulness of preplacement, post-offer nerve conduction screening. Companies were contacted to solicit participation. Non-participation explanations were reviewed. Of 73 eligible employers, 58 declined participation (participation rate: 20.5%). Reasons for non-participation included lack of interest (32.8%), liability concerns (awareness of CTS may increase workers' compensation claims) (22.4%), time constraints (19%), lack of direct benefit to the employer (8.6%), and company policy restraints (6.9%). Data from one employer were reviewed to determine whether workers' compensation claims for upper extremity disorders increased as a result of study participation. Claim rates showed no change in trend pre- and post-study inception. Expanding much-needed research to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses requires addressing employers' concerns and promoting research benefits.

  6. Educational Participation and Inmate Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahm, Karen F.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of extant literature on correctional education focuses on the relationship between program participation and recidivism while ignoring the possible relationship between educational program participation and inmate misconduct. The present study sought to fill in this gap in the literature by investigating the effect of several types of…

  7. Who Benefits from Participative Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to explore the moderating role of teachers' personality traits from the Big Five typology on the relationship between participative management and teacher outcomes with respect to performance, satisfaction and strain. The study suggests that participative management may produce different results depending on teachers'…

  8. Nutrition and Food Participation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ellen Williams

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the nutritional consequences of participation in food assistance programs, specifically the impact of these programs on the diets of African American households. Findings indicate that, although participants have better quality diets than nonparticipants, these diets are inadequate when compared to accepted dietary standards. Suggests…

  9. What does consistent participation in 401(k) plans generate?

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis

    2009-07-01

    EBRI/ICI 401(K) DATABASE: The annual EBRI/ICI 401(k) database update report is based on large cross-sections of 401(k) plan participants. Whereas the cross-sections cover participants with a wide range of participation experience in 401(k) plans, meaningful analysis of the potential for 401(k) participants to accumulate retirement assets over time must examine how a consistent group of participants' accounts have performed over the long term. Looking at consistent participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database over the eight-year period from 1999 to 2007: The average 401(k) account balance increased at an annual growth rate of 9.5 percent over the period, to $137,430 at year-end 2007. The median 401(k) account balance (half above, half below) increased at an annual growth rate of 15.2 percent over the period, to $76,946 at year-end 2007. ANALYSIS OF A CONSISTENT GROUP OF 401(K) PARTICIPANTS HIGHLIGHTS THE ACCUMULATION POTENTIAL OF 401(K) PLANS. At year-end 2007, the average account balance among consistent participants was double the average account balance among all participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database. The consistent group's median balance was more than four times larger than the median balance across all participants at year-end 2007. YOUNGER PARTICIPANTS OR THOSE WITH SMALLER INITIAL BALANCES EXPERIENCED HIGHER GROWTH IN ACCOUNT BALANCES COMPARED WITH OLDER PARTICIPANTS OR THOSE WITH LARGER INITIAL BALANCES. Among the consistent group, individual participant experience is influenced by three primary factors that impact account balances: contributions, investment returns, and withdrawal and loan activity. For example, the average account balance of participants in their 20s was heavily influenced by the relative size of contributions to the account balances and increased at an average growth rate of 36.0 percent per year between year-end 1999 and year-end 2007. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS TEND TO CONCENTRATE THEIR ACCOUNTS IN EQUITY SECURITIES. The asset

  10. [Sports participation and fair play].

    PubMed

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González-Mesa, Carmen González; Méndez, Javier Montero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether the participation in intermediate contact sports affects the opinions about the behaviors and attitudes of fair play in the sports context and whether these effects are influenced by ego orientation. The participants were high level sportsmen from university and professional basketball and football players (N = 131). They filled in questionnaires to assess their participation in sports, their goal orientations, and their fair play attitudes and behaviors. The analyses of the structural equation model indicated that participation in intermediate contact sports predicted ego orientation; these analyses consecutively predicted low levels of fair play. The direct effects of sports participation in fair play decreased significantly in the presence of ego orientation, indicating that the last construct partially mediates the relation between the first two variables. These discoveries help us to better understand the processes that operate in contact sports. Finally, their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike behaviors are discussed.

