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Sample records for 8-week study period

  1. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  2. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.56) by 3.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), per cent body fat significantly decreased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.42) by -1.2%, and interleukin-6 and white blood cell (WBC) count both significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by -0.4 pg · mL(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.96) and -2.1 × 10(9) cells · L(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.87), respectively. Large magnitude enhancements were observed in the HRQoL factors of physical functioning, general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. When interpreted in a community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults.

  3. Exercise capacity before and after an 8-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program in lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Janssen, Paul P; Willemsen, Sonja C P; Hochstenbag, Monique M H; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2006-05-01

    Although lung cancer is a highly prevalent type of cancer, the effects of an inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on pulmonary function and exercise capacity have never been studied in these patients. Pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance and peak exercise capacity of 10 patients with a severely impaired pulmonary function following treatment of lung cancer were assessed in this pilot study before and after an 8-week inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. At baseline, patients had a restrictive pulmonary function and an apparent exercise intolerance (median 6-min walking distance: 63.6% predicted; median peak cycling load: 58.5% predicted). Despite the lack of change in median pulmonary function [FEV1: -0.01L, p = 0.5469], functional exercise capacity [145 m; 43.2% of the initial values, p=0.0020] and peak exercise capacity [26 W; 34.4% of the initial values, p = 0.0078] improved significantly compared to baseline. Future trials have to corroborate the present findings. Nevertheless, patients with lung cancer have a clear indication to start a comprehensive rehabilitation program following intensive treatment of their disease. In fact, based on the results of the present pilot study it appears that these patients are good candidates for pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  4. Sertraline and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia: an 8-week, open-label study of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Tang, Yi; Li, Xueli; Liu, Wuhan; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-12-02

    Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may induce or exacerbate rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increase the risk of developing REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). However, most of these studies are retrospective and cross-sectional and employed small sample sizes and a mixture of SSRIs. In this 8-week open-label trial of sertraline in depressed patients (n = 31), depressed patients were administered 50mg sertraline at 8 am on the 1st day and subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200mg/day. All patients underwent repeated video-polysomnography (vPSG) (baseline, 1st day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Both tonic (submental) and phasic (submental and anterior tibialis) RSWA events were visually counted. Tonic RSWA increased from 3.2 ± 1.8% at baseline to 5.1 ± 2.3% on the 1st day and 10.4 ± 2.7% on the 14th day; after that, measurements were stable until the 56th day. A similar profile was observed for phasic RSWA. The increases in tonic RSWA (r = 0.56, P = 0.004) and phasic RSWA (submental: r = -0.51, P = 0.02; anterior tibialis: r = 0.41, P = 0.04) were correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency. All of RSWAs were not correlated with patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Sertraline may induce or exacerbate RSWA. In contrast to idiopathic RBD, sertraline-related RSWA had the specific characteristics of being correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency and no predominance of male sex and elder age, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms. The antidepressant-related RSWA should be a potential public health problem in the depressed patients.

  5. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  6. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. PMID:27660489

  7. A Prospective Study of Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporter Genes and the Response to Desvenlafaxine Over 8 Weeks in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ng, C H; Bousman, C; Smith, D J; Dowling, N; Byron, K; King, J; Sarris, J

    2016-09-01

    No studies to date have evaluated SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 genetic polymorphisms influencing antidepressant response to desvenlafaxine. We conducted an 8-week, open-label, prospective pilot study in 35 patients with major depressive disorder to assess the effects of genetic variations in SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 on both efficacy and side effect profile of desvenlafaxine. Results revealed that homozygotes for the SLC6A4 HTTLPR S allele showed a 33% HDRS reduction compared to a 58% reduction for L allele carriers (p=0.037). No results survived adjustments for covariates or multiple comparisons. While these results need to be interpreted cautiously, they provide preliminary support for the SLC6A4 HTTLPR polymorphism as potential modifier of desvenlafaxine efficacy.

  8. Cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance responses induced by 8 weeks of basic training followed by 8 weeks of specialized military training.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nindl, Bradley C; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in cardiovascular and neuromuscular performances induced by 8 weeks of basic training (BT) period followed by 8 weeks of special training period (STP). Fifty-seven male soldiers (age: 19.2 ± 0.9 years, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 73.8 ± 12.4 kg) volunteered for tests of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal bilateral isometric force of the leg and arm extensor muscles. During the first 8 weeks, VO2peak increased by 5.6% (45.0 ± 8 vs. 48.8 ± 7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), but no further changes were observed during the next 8 weeks (49.1 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Maximal isometric force of the arm and leg extensors increased during the first 8 weeks (arm: 680 ± 182 vs. 774 ± 182 N; leg: 2,584 ± 724 vs. 2,730 ± 823 N) by 3.8% (p < 0.001) and 8.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, with no further increases by week 16 (arm: 718 ± 170 N; leg: 2,679 ± 967 N). Body fat percentage (pre: 10.4 ± 4, post-BT: 9.0 ± 4, post-STP: 9.3 ± 3%), and waist circumference decreased (83.4 ± 10, 80.9 ± 8, 80.8 ± 7 cm) during BT, whereas no changes were noticed thereafter. In conclusion, it was found that physical fitness of conscripts improved significantly during the Finnish military 8-week BT at the beginning of their military service. A plateau in the improvement of physical performance during STP is largely attributed to a lack of continued progression or periodization in their training program. For optimal improvements in physical performance during STP, it might be reasonable to include a structured physical training with greater intensity and training volume with optimal periodization than during BT.

  9. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  10. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  12. Follow up of some anthropometric and ergometric parameters during 8 week resistance training.

    PubMed

    Drapsin, Miodrag; Barak, Otto; Popadié-Gaćesa, Jelena; Klasnja, Aleksandar; Naumović, Nada; Grujić, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Muscle cell adaptation to physical activity is well known. Hypertrophy is one of the basic changes but metabolic changes are following the anatomic ones as well. The aim of the study was to follow up the changes of the ergometric parameters and surface area of the thigh muscles evoked by the heavy resistance strength training. The study included 15 male subjects, who took part in the heavy resistance strength training lasting 8 weeks. Anthropometric (surface area of the thigh muscles) and ergometric (peak power) parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the 8 week period in order to evaluate the changes in the thigh muscles. The surface area of the thigh muscles increased significantly (p < 0.05) (the left leg 9.26 +/- 10.32 cm2 and the right leg 9.07 +/- 0.57 cm2). Metabolic changes were assessed via Wingate test and also showed significant increase (p < 0.05). This finding indirectly indicates the increase in anaerobic capacity of the trained muscles. The heavy resistance training evidently influenced the changes in the trained muscles. After the 8 week period both antropometric and metabolic changes were evident, and significant.

  13. An 8-week Aquatic Exercise Program is Effective at Improving Gait Stability of the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Sung; Roh, Su Yeon; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aquatic exercise on the gait stability of the elderly using dynamic factors: center of mass (COM), velocity of center of mass (COMV), and center of pressure (COP). [Subjects] Eleven elderly participants (age: 77.18 ± 4.96 yrs, height: 149.48 ± 3.61 cm, body mass: 56.94 ± 6.62 kg, and leg length: 82.36 ± 2.98 cm), participated in this study. [Methods] To identify the 8-week aquatic training effect, 3-D motion analysis with 7 infrared cameras and one force plate, was performed. [Results] For the COM-COP inclination angles, significantly decreased medial inclination angles were shown in both the posterior and anterior swing phases. For the COMV-COP inclination angles, decreased medial inclination angles were shown in both the posterior and anterior swing phases, but significant difference was found only in the posterior phase. [Conclusion] The results suggest that 8 weeks aquatic exercise is effective at improving the gait stability of the elderly. Further studies should extend the training period to gain statistically significant results for the effect of aquatic exercise in the anterior-posterior direction. PMID:24396212

  14. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  15. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  16. Scanning electron microscopy study of new bone formation following small and large defects preserved with xenografts supplemented with pamidronate-A pilot study in Fox-Hound dogs at 4 and 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Carrascal, Naroa; Satorres-Nieto, Marta; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Gargallo-Albiol, Jorge; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of SEM and EDX microanalysis on evaluating the effect of porcine xenografts (MP3(®)) supplemented with pamidronate during socket healing. Mandibular second premolars (P2) and first molars (M1) were extracted from six Beagle dogs. P2 were categorized as small defects (SD) and M1 as large defects (LD). Four random groups were created: SC (small control defects with MP3(®)), ST (small test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate), LC (large control defects with MP3(®)), and LT (large test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate). At four and eight weeks of healing the samples were evaluated fisically through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical element mapping was carried out by Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). After four weeks of healing, SEM and EDX analysis revealed more mineralized bone in ST and LT groups compared with control groups (p<0.05). After eight weeks, Ca/P ratios were slightly higher for small defects (groups SC and ST); in SEM description, in both control and test groups, trabecular bone density was similar to the adjacent mineralized cortical bone. Within the limitations of this experimental study, SEM description and EDX elemental microanalysis have demonstrated to be useful techniques to assess bone remodelling of small and large defects. Both techniques show increased bone formation in test groups (MP3(®) modified with pamidronate) after four and eight weeks of healing.

  17. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  18. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention.

  19. Long-term overactivity in the abdominal oblique muscles after 8 weeks bed-rest- possible implications for musculosketletal health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belavy, D. L.; Richardson, C. A.; Wilson, S.; Darnell, R.; Hides, J.; Toppenberg, R.; Elmann-Larsen, B.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D.

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the human lumbo-pelvic (LP) muscles with unloading has received little attention in microgravity research, even though this body region has evolved with the development of upright posture in 1-g. This study used a specific movement task to examine the function of four LP muscles during 8-weeks of bed-rest and one-year follow-up. The main finding was the development of overactivity in the abdominal internal oblique muscle in the follow-up period. This finding implies that the L-P muscle changes occurring during bedrest do not recover on return to the 1-g environment. These results may have implications for musculo-skeletal health for those in sedentary lifestyles on Earth.

  20. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  1. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training.

  2. Effect of 8-week high-intensity stretching training on biceps femoris architecture.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandro R; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have reported no changes on muscle architecture (MA) after static stretching interventions; however, authors have argued that stretching duration and intensity may not have been sufficient. A high-intensity stretching intervention targeting the knee flexors with an 8-week duration was conducted to observe the effects on biceps femoris long head (BF) architecture. Participants (n = 5) performed an average of 3.1 assisted-stretching sessions per week, whereas a control group (n = 5) did not perform stretching. The knee extension passive maximal range of motion (ROM), and BF fascicle length (FL), fascicle angle, and muscle thickness were assessed before and after the intervention. A significant increase was observed for FL (+12.3 mm, p = 0.04) and maximal ROM (+14.2°, p = 0.04) for the stretching group after the intervention. No significant changes were observed for the control group in any parameter. An 8-week high-intensity stretching program was observed to efficiently increase the BF FL, as well as the knee extension maximal ROM. Stretching intensity and duration may play an important role on MA adaptation.

  3. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  4. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  5. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  6. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  7. Impact of the 8-week Administration of Tofogliflozin for Glycemic Control and Body Composition in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Sachie; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Iwahashi, Yasuyuki; Seo, Akane; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Tamori, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The adverse effects of selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors generally appear within about two or three months after treatment initiation in Japan. Therefore, we investigated the impact of tofogliflozin, a class of SGLT2 inhibitors, on glycemic control and body composition during this period in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This single-arm open-label study enrolled 20 patients. Patients received tofogliflozin 20 mg once daily for 8 weeks. At week 8, changes from baseline in body weight, serum metabolic markers, and body composition were evaluated. Results A total of 17 patients completed the 8-week administration of tofogliflodin. No serious adverse events were noted. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) decreased significantly, from 7.8% to 7.3% with 8-week administration of tofogliflozin. Both the body weight and body mass index (BMI) also decreased. In addition, a decreased renal function of the boundary zone and hemoconcentration were detected. As for body composition, the free fat mass, total body water, extracellular water and intracellular water were all decreased significantly. Interestingly, the amount of fat mass did not change. The degree of improvement in HbA1c was correlated with the baseline fat mass and BMI. Conclusion An eight-week administration of tofogliflozin improved glycemic control and reduced the body weight and free fat mass in type 2 diabetic patients without affecting the fat mass. In this period, the hematocrit level and renal function should be monitored to guard against hemoconcentration and renal impairment, respectively. PMID:27853064

  8. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6-8 weeks of age: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, Ann Margaret; Skancke, Ellen Margrete; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-06-23

    Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6-8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 +/- 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6-8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  9. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance. PMID:28149424

  11. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  12. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs・hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs・hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  13. An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

    2014-09-01

    Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.

  14. Efficacy and safety of two fixed-dose combinations of S-amlodipine and telmisartan (CKD-828) versus S-amlodipine monotherapy in patients with hypertension inadequately controlled using S-amlodipine monotherapy: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, Phase III clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Cha, Tae-Joon; Hong, Taek-Jong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Nae-Hee; Yoon, Jung Han; Yoon, Namsik; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Jo, Sang-Ho; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and safety of CKD-828, a fixed-dose combination of S-amlodipine (the more active isomer of amlodipine besylate, which is calcium channel blocker) and telmisartan (long acting angiotensin receptor blocker), in patients with hypertension inadequately controlled with S-amlodipine monotherapy. Patients and methods Eligible patients (N=187) who failed to respond after 4-week S-amlodipine 2.5 mg monotherapy (sitting diastolic blood pressure [sitDBP] ≥90 mmHg) to receive CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (n=63), CKD-828 2.5/80 mg (n=63), or S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (n=61) for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint, mean sitDBP change from baseline to Week 8, was compared between the combination (CKD-828 2.5/40 mg and CKD-828 2.5/80 mg) and S-amlodipine monotherapy groups. The safety was assessed based on adverse events, vital signs, and physical examination findings. Results After the 8-week treatment, changes in sitDBP/systolic BP (SBP) were −9.67±6.50/−12.89±11.78, −10.72±6.19/−13.79±9.41, and −4.93±7.26/−4.55±11.27 mmHg in the CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (P<0.0001/P<0.0001), CKD-828 2.5/80 mg (P<0.0001/P<0.0001), and S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (P<0.0001/P=0.0027) groups, respectively, which were all significant BP reductions. At Week 8, the CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (sitDBP/SBP: P=0.0002/P<0.0001) and CKD-828 2.5/80 mg (sitDBP/SBP: P=0.0001/P<0.0001) showed superior BP-lowering effects to S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (P<0.001). At Week 4, all groups showed significant antihypertensive effects but both CKD-828 combinations (CKD-828 2.5/40 mg and CKD-828 2.5/80 mg) exhibited superior BP-lowering effects to that of S-amlodipine 2.5 mg (sitDBP/SBP: P=0.0028/P=0.0001 and P<0.0001/P=0.0012, respectively). The adverse event incidence was significantly lower in the CKD-828 2.5/40 mg (9.52%, P=0.0086) than in the S-amlodipine 2.5 mg group (27.87%) and increasing the telmisartan dose induced no unexpected adverse events, suggesting the safety of CKD

  15. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  16. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students.

  17. Alterations of Muscular Strength and Left and Right Limb Balance in Weightlifters after an 8-week Balance Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Hwun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Kwi Baek; Lee, Sung Soo; Shin, Ki ok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters' balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes' sport performance. PMID:24259879

  18. Ondansetron or placebo in the augmentation of fluvoxamine response over 8 weeks in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Zarei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed M R; Taghvaei, Rheleh; Maleki, Haleh; Tabrizi, Mina; Fallah, Jalil; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six men and women, aged 18-60 years, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21 were recruited into the study. The patients randomly received either ondansetron (8 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. All patients received fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by 200 mg/day for the rest of the trial. The patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS and the adverse event checklists at baseline, and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth week. Forty-four patients completed the study. The Y-BOCS total score as well as the Y-BOCS obsession subscale score and compulsion subscale score showed significantly greater reduction in the ondansetron group than in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. In this 8-week double-blind randomized-controlled trial, ondansetron showed significant beneficial effect as an augmentative agent with fluvoxamine in patients with moderate to severe OCD and it was generally well tolerated.

  19. Resistance Exercise with concurrent whole body vibration preserves isometric knee extension strength during 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, E. R.; Stegeman, D. F.; Gerrits, K.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D.; de Haan, A.

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle with respect to anatomical cross sectional area (CSA), neural activation level and isometric maximal voluntary torque (MVT) were determined in 18 healthy men subjected to 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest (BR) with (n = 9) and without (Ctrl; n = 9) 6 days/week resistance exercise concurrent with whole body vibration (RVE). For Ctrl, mean QF CSA decreased linearly over time to a reduction of 14.3 ± 4.9% at the end of BR. For RVE, exercise during BR significantly mitigated this reduction (3.9 ± 4.4%). Prior to and seven times during BR, MVT values were obtained together with neural activation levels, the latter by means of a superimposed stimulation technique. MVT was maintained for RVE during BR, whereas for Ctrl, MVT was significantly reduced by 14.2 ± 8.1% after 8 weeks. In contrast to previous reports, the maximal voluntary activation remained unaltered for both groups throughout the study. For Ctrl, the absence of a change in neural activation might be related to the repeated testing during the bed rest, which had presumably resulted in a habituation to the task. When both groups were pooled, a significant positive correlation (R= 0.62; P < 0.01) was observed between changes in CSA and changes in MVT.

  20. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  1. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed.

  2. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  3. Feasibility and Impact of an 8-Week Integrative Yoga Program in People with Moderate Multiple Sclerosis–Related Disability

    PubMed Central

    Kietrys, David; Fogerite, Susan Gould; Silva, Mariella; Logan, Kristen; Barone, Donald A.; Parrott, J. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background: This pilot study determined the feasibility of a specifically designed 8-week yoga program for people with moderate multiple sclerosis (MS)–related disability. We explored the program's effect on quality of life (QOL) and physical and mental performance. Methods: We used a single-group design with repeated measurements at baseline, postintervention, and 8-week follow-up. Feasibility was examined through cost, recruitment, retention, attendance, and safety. Outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI), 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), Timed 25-Foot Walk test (T25FW), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSTS), Multidirectional Reach Test (MDRT), maximum expiratory pressure, and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test-3″ (PASAT-3″). Results: Fourteen participants completed the study. The program was feasible. There were significant main effects on the 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey Mental Component Summary (SF-36 MCS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Bladder Control Scale (BLCS), Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), Mental Health Inventory (MHI), MSWS-12, T25FW, NHPT, PASAT-3″, 6MWT, FTSTS, and MDRT-Back. Improvements were found on the SF-36 MCS, MFIS, BLCS, PDQ, MHI, and MSWS-12 between baseline and postintervention. The effect on PDQ persisted at follow-up. Improvements were found on the T25FW, NHPT, 6MWT, FTSTS, and MDRT-Back between baseline and postintervention that persisted at follow-up. The PASAT-3″ did not change between baseline and postintervention but did between postintervention and follow-up. Conclusions: The yoga program was safe and feasible. Improvements in certain measures of QOL and performance were seen at postintervention and follow-up. PMID:28243184

  4. Medial orbital gyrus modulation during spatial perspective changes: Pre- vs. post-8 weeks mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation exercises the ability to shift to an "observer perspective". That means learning to observe internally and externally arising stimulations in a detached perspective. Both before and after attending a 8-weeks mindfulness training (MT) participants underwent an fMRI experiment (serving as their own internal control) and solved a own-body mental transformation task, which is used to investigate embodiment and perspective taking (and an non-bodily mental transformation task as control). We found a stimulus×time-points interaction: the own-body mental transformation task (vs. non-bodily) in the post (vs. pre-MT) significantly increased activations in the medial orbital gyrus. The signal change in the right medial orbital gyrus significantly correlated with changes in a self-maturity personality scale. A brief MT caused increased activation in areas involved in self related processing and person perspective changes, together with an increase in self-maturity, consistently with the aim of mindfulness meditation that is exercising change in self perspective.