  11. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-01-14

    The benefits of preoperative training programmes compared with alternative treatment are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-intensity preoperative resistance training programme in patients waiting for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3) and finally 3 months after TKA (T4). The intervention group completed an 8-week training programme 3 days per week prior to surgery. Isometric knee flexion, isometric hip abduction, VAS, WOMAC, ROM extension and flexion and all the functional assessments were greater for the intervention group at T2, T3 and T4, whereas isometric knee extension was greater for this group at T2 and T4 compared with control. The present study supports the use of preoperative training in end-stage OA patients to improve early postoperative outcomes. High-intensity strength training during the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up recovery after TKA. I.

  12. 20 CFR 641.570 - Is there a time limit for participation in the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its SCSEP project in such a way that the grantee does not exceed an average participation cap for all... extended average participation period of up to 36 months (in the aggregate) for a particular project...

  13. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  14. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Haider; Kothari, Nikhil; Bogra, Jaishri

    2012-01-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of skeletal muscle weakness with associated hypokalemia which is precipitated by stress, cold, carbohydrate load, infection, glucose infusion, hypothermia, metabolic alkalosis, anesthesia, and steroids. We encountered one such incidence of prolonged recovery after general anesthesia, which on further evaluation revealed a case of hypokalemic paralysis. The key to successful management of such a patient was vigilant pre-operative evaluation, perioperative monitoring, and aggressive treatment of hypokalemia when it occurs. PMID:23833504

  15. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  16. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-05

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  17. Multifunctional periodic cellular metals.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Haydn N G

    2006-01-15

    Periodic cellular metals with honeycomb and corrugated topologies are widely used for the cores of light weight sandwich panel structures. Honeycombs have closed cell pores and are well suited for thermal protection while also providing efficient load support. Corrugated core structures provide less efficient and highly anisotropic load support, but enable cross flow heat exchange opportunities because their pores are continuous in one direction. Recent advances in topology design and fabrication have led to the emergence of lattice truss structures with open cell structures. These three classes of periodic cellular metals can now be fabricated from a wide variety of structural alloys. Many topologies are found to provide adequate stiffness and strength for structural load support when configured as the cores of sandwich panels. Sandwich panels with core relative densities of 2-10% and cell sizes in the millimetre range are being assessed for use as multifunctional structures. The open, three-dimensional interconnected pore networks of lattice truss topologies provide opportunities for simultaneously supporting high stresses while also enabling cross flow heat exchange. These highly compressible structures also provide opportunities for the mitigation of high intensity dynamic loads created by impacts and shock waves in air or water. By filling the voids with polymers and hard ceramics, these structures have also been found to offer significant resistance to penetration by projectiles.

  18. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  19. Advancing the measurement of participation.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Bogner, Jennifer A; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-04-01

    The authors of 3 articles in this issue have collaborated in an effort to advance the conceptualization and measurement of participation. These articles offer (1) a new tool for measuring participation, the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O), which combines items from widely used instruments in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation research; (2) 2 methods of scoring 17 items of PART-O, assessing relatively objective social role performance and yielding 3 subscale scores, as well as 2 alternative total scores (including 1 incorporating the concept of balance among types of participation), and (3) 19 enfranchisement items assessing the degree to which people with disability perceive they have the freedom to engage in social roles of their choosing while being accepted and valued by others. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Experience in Participant Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bettie S.

    1975-01-01

    The conflict in participant observation is between the nurse as observer and the nurse as care provider. For nursing, the gains are descriptive, theory-generating data; for the nurse researcher, a heightened awareness of the human condition. (Author)

  1. Attitudes toward Potential Participant Registries.

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Holbrook, Andrew; Pierce, Aimee; Hoang, Dan; Gillen, Daniel L

    2017-01-01

    Difficult participant recruitment is a consistent barrier to successful medical research. Potential participant registries represent an increasingly common intervention to overcome this barrier. A variety of models for registries exist, but few data are available to instruct their design and implementation. To provide such data, we surveyed 110 cognitively normal research participants enrolled in a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. Seventy-four (67%) individuals participated in the study. Most (78%, CI: 0.67, 0.87) participants were likely to enroll in a registry. Willingness to participate was reduced for registries that required enrollment through the Internet using a password (26%, CI: 0.16, 0.36) or through email (38%, CI: 0.27, 0.49). Respondents acknowledged their expectations that researchers share information about their health and risk for disease and their concerns that their data could be shared with for-profit companies. We found no difference in respondent preferences for registries that shared contact information with researchers, compared to honest broker models that take extra precautions to protect registrant confidentiality (28% versus 30%; p = 0.46). Compared to those preferring a shared information model, respondents who preferred the honest broker model or who lacked model preference voiced increased concerns about sharing registrant data, especially with for-profit organizations. These results suggest that the design of potential participant registries may impact the population enrolled, and hence the population that will eventually be enrolled in clinical studies. Investigators operating registries may need to offer particular assurances about data security to maximize registry enrollment but also must carefully manage participant expectations.

  2. Periodized Nutrition for Athletes.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2017-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss the literature in great detail but to clearly define the concept and to give a complete overview of the methods available, with an emphasis on adaptations that are not in the muscle. Whilst there is good evidence for some methods, other proposed methods are mere theories that remain to be tested. 'Periodized nutrition' refers to the strategic combined use of exercise training and nutrition, or nutrition only, with the overall aim to obtain adaptations that support exercise performance. The term nutritional training is sometimes used to describe the same methods and these terms can be used interchangeably. In this review, an overview is given of some of the most common methods of periodized nutrition including 'training low' and 'training high', and training with low- and high-carbohydrate availability, respectively. 'Training low' in particular has received considerable attention and several variations of 'train low' have been proposed. 'Training-low' studies have generally

  3. Buckling of periodic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Equations are developed for the buckling of a general lattice structure that has repetitive geometry. Equilibrium at a typical node is expressed using finite element techniques, and the only assumption is that the response is periodic. By basing the stiffness matrix on the exact solution of the beam column equation, accurate results are obtained for complex buckling behavior that would require a very large system of equations using conventional techniques. The present method requires the eigenvalues of only a 6x6 determinant. The results are used to study the buckling of isogrid cylinders, three-element truss columns and polygonal rings. Details of the analysis including expressions for all terms in the governing stability determinant are given.

  4. When Periodicities Enforce Aperiodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédaride, Nicolas; Fernique, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Non-periodic tilings and local rules are commonly used to model the long range aperiodic order of quasicrystals and the finite-range energetic interactions that stabilize them. This paper focuses on planar rhombus tilings, which are tilings of the Euclidean plane, which can be seen as an approximation of a real plane embedded in a higher dimensional space. Our main result is a characterization of the existence of local rules for such tilings when the embedding space is four-dimensional. The proof is an interplay of algebra and geometry that makes use of the rational dependencies between the coordinates of the embedded plane. We also apply this result to some cases in a higher dimensional embedding space, notably tilings with n-fold rotational symmetry.

  5. Periodically driven holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Jia; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2013-07-01

    As a first step towards our holographic investigation of the far-from-equilibrium physics of periodically driven systems at strong coupling, we explore the real time dynamics of holographic superconductor driven by a monochromatically alternating electric field with various frequencies. As a result, our holographic superconductor is driven to the final oscillating state, where the condensate is suppressed and the oscillation frequency is controlled by twice of the driving frequency. In particular, in the large frequency limit, the three distinct channels towards the final steady state are found, namely under damped to superconducting phase, over damped to superconducting and normal phase, which can be captured essentially by the low lying spectrum of quasi-normal modes in the time averaged approximation, reminiscent of the effective field theory perspective.

  6. Immune responses, upper respiratory illness symptoms, and load changes in young athletes during the preparatory period of the training periodization

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Borin, João Paulo; Rodrigues, Ariel; Bonganha, Valéria; Prestes, Jonato; Montagner, Paulo César; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological responses and the association between variation in exercise load and self-reported occurrence of upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms in young basketball athletes. Materials and methods The sample was composed of twelve young male athletes aged 12.7 ± 0.6 years, with a height of 170 ± 10 cm, body mass of 57.6 ± 12.6 kg, and fat-free mass of 18.7 ± 5.9%. Daily training and occurrences of URI symptoms were recorded. Blood samples were collected at baseline (M1) and after 8 weeks (M2) of the preparatory period of periodization training to measure total and differential leukocyte counts, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results There was a significant decrease in monocytes at M2 compared to M1 (P = 0.004). There were no significant alterations in total leukocytes (P = 0.07), neutrophils (P = 0.07), or lymphocytes (P = 0.09). No significant changes in plasma concentrations of TNF-α (P = 0.30) or IL-6 (P = 0.90) were found. The weekly load from week 6 was higher when compared with weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 (P < 0.05), and week 8 was the lowest when compared with week 5 (P < 0.05). Self-reported URI incidences were highest at weeks 1 and 2. Conclusion Variations in weekly training load during the preparatory period were not correlated with changes in self-reported occurrence of URI incidences, suggesting that young athletes may have an attenuated response to exercise-induced perturbations to the immune system. PMID:24198586