  5. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  6. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    PubMed Central

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001), and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05) was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001), as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01) were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05), and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength

  7. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry.

  8. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  9. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) 5 mg in generalized anxiety disorder: results of an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Anthony J; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Yan, Mingjin; Sheehan, David V

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the current clinical study, conducted in the United States (US), was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 5mg vs placebo in adults with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; HAM-A total score ≥20 and MADRS score ≤16). Subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5mg (n=152) or placebo (n=152) for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using change from baseline in HAM-A total scores after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo, using mixed-model repeated measures (MMRM) analyses. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. A total of 304 subjects were randomized (mean age, 41.2 years). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the reduction in HAM-A total score from baseline between the Vortioxetine (n=145) and placebo (n=145) groups. There were no statistically significant differences in any key secondary efficacy outcome between vortioxetine and placebo. Factors potentially contributing to the differences between the results of this study and those of one of identical design conducted outside the US are discussed. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea, headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. Nausea was more frequently reported in the vortioxetine group (25% vs 4.6% for the placebo group). Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity. In conclusion, in this trial, vortioxetine did not improve symptoms of GAD (compared with placebo) over 8 weeks of treatment. Vortioxetine was well tolerated in this study.

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  11. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  12. The anaerobic endurance of elite soccer players improved after a high-intensity training intervention in the 8-week conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Ruzic, Lana; Leko, Goran

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in anaerobic endurance in elite First-league soccer players throughout 2 consecutive seasons, in 2 phases, with and without high-intensity situational drills. Eighteen soccer players were tested before and after the 8-week summer conditioning and again in the next season. The measured variables included 300-yard shuttle run test, maximal heart rate, and maximal blood lactate at the end of the test. During the first phase of the study, the traditional sprint training was performed only 2 x weeks and consisted of 15 bouts of straight-line sprinting. In the second year the 4 x 4 min drills at an intensity of 90-95% of HRmax, separated by periods of 3-minute technical drills at 55-65% of HRmax were introduced. Statistical significance was set at P study did not elicit an improvement in anaerobic endurance as recorded in the 300-yard shuttle run test. After the intervention, the overall test running time improved significantly (55.74 +/- 1.63 s vs. 56.99 +/- 1.64 s; P < 0.05) with the maximal blood lactate at the end of the test significantly greater (15.4 +/- 1.23 mmol.L vs. 13.5 +/- 1.12 mmol.L. P < 0.01). As a result, this study showed some indication that situational high-intensity task training was more efficient than straight-line sprinting in improving anaerobic endurance measured by the 300-yard shuttle run test.

  13. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  14. An 8-week multimodal treatment program improves symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a real-world multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report outcomes from a 5-year real-world clinical experience with a multimodal treatment program in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients with symptomatic, radiographically confirmed knee OA resistant to traditional conservative treatments underwent a supervised 8-week multimodal treatment program consisting of low-impact aerobic exercise, muscle flexibility exercises, joint mobilization, physical therapy modalities, muscle strengthening and functional training, patient education, and a series of 3 or 5 weekly hyaluronic acid injections. Patients were evaluated at admission, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Patient-reported outcomes included knee pain severity using an 11-point (0–10) numerical scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Results A total of 3,569 patients completed an 8-week treatment course between January 2008 and April 2013 at 66 dedicated treatment centers in the United States. Knee pain severity assessed on a numeric scale decreased 59% on average, from 5.4±2.9 to 2.2±2.2 (P<0.001). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscores decreased by 44% to 51% (all P<0.001) during the 8-week program. The percentage of patients achieving the threshold for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index minimally perceptible clinical improvement was 79% for the Pain subscale, 75% for Function, and 76% for Stiffness. Favorable patient outcomes were reported in all subgroups, regardless of age, sex, body mass index, disease severity, or number of treatment cycles. Discussion A real-world 8-week multimodal treatment program results in clinically meaningful improvements in knee OA symptoms, with excellent generalizability across a broad range of patient characteristics. PMID:27774023

  15. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  16. The effects of a mid-winter 8-week course of sub-sunburn sunbed exposures on tanning, vitamin D status and colds.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, Frank R; Pavel, Stan

    2012-12-01

    Like UV irradiation, which generates vitamin D(3) in the skin, the hormonally active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), boosts innate immunity against viruses and bacteria. Epidemiologic studies have found high vitamin D levels to be associated with lower risk of infections of the upper respiratory tract (colds). We have therefore performed an intervention study in 105 young adults (ages 18-30 years; 91% female) over a mid-winter 8-week period (January-March 2010). The participants were randomised to 3 groups: (A) subjected to 3 times a week sub-sunburn sunbed exposure (n = 35), (B) daily vitamin D supplementation, @ 1000 IU (n = 37), and (C) a control group without any intervention (n = 33). The mean serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dropped from 62 to 55 nmol l(-1) in group C, while these levels rose from 62 to 109 and from 58 to 93 nmol l(-1) in groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.001). The skin on the chest darkened significantly in group A (mean difference in lightness, L*, equalled -5.7, p < 0.001), correlating significantly, but weakly, with increases in 25(OH)D (3.3 nmol l(-1) per unit drop in L*, R(2) = 0.17, p = 0.014). The percentage of self-reported colds with proper signs and symptoms was only slightly and not significantly reduced in groups A and B in comparison to group C: 57 and 51 versus 67%, respectively. Hence, the sub-sunburn sunbed treatment was effective in tanning and increasing the 25(OH)D serum level, more so than 1000 IU per day, but had no appreciable effect on colds.

  17. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  18. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in generalized anxiety disorder: results of an 8-week, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Yan, Mingjin; Sheehan, David V

    2012-12-01

    Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant, with anxiolytic properties observed in preclinical studies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 5mg vs placebo in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Adults with a primary diagnosis of GAD (HAM-A total score ≥20 and MADRS score ≤16) received vortioxetine 5mg or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in HAM-A total scores from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo. Key secondary measurements were HAD anxiety subscore, CGI-I, SDS total score, HAM-A response rates, HAM-A total score for subjects whose baseline HAM-A total score was ≥25, and SF-36 social functioning subscore. HAM-A remission rates were also measured. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. In total, 301 subjects (mean age, 45.2 years; 31% male) were randomized (1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5mg (n=150) or placebo (n=151). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction from baseline in HAM-A total score for the vortioxetine group (-14.30) compared with placebo recipients (-10.49) (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed for all key secondary outcomes favoring vortioxetine treatment (vs placebo), using a mixed model for repeated measurements (MMRM) analysis. Active treatment resulted in a significantly higher rate of remission. Vortioxetine was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related AEs were nausea, headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. In sum, vortioxetine was safe and effective in treating adults with GAD in this multinational population.

  19. The benefits of yoga for rheumatoid arthritis: results of a preliminary, structured 8-week program.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Humeira; Chhabra, Vishwas; Leibman, Cathy; Mofti, Ayman; Kong, Kok Ooi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a bi-weekly Raj yoga program on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. Subjects were recruited from among RA patients in Dubai, United Arab Emirates by email invitations of the RA database. Demographic data, disease activity indices, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), and quality of life (QOL) by SF-36 were documented at enrollment and after completion of 12 sessions of Raj yoga. A total of 47 patients were enrolled: 26 yoga and 21 controls. Baseline demographics were similar in both groups. Patients who underwent yoga had statistically significant improvements in DAS28 and HAQ, but not QOL. Our pilot study of 12 sessions of yoga for RA was able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in RA disease parameters. We believe that a longer duration of treatment could result in more significant improvements.

  20. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  1. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads.

    PubMed

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001), and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05) was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001), as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01) were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05), and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term.

  2. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  3. Motivational Factors Underlying Problem Solving: Comparing Wolf and Dog Puppies' Explorative and Neophobic Behaviors at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikő; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wolves have been shown to be better in independent problem-solving tasks than dogs, however it is unclear whether cognitive or motivational factors underlie such differences. In a number of species problem solving has been linked to both persistence in exploration and neophobia, suggesting both these aspects may underlie dog-wolf differences in problem solving. Indeed adult wolves have been shown to be more likely to approach a novel object and more persistent in their investigation of it, but also slower in making contact with it and more fearful of it than dogs. Methods: In the current study we investigated potential differences in equally-raised dogs' and wolves' explorative and neophobic behaviors in a novel environment and with novel objects at 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Results: Results showed that wolves were more persistent in exploring both the environment and the objects than dogs, and this was the case at all ages. There were no differences in the frequency of fear-related behaviors and time spent in proximity to humans. Stress-related behaviors were similarly expressed at 5 and 6 weeks, although wolves showed a higher frequency of such behaviors at 8 weeks. Discussion: Overall, results with puppies confirm those with adult animals: wolves appear to be more explorative than dogs. Such motivational differences need to be taken into account when comparing dogs and wolves in cognitive tasks.

  4. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments.

  5. Motivational Factors Underlying Problem Solving: Comparing Wolf and Dog Puppies' Explorative and Neophobic Behaviors at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikő; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wolves have been shown to be better in independent problem-solving tasks than dogs, however it is unclear whether cognitive or motivational factors underlie such differences. In a number of species problem solving has been linked to both persistence in exploration and neophobia, suggesting both these aspects may underlie dog-wolf differences in problem solving. Indeed adult wolves have been shown to be more likely to approach a novel object and more persistent in their investigation of it, but also slower in making contact with it and more fearful of it than dogs. Methods: In the current study we investigated potential differences in equally-raised dogs' and wolves' explorative and neophobic behaviors in a novel environment and with novel objects at 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Results: Results showed that wolves were more persistent in exploring both the environment and the objects than dogs, and this was the case at all ages. There were no differences in the frequency of fear-related behaviors and time spent in proximity to humans. Stress-related behaviors were similarly expressed at 5 and 6 weeks, although wolves showed a higher frequency of such behaviors at 8 weeks. Discussion: Overall, results with puppies confirm those with adult animals: wolves appear to be more explorative than dogs. Such motivational differences need to be taken into account when comparing dogs and wolves in cognitive tasks. PMID:28232814

  6. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  7. The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Knechtle, Beat; Fenzl, Matthias; Schlegel, Christian; Konrad, Manuela; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls) attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject’s weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001). Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001). The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017) but not in girls (P > 0.05). The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05). Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adjustments of the chronically positive imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure of obese children and adolescents living in obesogenic environments should be addressed in a multisectoral approach. Future research in multicomponent childhood and adolescent weight loss programs should be directed towards a better understanding of the underlying complex dynamics in energy homeostasis which promote weight loss and changes in body composition due to high intensity exercise interventions. PMID:23525602

  8. Effect of daily mixed nutritional supplementation on immune indices in soldiers undertaking an 8-week arduous training programme.

    PubMed

    Diment, Bethany C; Fortes, Matthew B; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Costa, Ricardo J S; Walters, Robert; Walsh, Neil P

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of a daily mixed nutritional supplement during an 8-week arduous training programme on immune indices and mediators including circulating leucocyte counts; bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation; interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol and saliva secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA). Thirty men (mean (SD): age 25 (3) years; body mass, 80.9 (7.7) kg) received a habitual diet (CON, n = 15) or received a habitual diet plus an additional food supplement (SUP, n = 15). From weeks 0-6, CON received 14.0 MJ day(-1) and SUP received 19.7 MJ day(-1), and during a final 2-week field exercise in weeks 7 and 8, CON received 17.7 MJ day(-1) and SUP received 21.3 MJ day(-1). Blood and saliva were taken at rest after an overnight fast at weeks 0, 6 and 8. Body mass loss over the 8 weeks was greater in CON (CON, 5.0 (2.3); SUP, 1.6 (1.5) kg: P < 0.001). Training-induced decreases in circulating total leucocytes (CON: weeks 0, 8.0 (2.1); weeks 8, 6.5 (1.6) 10(9) l(-1), P < 0.01), lymphocytes (21%, P < 0.01) and monocytes (20%, P < 0.01) were prevented by the nutritional supplement. Saliva SIgA secretion rate increased approximately twofold by week 8 in SUP (P < 0.01) and was greater at week 8 compared with CON (P < 0.01). Circulating neutrophils, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, IL-6 and cortisol were similar in CON and SUP at week 8. In conclusion, a daily mixed nutritional supplement prevented the decrease in circulating total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes and increased saliva SIgA output during an 8-week arduous training programme. The increase in saliva SIgA with nutritional supplementation during training may reduce susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

  9. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  10. Effects of an 8-week meditation program on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward religious/spiritual self-representations.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Campanella, Fabio; Eleopra, Roberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-11-01

    Explicit self-representations often conflict with implicit and intuitive self-representations, with such discrepancies being seen as a source of psychological tension. Most of previous research on the psychological effects of mindfulness-meditation has assessed people's self-attitudes at an explicit level, leaving unknown whether mindfulness-meditation promotes changes on implicit self-representations. Here, we assessed the changes in implicit and explicit self-related religious/spiritual (RS) representations in healthy participants following an 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation (MOM) program. Before and after meditation, participants were administered implicit (implicit association test) and explicit (self-reported questionnaires) RS measures. Relative to control condition, MOM led to increases of implicit RS in individuals whit low pre-existing implicit RS and to more widespread increases in explicit RS. On the assumption that MOM practice may enhance the clarity of one's transcendental thoughts and feelings, we argued that MOM allows people to transform their intuitive feelings of implicit RS as well as their explicit RS attitudes.

  11. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  12. MR LLRF VXI upgrade beam study period

    SciTech Connect

    Mesiner, K.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    AD/RFI/LLRF group personnel performed several studies with the MR LLRF VXI upgrade system during the evening of 7/29/95. The study period lasted about 4 hours. The MR operating conditions were a mixture of $29 and $2B cycles, with beam injected only on the $29. The author believes the $2B cycles were present for reasons unrelated to the study. The basic study period goal was to test the initial VXI version of MR LLRF finite state machine (FSM) execution. This goal represents what has been called MR LLRF VXI Upgrade Implementation Stage No.2 throughout presentations and documentation on the upgrade project. The test includes control of MR LLRF NIM hardware, the MR RF cavities, and beam via XVI TTL FSM outputs. Numerous MR LLRF VXI system objects, or components, must work together correctly for a successful test. Very briefly, the required objects include VXI Front End hardware, the ACNET/Front End interface code, and the VXI/NIM Interface chassis (the chassis solves VXI-CAMAC-NIM RF and FSM output connectivity and development problems). Though this initial FSM does not yet fully support Upgrade Implementation Stage 2 functionality, all code and hardware for the following basic functionality is tested.

  13. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  14. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke.

  15. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  16. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  17. Ziprasidone Vs Olanzapine in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Results of an 8-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grootens, K. P.; van Veelen, N. M. J.; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Verkes, R. J.; Kahn, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. Methods: The study was an 8-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, controlled multicenter trial (NCT00145444). Seventy-six patients with schizophreniform disorder, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosis < 5 y), and a maximum lifetime antipsychotic treatment <16 weeks participated in the study. Efficacy of ziprasidone (80–160 mg/d) and olanzapine 10–20 mg was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and the Heinrich Quality of Life Scale (HQLS); tolerability assessments included laboratory assessments, body weight, and electroencephalogram. Results: Olanzapine (n = 34) and ziprasidone (n = 39) showed equal efficacy as measured by the PANSS, CDSS, CGI, and HQLS. However, mean weight gain was significantly higher in the olanzapine group (6.8 vs 0.1 kg, P < .001). Ziprasidone was associated with decreasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and transaminases, while these parameters increased in the olanzapine group (all P values < .05). There were no significant differences in fasting glucose and prolactin levels or in cardiac or sexual side effects. Patients on ziprasidone used biperiden for extrapyramidal side effects more frequently (P < .05). Discussion: The results of this study indicate that ziprasidone and olanzapine have comparable therapeutic efficacy but differ in their side effect profile. However, there is a risk of a type II error with this sample size. Clinically significant weight gain and laboratory abnormalities appear early after initiating treatment and are more prominent with olanzapine, while more patients on ziprasidone

  18. The effect of 8-week different-intensity walking exercises on serum hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Buyukyazi, G; Ulman, C; Çelik, A; Çetinkaya, C; Şişman, A R; Çimrin, D; Doğru, Y; Kaya, D

    2017-03-01

    Objective Hepcidin may be an important mediator in exercise-induced iron deficiency. Despite the studies investigating acute exercise effects on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism, we found no studies examining the chronic effects of walking exercises (WE) on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism in premenopausal women. The chronic effects of two 8-week different-intensity WE on hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and markers of iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women were examined. Methods Exercise groups (EG) [moderate tempo walking group (MTWG), n = 11; brisk walking group (BWG), n = 11] walked 3 days/week, starting from 30 to 51 min. Control group (CG; n = 8) did not perform any exercises. BWG walked at ∼70%-75%; MTWG at ∼50%-55% of HRRmax. VO2max, hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism markers were determined before and after the intervention. Results VO2max increased in both EGs, favoring the BWG. Hepcidin increased in the BWG (p < 0.01) and CG (p < 0.05). IL-6 decreased in the BWG and the MTWG (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). While iron, ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation levels did not change in any group, total iron binding capacity (p < 0.05), red blood cells (p < 0.05), and hematocrit (p < 0.01) increased only in the BWG. Conclusion Both WE types may be useful to prevent inflammation. However, brisk walking is advisable due to the positive changes in VO2max and some iron metabolism parameters, which may contribute to prevent iron deficiency. The increase in hepcidin levels remains unclear and necessitates further studies.