  7. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  8. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  9. Participating in sport and music activities in adolescence: the role of activity participation and motivational beliefs during elementary school.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Vest, Andrea E; Becnel, Jennifer N

    2010-11-01

    This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year period in elementary school predict adolescents' participation through their motivational beliefs. Specifically, children who participated in an activity, children who participated consistently across multiple years, and children who were highly active had higher adolescent motivational beliefs 4 years later than their peers. These motivational beliefs, in turn, positively predicted adolescents' participation 1 year later. Cross-domain analyses suggest that children typically maintain their orientation toward sports and music (e.g., high music-low sport orientation, not oriented toward either domain) as they age. These findings highlight the consistency in children's leisure pursuits and interests from childhood through adolescence.

  10. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  11. Periodically kicked hard oscillators.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, G. A.; Gonzalez, D. L.; Magnasco, M. O.; Mindlin, G. B.; Piro, O.; Santillan, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    A model of a hard oscillator with analytic solution is presented. Its behavior under periodic kicking, for which a closed form stroboscopic map can be obtained, is studied. It is shown that the general structure of such an oscillator includes four distinct regions; the outer two regions correspond to very small or very large amplitude of the external force and match the corresponding regions in soft oscillators (invertible degree one and degree zero circle maps, respectively). There are two new regions for intermediate amplitude of the forcing. Region 3 corresponds to moderate high forcing, and is intrinsic to hard oscillators; it is characterized by discontinuous circle maps with a flat segment. Region 2 (low moderate forcing) has a certain resemblance to a similar region in soft oscillators (noninvertible degree one circle maps); however, the limit set of the dynamics in this region is not a circle, but a branched manifold, obtained as the tangent union of a circle and an interval; the topological structure of this object is generated by the finite size of the repelling set, and is therefore also intrinsic to hard oscillators.

  12. Participants' responsibilities in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enroll in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one's self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements.

  13. Seasonal variation in sports participation.

    PubMed

    Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim

    2017-04-20

    This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.

  14. To Participate or Not to Participate: That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Stone, Margaret R.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in issues pertaining to how a young person chooses to participate (or not) in youth programs, both school based (for example, sports, drama, yearbook) and community based (for example, Boys and Girls Clubs, Scouts, 4-H, sports, faith-based programs). Scholars, youth workers, policymakers, national organizations,…

  15. To Participate or Not to Participate: That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Stone, Margaret R.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in issues pertaining to how a young person chooses to participate (or not) in youth programs, both school based (for example, sports, drama, yearbook) and community based (for example, Boys and Girls Clubs, Scouts, 4-H, sports, faith-based programs). Scholars, youth workers, policymakers, national organizations,…

  16. General parental education in Sweden: participants and non-participants.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Christer; Petersson, Kerstin; Håkansson, Anders

    2003-03-01

    To study factors of importance for participation in parental education within routine child health care. All parents of children born during 1 year were invited by the district nurse to participate in parental education; their participation during the infant year was registered. Catchment area of two health centres in Växjö, Sweden. 221 infants and their parents. Number of educational sessions for mothers and fathers. 63% of mothers and 20% of fathers attended at least one session. These mothers attended a mean of 5.7 (SD 2.2) sessions and these fathers a mean of 2.8 (SD 2.3) sessions. Logistic regression analyses showed that the only variable of significance for participation was being a first-time parent (odds ratio 3.9 for the mothers and 3.7 for the fathers). Odds ratios above 2.0 (non-significant) were found for married mothers and Swedish mothers, as well as for Swedish fathers. It is still a considerable problem to get certain groups involved in routine parental education in Swedish child healthcare programmes.

  17. The Motivational Effects of Participation Versus Goal Setting on Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    The manipulation ~.J. 14 checks consisted of questionaire items administered at the end of the work session. To assess the effectiveness of the goal...AD-A129 368 THE MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION VERSUS GOAL / SETTING ON PERFORMA..(U) WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS...aM.IMf$CTLGNMC GS-13 QOV ACE f ATLGNM 4. TITLE (and Subtlej r.at Of REPORT & PERIOD covCmuO THE MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION Technical Report

  18. Any indication for bias due to participation? Comparison of the effects of a parent management training rated by participating and non-participating parents.