  19. An open-label, rater-blinded, 8-week trial of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder with atypical features.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-J; Lee, B C; Seok, J-H; Jeon, H J; Paik, J-W; Kim, W; Kwak, K-P; Han, C; Lee, K-U; Pae, C-U

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness and tolerability of -bupropion hydrochloride extended release (XL) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with atypical features (AF).51 patients were prescribed bupropion XL for 8 weeks (6 visits: screening, baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8). The primary efficacy measure was a change of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD) from baseline to endpoint. Secondary efficacy measures included the SIGH-SAD atypical symptoms subscale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Epworth Sleepiness Questionnaire (ESQ). Response or remission was defined as ≥50% reduction or ≤7 in SIGH-SAD total scores, respectively, at end of treatment.The HAM-D-29 total score reduced by 55.3% from baseline (27.3±6.5) to end of treatment (12.2±6.3) (p<0.001). Atypical symptom subscale scores also reduced by 54.5% from baseline (9.2±3.0) to end of treatment (4.2±2.8) (p<0.001). At the end of treatment, 24.4% (n=10) and 51.2% (n=21) subjects were classified as remitters and responders, respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (13.7%), dry mouth (11.8%), dizziness (9.8%), and dyspepsia (9.8%).Our preliminary study indicates that bupropion XL may be beneficial in the treatment of MDD with atypical features. Adequately powered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to determine our results.

  20. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  1. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement.

  2. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  3. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  4. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  5. Effects of an 8-week yoga program on sustained attention and discrimination function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chien-Chih

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether a yoga exercise intervention influenced the sustained attention and discrimination function in children with ADHD. Forty-nine participants (mean age = 10.50 years) were assigned to either a yoga exercise or a control group. Participants were given the Visual Pursuit Test and Determination Test prior to and after an eight-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 40 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy rate and reaction time of the two tests were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. These findings suggest that alternative therapies such as yoga exercises can be complementary to behavioral interventions for children with attention and inhibition problems. Schools and parents of children with ADHD should consider alternatives for maximizing the opportunities that children with ADHD can engage in structured yoga  exercises. PMID:28097075

  6. The influence of 8 weeks of whey-protein and leucine supplementation on physical and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Thomas B; Smith, Jessica; Herrera, Monica; Lebegue, Breck; Pinchak, Andrea; Fischer, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of whey-protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit participants completed a modified Air Force fitness test, a computer-based cognition test, and a dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry scan for body composition before and after supplementing their daily diet for 8 wk with either 19.7 g of whey protein and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo (P). Bench-press performance increased significantly from Week 1 to Week 8 in the WPL group, whereas the increase in the P group was not significant. Push-up performance increased significantly for WPL, and P showed a nonsignificant increase. Total mass, fat-free mass, and lean body mass all increased significantly in the WPL group but showed no change in the P group. No differences were observed within or between groups for crunches, chin-ups, 3-mile-run time, or cognition. The authors conclude that supplementing with whey protein and leucine may provide an advantage to people whose performance benefits from increased upper body strength and/or lean body mass.

  7. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  8. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at least 8 weeks among Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander race subgroups in Hawaii, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Donald K; Mitchell, Kristen M; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-07-01

    Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004-2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and socio-demographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3%. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.53-0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.52-0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.58-0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.61-0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates.

  9. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  10. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering.

  11. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  12. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  13. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly.

  14. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  15. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  16. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  17. A long hangover from party drugs: residual proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats 8 weeks after γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or their combination.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Kashem, Mohammed A; Matsumoto, Izuru; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2010-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are popular party drugs that are used for their euphoric and prosocial effects, and sometimes in combination. Both drugs increase markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and can cause lasting impairments in hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. To gain further information on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these effects, the current study examined residual changes in hippocampal protein expression measured 8 weeks after chronic administration of GHB (500mg/kg), MDMA (5mg/kg) or their combination (GHB/MDMA). The drugs were administered once a day for 10 days in an environment with an elevated ambient temperature of 28 degrees C. Results showed significant changes in protein expression, relative to controls, in all three groups: MDMA and GHB given alone caused residual changes in 8 and 5 proteins respectively, while the GHB/MDMA combination significantly changed 6 proteins. The altered proteins had roles in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, intracellular signalling and cytoskeletal function. The largest change (-4.3-fold) was seen in the MDMA group with the protein C-crk: a protein implicated in learning-related neuroplasticity. The second largest change (3.0-fold) was seen in the GHB group in Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a protein that protects against oxidative stress. Two cytoskeletal proteins (Tubulin Folding Cofactor B and Tropomyosin-alpha-3 chain) and one plasticity related protein (Neuronal Pentraxin-1 NP1) were similarly changed in both the MDMA and the GHB groups, while two intracellular signalling proteins (alpha-soluble NSF-attachment protein and subunits of the V-type proton ATPase) were changed in both the MDMA/GHB and the MDMA groups. These results provide some insight into the molecular pathways possibly underlying the lasting cognitive deficits arising from GHB and/or MDMA use.

  18. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  19. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  20. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  1. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  2. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Rats. Volume 3 of 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    STUDY ID: 098 SEX: FEMALE ABBR: HCV UNITS: fl. ANIMAL ID Week 2 Week 4 Week 8 Week 13 Week 16 Week 21 Week 27 GROUP: 0:0 821 822 mg...was usually focal and subpleural. It consisted of interstitial fibrosis , mononuclear cell infiltration, and sometimes hyperplasia of alveolar and...0 2 (20) 0 TRACHEA I Ex 10 10 THYROID GLAND * Ex 10 10 10 10 10 PARATHYROID GLAND Fibrosis # Ex 9 0 1 (11) 0 10 0 0 0 (0) 0 0

  3. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  4. Are rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure modified in elderly women undergoing 8 week of strength training of prescribe intensity?

    PubMed Central

    Benites, Mariana L.; Alves, Ragami C.; Ferreira, Sandro S.; Follador, Lucio; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to verify the rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in elderly women, who did normally perform physical exercises, following eight weeks of strength training in a constant routine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven sedentary women were subjected to anthropometric assessment. The maximum load (100%) for each used in this study was determined by performing a test to determined the 1RM for each of them according to the protocol of Fatouros et al. and the Feeling Scale and RPE scale were explained to the women. After these initial procedures, the subjects followed a routine for strength training, performing three sets of repetitions at 70% of the one-repetition maximum for each exercise (bench press, leg extension, pulldown, leg curl) without modifying the exercises and their execution order. The frequency of training was three days per week. ANOVA was used to analyze the behavior of the dependent variable, and the post hoc tests were used to identify significant differences. [Results] Strength increased only in the fifth week. The rate of perceived exertion showed a reduction only in the fifth week in the leg extension, pulldown, leg curl. [Conclusion] The percentage of 70% the one-repetition maximum recommended to increase the strength gains and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle does not provide feelings of displeasure when performing proposed exercise. However, it may be possible to modulate this percentage to obtain more pleasant feelings over two months. PMID:27065524

  5. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  6. A Fundamental Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    household radiators or electric heaters, furnaces, combustion chambers, fires, rocket nozzles , power plants, engines etc. The importance of radiation...can be applied to any other problem related to the wave propagation through periodic structures such as acoustic wave and ultrasonic wave propagation

  7. Circulating bioactive and immunoreactive IGF-I remain stable in women, despite physical fitness improvements after 8 weeks of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise training.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Alemany, Joseph A; Tuckow, Alexander P; Rarick, Kevin R; Staab, Jeffery S; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    2010-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is regulated by a number of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and proteases that influence IGF-I bioactivity. A specific IGF-I kinase receptor activation assay (KIRA) has been developed that determines the ability of IGF-I to activate the IGF-I receptor by quantification of intracellular receptor autophosphorylation on IGF-I binding. KIRA-assessed IGF-I bioactivity has not been utilized within the context of chronic exercise training paradigms. This study measured total and free immunoreactive IGF-I, bioactive IGF-I, and IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 before (Pre), during (Mid), and after (Post) 8 wk of exercise training in young, healthy women, who were randomized into one of four groups: control (n = 10), resistance (n = 18), aerobic (n = 13), and combined (n = 15) exercise training. The training programs were effective in improving physical fitness specific to the exercise mode engaged in: increases were observed for lean mass ( approximately 2%), aerobic fitness (6-7%), and upper (20-24%) and lower (15-48%) body strength (all P values < 0.05). By contrast, no time, group, or interaction effects were observed for the circulating IGF-I system, as immunoreactive total (Pre = 264 +/- 16 microg/l; Mid = 268 +/- 17 microg/l; Post = 271 +/- 17 microg/l), free (Pre = 0.70 +/- 0.1 microg/l; Mid = 0.63 +/- 0.1 microg/l; Post = 0.63 +/- 0.2 microg/l) and bioactive (Pre = 2.35 +/- 0.3 microg/l; Mid = 2.25 +/- 0.3 microg/l; Post = 2.33 +/- 0.3 microg/l) IGF-I were unchanged throughout the study. All IGFBP measures were also unchanged. We conclude that increased lean mass, aerobic fitness, and upper and lower body strength resulting from an 8-wk exercise training programs can occur without concomitant increases in either circulating bioactive or immunoreactive IGF-I, as well as associated IGFBPs. In terms of reflecting positive anabolic neuromuscular outcomes, these data do not support a role for endocrine-derived IGF-I.

  8. Increases in skeletal muscle ATGL and its inhibitor G0S2 following 8 weeks of endurance training in metabolically different rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Patrick C; Longo, Amanda B; Ramos, Sofhia V; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

    2016-01-15

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the rate-limiting removal of the first fatty acid from a triglyceride. ATGL is activated by comparative gene identification-58 and inhibited by G(0)/G(1) switch gene-2 protein (G0S2). Research in other tissues and cell culture indicates that inhibition is dependent on relative G0S2-to-ATGL protein content. G0S2 may also have several roles within mitochondria; however, this has yet to be observed in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle G0S2 relative to ATGL content would decrease to facilitate intramuscular lipolysis following endurance training. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10; age 51-53 days old) were progressively treadmill trained at a 10% incline for 8 wk ending with 25 m/min for 1 h compared with control. Sciatic nerve stimulation for hind-limb muscle contraction (and lipolysis) was administered for 30 min to one leg, leaving the opposing leg as a resting control. Soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius were excised from both legs following stimulation or control. ATGL protein increased in all trained muscles. Unexpectedly, G0S2 protein was greater in the trained SOL and RG. In RG-isolated mitochondria, G0S2 also increased with training, yet mitochondrial G0S2 content was unaltered with acute contraction; therefore, any role of G0S2 in the mitochondria does not appear to be acutely mediated by content alone. In summary, G0S2 increased with training in oxidative muscles and mitochondria but not following acute contraction, suggesting that inhibition is not through relative G0S2-to-ATGL content but through more complicated intracellular mechanisms.

  9. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  10. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    SciTech Connect

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  11. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  12. Rationalization of Periodical Holdings: A Case Study at Chalmers University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Describes study of periodical use in medium-sized university of technology which examined use of individual periodicals in relation to language of publication; patterns of use for interlibrary lending and for multiple copy journals; methods and costs for acquiring infrequently used periodicals. Thirty-three references and most frequently used…

  13. The Effect of Tofogliflozin Treatment on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Japanese Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Junji; Sakurai, Masaru; Kakuda, Masahiro; Takekoshi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are highly related to the development of atherosclerosis. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have attracted attention as a new class of anti-diabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of tofogliflozin on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Ten Japanese men with type 2 diabetes (average age 66.3 years) were orally administered tofogliflozin (20 mg per day) for 8 weeks followed by a subsequent 8 weeks of washout of the agent. At 0, 8 and 16 weeks, postprandial metabolic parameters were measured at 0, 60 and 120 min after cookie ingestion. Results There were significant reductions in body weight and body mass index at 8 weeks. There was a reduction in HbA1c at 8 weeks, which returned to pretreatment levels at 16 weeks. Serum insulin levels did not change during the entire study period under either fasting or postprandial state. The area under the curve of plasma glucagon significantly increased at 8 weeks. There were no changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels either in fasting or postprandial state except for tendency toward reduction in postprandial triglycerides at 8 weeks and increase in HDL-C at 16 weeks. Conclusions Tofogliflozin treatment causes an improvement of postprandial glucose metabolism but not considerable postprandial lipid metabolism. PMID:28392860

  14. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  15. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  16. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  17. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  18. Using a Hypertext Environment for Teaching Process Writing: An Evaluation Study of Three Student Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Linda; And Others

    A comprehensive evaluation of a hypertext model for teaching process writing at the junior high and high school level was conducted over an 8-week period. The purpose of the study was to determine how two teachers and three different age groups of students used and reacted to the model, specifically, its embedded design features of model stories,…

  19. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  20. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  1. Impact of Early Intervention of Learning Evaluation of the Stott "Flying Start" Learning to Learn Programme: A Scottish Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, George O. B.

    The paper describes a study in which 34 primary class students were identified as high risk by the Guide to the Child's Learning Skills (GCLS), a teacher-based instrument for screening and followup. It is reported that an 8-week period of instruction using the Flying Start materials, experimental Ss showed significant improvement on the Columbia…

  2. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  3. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  4. Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species.

  5. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  6. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  7. Electroencephalography Spectral Power Density in First-Episode Mania: A Comparative Study with Subsequent Remission Period

    PubMed Central

    GÜVEN, Sertaç; KESEBİR, Sermin; DEMİRER, R. Murat; BİLİCİ, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to investigate spectral power density (PSD) in first-episode mania and subsequent remission period and to evaluate their difference. Methods Sixty-nine consecutive cases referring to our hospital within the previous 1 year, who were evaluated as bipolar disorder manic episode according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) at the first episode and had the informed consent form signed by first degree relatives, were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included having previous depressive episode, using drugs which could influence electroencephalographic activity before electroencephalography (EEG), and having previous neurological disease, particularly epilepsy, head trauma, and/or loss of consciousness. EEG records were obtained using a digital device in 16 channels; 23 surface electrodes were placed according to the International 10–20 system. Spectral power density (dbμV/Hz) of EEG signal provided information on the power carried out by EEG waves in defined frequancy range per unit frequency in the present study. Results A peak power value detected on the right with FP2P4 and on the left with F7T3 electrodes were found to be higher in the manic episode than in the remission period (p=0.018 and 0.025). In the remission period, in cases with psychotic symptoms during the manic period, F4C4 peak power value was found to be lower than that in cases with no psychotic findings during the manic period (p=0.027). There was no relation was found between YMRS scores and peak power scores. Conclusion Electrophysiological corollary of mood episode is present from the onset of the disease, and it differs between the manic and remission periods of bipolar disorder. In the remission period, peak power values of PSD distinguish cases with psychotic findings from cases without psychotic findings when they were manic.

  8. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  9. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  10. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  11. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  12. Extended AB period study of the electron pairing transition in t-J ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Koichi; Aoki, Hideo

    1996-11-01

    The extended Aharonov-Bohm period test, recently proposed by the present authors, is used to study the electron pairing transition in the t-J ladders. The critical point is detected as a gap opening in the extended spectral flow. The result suggests a pairing prior to the onset of a phase separation, which is consistent with a recent Tomonaga-Luttinger analysis.

  13. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  14. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  15. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  16. Ionic adsorption on the brucite (0001) surface: A periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkos, Eszter; Kerridge, Andrew; Austin, Jonathan; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the generalised gradient approximation level is employed within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method (PEECM) to model the brucite (0001) surface. Three representative studies are then used to demonstrate the reliability of the PEECM for the description of the interactions of various ionic species with the layered Mg(OH)2 structure, and its performance is compared with periodic DFT, an approach known to be challenging for the adsorption of charged species. The adsorption energies of a series of s block cations, including Sr2+ and Cs+ which are known to coexist with brucite in nuclear waste storage ponds, are well described by the embedded cluster model, provided that basis sets of triple-zeta quality are employed for the adsorbates. The substitution energies of Ca2+ and Sr2+ into brucite obtained with the PEECM are very similar to periodic DFT results, and comparison of the approaches indicates that two brucite layers in the quantum mechanical part of the PEECM are sufficient to describe the substitution. Finally, a detailed comparison of the periodic and PEECM DFT approaches to the energetic and geometric properties of differently coordinated Sr[(OH)2(H2O)4] complexes on brucite shows an excellent agreement in adsorption energies, Sr-O distances, and bond critical point electron densities (obtained via the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules), demonstrating that the PEECM can be a useful alternative to periodic DFT in these situations.

  17. Multiperiodicity in quasi-periodic pulsations of flare hard X-rays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Szaforz, Ż.

    We present a case study of the solar flare (SOL2001-10-02T17:31) that showed quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in hard X-rays with two simultaneously excited periods, P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s. Complete evolution of the flare recorded by the Yohkoh telescopes, together with the patrol SOHO/EIT images, allowed us to identify magnetic structures responsible for particular periods and to propose an overall scenario which is consistent with the available observations. Namely, we suggest that emerging magnetic flux initiated the reconnection with legs of a large arcade of coronal loops that had been present in an active region for several days. The reconnection excited MHD oscillations in both magnetic structures simultaneously: period P_1 was generated in the emerging loop and in a loop being a result of the reconnection; period P_2 occurred in the arcade. Both resonators produced photons of different spectra. We anticipate that multiperiodicity in hard X-rays can be a common feature of flare hybrids, i.e. the events, in which magnetic structures of different sizes interact.

  18. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  19. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  20. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  1. Study of the resonances of periodic plane media immersed in water: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Aissam; Maréchal, Pierre; Lenoir, Olivier; Ech-Cherif El-Kettani, Mounsif; Chenouni, Driss

    2013-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of the resonances of 1D periodic media composed of N elementary cells formed with two perfectly bonded layers which exhibit a high acoustic impedance contrast. In the case of a periodic bilayer structure constituted of a fluid layer and an elastic plate, it was shown in previous theoretical works that additional modes appear compared to those of a single plate. These are called structure modes. At low frequency, the so-called vertical modes are found. Approximate expressions of their cut-off frequencies are given and their numerical values match with the exact ones. At high frequency, the Lamb type modes are degenerated and modes in the fluid layers are also observed. Preliminary experimental results have already proved the existence of such phenomena for one and two periods. In our work, an experimental validation has been performed in the case of N periods made with a glass isotropic elastic plate and a water fluid layer, where the number N ranges from two to five. A good agreement is shown compared to theoretical works.

  2. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  3. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  4. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  5. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  7. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  8. Numerical study of deformation-induced fluid flows in periodic osteonal matrix under harmonic axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah

    2009-05-01

    Living bone is a tissue that is constantly renewed. It has been demonstrated that bone fluid flow and induced shear effects on the bone cells are important players in triggering and signaling bone formation and remodelling. This Note presents a model studying interstitial fluid flow in cortical bone under axial harmonic loads. These living tissues are considered as saturated anisotropic poroelastic material characterized by three-dimensional periodic groups of osteons. Using a frequency-domain analysis, the fluid shear stress variations are studied for various loading conditions and geometrical or physical bone matrix parameters. To cite this article: V.-H. Nguyen et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  9. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  10. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  11. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  12. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  13. A comparative study of stress episode prevalence and duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H; McGroarty, Jennifer N; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsumura, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    This study reconstructs linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) prevalence and stress episode duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido, Japan (HKJ). Results are compared to Jomon period samples from coastal Honshu, Japan (HSJ) and Tigara Inupiat from Point Hope, Alaska (PHT) to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the manifestation of stress among circum-Pacific foragers. LEH were identified macro- and microscopically by enamel surface depressions and increased perikymata spacing within defects. Individuals with more than one anterior tooth affected by LEH were labeled as LEH positive. Stress episode durations were estimated by counting the number of perikymata within the occlusal wall of each LEH and multiplying that number by constants reflecting modal periodicities for modern human teeth. LEH prevalence and stress episode duration did not differ significantly between the two Jomon samples. Significantly greater frequencies of LEH were found in HKJ as compared to PHT foragers. However, HKJ foragers had significantly shorter stress episode durations as compared to PHT. This suggests that a greater proportion of HKJ individuals experienced stress episodes than did PHT individuals, but these stress events ended sooner. Similarity in stress experiences between the two Jomon samples and differences between the HKJ and PHT are found. These findings are important for two reasons. First, stress experiences of foraging populations differ markedly and cannot be generalized by subsistence strategy alone. Second, due to significant differences in episode duration, stress experiences cannot be understood using prevalence comparisons alone.

  14. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  15. DMFT Study for Valence Fluctuations in the Extended Periodic Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzaki, Ryu; Nasu, Joji; Koga, Akihisa

    2016-02-01

    We study valence fluctuations at finite temperatures in the extended periodic Anderson model, where the Coulomb interaction between conduction and localized f-electrons is taken into account, using dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method. The valence transition with the hysteresis is clearly found, indicating the first-order phase transition between the Kondo and mixed-valence states. We demonstrate that spin correlation rapidly develops when the system approaches the valence transition point. The comparison of the impurity solvers, the CT-QMC, non-crossing approximation, and one-crossing approximation, is also addressed.

  16. Analytical Study of Periodic Solutions on Perturbed Equatorial Two-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Mortari, Daniele; Selim, Hadia H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents analytical derivations to study periodic solutions for the two-body problem perturbed by the first zonal harmonic parameter. In particular, three different semianalytical approaches to solve this problem have been studied: (1) the classic perturbation theory, (2) the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and (3) the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method. In addition, the numerical integration by Runge-Kutta algorithm is established. However, the numerical comparison tests show that by increasing the value of angular momentum the solutions provided by Lindstedt-Poincaré and Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky methods become similar, and they provide almost identical results using a smaller value for the perturbed parameter which quantify the dynamical flattening of the main body, the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky provides more accurate results to design elliptical periodic solutions than Lindstedt-Poincaré technique when the perturbed parameter has a relatively large value, regardless of the value of angular momentum. This study can be applied to equatorial orbits to obtain closed-form analytical solutions.

  17. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  18. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  19. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  20. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  1. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  2. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  3. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  4. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  6. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  7. A comprehensive study for the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chew, Weng Cho

    2010-03-15

    A comprehensive study of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with the periodic strip structure is presented in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is employed to discretize the inhomogeneous wave function for modeling the solar cell. In particular, the hybrid absorbing boundary condition and the one-sided difference scheme are adopted. The parameter extraction methods for the zeroth-order reflectance and the absorbed power density are also discussed, which is important for testing and optimizing the solar cell design. For the numerical results, the physics of the absorption peaks of the amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell are explained by electromagnetic theory; these peaks correspond to the waveguide mode, Floquet mode, surface plasmon resonance, and the constructively interference between adjacent metal strips. The work is therefore important for the theoretical study and optimized design of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell.

  8. An ab initio periodic study of acidic chabazite as a candidate for dihydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Civalleri, B; Pisani, C; Ugliengo, P

    2006-06-01

    A theoretical B3LYP study, adopting a polarized double-zeta quality Gaussian basis set, was performed to characterize acidic chabazite by using the periodic CRYSTAL03 program. Different Si/Al loadings (1/1, 3/1, 5/1, and 11/1) were considered, and for each of them the most stable aluminum distribution and location of the acidic proton, needed as charge balancer, were identified. With the optimal structures, the energy of formation and the anharmonic O-H stretching frequency were calculated with the latter being in good agreement with the experimental data. The B3LYP optimal position of H2 physisorbed at the acidic Brönsted sites of chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1 and 5/1) brings about an interaction energy definitely smaller than that derived from infrared spectroscopy, because of the known deficiencies of this functional to cope with dispersive interactions. The latter was included by means of an ONIOM-like procedure that combines periodic B3LYP energy with results at the MP2 level on selected clusters cut out of the chabazite framework. Adsorption of two H2 molecules for Si/Al = 5/1 chabazite showed a complete independence of each Brönsted site, and neither through-space nor intrastructure polarization effects are present. Within the periodic B3LYP approach shifts in both O-H and H-H anharmonic frequencies were also computed and compared with unperturbed values and with the available experimental results.

  9. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  10. Sample size determination for alternate periods of use study designs with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jorge G; Neerchal, Nagaraj K

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external use of products with little or no possibility of carry over effects, and (b) the periods of use are dictated by the subjects or by some specific event, such as diaper leakage or menstrual flow. We consider a number of such study designs for estimating the difference in the efficacy of two treatments or test products. We provide brief descriptions of studies to motivate the study design, the underlying data structure, and computations of the variances of the usual unbiased estimators of the difference in efficacy, and the sample size formulas. The situations considered here cover a number of popular crossover designs. The objective of our work is to provide guidance to members of a wide audience on how to answer the sample size question for their own nonstandard situations. We conclude the article with a brief report on a simulation study we conducted to investigate the impact of estimation on the sample size determination and consequently on the actual power realized in an effort to promote the "best practice" of checking whether the recommended sample sizes indeed achieve the desired level of power.

  11. Detection of (in)activity periods in human body motion using inertial sensors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  12. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  13. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  14. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  15. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  16. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  17. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  18. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  19. A periodic density functional theory study of cumene formation catalyzed by H-mordenite.

    PubMed

    Rozanska, X; Barbosa, L A M M; van Santen, R A

    2005-02-17

    A periodic density functional theory study of the alkylation of benzene with propene in proton-exchanged mordenite has been achieved. The two different reaction routes that are usually proposed for this reaction, namely the direct and the step-by-step reaction pathways, have been investigated. The explicit consideration of the zeolite catalyst framework allows a better level of description of the interactions between the catalyst framework and the reaction than what is obtained with the cluster approach method. The direct reaction route is found to be the preferred one. It is observed that the cluster approach method, which does not describe the zeolite framework, is unable to qualitatively described the trend in activation energies. This is owing to the greater stabilization of larger transition state by the mordenite zeolite framework compared with smaller ones.

  20. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  1. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  2. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  3. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  4. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation

    PubMed Central

    ALEXANDER, MELANNIE; BURCH, JAMES B.; STECK, SUSAN E.; CHEN, CHIN-FU; HURLEY, THOMAS G.; CAVICCHIA, PHILIP; RAY, MEREDITH; SHIVAPPA, NITIN; GUESS, JACLYN; ZHANG, HONGMEI; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.; CREEK, KIM E.; LLOYD, STEPHEN; YANG, XIAOMING; HÉBERT, JAMES R.

    2015-01-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the ‘period’ (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9–4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4–18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7–5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  5. Determinants of Retention in 8-Week-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Eleanor Vander; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eight-week-old infants learned to execute an operant footkick to produce crib mobile movement in one of two conditions: training duration on (1) varied within single session and (2) consistent across multiple sessions. Results, in contrast with data from 3-month-olds, demonstrated that conditions of original learning influence immediate and…

  6. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  7. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  8. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  9. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  10. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  11. An Orbital Period Study of the W UMa-Type Binary RZ Comae Berenicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jia-Jia

    2005-12-01

    New photoelectric and CCD photometry observations of a short-period W UMa-type binary system, RZ Com, are presented. The light curves of Broglia (1960, Contr. Milano-Merate, 165) were symmetric in V band, while the present light curve shows a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.015mag. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. A small-amplitude oscillation (A = 0.0058 d), with a period of 44.8yr has been discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +4.12 × 10-8 d yr-1. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. The mass ratio of RZ Com is q = 0.43. The secular period variation is in agreement with the conclusions of Qian (2001, MNRAS, 328, 914; 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1260). This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

  12. Migraine and periodic limb movement disorders in sleep in children: a preliminary case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful. No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children. Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians. Methods After a preliminary sleep habits screening with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, 34 migraine subjects affected by migraine without aura (20 M, 14 F) (mean age 9.08; SD ± 2.28) and 51 volunteers healthy children (28 M, 23 F) (mean age 9.37; SD ± 1.81) accepted to underwent overnight PSG recordings in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, in order to define the macrostructural sleep characteristics and the prevalence of PLMd. Subsequently, the migraineurs sample was studied in order to define the relationship between disability, pain intensity, therapeutical responsiveness and the presence of PLMd. Results In the migraineurs children group, the individuals with PLM pathological index (PLMI ≥ 5) represent the 26.47% of sample and present higher frequency (p < 0.001), intensity (p < 0.001), duration (p = 0.006) and life impairment as scored in the PedMIDAS (p < 0.001) of headache and lower efficacy of prophylactic (p = 0.001) and acute (p = 0.006) pharmacological treatment than MoA children without PLM pathological index. Conclusions This preliminary study indicates the potential value of the determination of the PLMd signs, and the importance of the PSG evaluation in children affected by migraine, particularly when the clinical and pharmacological management tend to fail in the attacks control. PMID:23815623

  13. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  14. Orbital period studies of the two contact binaries TZ Bootis and Y Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.; Liu, Q.

    2000-03-01

    The physical properties of the two A-type contact binaries TZ Boo and Y Sex are nearly the same. In the present paper, many of their published times of light minima are collected and the changes in their orbital periods are analyzed. It is indicated that the orbital period of TZ Boo shows several alternating jumps while it undergoes a secular decrease of -11.8x10-8 days/year. Several random jumps superposed on a secular decrease (-5.5x10-8 days/year) are also found in the period of Y Sex. The secular decrease is usually interpreted as mass transfer from the more to the less massive components, or mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the systems. According to the AML theory, on the contact stage, the orbital AML is mainly caused by the mass transfer from the less to the more massive component and the mass ratio decreasing and orbital period gradually increasing are the corresponding results. The extremely low mass ratio and orbital angular momentum of the two systems show that they are evolved via AML and the present secular decrease in the periods may suggest that the magnetic activity in the two systems are very strong. The relation between the changes of the orbital periods and the magnetic activity in the two systems are discussed. We think that the interplay between the variable AML and variable magnetic coupling can explain both the jumps and secular decrease in the orbital periods of the two systems. Table~2 and Table~4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strabg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  15. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  16. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  17. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  18. [Study on ammonia-N degradation monitoring by analyzing long-period fiber grating spectrum character].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-yue; Liang, Da-kai; Zeng, Jie; Cao, Zhi-bin; Zeng, Jian-min

    2010-09-01

    In the present paper, the principle of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring sensor was discussed in detail firstly based on a sensitive characteristic that the resonance spectrum of long-period fiber grating changes with refractive index in external environment. The relationship between the resonance peaking wavelength of long-period fiber grating and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was also analyzed detailedly. Then, the long-period fiber grating spectrum measurement technology was selected to obtain long-period fiber grating spectrum curves corresponding to seven different kinds of concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, and the resonance wavelengths increased with the increase in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The variations of the resonance wavelength decreased from 2.707 to 0.068 nm and had a relatively good corresponding relationship with the concentration values of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The responsivity of this correlation is 52.78 pm x mg(-1) x L. The concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was acquired exactly through the way of monitoring the changes of the spectrum attribute, at the same time, the process and the extent of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater degradation were estimated. This method, which can directly monitor the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, is simple and easy to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which can avoid the electronic interference. There is no necessary to use chemic reagent to sign the solutions, which are going to be degraded. In conclusion, the late-model long-period fiber grating ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring system could achieve a real time, rapid, accurate and long distance measurement.

  19. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  20. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  1. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  2. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  3. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  4. Orbital Period Variation Study of the Algol Eclipsing Binary DI Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, M. A.; Amin, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the orbital period changes of the Algol semi-detached eclipsing binary DI Peg by constructing the (O-C) residual diagram via using all the available precise minima times. We conclude that the period variation can be explained by a sine-like variation due to the presence of a third body orbiting the binary, together with a long-term orbital period increase ( dP/dt=0.17 sec/century) that can be interpreted to be due to mass transfer from the evolved secondary component (of rate 1.52×10^{-8} M_{⊙}/ yr) to the primary one. The detected low-mass third body (M_{3 min.}=0.22±0.0006 M_{⊙}) is responsible for a periodic variation of about 55 years light time effect. We have determined the orbital parameters of the third component which show a considerable eccentricity e_{3}= 0.77±0.07 together with a longitude of periastron ω_{3}=300° ± 10°.

  5. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  6. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  7. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  8. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  9. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  10. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  11. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration.

  12. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy.

  13. Influence of harvest method and period on olive oil composition: an NMR and statistical study.

    PubMed

    D'Imperio, Marco; Gobbino, Marco; Picanza, Antonio; Costanzo, Simona; Della Corte, Anna; Mannina, Luisa

    2010-10-27

    The influence of harvest period and harvest method on olive oil composition was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by some quality parameters such as free acidity, peroxide value, and UV spectrophotometric indices. This work focuses on two secondary factors (harvest period and harvest method) and investigated their interactions with primary (genetic and pedoclimatic) and secondary (agronomic practices and technological procedures) factors. To avoid misinterpretation, the general linear model analysis (GLM) was used to adjust the result obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this way, the effect of the factor of interest was corrected for the effects of the other factors that might influence the variable under investigation. The weight of each factor was evaluated by the variance component analysis (VCA). Finally, multivariate statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were applied. Samples were grouped according to the harvest period and harvest method. Volatile compounds, that is, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, as well as the sn-1,3-diglycerides and squalene, significantly decreased during the ripening. The relative value of the ΔK parameter and the hexanal amount were higher in the olive oils obtained from olives harvested by one type of hand-held machine (shaker), whereas the unsaturated fatty chains in the olive oils were higher when another type (comb) was used.

  14. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  15. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part I: numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Kamm, R D

    1982-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of the technique of periodic external compression for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. In the model the veins of the lower leg are portrayed as a continuous system rather than as discrete elements as in previous models. Consequently, we are able to explore the detailed effects of different modes of compression including (i) uniform compression, the simultaneous application of uniform pressure over the entire lower leg, (ii) graded compression, the application of nonuniform pressure, maximum at the ankle and minimum at the knee, and (iii) wavelike compression, a wave of compression proceeding from the ankle toward the knee. These numerical results indicate that the effectiveness of uniform compression is severely compromised by the formation of a flow-limiting throat at the proximal end of the compression cuff that reduces both the rate at which blood is discharged from the lower leg and the total blood volume removed. Both of these detrimental effects can be avoided by the use of either wavelike of graded compression. Both alternated methods are shown to produce more uniform augmentation of volume flow rate, flow velocity and shear stress, throughout the entire lower leg. In the companion paper, Part II [18] (see following article), these same compression modes are tested using a simple hydraulic model consisting of a single latex tube inside a foam cylinder as a highly simplified representation of a human leg.

  16. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  17. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  18. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  19. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fought, Rick L

    2014-07-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals.

  20. Photometric study and absolute parameters of the short-period eclipsing binary HH Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Demircan, Y.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system HH Bootis from new CCD (BVRI) light curves and published radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2011 and 2012 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO). Light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be a W-type W UMa system of a type different from that suggested by Dal and Sipahi (2013). An interesting cyclic period variation in the time intervals between primary and secondary eclipses ("half-period variation") was discovered and analyzed and its possible cause is discussed. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.627M⊙ , M2 = 1.068M⊙ , R1 = 0.782R⊙ and R2 = 0.997R⊙ . New light elements were derived and finally the evolutionary status of the system is discussed.

  1. The First Photometric Study of the Short-period Shallow Contact System LO Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Han, Q. W.; Liu, J. Z.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the first complete photometric light curves in the B, V, and R passbands for an eclipsing binary LO Com are presented, and the photometric solution for the LO Com is derived by analyzing these light curves by using the Wilson and Devinney code. From the photometric solution, it is found that the LO Com is a W-type W UMa binary with a mass ratio of q={m}2/{m}1=2.478 and a contact degree of f=(3.2+/- 0.25) % . By combining the two new minimum times with those published earlier in the literature, we have found that the (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation corresponding to a long-term decrease in the orbital period with a rate of {{d}}P/{{d}}t=-1.18× {10}-7 days yr-1. This long-term decrease in its orbital period may be caused by mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one.

  2. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  3. Coding Properties of Three Intrinsically Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells under Periodic Stimuli: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Yi-Hong; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing) by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency). Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike- rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs' spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin's three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s) or all of the Hodgkin's three excitabilities. PMID:27721751

  4. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  5. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  6. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of the long period variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, Michael; Siluszyk, Marek; Wawrzynczak-Szaban, Anna

    2012-07-01

    We analyze experimental data of neutron monitors and solar wind parameters during #21 solar cycle (1976-1987). In galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is well established a step like changes in both ascending and descending periods of solar activity. We compose two-dimensional (2-D) time dependent model of GCR modulation based on Parker's transport equation to explain a general 11-year wave of the GCR intensity with the step-like changes, and each step-like changes individually, i.e. time scale of investigations is carried out by means of daily and monthly data. An innovation in proposed model is that besides the well known fundamental processes responsible for modulation of the GCR intensity, we implement in the model the parameters characterizing temporal changes of the exponent n of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turbulence, module B of the IMF, tilt angle δ of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet, and changes of drift effect of the GCR particles upon solar activity assuming that drift effect of the GCR particles is maximal in the minimum epoch, when drift dominates, and is neglected in the maximum epoch, when diffusion dominates. We show that an acceptable compatibility is kept for the investigated period of 1976-1987 (solar cycle #21), when the expected temporal changes of the GCR particles density (11-year wave) is shifted for 18 months with respect to the temporal changes of the smoothed experimental data of the GCR intensity. We consider, that a delay time ˜18 months can be considered as an effective delay time caused by the combined influence of all parameters implemented in the 2-D model.