    PubMed

    Hautmann, Christopher; Hoijtink, Herbert; Eichelberger, Ilka; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Hanisch, Charlotte; Plück, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Ratings of parents that have participated in a parent training for child externalizing behaviour problems might be biased (e.g., they may report symptom reduction to reward their own endeavours for attending the training). The potential for bias in parent ratings was investigated in a secondary analysis of an effectiveness study of a parent management training for children (aged 3-10 years) with externalizing behaviour problems under routine care conditions. For the 56 families included in the current analysis, we compared the ratings of training participants (predominately mothers) and training non-participants (predominately fathers). A 3-month waiting period prior to treatment served as the control condition. Outcome measures were attention problems and conduct problems of the children and perceived parental self-efficacy rated by both the mothers and fathers. Child attention problems and conduct problems both decreased significantly during the treatment period for participating and non-participating parents, and the changes in ratings during treatment were of a similar magnitude for participants compared with non-participants. Taking into account the methodological limitations of the current analysis, no indication was found that treatment effects are strongly biased due to participation in the training. Previous positive findings of mothers' and fathers' ratings on parent management training for children with externalizing problem behaviour have mostly come from parents who also attended the training. For child behavioural problems, the results of the current analysis demonstrate similar perceived changes by parents who did and did not participate in the training. Our findings underscore the relevance and importance of parent ratings for treatment evaluation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Entrofy: Participant Selection Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Selection participants for a workshop out of a much larger applicant pool can be a difficult task, especially when the goal is diversifying over a range of criteria (e.g. academic seniority, research field, skill levels, gender etc). In this talk I am presenting our tool, Entrofy, aimed at aiding organizers in this task. Entrofy is an open-source tool using a maximum entropy-based algorithm that aims to select a set of participants out of the applicant pool such that a pre-defined range of criteria are globally maximized. This approach allows for a potentially more transparent and less biased selection process while encouraging organizers to think deeply about the goals and the process of their participant selection.

  20. Research participation as a contract.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Craig

    1995-01-01

    In this article, I present a contractualist conception of human-participant research ethics, arguing that the most appropriate source of the rights and responsibilities of researcher and participant is the contractual understanding between them. This conception appears to explain many of the more fundamental ethical incidents of human-participant research. I argue that a system of contractual rights and responsibilities would allow a great deal of research that has often been felt to be ethically problematic, such as research involving deception, concealed research, and research on dependent populations. However, in defining the conditions under which such research should be permissible, my contractualist theory also makes it clear that there are limits -- and explains what those limits are -- to the propriety of such research.

  1. 42 CFR 485.641 - Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of patients served and the volume of services; (ii) A representative sample of both active and closed... and of the treatment outcomes. The program requires that— (1) All patient care services and other services affecting patient health and safety, are evaluated; (2) Nosocomial infections and...

  2. 42 CFR 485.641 - Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of patients served and the volume of services; (ii) A representative sample of both active and closed... and of the treatment outcomes. The program requires that— (1) All patient care services and other services affecting patient health and safety, are evaluated; (2) Nosocomial infections and...

  3. 42 CFR 485.641 - Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... member of the CAH staff who is a doctor of medicine or osteopathy or by another doctor of medicine or osteopathy under contract with the CAH; (4) The quality and appropriateness of the diagnosis and treatment furnished by doctors of medicine or osteopathy at the CAH are evaluated by— (i) One hospital that is...

  4. 32 CFR 37.665 - Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to § 37.635(a). (a) 32 CFR 33.26 for State and local governments; and (b) 32 CFR 32.26 for other...-operated (GOCO) facilities and Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) that are excluded...

  5. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  6. Periodicity-dependent stiffness of periodic hydrophilic-hydrophobic heteropolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Strey, Reinhard

    1999-08-01

    From extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a Larson model of perfectly periodic heteropolymers (PHP) in water, a striking stiffening is observed as the period of the alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks is shortened. At short period and low temperature needlelike conformations are the stable conformations. As temperature is increased thermal fluctuations induce kinks and bends. At large periods compact oligomeric globules are observed. From the generalized Larson prescription, originally developed for modeling surfactant molecules in aqueous solutions, we find that the shorter the period is the more stretched the PHP is. This novel effect is expected to stimulate polymer synthesis and trigger research on the rheology of aqueous periodic heteropolymer solutions.

  7. Children's Participation at Junior Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Otter, Annica, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes of Swedish junior high students concerning student participation in deciding matters that affect them. Over 100 students and their teachers were interviewed, class committees and school meetings were observed, and the students completed a short questionnaire. To illustrate the pitfalls that a study of pupils'…

  8. A Rationale for Participant Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boody, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    There are many different models or approaches to doing program evaluation. Fitzpatrick, Sanders, and Worthen classify them into five general approaches: (a) objectives oriented, (b) management oriented, (c) consumer oriented, (d) expertise oriented, and (e) participant oriented. Within each of these general categories, of course, reside many…

  9. Youth Participation in Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Roshani

    Frequently, adults organize and implement youth projects without involving youth in the process. However, youth should be involved in problem identification and program design because they understand the needs of their peers and how to reach them effectively. This paper examines youth participation as a process for bringing about effective youth…

  10. Participants' Reactions to Computerized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Kim C.; Johnson, Marilyn F.

    This study investigated participants' reactions to computerized testing and assessed the practicability of this testing method in the classroom. A sample of 315 secondary-level students took a computerized and a printed version of a standardized aptitude test battery and a survey assessing their reactions to the computerized testing. Overall…

  11. Citizen Participation in Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.; Sferra, Bobbie A.

    This handbook for parents defines and describes the process of citizen participation in educational decision making. After describing the history of citizen involvement, the booklet answers questions regarding why and how community members can become involved in policy formation. Problems in participatory decision making and strategies for…

  12. Students Participate in Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jimmie Nell

    1997-01-01

    The Agricultural Research Service provides "hands-on" work experience in a research laboratory to college students interested in agriculture, science, math, and other related fields. Three Native American college students describe how participating in this summer intern program has helped them pursue their educational goals. (TD)

  13. Employee Participation: Some Australian Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansbury, Russell D.; Davis, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey of 2,353 companies showed sporadic employee participation in decision making. Although case studies of Ford Motor, Australia Post, Lend Lease, Telecom Australia, and Woodlawn Mining illustrate successful programs, most managers appear cautious about industrial democracy. (SK)

  14. Student Motivation and Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert C.; Bertoch, Sara Cummings

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between goal instability and participation in a career planning program (course) using the goal instability scale (GIS) and a completed course performance contract. Specifically, this study addressed the following question: What is the relationship between motivation, as measured by goal instability,…

  15. Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Archon

    2006-01-01

    Every month in every neighborhood in Chicago, residents, teachers, school principals, and police officers gather to deliberate about how to improve their schools and make their streets safer. Residents of poor neighborhoods participate as much or more as those from wealthy ones. All voices are heard. Since the meetings began more than a dozen…

  16. Information Technology and Citizen Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    This paper explores the claims of technology's ability to enhance citizen participation, with particular attention focused on the Internet. The claims are grounded within the larger context of political theory, specifically the tension between representative and direct forms of democracy. Sections of the paper are: Introduction; "What's Wrong with…

  17. Training Alcoholism Trainers. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook is to be used in conjunction with the Trainer Manual entitled Training Alcoholism Trainers. The program was developed to upgrade training design and delivery skills of inservice trainers in the field of alcoholism. The workbook contains all the handout sheets necessary for participant sessions. (Author/BMW)

  18. Women's Participation in American Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Leona

    Women's participation in sport is emphasized in this historical, philosophical, and sociological sketch of sport and physical recreation activities. Various sports are traced from the time of George Washington up through the present noting cultural influences that affected their development. Under the heading "Past Events," American Indian women,…

  19. Road to Reconciliation: Participant's Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This workbook is intended to assist schools that participate in the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program gain the necessary skills to reconcile their loan records with U.S. Department of Education data each month. After an introduction that offers general information, establishes course goals and objectives, and sets out the course agenda, the…

  20. Ethnicity and Nonelectoral Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrinkle, Robert D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes data from the Latino National Political Survey to examine whether nonelectoral political participation by Latino subgroups (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans) can be explained on the basis of culture, socioeconomic status, or mobilization (political activism). Mobilization offered the strongest explanation for…

  1. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  2. Strategic Planning: A Participative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Don; Jonas, Peter M.

    This paper describes a participative model of strategic planning for use by higher education institutions. First it reviews five principles or assumptions of a participatory model: the person doing the job is the expert; that which is strategic must be validated by the operation; accountability, authority, and information are always equal and…

  3. Citizen Participation: Antagonists or Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.

    1976-01-01

    If participation does not include an openness to the issues that are of real concern to the community and an opportunity to influence policy relating to those issues, it becomes an empty public relations gesture fostering apathy, disinterest, resistance, or counter-organization. (MB)

  4. Choosing to Participate: Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Phyllis; Strom, Adam

    2009-01-01

    "Choosing to Participate" focuses on civic choices--the decisions people make about themselves and others in their community, nation, and world. The choices people make, both large and small, may not seem important at the time, but little by little they shape them as individuals and responsible global citizens. "Choosing to…

  5. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  6. Citizen Participation in Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.; Sferra, Bobbie A.