  7. The study of atmospheric CO pollution over the center of Moscow in autumn period

    SciTech Connect

    Fokeeva, E.V.; Pekour, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The results of CO near-ground concentration measurements are presented which were taken by virtue of electrochemical method at the center of Moscow during one autumn month in 1993. Simultaneous measurements were performed of the total column content of CO over Moscow making use of sun radiation absorption detection in the infrared (in the wavelength range of 4.6 mcm). To determine an urban increment of CO content over regional background the data of analogous measurements were used which were collected in the rural suburb 45 km west from Moscow center One-hour averaged near-ground CO concentration were in the limits 0.4 to 5.8 mg/m{sup 3}, and an average total column CO content vary from 0.09 to 0.167 atm*cm. The measurements were accompanied by acoustic sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer with the use of three component Doppler SODAR. The peculiarities of average and concrete diurnal variation of near-ground CO concentrations can well be interpreted by virtue of SODAR data indicating the type of stratification, the mixing height and the wind velocity during a whole day. Comparison and analysis are performed of the average diurnal variations of near-ground CO concentration in autumn and summer periods in account to the occurrence frequency of surface inversion within selected periods. Almost complete coincidence has been found of the shape of CO concentration diurnal variations with those of NO and soot. An estimate of specific CO source power in the city is performed in account to the data on the mixing height and wind velocity mean within a layer of 250 m.

  8. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-11

    INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY 10: 097 STUDY NO: 097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 ~eek ·1 GROUP: 7557 7541...097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume IJeek ·1 IJeek 2 IJeek 4 IJeelc 8 IJeek 13...animals sacrificed after the recovery period. It was usually focal and subcapsular. It consisted of interstitial fibrosis , mononuclear cell

  9. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  10. A numerical study of periodic slug flow at zero gravity and normal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, K.; Bugg, J. D.; Gabriel, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports numerical simulations of slug flow at zero and normal gravity. The particular experimental results chosen for validation were obtained at microgravity under conditions which resulted in evenly-spaced and evenly-sized Taylor bubbles facilitating a simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The numerical technique was a free-surface method which explicitly tracked the motion of the gas-liquid interface using a volume-of-fluid specification and a finite volume discretisation of the solution domain. The large scale features of the bubble such as the classic bullet-shaped nose were well predicted by the model. Unsteady features of the bubble shape such as waves in the film and fluctuations of the bottom surface were also predicted but are harder to compare quantitatively to the experiments. The velocity field predictions reveal several interesting features of the flow. When viewed by an observer moving with the bubbles, the liquid slug is dominated by a large recirculating region with the flow travelling from the leading to the trailing bubble along the tube centreline. In this frame of reference, the near-wall region features a jet of fluid issuing from the film of the leading bubble which entrains fluid in the slug. As the film of the trailing bubble begins to form, the entrained fluid must be ejected since the flowrate in the film of each bubble must be the same. It appears to be this process that drives the main recirculation.

  11. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  12. The study of structural color filter based on periodic nanohole arrays for bio-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seunguk; Shin, Jeonghee; Yoo, Seungjun; Kim, Samhwan; Jeon, Byoungok; Moon, Cheil; Jang, Jae-Eun

    2015-07-01

    A nanostructure which induces localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be utilized in visible light and near infrared (NIR) regions and it shows promising features as a bio-detector because LSPR state is changed easily by different bio-related materials. Owing to transparent property of many biomolecules as well as diluted states in base solutions, it is hard to distinguish each other by eye or microscope analysis. However, difference in molecular structure and composition makes difference in optical characteristics such as a refractive index or a dielectric constant. Therefore, our LSPR-based nanohole array structure which has high sensitivity to detect small changes in optical characteristics can be a great candidate for a bio detector. Here, we fabricated structural color filters (SCFs) to detect wavelength shifts for several biomolecules and optimized the nanohole array structures for high sensitivity. Periodic nanohole arrays were designed to present resonance peaks in visible light region for optical analysis and fabricated in Au or Al thin film layer. The spectral shifts were detected caused by biomolecules.

  13. Evanescent-wave amplification studied using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruopeng; Zhao, Bo; Lin, Xian Qi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present both theoretical analysis and experimental verification of evanescent-wave amplification by using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model. We propose a series-shunt capacitor (C-C) structure to simulate a magnetic plasma, whose permittivity is positive and permeability is negative, and a series-shunt inductor (L-L) structure to simulate an electric plasma, whose permittivity is negative and permeability is positive, in which the structure cells are not required to be electrically small. In addition, we derive and define an effective permittivity and permeability for the C-C and L-L structures in closed forms, which are completely different from the published ones. When the two structures are cascaded together to form a bilayer structure, we show that evanescent waves which exist in two single layers independently can be amplified exponentially if a certain resonant condition is satisfied. Such a resonant condition is equivalent to the antimatching condition for the permittivity and permeability of the effectively electric and magnetic plasmas. To show the accuracy of this equivalent medium model, we compare both circuit-simulation results for the C-C and L-L structures and theoretical-prediction results for the effective magnetic and electric plasmas, which have excellent agreement. Finally, we design an experiment using lumped capacitors and inductors mounted on a printed circuit board to verify the amplification of evanescent waves sufficiently. The measurement results have good agreement with the simulation results.

  14. Periodic limb movements during sleep and prevalent hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B; Sillau, Stefan; Dean, Dennis A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with immediate increases in blood pressure. Both PLMS and hypertension have different distributions across racial/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether PLMS is associated with hypertension among various racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1740 men and women underwent measurement of blood pressure and polysomnography with quantification of PLMS. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, diastolic BP ≥90, or taking antihypertensive medication. For those taking antihypertensives, an estimated pretreatment SBP value was derived based on observed SBP and medication type/dose. Measures of PLMS, PLMS index, and PLMS arousal index were the main explanatory variables. Hypertension and SBP were modeled with logistic and multivariable regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle/habitual factors, apnea-hypopnea index, and race/ethnicity. In the overall cohort, prevalent hypertension was modestly associated with PLMS index (10 U; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.10) and PLMS arousal index (1 U; 1.05; 1.01-1.09) after adjusting for confounders. Association in the overall cohort was influenced by large effect sizes in blacks, in whom the odds of prevalent hypertension increased by 21% (1%-45%) for 10 U PLMS index increase and 20% (2%-42%) for 1-U PLMS arousal index increase. In blacks, every 1-U PLMS arousal index increase was associated with SBP 1.01 mm Hg higher (1.01; 0.04-1.98). Associations between PLMS and blood pressure outcomes were also suggested among Chinese-Americans but not in whites or Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling men and women, prevalent hypertension and SBP are associated with PLMS frequency in blacks.

  15. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  16. Undergraduate Pilot Training Task Frequency Study. Final Report for Period October 1972-October 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James E.; Rust, Steven K.

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the number of training task repetitions required for an Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) student to become proficient, and (2) to determine the total number of task repetitions that UPT students receive for each maneuver in T-37 and T-38 training. The project was conducted in two parts. Study 1…

  17. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  18. Using the Fourier-series approach to study interactions between moving wheels and a periodically supported rail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Li, M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the Fourier-series approach is employed to study wheel-rail interactions generated by a single, or multiple wheels moving at a constant speed along a railway track. This approach has been previously explored by other researchers and what is presented here is an improved version. In this approach, the track is represented by an infinitely long periodic structure with the period equal to the sleeper spacing and the vertical irregular profile (roughness) of the railhead is assumed to be periodic in the track direction with the period equal to the length of a number (integer), N, of sleeper bays. By assuming linear dynamics for the wheel/track system and for steady state, each wheel/rail force is a periodic function of time and can be expressed as a Fourier series. Fourier coefficients are then shown to be determined by solving, separately, N sets of linear algebraic equations. The coefficient matrix of each set of equations is independent of rail roughness and therefore this approach is particularly useful in modelling the generation and growth of rail roughness of short wavelengths. Excitation purely from the axle loads moving over the periodic track structure is realised by assuming a smooth railhead surface, and subsequently roughness equivalent to such an excitation is defined and evaluated. This equivalent roughness may, in addition to the actual rail roughness, be input into models in which the effect of moving axle loads has been excluded, so that the predictions from those models can be improved. Results are produced using the improved Fourier-series approach to investigate the effects of wheel speeds, roughness wavelengths and interactions between multiple wheels on wheel/rail contact forces.

  19. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR242511 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-07

    HISTORICAL DATABASE REPORT HCV PLT PT RBC RETICS WBC DBA IF IF DOG BEAGLE Male CONTROL DATA MEAN 69.6 286 7.8 6.37 0.4 8.2...PERIOD IN DOGS EMI?? INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL HEMATOLOGY REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 - SEX: HALE STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV ...Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV - SEX: FEMALE UNITS: fL Animal ID WEEK -3 WEEK -1 WEEK 4

  20. Stress management and erectile dysfunction: a pilot comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidou, I; Venetikou, M S; Konstadinidis, K; Artemiadis, A K; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex disorder with various biopsychosocial implications leading the individual into a state of chronic stress that further worsens ED symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a 8-week stress management programme on erectile dysfunction (ED). A convenience sample of 31 newly diagnosed men with ED, aged between 20 and 55 years, was recruited during a period of 5 months to receive either tadalafil (12 patients) or tadalafil and the 8-week stress management programme. Both groups showed statistical significant improvement of both perceived stress and erectile function scores. Men practising stress management showed a statistical significant reduction in perceived stress score compared with men receiving tadalafil alone. No other statistical significant differences were noted between the two groups, although the stress management group showed a lower daily exposure to cortisol compared with the control group after 8 weeks. Finally, perceived stress and cortisol showed some interesting correlations with sexual function measurements. These findings provide important insight into the role of stress management, as part of the recommended biopsychosocial approach, in ED. Future studies should focus on randomised, controlled trials with larger samples and longer follow-up time.

  1. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1].

  2. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  3. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  4. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  5. 13-week drinking water toxicity study of hydrogen peroxide with 6-week recovery period in catalase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Freeman, C; Trochimowicz, H; de Gerlache, J; Jacobi, S; Malinverno, G; Mayr, W; Regnier, J F

    2000-07-01

    A GLP OECD guideline study was conducted to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (HP) when administered continuously in the drinking water of catalase-deficient (C57BL/6N) mice and reversibility of toxic effects. Groups of mice (15/sex/group) received solutions of 0, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm HP in distilled water for 13 weeks; five/sex/group continued on untreated distilled water for an additional 6 weeks. Animals drinking 3000 ppm HP exhibited depressed water and food consumption and body weight. Females drinking 1000 ppm HP had reduced water consumption with intermittent effects on food consumption, but no body weight effects. HP administration did not produce any mortality, clinical signs, hematological effects or organ weight effects on brain, liver, kidneys, adrenals, testes, heart or spleen. Total protein and globulin were depressed among high dose males. Mild to minimal duodenal mucosal hyperplasia was noted in animals receiving 1000 and 3000 ppm HP and one male receiving 300 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no other histopathological findings. All effects noted during the treatment period, including the duodenal hyperplasia, were reversible during the 6-week recovery period. Females dosed with 300-3000 ppm HP during the treatment period showed increased water consumption during the recovery period. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL), based on duodenal mucosal hyperplasia, is 100 ppm in drinking water or 26 and 37 mg/kg/day HP, respectively, for males and females.

  6. An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.

  7. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  8. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  9. CBVE: A Study to Measure Its Effectiveness in Kentucky. Final Report. Interim Period 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Roger D.; Cobb, Robert A.

    An interim study was conducted in Kentucky to determine the effectiveness of Competency Based Vocational Education (CBVE) and to compare its effectiveness to that of traditional teaching methodologies. Research surveys of those directly involved in the implementation of CBVE were used to ascertain if CBVE is meeting its self-stated goals.…

  10. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of…

  11. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  12. Influence of direct laser fabrication implant topography on type IV bone: a histomorphometric study in humans.

    PubMed

    Shibli, Jamil Awad; Mangano, Carlo; D'avila, Susana; Piattelli, Adriano; Pecora, Gabriele E; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Cardoso, Luciana A; Ferrari, Daniel Sanchez; Aguiar, Kelly C; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this histologic study was to evaluate the influence of the direct laser fabrication (DFL) surface topography on bone-to-implant contact (BIC%), on bone density in the threaded area (BA%) as well as bone density outside the threaded area (BD%) in type IV bone after 8 weeks of unloaded healing. Thirty patients (mean age 51.34 +/- 3.06 years) received 1 micro-implant (2.5-mm diameter and 6-mm length) each during conventional implant surgery in the posterior maxilla. Thirty micro-implants with three topographies were evaluated: 10 machined (cpTi); 10 sandblasted and acid etched surface (SAE) and 10 DFL micro-implants. After 8 weeks, the micro-implants and the surrounding tissue were removed and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Four micro-implants (2 cpTi, 1 SAE and 1DLF) showed no osseointegration after the healing period. Histometric evaluation indicated that the mean BIC% was higher for the DFL and SAE surfaces (p = 0.0002). The BA% was higher for the DFL surface, although there was no difference with the SAE surface. The BD% was similar for all topographies (p > 0.05). Data suggest that the DFL and SAE surfaces presented a higher bone-to-implant contact rate compared with cpTi surfaces under unloaded conditions, after a healing period of 8 weeks.

  13. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-03-15

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320({+-} 0.002) and f = 5.8({+-} 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476({+-} 0.005) and f = 21.3({+-} 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264({+-} 0.002), and f = 49.7({+-} 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  14. Energy and water balance studies of a snow cover during snowmelt period at a high arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.; Maréchal, D.; Sand, K.; Killingtveit, Å.

    The predicted global warming is supposed to have an enhanced effect on the arctic regions. How this will influence the water, carbon dioxide and methane balances in the European arctic tundra is the objective of the EU-funded project ``Understanding Land Surface Physical Processes in the Arctic'' (LAPP), to which where SINTEF is one of several contributors. The snow cover is one of the limiting factors for these exchange processes and knowledge of how it behaves and will behave under a different climate is important. Data collected for water and energy balance studies in an area close to Ny-Ålesund at 79°N at Svalbard are the basis of this study. Measurements during the ablation periods since 1992 show an average air temperature for the periods of 2.1°C, an average incoming shorwave radiation of 230W/m2 and an average measured runoff intensity of 14mm/day with a maximum of 68mm/day. Three models of different complexity are tested in order to simulate the water and energy balance of a snow cover on the arctic tundra. The three models are: a complex numerical model (CROCUS), a simple energy balance model and a temperature index model. The simulations were carried out for the melt periods in 1992 and 1996 as these two periods represent very different meteorological conditions. The results of these simulations exposed weaknesses in all the models. The energy balance model lacks calculation of cold content in the snowpack. This influences both the outgoing longwave radiation and the timing of the melt. Due to the effect of compensating errors in the simulations, CROCUS performed better than the simple energy balance model but also this model has problems with the simulation of outgoing longwave radiation. The temperature index model does not perform well for snowmelt studies in regions were radiation is the main driving energy source for the melt.

  15. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  18. Physically based distributed hydrological model calibration based on a short period of streamflow data: case studies in four Chinese basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guoqiang; Cui, Xingqi; Yu, Jingshan; Zuo, Depeng; Xu, Zongxue

    2017-01-01

    Physically based distributed hydrological models are widely used for hydrological simulations in various environments. As with conceptual models, they are limited in data-sparse basins by the lack of streamflow data for calibration. Short periods of observational data (less than 1 year) may be obtained from fragmentary historical records of previously existing gauging stations or from temporary gauging during field surveys, which might be of value for model calibration. However, unlike lumped conceptual models, such an approach has not been explored sufficiently for physically based distributed models. This study explored how the use of limited continuous daily streamflow data might support the application of a physically based distributed model in data-sparse basins. The influence of the length of the observation period on the calibration of the widely applied soil and water assessment tool model was evaluated in four Chinese basins with differing climatic and geophysical characteristics. The evaluations were conducted by comparing calibrations based on short periods of data with calibrations based on data from a 3-year period, which were treated as benchmark calibrations of the four basins, respectively. To ensure the differences in the model simulations solely come from differences in the calibration data, the generalized likelihood uncertainty analysis scheme was employed for the automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. In the four basins, contrary to the common understanding of the need for observations over a period of several years, data records with lengths of less than 1 year were shown to calibrate the model effectively, i.e., performances similar to the benchmark calibrations were achieved. The models of the wet Jinjiang and Donghe basins could be effectively calibrated using a shorter data record (1 month), compared with the dry Heihe and upstream Yalongjiang basins (6 months). Even though the four basins are very different, when using 1-year or

  19. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  20. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays.

  1. An Ultraviolet Study of Non-periodic Variability in Accreting Pre-Main Sequence Stars: UXors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, N. L.; Herbst, W.

    1994-05-01

    Many earlier type (K0 or hotter) pre-main sequence stars are known to occasionally and irregularly fade by as much as 2-3 magnitudes in V. Such excursions occur on timescales of ten to forty days. They include both G-type T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars. We propose UX Ori as a prototype for this class of variable stars and refer to them as UXors. We have used archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of 5 such objects, namely: RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. The leading hypothesis for explaining their behavior is variable circumstellar obscuration. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent width of these (emission) features [FeII(1,62,63) and MgII(1)] increases as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200 to 8900 angstroms were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2200 angstroms, caused by iron lines is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright. The source and location of the variable obscuring material is discussed.

  2. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  3. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  4. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  5. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  6. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  7. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  8. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  9. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  10. A 35-month prospective study on onset of scabies in a psychiatric hospital: discussion on patient transfer and incubation period.

    PubMed

    Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Yasumura, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of scabies introduction into a hospital. We addressed the following question: Do patients transferred from other institutions pose a higher risk than patients from the community? From July 2003 to May 2006, a trained physician surveyed the inpatients and staff of a psychiatric hospital (six wards, 300 beds) on a monthly basis. During the study period, specific infection control measures beyond standard precautions, such as prophylactic treatment, were not adopted. There were 333 newly-admitted patients during the study period and among them, 122 were transferred from other institutions. Seven patients were diagnosed with scabies. Two of these patients were infected while in the hospital (secondary infection), thus the number of introduced scabies cases (index cases) was five. Four of the index cases were transferred from other institutions (three from psychiatric hospitals and one from a nursing home). The source of infection for one index case was unexplained. The rate of scabies infection among transferred patients was 3.3% while the infection rate among patients from the community was 0.5%. Therefore, transferred patients pose a higher risk than those from the community. The average time from admission to diagnosis of scabies was 141 days (range 34-313 days). The hospital personnel checked the skin condition of all patients at admission and none of the four patients showed symptoms of scabies.