    This handbook for parents defines and describes the process of citizen participation in educational decision making. After describing the history of citizen involvement, the booklet answers questions regarding why and how community members can become involved in policy formation. Problems in participatory decision making and strategies for…

  7. Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czekanski, Kathleen E.; Wolf, Zane Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Many faculty interpret student responses to faculty questions as evidence of an actively engaged classroom. Because of this conviction, class participation, whether graded or ungraded, appears in many course syllabi in colleges and universities and is often promoted as the responsibility of students to contribute to the learning environment. Class…

  8. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-6 - Amendment of break in service rules; Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participation is disregarded for purposes of determining his rights to participate in the plan, if under such rules such service is disregarded by reason of the employee's failure to complete a required period of...

  9. Persistence in periodic and almost periodic Lotka-Volterra systems.

    PubMed

    Gopalsamy, K

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a strongly self-regulating (or resource limited) Lotka-Volterra population system can "persist" in a periodic or almost periodic environment if and only if the system tracks the environmental variations.

  10. Adjunctive immunotherapy with α-crystallin based DNA vaccination reduces Tuberculosis chemotherapy period in chronically infected mice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Priyanka; Jain, Ruchi; Dey, Bappaditya; Tyagi, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    By employing modified Cornell model, we have evaluated the potential of adjunctive immunotherapy with DNA vaccines to shorten the tuberculosis chemotherapy period and reduce disease reactivation. We demonstrate that α-crystallin based DNA vaccine (DNAacr) significantly reduced the chemotherapy period from 12 weeks to 8 weeks when compared with the chemotherapy alone. Immunotherapy with SodA based DNA vaccine (DNAsod) reduced the pulmonary bacilli only as much as DNAvec. Both DNAacr and DNAsod, although significantly delayed the reactivation in comparison to the chemotherapy alone, this delay was associated with the immunostimulatory sequences present in the vector backbone and was not antigen specific. Both DNA vaccines resulted in the production of significantly higher number of TEM cells than the chemotherapy alone, however, only in the case of DNAsod, this enhancement was significant over the DNAvec treatment. Overall, our findings emphasize the immunotherapeutic potential of DNAacr in shortening the duration of TB chemotherapy.

  11. Can Lay Community Advisors Improve the Clarity of Research Participant Recruitment Materials and Increase the Likelihood of Participation?

    PubMed

    Bowers, Barbara; Jacobson, Nora; Krupp, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Despite decades of effort, lower income people and ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented as participants in health research. A group of racially and ethnically diverse, lower income community members (Community Advisors on Research Design and Strategies: CARDS®) was trained to review study designs and procedures and provide recommendations to researchers for increasing participation and making research materials more understandable to members of underrepresented communities. In this mixed methods study, one participant group (n = 55) was shown research materials (recruitment documents and a consent form) developed by a research team and approved by the local IRB. A second group (n = 45) was shown the same materials after they had also been reviewed and revised by CARDS. Interviews, which included both fixed-response and open-ended questions, were used to assess reactions of participants in both groups to the materials, including their hypothetical willingness to volunteer for the research described. Group differences were examined using the Chi-square distribution test. Proportional difference effect sizes were estimated using arcsine transformation. The qualitative data were subjected to conventional content analysis. Participants in the group shown the recruitment materials revised by CARDS were more likely to say they understood the documents, more likely to ask for more information about the study, and more likely to say they would participate in the research. Results of content analysis suggested a four-phase sequential process for deciding whether to participate in the research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... data for Presort First-Class Mail, and End-to-End Periodicals. Request at 1. The Request includes... Standard Mail, Outside County Periodicals, non-retail Media Mail, Library Mail, Bound Printed Matter...

  13. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  14. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  15. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  16. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-02-08

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity--very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions.