  11. Immune responses, upper respiratory illness symptoms, and load changes in young athletes during the preparatory period of the training periodization

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Borin, João Paulo; Rodrigues, Ariel; Bonganha, Valéria; Prestes, Jonato; Montagner, Paulo César; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological responses and the association between variation in exercise load and self-reported occurrence of upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms in young basketball athletes. Materials and methods The sample was composed of twelve young male athletes aged 12.7 ± 0.6 years, with a height of 170 ± 10 cm, body mass of 57.6 ± 12.6 kg, and fat-free mass of 18.7 ± 5.9%. Daily training and occurrences of URI symptoms were recorded. Blood samples were collected at baseline (M1) and after 8 weeks (M2) of the preparatory period of periodization training to measure total and differential leukocyte counts, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results There was a significant decrease in monocytes at M2 compared to M1 (P = 0.004). There were no significant alterations in total leukocytes (P = 0.07), neutrophils (P = 0.07), or lymphocytes (P = 0.09). No significant changes in plasma concentrations of TNF-α (P = 0.30) or IL-6 (P = 0.90) were found. The weekly load from week 6 was higher when compared with weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 (P < 0.05), and week 8 was the lowest when compared with week 5 (P < 0.05). Self-reported URI incidences were highest at weeks 1 and 2. Conclusion Variations in weekly training load during the preparatory period were not correlated with changes in self-reported occurrence of URI incidences, suggesting that young athletes may have an attenuated response to exercise-induced perturbations to the immune system. PMID:24198586

  12. The International Geophysical Month: Short periods of cooperative study can consolidate the gains of the International Geophysical Year.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, R A; Martin, L H

    1961-12-01

    For convenience, we summarize below some of the main advantages of the IGM concept. 1) Most organizations can mount and support intensive field operations for short periods. 2) High-quality data would be obtained, and the data could be processed more promptly than in long-term projects. 3) Laboratory equipment could in many instances be mnade available for field operations. 4) Top-caliber researchers would be available for field operations. 5) The participation of small research groups and of research workers from government and industry would be fostered. 6) Student participation would improve educational programs in, and attract needed talent to, the geophysical sciences. 7) Ship, satellite, and rocket observations could be scheduled for IGM's. 8) International scientific conferences scheduled to follow IGM's would attract working scientists. It is not suggested that these short-term exercises should replace the long synoptic programs characteristic of the IGY. Rather it is proposed that they supplement and guide any such future long-term program. If adopted, they would produce many data of value for the planning and timing of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. To bring emphasis on special observations during the IQSY, International Geophysical Months might well be scheduled to coincide with the June and December solstices, to be followed by an IGM at an equinoctial period. This would provide periods for concentrated sampling-periods in somewhat the same category as the Regular World Intervals adopted during the IGY. The more elaborate experiments could be confined to the International Geophysical Months, so that only those studies for which continuous observations are essential would be scheduled for the entire period. The duration of an International Geophysical Month would be sufficient for carrying out experiments requiring moving platforms such as ships, rockets, or satellites. It is recommended that every effort be made to schedule the first IGM

  13. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  14. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  15. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  16. Choice of fluid therapy in patients of craniopharyngioma in the perioperative period: A hospital-based preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, K. K.; Dutta, Pinaki; Singh, Apinderpreet; Gupta, Prakamya; Srinivasan, Anand; Bhagat, Hemant; Mathuriya, S. N.; Shah, Viral N.; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electrolyte imbalance and acute diabetes insipidus (DI) are the most common complications in patients undergoing craniopharyngioma surgery. Improper management of water and electrolyte imbalance is common cause of morbidity and mortality. Data is sparse and controversial regarding the choice of fluid therapy in this population during perioperative period. Methods: In this retrospective-prospective study involving 73 patients (58 retrospective), the type of fluid therapy was correlated with occurrence of hypernatremia, hyponatremia, DI, morbidity, and mortality. In the retrospective study, 48 patients received normal saline and 10 received mixed fluids as per the prevailing practice. In the prospective group, five patients each received normal saline, half normal saline, and 5% dextrose randomly. Results: The sodium values were significantly higher in first 48 h in the group that received normal saline compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The use of normal saline was associated with higher incidence of hypernatremia, DI, and mortality (P = 0.05), while the group that received 5% dextrose was associated with hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and seizures. There was no perioperative hypotension with use of any of the fluids. Conclusion: Our results indicate half normal saline was fluid of choice with diminished incidence of water and electrolyte abnormalities without increase in mortality during postoperative period. PMID:25101200

  17. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  18. 13-week inhalation toxicity study (including 6- and 13-week recovery periods) with ammonium persulfate dust in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Signorin, J; Ulrich, C E; Butt, M T; D'Amato, E A

    2001-11-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of ammonium persulfate was characterized using Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) at respirable dust concentrations of 0, 5.0, 10.3, and 25 mg/m(3). Whole-body exposures were conducted 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk. Gravimetric airborne test material samples were taken daily and particle size samples were taken weekly from each exposure chamber for analysis. Ten animals/sex/group were necropsied after 13 wk of exposure, and 5 animals/sex/group were held for 6- and 13-wk recovery periods. Animals were observed for clinical signs. Effects on body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry and hematology, ophthalmologic parameters, organ weights, gross lesions, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no exposure-related deaths during the study. Rales and increased respiration rate were noted in both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group, and in a few animals in the 10.3 mg/m(3) group. The incidence of these clinical signs decreased to zero during the first few weeks of the recovery period. Body weights for both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group were significantly depressed during most of the exposure period compared to the control group. By the end of the recovery period, body weights for the exposed animals were similar to the control group values. Lung weights were elevated in the 25 mg/m(3) group after 13 wk of exposure, but were similar to controls at 6 wk postexposure. Irritation of the trachea and bronchi/bronchiole was noted microscopically after 13 wk of exposure to 25 mg/m(3). These lesions had recovered by 6 wk postexposure. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10.3 mg/m(3), while the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for exposure of rats to a dust aerosol of ammonium persulfate was 5.0 mg/m(3).

  19. Effect of Moderate Exercise on Serum Interferon-Gamma and Interleukin-17 Levels in the Morphine Withdrawal Period

    PubMed Central

    Heidarianpour, Ali; Vahidian Rezazadeh, Majid; Zamani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug addiction triggers the infliction of a variety of diseases. Various subjects have indicated that during the withdrawal syndrome period, the immune system is weakened. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the changes in serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) during the morphine withdrawal syndrome induced by 8 weeks of moderate exercise and their effects on the immune system function. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6): healthy control (HC), addicted control (AC), healthy trained (HT), and addicted trained (AT) groups. AC and AT groups were made addicted to morphine sulfate (0.4 mg/mL) in 21 days. To ensure their dependence on morphine, naloxone (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into the body of a number of the rats. HT and AT groups were made to run on a treadmill 5 days per week for 8 weeks while time and speed gradually increased. Both prior to the exercises and 24 hours after the last training session, blood samples were collected from all the animals, and serum IFN-γ and IL-17 serum levels were measured using the ELISA method. This research was performed at the Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran. Results After 8 weeks of exercise, a significant increase was observed in the serum IFN-γ level in the HT group (251.17 ± 13.045) in comparison with the HC group (234 ± 12.884) (P = 0.045). Furthermore, the serum IFN-γ level in the AT group (218.33 ± 5.164) in comparison to the AC group (190.67 ± 8.477) showed a significant increase (P = 0.000). In addition, the serum level of IFN-γ in the HT group showed a significant increase compared to the AT group (P = 0.000). After 8 weeks of exercise, there was a significant decrease in the serum IL-17 level in the HT group (22.67 ± 4.46) compared with the HC group (38.17 ± 7.68) (P = 0.005). In addition, a significant decrease was observed in serum IL-17 in the AT group (42.17 ± 7.41) in comparison

  20. Brownian dynamics studies on DNA gel electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-10-01

    The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte beads and the gel as a three-dimensional array of immobile beads. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded beads to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the beads are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.

  1. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period.

  2. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  3. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  4. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m-3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2-1 samples were 1) soot and 2) (ammonium)sulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2-1 samples were 0-12% and 83-97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-). During the intermediate period, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest

  5. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  6. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  7. Light trapping efficiency of periodic and quasiperiodic back-reflectors for thin film solar cells: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Pisco, M.; La Ferrara, V.; Mercaldo, L. V.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2013-08-01

    Recently, great efforts have been carried out to design optimized metallic nano-grating back-reflectors to improve the light absorption in thin film solar cells. In this work, we compare the performances of deterministic aperiodic backreflectors in the form of 1-D nanogratings based on the generalized Fibonacci deterministic aperiodic sequence with a standard periodic one. The case of study here analyzed relies on a realistic solar cell model, where light absorption is evaluated only in the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon P-I-N junction. We found that the results of comparison are strongly influenced by the amorphous silicon extinction coefficient within the near-infrared wavelength range, where most photonic-plasmonic modes (responsible for the light absorption enhancement typically observed when structured metal nanogratings are employed) are excited. In particular, with device-grade hydrogenated amorphous silicon, we demonstrate that Fibonacci-like backreflectors are able to provide an absorption enhancement of about 4% and 20% with respect to periodic and flat metallic backreflectors, respectively. We also found that aperiodic gratings guarantee better results in terms of robustness to the incident angle of the incoming radiation. Overall, our results confirm that aperiodic geometries are effectively able to offer some intriguing perspectives to enhance light trapping capability in thin film solar cells especially thanks to the large set of patterns employable to enable a proper design of resonant modes number and their spectral locations.

  8. Recurrence rates of bipolar disorder during the postpartum period: a study on 276 medication-free Italian women.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Rosso, Gianluca; Aguglia, Andrea; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    The postpartum period is considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study was to examine the frequency and the polarity of postpartum episodes in a clinical sample of women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. In addition, we sought to examine whether there are differences in terms of clinical features of bipolar disorder between women with and without postpartum episodes. Lastly, we analyzed the potential relationship between polarity of the postpartum episodes and clinical features of bipolar disorder. The presence/absence of postpartum episodes and their characteristics were obtained from medical records of 276 women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. Two hundred seven women (75.0 %) had a history of one or more postpartum mood episodes: depressive (79.7 %), (hypo)manic (16.4 %), or mixed episodes (3.9 %). Psychotic symptoms during postpartum episodes were associated with depression in 37 (22.4 %) patients, with mania in 19 (67.8 %) patients, and with mixed episodes in 7 (87.5 %) patients. Postpartum manic and mixed episodes were significantly associated with type I disorder and with psychotic features. Our findings indicate high risk of clinically ascertained mood episodes during postpartum period in bipolar women who are not treated during pregnancy.

  9. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  10. Determination of Normal Ranges of Shock Index and Other Haemodynamic Variables in the Immediate Postpartum Period: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Hannah L.; Cottam, Kate; Hezelgrave, Natasha L.; Seed, Paul T.; Briley, Annette; Bewley, Susan; Chappell, Lucy C.; Shennan, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the normal ranges of vital signs, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) (HR/systolic BP), in the immediate postpartum period to inform the development of robust obstetric early warning scores. Study Design We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study evaluating vital signs collected within one hour following delivery in women with estimated blood loss (EBL) <500ml (316 women) delivering at a UK tertiary centre over a one-year period. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to explore associations of demographic and obstetric factors with SI. Results Median (90% reference range) was 120 (100–145) for systolic BP, 75 (58–90) for diastolic BP, 90 (73–108) for MAP, 81 (61–102) for HR, and 0.66 (0.52–0.89) for SI. Third stage Syntometrine® administration was associated with a 0.03 decrease in SI (p = 0.035) and epidural use with a 0.05 increase (p = 0.003). No other demographic or obstetric factors were associated with a change in shock index in this cohort. Conclusion This is the first study to determine normal ranges of maternal BP, MAP, HR and SI within one hour of birth, a time of considerable haemodynamic adjustment, with minimal effect of demographic and obstetric factors demonstrated. The lower 90% reference point for systolic BP and upper 90% reference point for HR correspond to triggers used to recognise shock in obstetric practice, as do the upper 90% reference points for systolic and diastolic BP for obstetric hypertensive triggers. The SI upper limit of 0.89 in well postpartum women supports current literature suggesting a threshold of 0.9 as indicating increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27997586

  11. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Periodic density functional theory investigation of the uranyl ion sorption on three mineral surfaces: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-06-04

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO(2)(110), Al(OH)(3)(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H(2)O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms' protonation state.

  13. Numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential. In the tight-binding method the probability density is expanded on a basis of Wannier states to transform the Smoluchowski equation to a discrete master equation that can be interpreted in terms of thermal hopping between potential minima. We calculate the Wannier states and hopping rates for a variety of potentials, including tilted cosine and ratchet potentials. For deep potential minima the Wannier states are well localized and the hopping rates between nearest-neighbor states are qualitatively well described by Kramers' escape rate. The next-nearest-neighbor hopping rates are negative and must be negligible compared to the nearest-neighbor rates for the discrete master equation treatment to be valid. We find that the validity of the master equation extends beyond the quantitative applicability of Kramers' escape rate.

  14. Deep Long-period Seismicity Beneath the Executive Committee Range, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, Studied Using Subspace Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, R. C.; McMahon, N. D.; Myers, E. K.; Lough, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lough et al. (2014) first detected deep sub-icecap magmatic events beneath the Executive Committee Range volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land. Here, we extend the identification and analysis of these events in space and time utilizing subspace detection. Subspace detectors provide a highly effective methodology for studying events within seismic swarms that have similar moment tensor and Green's function characteristics and are particularly effective for identifying low signal-to-noise events. Marie Byrd Land (MBL) is an extremely remote continental region that is nearly completely covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The southern extent of Marie Byrd Land lies within the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), which includes the volcanic Executive Committee Range (ECR). The ECR shows north-to-south progression of volcanism across the WARS during the Holocene. In 2013, the POLENET/ANET seismic data identified two swarms of seismic activity in 2010 and 2011. These events have been interpreted as deep, long-period (DLP) earthquakes based on depth (25-40 km) and low frequency content. The DLP events in MBL lie beneath an inferred sub-WAIS volcanic edifice imaged with ice penetrating radar and have been interpreted as a present location of magmatic intrusion. The magmatic swarm activity in MBL provides a promising target for advanced subspace detection and temporal, spatial, and event size analysis of an extensive deep long period earthquake swarm using a remote seismographic network. We utilized a catalog of 1,370 traditionally identified DLP events to construct subspace detectors for the six nearest stations and analyzed two years of data spanning 2010-2011. Association of these detections into events resulted in an approximate ten-fold increase in number of locatable earthquakes. In addition to the two previously identified swarms during early 2010 and early 2011, we find sustained activity throughout the two years of study that includes several previously

  15. Effect of red chili consumption on postoperative symptoms during the post-hemorrhoidectomy period: randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relation between consumption of chilies and postoperative symptoms after hemorrhoidectomy in patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoidal disease. A total of 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics and analgesics alone (control patients) or daily consumption of 3 g of chili powder along with identical antibiotics and analgesics (chili group). The evaluation of symptoms-pain, anal burning, pruritus, bleeding-during the postoperative period was assessed by means of patients' self-questionnaires. A global score for evaluating each postoperative symptom was compared between the two groups at the 1-week follow-up. No significant difference in age, sex distribution, or grade of disease was noted between the two groups at baseline. The incidence of post-hemorrhoidectomy symptoms was higher in the group consuming chilies during the first postoperative week. The global score for postoperative pain (14.60 for the chili group vs. 7.97 for the control group, p < 0.001) and for anal burning (12.90 for the chili group vs. 7.82 for the control group, p < 0.0001) were significant. Although bleeding (6.95 in the control group and 7.57 in the chili group, p < 0.81) and pruritus (8.06 in the control group and 8.75 in the chili group, p < 0.69) were more common in the chili group, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. This study shows that consumption of 3 g of red chilies per day during the postoperative period after hemorrhoidectomy increases the intensity of typical postoperative symptoms, stool frequency, and the consumption of analgesics.

  16. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  17. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  18. Study of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with solar wind parameters during the period 1998-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharayat, Hema; Prasad, Lalan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of solar wind parameters (solar wind speed V, plasma flow pressure, and plasma density) on cosmic ray intensity and on geomagnetic storms for the period 1998-2005 (solar cycle 23). A Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method has been done for the study. From the present study we have found that the solar wind speed is a highly effective parameter in producing cosmic ray intensity decreases and geomagnetic storms. No time lag is found between cosmic ray intensity decreases, geomagnetic storms, and peak value of solar wind speed. Further, we have found that the plasma flow pressure is effectively correlated with geomagnetic storms but it is weakly correlated with cosmic ray intensity. The cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms are found to be weakly correlated with plasma density. The decrease in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms takes place one day after the peak values of plasma flow pressure and plasma density. There is a time lag of one day between solar wind parameters (plasma flow pressure and plasma density) and cosmic ray intensity decrease, geomagnetic storms. Also, we have found a high correlation of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with the product of interplanetary magnetic field B and solar wind speed V i.e. B\\cdot V. This study may be useful in predicting the space-weather phenomena.

  19. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Watson, Hunna J; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  20. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H.; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating. PMID:27110061

  1. Clinical learning environments for student nurses: key indices from two studies compared over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Lewin, David

    2007-07-01

    In 1978, a longitudinal study commenced in England to illuminate criteria for the evaluation of hospital wards as clinical learning environments for student nurses. It derived measures to quantify the clinical learning experienced by 71 students in three cohorts in three training hospitals over their entire programme. In 2003, a second study, based in one English School of Health Studies, using clinical placements in three NHS trusts, employed a retrospective, cross-sectional, analytic survey design with anonymised, self-completion questionnaires, to map the clinical learning of 272 students as part of a quality assurance and enhancement initiative. This paper explores changes over time by comparing data based on five key indices, devised in the first study and revisited in the second. Concepts of clinical learning and supervision are reviewed as part of this changing context and background together with limitations implicit in the comparison. The findings suggest an average 20% improvement in the quality of hospital based clinical learning environments over a 25 year period, based mainly on trained staff personally supervising students more extensively, testing their theoretical knowledge more frequently and spending more time performing practical procedures with them. However, unacceptable variations in clinical learning opportunities persist for some students.