  17. Participation and performance trends in ultracycling

    PubMed Central

    Shoak, Mohannad Abou; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends have been investigated in ultramarathons and ultratriathlons but not in ultracycling. The aim of the present study was to investigate (1) participation and performance trends in ultraendurance cyclists, (2) changes in cycling speed over the years, and (3) the age of the fastest male and female ultraendurance cyclists. Methods Participation and performance trends in the 5000 km Race Across America (RAAM) and in two RAAM-qualifier races – the 818 km Furnace Creek 508 in the United States and the 715 km Swiss Cycling Marathon in Europe – were investigated using linear regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results On average, ~41% of participants did not finish either the RAAM or the Furnace Creek 508, whereas ~26% did not finish the Swiss Cycling Marathon. Female finishers accounted for ~11% in both the RAAM and the Furnace Creek 508 but only ~3% in the Swiss Cycling Marathon. The mean cycling speed of all finishers remained unchanged during the studied periods. The winner’s average speed was faster for men than for women in the RAAM (22.6 ± 1.1 km · h−1 versus 18.4 ± 1.7 km · h−1, respectively; average speed difference between male and female winners, 25.0% ± 11.9%), the Swiss Cycling Marathon (30.8 ± 0.8 km · h−1 versus 24.4 ± 1.9 km · h−1, respectively; average speed difference between male and female winners, 27.8% ± 9.4%), and the Furnace Creek 508 (27.4 ± 1.6 km · h−1 versus 23.4 ± 3.0 km · h−1, respectively; average speed difference between male and female winners, 18.4% ± 13.9%). In both the Furnace Creek 508 and the Swiss Cycling Marathon, ~46% of the finishers were aged between 35 and 49 years. The mean age of winners, both male and female, across the years in the Furnace Creek 508 and in the Swiss Cycling Marathon was 37 ± 10 years. Conclusion These findings in ultracycling races showed that (1) ~26%–40% of starters were unable to finish, (2) the percentage of female

  18. Student teacher training: participant motivation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Teaching, assessment and feedback skills are documented globally as required graduate attributes for medical students. By integrating teacher training into curricula, the importance of teaching and educational scholarship is highlighted. In this study, we used self-determination theory (SDT) to consider medical students' motivation to voluntarily participate in a short teacher training programme. Thirty-eight senior medical students were invited to attend a teacher training programme at a major tertiary teaching hospital. Participating students were asked to respond to one question: 'Why did you volunteer to take part in the teacher training course?' Self-determination theory was used as a conceptual framework to identify and code recurrent themes in the data. In total, 23/38 (61%) of invited students chose to participate in the programme, and 21/23 (91%) of the students responded to the survey. Students' motivation to participate in the teacher training programme were related to: (1) autonomy - their enjoyment of their current voluntary involvement in teaching; (2) competence - a recognition of the need for formal training and certification in teaching, and as an essential part of their future career in medicine; (3) relatedness - the joint recognition of the importance of quality in teaching, as emphasised by their own learning experiences in the medical programme. Students reported being motivated to take part in teacher training because of their enjoyment of teaching, their desire to increase the quality of teaching within medical education, their desire for formal recognition of teaching as a learned skill, plus their recognition of teaching as a requirement within the medical profession. By integrating teacher training into curricula, the importance of teaching and educational scholarship is highlighted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. NITARP: Effects on Student Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Odden, Caroline; Hall, Garrison; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    NITARP (NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program) is a teacher mentorship program designed to give educators experiences in authentic research in the area of astronomy. While the main focus of the program is aimed at giving educators experience working with and publishing scientific research, teachers are encouraged to involve students with the experience. NITARP funds up to two students to travel along with the educator while allowing an additional two students to attend but with no additional financial assistance. Teachers are welcome to have more student participants but no more than 4 may travel with the teacher to Caltech and the AAS meeting. Given that the focus of the NITARP program is on the educators, little is known about the effects of the program on the student participants other than anecdotal evidence. In order to better understand the impact on the students, we have designed a survey to be administered to past student participants. The survey was constructed with a goal to determine if the NITARP experience had an impact on students' views of science and influenced their educational paths. While the NITARP project has assembled some evidence of the impact on students, this is the first formal attempt to capture that impact. This poster will present the results of that survey.

  20. Sport Education and Extracurricular Sport Participation: An Examination Using the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhead, Tristan L.; Hagger, Martin; Smith, Derek T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used the trans-contextual model of motivation (TCM) to examine the effect of Sport Education (SE) on students' participation in a voluntary lunch recess sport club. A total of 192 participants (ages 9-14 years) completed measures of the TCM constructs before and after a 12-week SE intervention period. Participants had the…