  2. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine

    2017-01-01

    Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350

  3. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  4. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  5. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  6. Superintendent Communication Strategies and Experiences That Promote Trust and Positive Relationships with the School Board during the Entry Period: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents have vast demands placed upon them by their school boards and via the political pipeline. The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. It is during the entry period that determines…

  7. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  8. Psychological Analysis of Oral Cancer Patients during Pre-operative Period in South Indian Population: A Prospective, Quantitative, Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamatchinathan, Prabhusankar; Muthuraman, Varun; Antharaju, Yuvaraj; Kumar, Mahendra; Varadharajan, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral cancer is prevalent worldwide with high incidence of mortality and morbidity. It is associated with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Moreover, patients affected are more likely to develop psychological issues and thus, addressing psychological needs of such patients is crucial. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of oral cancer patients in the pre-operative period, thereby providing them with the necessary psychological support. Materials and Methods A total of 206 patients, scheduled to undergo treatment for oral cancer were selected from various cancer centres in South India. After informed consent, 171 patients were finally analysed for their quality of life using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) version 4; and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Head and Neck (FACT-H&N), as a Quality of Life (QOL) survey. Result Most of the patients had poor quality of life and were found to be emotionally distressed pre-operatively as they did not have proper emotional support from society. Conclusion From the study it was observed that catering to the psychological needs of oral cancer patients is important and psychological counselling should be a part of a comprehensive treatment plan for such patients. PMID:27891463

  9. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  10. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  11. Study of Fe/Cr Magnetic Multilayers and Periodic Arrays of Submicron Magnetic Dots by Vector Network Analyzer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Farkhad; Francisco Sierra, Juan; Awad, Ahmad; Pryadun, Vladimir; Kakazei, Gleb

    2008-03-01

    Vector network analyzer (VNA) technique up to 8.5 GHz was applied to measure in-plane dynamic response in Fe/Cr magnetic multilayers and for the in-plane magnetized periodic arrays of Permalloy circular magnetic dots. In the antiferromagnetically coupled [Fe/Cr]n multilayers (n=10,20,40) we have investigated field dependence of the acoustic resonance in a wide range of temperatures between 300K down to 2K both for the low magnetic fields and close to the saturation field. FMR studies of the array of FeNi dots with diameter of 1 micron, the aspect ratio L/R=0.1 and with centre to centre distance varying between 1.2 to 2.5 micron allowed to resolve multiple FMR resonances as a function of magnetic field. We have found the main FMR linewidth to be dependent on the magnetic history. For the magnetic fields below 300 Oe, where magnetic vortex state forms, we have observed the field dependence of the radial modes (fr > 6GHz) to show minima close to the zero magnetic field.

  12. [Tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: Results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].

    PubMed

    Marennikova, S S

    1989-06-01

    In accordance with recommendations of the Global Commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. The study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of Equatorial Africa, occurring most frequently in Zaire. In about 70% of cases of monkeypox in human the disease is contracted from animals serving as natural virus carriers and in about one-third of such cases, from humans having monkeypox. The infectivity of humans with monkeypox for persons having close contacts with them is somewhat lower (12.3%) than in smallpox when this characteristic varies from 37% to 88%. Monkeypox in humans may take an asymptomatic course. Some species of tropical squirrels serve as natural virus carriers. These investigations have also resulted in essential corrections being made in understanding the ecology of cowpox virus, another orthopoxvirus pathogenic for man. At least 5 species of rodents have proved to be of interest as natural carriers of cowpox virus.

  13. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role.

  14. A periodic DFT study of adsorption of water on sodium-montmorillonite (001) basal and (010) edge surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenliang; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Water molecules can be easily adsorbed on the surface or in the interlayer space of clay minerals. This process is named hydration which plays an important role in various application fields. In order to find how water interacted with surface through minimizing the interaction among multiple waters, the adsorptions of single water molecule on external surfaces of sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT), including (001) basal and (010) edge surface, were theoretically investigated based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) method. The adsorption energies and geometries as well as electronic properties were studied in the work. It was found that water molecule was adsorbed on Na-MMT (001) basal surface mainly through electrostatic interaction between water molecule and Na+ cation, and was adsorbed on (010) edge surface through hydrogen bonding between water and surface sbnd OH or sbnd OH2 groups. The adsorption energy Eads value of water molecule on (010) edge surface was larger than that on (001) basal surface. After adsorption, a part of electron density was transferred from both Na-MMT (001) and (010) surfaces to water molecule. Based on the PDOS, there was the bonding between Na 3s and Ow 2p orbitals on (001) basal surface and between H 1s and O 2p orbitals for hydrogen bonds on (010) edge surface.

  15. Household Costs of Healthcare during Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period: A Case Study from Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sabina, Nazme; Blum, Lauren S.; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Ronsmans, Carine

    2006-01-01

    A household survey was undertaken in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, to estimate the costs incurred during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period for women delivering at home and in a health facility. Those interviewed included 121 women who delivered at home, 120 who delivered in an ICDDR,B basic obstetric care (BEOC) facility, 27 who delivered in a public comprehensive obstetric care (CEOC) hospital, and 58 who delivered in private hospitals. There was no significant difference in total costs incurred by those delivering at home and those delivering in a BEOC facility. Costs for those delivering in CEOC facilities were over nine times greater than for those delivering in BEOC facilities. Costs of care during delivery were predominant. Antenatal and postnatal care added between 7% and 30% to the total cost. Services were more equitable at home and in a BEOC facility compared to services provided at CEOC facilities. The study highlights the regressive nature of the financing of CEOC services and the need for a financing strategy that covers both the costs of referral and BEOC care for those in need. PMID:17591341

  16. Effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on the cutaneous silent period: a randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pujia, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano; Brienza, Marianna; Vestrini, Elisa; Valente, Gabriele Oreste; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-04-30

    The cutaneous silent period (CSP) involves a transient inhibition of the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the hand muscles induced by a painful electrical stimulation of the digital nerves. The neurotransmitters potentially involved in mediating the CSP have not been completely elucidated thus far. However, few studies suggest that the monoaminergic system may play a role in the CSP. We elicited CSPs in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand before and 3h after administration of a single oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20mg) or placebo. The two experimental sessions (drug and placebo) were performed in a random order at ≥1-week intervals. All recordings were numbered anonymously and analysed offline in a blind manner by one investigator. A significant increase in the CSP duration was observed 3h after escitalopram administration (p=0.01), and no changes were observed in the reflex latency and subjective pain sensation (p>0.05). No significant changes were observed in the CSP duration in subjects who received the placebo (all, p>0.05). Our results indicate that escitalopram increases the central disposition of serotonin and increases the activity of the spinal inhibitory interneurons on the α-motoneurons of the hand muscles. Thus, our results indicate the involvement of the monoaminergic system in controlling the spinal pain mechanisms by supraspinal descending pathways originating from the brainstem neural structures.

  17. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  18. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  19. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  20. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-07-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in all PM0.2-1 samples were ammonium sulphates with/without carbon and dark inclusion(s) (number proportion of particles 54-86%), carbon/sulphate mixture with dark inclusions(s) (4-10%), internally mixed soot/sulphate particles (2-22%), soot (0-12%) and K-rich particles with S and/or C (0-9%). During the pollution episode (PM1.6~18 μg m-3, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%, also fly ash particles), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period (PM1.6~2 μg m-3, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-. During the intermediate period (PM1.6~5 μg m-3, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest in the PM3.3-11 samples (0-81% and 0-22%, respectively). The origin of different particle types and the

  1. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando; Wang, Chumin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires.

  2. Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morone, Natalia E; Greco, Carol M; Weiner, Debra K

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this pilot study were to assess the feasibility of recruitment and adherence to an eight-session mindfulness meditation program for community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to develop initial estimates of treatment effects. It was designed as a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Participants were 37 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older with CLBP of moderate intensity occurring daily or almost every day. Participants were randomized to an 8-week mindfulness-based meditation program or to a wait-list control group. Baseline, 8-week and 3-month follow-up measures of pain, physical function, and quality of life were assessed. Eighty-nine older adults were screened and 37 found to be eligible and randomized within a 6-month period. The mean age of the sample was 74.9 years, 21/37 (57%) of participants were female and 33/37 (89%) were white. At the end of the intervention 30/37 (81%) participants completed 8-week assessments. Average class attendance of the intervention arm was 6.7 out of 8. They meditated an average of 4.3 days a week and the average minutes per day was 31.6. Compared to the control group, the intervention group displayed significant improvement in the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire Total Score and Activities Engagement subscale (P=.008, P=.004) and SF-36 Physical Function (P=.03). An 8-week mindfulness-based meditation program is feasible for older adults with CLBP. The program may lead to improvement in pain acceptance and physical function.

  3. A time period study on the efficiency of luminol in the detection of bloodstains concealed by paint on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Deepthi; Ghosh, Shayani

    2017-02-11

    Forensic Science is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. It is a science which relies on physical evidence; one of the important physical evidences being blood. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficacy of luminol reagent in detecting bloodstains on different surfaces, concealed by multiple layers of paint, over a period of time and also to compare the intensities of chemiluminescence exhibited by them. In this study, dry wall, wooden planks and metal surfaces were identified as commonly encountered surfaces at crime scenes and hence 25 of each surface were simulated and blood was spattered, which were then concealed by progressive layers of paint specific to each surface. Thereafter, each surface was critically observed for the intensity of chemiluminescence, following the application of luminol and the results were documented as photographs. The research was conducted for duration of 50 days, in order to study the effect of ageing of concealment upon detection of bloodstains using luminol. Varying intensities of chemiluminescence were displayed by all the three simulated surfaces deposited with paint over bloodstains up to three layers of concealment, depending on the nature of the surface which were captured using photography. The highest intensity of chemiluminescence was shown by concealed bloodstains on dry wall and metal surfaces, despite the number of layers of concealment. However, an increase in the number of layers of concealment produced a significant decrease in the intensity of chemiluminescenece displayed by the bloodstains concealed by paint upon reacting with luminol on metal sheets, which was not found to be uniform and consistent on the other surfaces. These findings highlight the fact that bloodstains concealed by paint could be effectively detected by luminol reagent, despite the nature and ageing of concealment and thereby provide a lead to

  4. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  5. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. Results We identified four distinct trajectory groups: ‘rapid PTH drop’ experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), ‘gradual PTH decrease’ experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), ‘slow PTH decrease with high phosphate’ experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the ‘rapid PTH drop’ and at month 24 in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ groups. Conclusions Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the

  6. Pre-culture period of mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic media influences their in vivo bone forming potential.

    PubMed

    Castano-Izquierdo, Harold; Alvarez-Barreto, José; van den Dolder, Juliette; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the in vitro pre-culture period in osteogenic media of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), influences their ability to regenerate bone when implanted in a critical size cranial defect. MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of 6-8 weeks old male Fisher rats and expanded in vitro in osteogenic media for different time periods (4, 10, and 16 days) in tissue culture plates (TCP), seeded on sintered titanium fiber meshes without the extracellular matrix (ECM) generated in vitro, and implanted in the rat cranium after 12 h. Thirty two adult Fisher rats received the implants, divided in four groups. Three groups were implanted with cells cultured for 4, 10, or 16 days in osteogenic media and at that time their alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition denoted that they were at different stages of their osteoblastic maturation (undifferentiated MSC, committed, and mature Osteoblasts, respectively). MSCs cultured without osteogenic media for 6 days were used as controls. The constructs were retrieved 4 weeks later and processed for histomorphometric analysis. Implants seeded with cells that have been cultured with osteogenic media for only 4 days revealed the highest bone formation. The lowest bone formation was obtained with the implants seeded with MSCs cultured for 16 days in the presence of osteogenic media. The results of this study suggested that the in vitro pre-culture period of MSCs is a critical factor for their ability to regenerate bone when implanted to an orthotopic site.

  7. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  8. Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Małgorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rusłan; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to

  9. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.

  11. A global study of type B quasi-periodic oscillation in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H. Q.; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Li, Zi-Jian; Bu, Qing-Cui; Qu, JinLu

    2017-04-01

    We performed a global study on the timing and spectral properties of type-B quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the outbursts of black hole X-ray binaries. The sample is built based on the observations of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), via searching in the literature in RXTE era for all the identified type-B QPOs. To enlarge the sample, we also investigated some type-B QPOs that are reported but not yet fully identified. Regarding to the time lag and hard/soft flux ratio, we found that the sources with type-B QPOs behave in two subgroups. In one subgroup, type-B QPO shows a hard time lag that first decreases and then reverse into a soft time lag along with softening of the energy spectrum. In the other subgroup, type-B QPOs distribute only in a small region with hard time lag and relatively soft hardness. These findings may be understood with a diversity of the homogeneity showing up for the hot inner flow of different sources. We confirm the universality of a positive relation between the type-B QPO frequency and the hard component luminosity in different sources. We explain the results by considering that the type-B QPO photons are produced in the inner accretion flow around the central black hole, under a local Eddington limit. Using this relationship, we derived a mass estimation of 9.3-27.1 M⊙ for the black hole in H 1743-322.

  12. Origin of short-period signals following P-diffracted waves: A case study of the 1994 Bolivian deep earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tono, Yoko; Yomogida, Kiyoshi

    1997-10-01

    Seismograms of the June 9, 1994, Bolivian deep earthquake recorded at epicentral distances from 100° to 122° show a train of signals with predominant frequencies between 1 and 2 Hz after the arrivals of short-period diffracted P-waves (P diff). We investigate the origin of these signals following P diff by analyzing a total of 20 records from the IRIS broad-band network and the short-period network of New Zealand. The arrivals of late signals continue for over 100 s, that is two times longer than the estimated source duration of this event. Subsequent aftershocks, which cause the following signals, are not expected from the long-period records. These results indicate that the long continuation of short-period signals is not due to the source complexities. The signals following P diff have small incident angles, and their spectra show peaks at about the same frequencies. These characteristics of the following signals exclude the possibility that their origin is shallow structure such as the heterogeneities beneath the stations or upper mantle. P diff propagates a long distance within the heterogeneous region near the core-mantle boundary. We conclude that the short-period signals following the main P diff are scattered waves caused by small-scale heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary.

  13. Control of oscillating glycolysis of yeast by stochastic, periodic, and steady source of substrate: a model and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Boiteux, A; Goldbeter, A; Hess, B

    1975-01-01

    Type and range of entrainment of glycolytic oscillations by a periodic source of substrate are determined experimentally in yeast extracts. Subharmonic entrainment proves the nonlinear nature of the glycolytic oscillator Random variation of the substrate input yields sustained oscillations of irregular waveform and stable period. The results agree with the predictions of an allosteric model for phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase), which is the enzyme responsible for periodic operation of glycolysis. A comparison between model and experiment in the case of a constant source of substrate further indicates that the oscillatory dynamics of the glycolytic system can satisfactorily be described by the phosphofructokinase model. PMID:172886

  14. Multiwavelength study of RX J2015.6+3711: a magnetic cataclysmic variable with a 2-h spin period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Rea, N.; Campana, S.; de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Safi-Harb, S.; Torres, D. F.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray source RX J2015.6+3711 was discovered by ROSAT in 1996 and recently proposed to be a cataclysmic variable (CV). Here, we report on an XMM-Newton observation of RX J2015.6+3711 performed in 2014, where we detected a coherent X-ray modulation at a period of 7196 ± 11 s and discovered other significant (>6σ) small-amplitude periodicities which we interpret as the CV spin period and the sidebands of a possible ˜12-h periodicity, respectively. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be described by a power law (Γ = 1.15 ± 0.04) with a complex absorption pattern, a broad emission feature at 6.60 ± 0.01 keV, and an unabsorbed flux of (3.16 ± 0.05) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We observed a significant spectral variability along the spin phase, which can be ascribed mainly to changes in the density of a partial absorber and the power law normalization. Archival X-ray observations carried out by the Chandra satellite, and two simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical pointings with Swift, revealed a gradual fading of the source in the soft X-rays over the last 13 yr, and a rather stable X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (FX/FV ≈ 1.4-1.7). Based on all these properties, we identify this source with a magnetic CV, most probably of the intermediate polar type. The 2-h spin period makes RX J2015.6+3711, the second slowest rotator of the class, after RX J0524+4244 (`Paloma'; Pspin ˜ 2.3 h). Although we cannot unambiguously establish the true orbital period with these observations, RX J2015.6+3711 appears to be a key system in the evolution of magnetic CVs.

  15. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  16. Random-effects linear modeling and sample size tables for two special crossover designs of average bioequivalence studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation and six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation designs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.

  17. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  18. Experimental study of angular and frequency spectra of laser pulse diffraction on a planar periodic nanostructure of gold V antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Balabas, M V; Efremova, E A; Ivanov, A Yu; Kantserov, A I; Krylov, I R; Pelyukhova, E B; Petrov, Yu V; Prokhorova, U V; Silaev, R V; Tretiak, O Yu; Shimko, A A

    2015-10-31

    Irradiation of a planar structure made of periodically spaced gold V antennas by a femtosecond pulsed laser has revealed several anomalously reflected and refracted waves, interpreted as diffraction maxima. Compression of the pulse spectrum in scattered light is observed. The degree of compression and wave polarisation are found to be determined by the scattering direction. (nanophotonics)

  19. Divergent endometrial inflammatory cytokine expression at peri-implantation period and after the stimulation by copper intrauterine device.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Yu-Shih; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn

    2015-10-15

    Endometrial inflammation has contradictory effects. The one occurring at peri-implantation period is favourable for embryo implantation, whereas the other occurring after the stimulation by copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) prevents from embryo implantation. In this study, 8 week female ICR mice were used to investigate the endometrial inflammation, in which they were at proestrus stage (Group 1), at peri-implantation period (Group 2), and had a copper wire implanted into right uterine horn (Group 3). Cytokine array revealed that two cytokines were highly expressed in Group 2 and Group 3 as compared with Group 1, and seven cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), had selectively strong expression in Group 3. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent TNF-α staining on the endometrium after Cu-IUD stimulation, and in vitro culture of human endometrial glandular cells with Cu induced TNF-α secretion. The increased TNF-α concentration enhanced in vitro THP-1 cells chemotaxis, and reduced embryo implantation rates. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokine profiles of endometrium are different between those at peri-implantation period and after Cu-IUD stimulation, and TNF-α is the one with selectively strong expression in the latter. It might account for the contradictory biological effects of endometrial inflammation.

  20. Divergent endometrial inflammatory cytokine expression at peri-implantation period and after the stimulation by copper intrauterine device

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Yu-Shih; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial inflammation has contradictory effects. The one occurring at peri-implantation period is favourable for embryo implantation, whereas the other occurring after the stimulation by copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) prevents from embryo implantation. In this study, 8 week female ICR mice were used to investigate the endometrial inflammation, in which they were at proestrus stage (Group 1), at peri-implantation period (Group 2), and had a copper wire implanted into right uterine horn (Group 3). Cytokine array revealed that two cytokines were highly expressed in Group 2 and Group 3 as compared with Group 1, and seven cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), had selectively strong expression in Group 3. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent TNF-α staining on the endometrium after Cu-IUD stimulation, and in vitro culture of human endometrial glandular cells with Cu induced TNF-α secretion. The increased TNF-α concentration enhanced in vitro THP-1 cells chemotaxis, and reduced embryo implantation rates. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokine profiles of endometrium are different between those at peri-implantation period and after Cu-IUD stimulation, and TNF-α is the one with selectively strong expression in the latter. It might account for the contradictory biological effects of endometrial inflammation. PMID:26469146

  1. SmartBAN with Periodic Monitoring Traffic: A Performance Study on Low-Delay and High Energy-Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Lihua; Dias, M Pubuduni Imali; Wong, Elaine

    2016-12-20

    The Smart Body Area Network (SmartBAN) is a recently proposed system for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Compared to conventional WBANs, it is designed to support lower system complexity and ultra-low power consumption. In a SmartBAN, the sensors' access is scheduled upon receiving a beacon on the data channel at the beginning of each working cycle, termed inter-beacon interval (IBI). As network performance including delay and energy consumption is highly dependent on the length of IBI, we present, in this paper, an Optimal IBI frame for SmartBAN. Our focus is on the delivery of uplink periodically-generated sensor data with low delay and high energy-efficiency. As periodic traffic is a common traffic pattern widely generated in e-health applications, for which most previously proposed Markov models for WBANs are inapplicable, a closed-form analytical delay model for periodic SmartBAN transmission is derived. Exploiting this model, a time-optimized framework that minimizes average uplink delay is formulated. An adaptive inter-beacon interval (A-IBI) algorithm is then proposed to determine the Optimal IBI during the network connection between hub and sensors. Finally, sleep mode in sensors and doze mode in the hub are introduced to reduce energy consumption under the proposed framework. With Optimal IBI, the percentage of energy-savings and channel efficiency are evaluated. Simulation and theoretical results show that by using the proposed time-optimized framework, both delay and energy consumption of periodic traffic are significantly reduced. Comparisons with the IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN show performance improvements in periodic uplink delay and energy consumption with our proposed time-optimized framework for SmartBANs.

  2. A VLT-ULTRACAM study of the fast optical quasi-periodic oscillations in the polar V834 Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Van Box Som, L.; Falize, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Breytenbach, H.; Ashley, R. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of a few seconds have been detected in some polars, the synchronised subclass of cataclysmic systems containing a strongly magnetised white dwarf which accretes matter from a red dwarf companion. The QPOs are thought to be related to instabilities of a shock formed in the accretion column, close to the white dwarf photosphere above the impact region. We present optical observations of the polar V834 Centauri performed with the fast ULTRACAM camera mounted on the ESO-VLT simultaneously in three filters (u', He ii λ4686, r') to study these oscillations and characterise their properties along the orbit when the column is seen at different viewing angles. Fast Fourier transforms and wavelet analysis have been performed and the mean frequency, rms amplitude, and coherence of the QPOs are derived; a detailed inspection of individual pulses has also been performed. The observations confirm the probable ubiquity of the QPOs for this source at all epochs when the source is in a high state, with observed mean amplitude of 2.1% (r'), 1.5% (He ii), and 0.6% (u'). The QPOs are present in the r' filter at all phases of the orbital cycle, with a higher relative amplitude around the maximum of the light curve. They are also detected in the He ii and u' filters but at a lower level. Trains of oscillations are clearly observed in the r' light curve and can be mimicked by a superposition of damped sinusoids with various parameters. The QPO energy distribution is comparable to that of the cyclotron flux, consistent for the r' and He ii filters but requiring a significant dilution in the u' filter. New 1D hydrodynamical simulations of shock instabilities, adapted to the physical parameters of V834 Cen, can account for the optical QPO amplitude and X-ray upper limit assuming a cross section of the accretion column in the range (4 - 5) × 1014 cm2. However, the predicted frequency is larger than the observed one by an order of magnitude. This

  3. The PRCI study: design of a randomized clinical trial to evaluate a coping intervention for medical waiting periods used by women undergoing a fertility treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many medical situations necessitate a stressful period of waiting for potentially threatening test results. The medical waiting period is often associated with negative anticipatory anxiety and rumination about the outcome of treatment. Few evidence-based self-help coping interventions are available to assist individuals manage these periods. Theory and research suggest that positive reappraisal coping strategies may be particularly useful for this type of unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful context. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) on psychological well-being of women waiting for the outcome of their fertility treatment cycle. Methods/Design In a three-armed randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of the PRCI will be tested. Consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation in a Dutch university hospital and meeting selection criteria will be invited to participate. Those who agree will be randomized to one of three experimental groups (N=372). The PRCI Intervention group will receive the intervention that comprises an explanatory leaflet and the 10 statements designed to promote positive reappraisal coping, to be read at least once in the morning, once in the evening. To capture the general impact of PRCI on psychological wellbeing patients will complete questionnaires before the waiting period (pre-intervention), on day ten of the 14-day waiting period (intervention) and six weeks after the start of the waiting period (post-intervention). To capture the specific effects of the PRCI during the waiting period, patients will also be asked to monitor daily their emotions and reactions during the 14-day waiting period. The primary outcome is general anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are positive and negative emotions during the waiting period, depression, quality of life, coping and treatment outcome. During

  4. Full-wave model and numerical study of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by multilayered, fiber-based periodic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The present work aims at building up a full-wave computational model of electromagnetic nondestructive testing of composite materials produced by stacking up dielectric slabs one over the other. In each such dielectric slab, a periodic array of infinite cylindrical fibers is embedded. Electromagnetic scattering of such a multilayered, fiber-based periodic composite is investigated here for an obliquely incident plane wave, the plane of incidence of which differs from the plane orthogonal to the fibers' axes. Full-wave field representations are given first by multipole and plane wave expansions. Mode matching at boundaries between layers then yields the propagating matrices, which are applied to connect reflection and transmission coefficients of the longitudinal field components. Power reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained from time-averaged Poynting vectors. Numerical experiments with comparisons with known results illustrate the accuracy of the model proposed.

  5. The period effect in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria, and peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Kayla; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether, for a specific duration of type 1 diabetes, there is a significant change in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy in those more recently diagnosed with diabetes (a period effect), in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Where present, to determine how common risk factors for diabetic complications might be associated with it, and what might be driving it. Materials and methods Longitudinal cohort study with seven examination phases between 1980 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression models and ordinal parameterization were used to test for and evaluate any period effect. Results There is a period effect in the prevalence of gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy (decreasing), as seen with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.001). Adjusting for changing levels of common risk factors attenuates the period effect, particularly for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. For gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy, however there is a persistent period effect in spite of adjusting for the major risk factors. Conclusions There are period effects in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy that cannot be fully explained by changes in common risk factors for complications of type 1 diabetes in this cohort. The role of other potential confounders warrants further exploration. PMID:28362881

  6. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  7. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  8. Rapid relief of signs/symptoms in chronic venous microangiopathy with pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Rohdewald, P; Pellegrini, L; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Fano, F; Dugall, M; Acerbi, G; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Hosoi, M; Stuard, S; Corsi, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of oral Pycnogenol (Horphag Research Ltd, UK) in patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency. Patients with severe venous hypertension (chronic venous insufficiency, ankle swelling) and history of venous ulcerations were treated with Pycnogenol. Patients received oral Pycnogenol (50 mg capsules, 3 times daily for a total of 150 mg daily) for 8 weeks. A group of 21 patients was included in the treatment group and 18 equivalent patients were observed as controls (no treatment during the observation period). All 21 patients (age 53 years; range, 42-60 years; M:F=11:10) in the treatment group completed the 8-week study. Also the 18 controls completed the follow-up period. There were no drop-outs. The average ambulatory venous pressure was 59.3 (SD 7.2; range 50-68) with a refilling time shorter than 10 seconds (average 7.6; SD 3). There were no differences in ambulatory venous pressure or refilling time between the treatment and control patients. The duration of the disease-from the first signs/symptoms-was on average 5.7 years (SD 2.1). At 4 and 8 weeks, in all Pycnogenol-treated subjects, microcirculatory and clinical evaluations indicated a progressive decrease in skin flux, indicating an improvement in the level of microangiopathy; a significant decrease in capillary filtration; a significant improvement in the symptomatic score; and a reduction in edema. There were no visible effects in controls. In conclusion, this study confirms the fast clinical efficacy of Pycnogenol in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and venous microangiopathy. The study indicates the significant clinical role of Pycnogenol in the management, treatment and control of this common clinical problem. The treatment may be also useful to prevent ulcerations by controlling the level of venous microangiopathy.

  9. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  10. A Study of Eighth Grade Students from a South Texas Middle School Who Participated in 30-Minute Required Reading Periods of Self-Selected Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Cecilia; Lira, Juan R.

    A study focused on 41 eighth-grade students from a south Texas middle school who read self-selected books for 30-minute periods 5 times weekly from October 1996 to May 1997 to determine if increased reading time and book self-selection would improve their reading achievement. The study also sought to determine the students' attitudes towards…

  11. Study of Periodic Forcing with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for the Control of Flow Separation on a NACA 0012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Joseph P.

    The continued high global demand for passenger and freight air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), in spite of rising fuel costs and several tragic cases involving loss-of-control events, has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies, which would result in safer, more reliable, and superior performing aircraft. Aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem having already proven its ability to enable higher flow efficiency while also simultaneously improving overall flow control. Recent research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices such as slats and flaps to plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. In addition, plasma actuator technology has the potential of application to a host of other aircraft performance parameters including applications in radar mitigation and in situ wing deicing. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device, which uses dominant electric fields and the respective electrically related body forces for actuation. Unlike momentum jets or other traditional flow control methods used on wings and tail surfaces, a DBD device operates without moving components or injecting any mass into the flow stream. Work performed focuses on qualitatively investigating experimentally the use of DBD devices for flow separation control on a NACA 0012-based 2D wing model. Flow visualization techniques illuminated flow seed particles around the model to determine the state of the flow (i.e., attached or separated) for various actuator cases. The DBD was operated in a steady-on mode as well as for three different pulsing frequencies (only for low power testing) based on the Strouhal frequency for each flight condition and compared to the clean (i.e., plasma off) case. Some of

  12. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  13. Soviet Assessments of the Theater Balance of Forces: A Case Study of the Beginning Period of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    the thr•ee time pe-iods stucip.,. P - tnp becirrirr of the 195?- 16 196E tigme period. it was a- ouet tPat it is both ’oossible aria ces-reain-. t7...3.2 Preliminary Preoaratior, s,- the Be rr Pe-’i,, of . ih ect P -e arear ions for the Becir, rirc Peri-, : -c .. . . . .. t. 3.4 Irnte.I igence...Distriout ,- o.-: Scurce t’aý;er. .. T~ A , R: Th)ree Sovyet lma- p . c:f ’ trwcl ver *-’f Beg.rfnirn Perlccs o 1

  14. Molecular recognition and processing of periodic signals in cells: study of activation of membrane ATPases by alternating electric fields.

    PubMed

    Tsong, T Y

    1992-03-26

    A molecule which is immobilized, oriented or tumbling more slowly than the frequency of a periodic field, may interact with the field to produce chemical effects that are uncommon in a homogeneous solution. Among these effects are the alteration of the rate of a chemical reaction and the exchange of energy between the oscillating field and the conformation of the molecule. When certain conditions are satisfied, this exchange allows the molecule to absorb and couple the energy of the field to drive an endergonic reaction. The efficiency of energy coupling depends on field strength and frequency and on the ligand concentration. There are windows of these parameters to achieve efficient coupling. These windows can be expressed in terms of the rate constants and equilibrium constants of the catalytic reactions, and the amplitude and frequency of the periodic field. This mechanism allows cells to receive, process and transmit energy of high and medium level periodic potentials by means of membrane enzymes or receptors. A theory for the transduction of electric energy, electroconformational coupling (ECC) will be discussed. The electric field induced cation pumping activities of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase of human erythrocytes and the ATP synthetic activity of beef heart mitochondrial ATPase will then be used to test an ECC membrane transport model. For the processing of low level periodic signals, a theory of an oscillatory activation barrier (OAB), which considers resonance transduction between an oscillating field and the activation barrier of the rate limiting step in an enzymic reaction, will be discussed. The OAB mechanism successfully interprets the AC stimulated ATP hydrolysis activity of Ecto-ATPase from chicken oviduct and F0F1-ATPase from beef heart. We propose that mechanisms similar to an OAB model are adopted by cells to sense weak electric, acoustic, mechanical, concentration (i.e., chemical potential) and other types of signals, and to communicate with

  15. Dynamical Study of the Galactic Influence on the A(orig) Distribution of the Long Period Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Analizamos el efecto de la Galaxia como un todo, en la fronte- ra exterior de la nube de Oort de cometas, asi como la influencia de las estrellas vecinas en la distribucion observada de semi ejes mayores originales de los cometas de largo periodo. ABSTRACT. By means of a very simple formulation, in a Sun-centered reference frame, we analyze the effect of the Galaxy as a whole, on the exterior bound of the Oort cloud of comets, as well as the influence of the neighbour stars in the observed distribution of original semimajor axis of long period comets. Kaq wo : COMETS

  16. A comparative study of cloud condensation nuclei measured between non-heating and heating periods at a suburb site of Qingdao in the North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Zhu, Yujiao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we studied concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and CCN activity measured at a suburb site of Qingdao in the North China during a non-heating period from 19 May to 3 June 2013 and a heating period from 6 November to 6 December 2013. Concentrations of CCN during the non-heating period were 3.1 ± 1.9 (mean ± standard deviation), 4.9 ± 3.4, 5.6 ± 3.9, 6.1 ± 4.3 and 6.5 ± 4.6 in unit of ×103 cm-3 at supersaturation (SS) of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively. The corresponding CCN activities of atmospheric particles were 0.28 ± 0.17, 0.43 ± 0.24, 0.48 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.27 and 0.54 ± 0.28, respectively. Concentrations of CCN during the heating period were 3.1 ± 1.3, 6.4 ± 2.3, 8.5 ± 2.9, 9.6 ± 3.5 and 10 ± 3.9 in unit of ×103 cm-3 at SS of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively. The corresponding CCN activities were 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.24 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.14, 0.35 ± 0.15 and 0.37 ± 0.15, respectively. At SS ≥ 0.4%, concentrations of CCN were significantly larger during the heating period than during the non-heating period with 95% confidence because of larger particle number concentrations associated. However, CCN activities were significantly lower during the heating period than during the non-heating period at each SS. The lower CCN activities during the heating period were analyzed in terms of origins, median mobility diameter and possible chemical composition of atmospheric particles. However, when new particle formation events during the heating and the non-heating periods were considered alone, CCN activities of grown new particles at the same size range sometimes appeared to be constant regardless of the heating or non-heating periods.

  17. A system for generating long streamflow records for study of floods of long return period: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.D.; Kraeger, B.A.; Linsley, R.K.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge of the return periods of large floods is required to make risk analyses for nuclear power plants subject to flooding from rivers. The system reported here combined the stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall data and daily pan evaporation data with the deterministic simulation of streamflow by using the synthetic rainfall and evaporation data as input to a calibrated rainfall runoff model. The sequence of annual maximum flood peaks from a synthetic record of 10,000 years or more was then analyzed to obtain estimates of flood frequency. The reasonableness of the flood frequency results must be evaluated on the degree of mimicry of the key characteristics of the observed rainfall data and the ability of the rainfall-runoff model to mimic the observed flood frequency during the calibration period. On this basis, the flood frequency results appeared to be a reasonable extrapolation of the data used in defining the model parameters. There is a need to develop regional parameters for the stochastic models and to conduct research on the relationship between the stochastic structure of rainfall and stochastic structure of flood frequency. The methodology is applicable, assuming a highly skilled analyst, to watersheds similar to those already tested.

  18. Ozone interaction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in atmospheric processes: theoretical density functional study by molecular and periodic methodologies.

    PubMed

    Maranzana, Andrea; Serra, Giovanni; Giordana, Anna; Tonachini, Glauco; Barco, Gianluca; Causà, Mauro

    2005-12-08

    The ozonization mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot is investigated by quantum mechanical calculations carried out on molecular and periodic systems. PAHs, interesting per se, serve also to model the local features of the graphenic soot platelets, for which another model is provided by a periodic representation of one graphenic layer. A concerted addition leads to a primary ozonide, while a nonconcerted attack produces a trioxyl diradical (in which one of the two unpaired electrons is pi-delocalized). Easy loss of (i) (1)O(2) or (ii) (3)O(2) from either intermediate, with spin conservation, would yield stable (i) singlet or (ii) triplet pi-delocalized species which carry an epoxide group. The trioxyl diradical pathway is estimated to be preferred, in these systems. An intersystem crossing, taking place in the trioxyl diradicals, can be invoked to allow the even easier loss of a ground-state oxygen molecule with the formation of a ground-state epoxide in a more exoergic and less demanding step. We propose that soot ozonization can take place by such a process, with ultimate functionalization of the graphenic platelets by epoxide groups.

  19. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  20. Do changes in subjective sleep and biological rhythms predict worsening in postpartum depressive symptoms? A prospective study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-08-01

    Abnormalities of sleep and biological rhythms have been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, less is known about the influence of biological rhythm disruptions across the perinatal period on postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between subjective changes in both sleep and biological rhythms and worsening of depressive symptoms from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with and without mood disorders. Eighty-three participants (38 euthymic women with a history of a mood disorder and 45 healthy controls) were studied. Participants completed subjective assessments of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), biological rhythm disturbances (Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) prospectively at two time points: third trimester of pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Multivariate regression analyses showed that changes in biological rhythms across the perinatal period predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in both groups. Moreover, women with a history of a mood disorder showed higher levels of sleep and biological rhythm disruption during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. These findings suggest that disruptions in biological rhythms during the perinatal period increase the risk for postpartum mood worsening in healthy pregnant as well as in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders.

  1. Factors that favor the occurrence of cough in patients treated with ramipril – A pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Wyskida, Katarzyna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smertka, Mike; Owczarek, Aleksander; Chudek, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dry cough is a common cause for the discontinuation of ramipril treatment. The aim of this pharmacoepidemiological study was to assess the incidence of ramipril-related cough among the Polish population and to characterize patients at risk of experiencing the adverse effect of cough during ramipril treatment. Material/Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 10,380 patients treated with ramipril for a period of no longer than 8 weeks, consisting of 3 visits: baseline, first follow-up (after 4–8 weeks) and second follow-up visit (after 4–8 weeks of cessation of ramipril, conducted only for evaluating coughing patients). Results The incidence of ramipril-related cough was 7.1%. Logistic regression analysis identified female sex (OR=1.35), cigarette smoking (OR=2.50), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR=1.70), asthma (OR=1.60) and previous history of tuberculosis (OR=6.20) to be significantly and independently associated with the onset of ramipril-related cough. Coughing subsided within a period of 2–20 days after ramipril was discontinued. In all patients reporting the appearance of cough within the first 5 days after therapy initiation, the adverse effect subsided after therapy discontinuation. If cough appeared within 6–10 days, it subsided after discontinuation in 81.6% of subjects. Cough persisted in 30.4% of those reporting later onset. Conclusions 1. Female sex, cigarette smoking, COPD, asthma, and previous history of tuberculosis increase the risk of ramipril-related cough. 2. The later the cough occurs during treatment, the less often the drug is the causative agent and the cough and also less likely to disappear after discontinuation of ramipril. PMID:22936201

  2. Experimental study of a compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Liang; Qian Baoliang; Ge Xingjun; Zhang Xiaoping; Jin Zhenxing

    2012-08-15

    A compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure was investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the frequency of the P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator is 897 MHz and the microwave power is 1.47 GW with an efficiency of about 32% in the case in which the diode voltage is 572 kV, the beam current is 8.0 kA, and the guide magnetic field is about 0.86 T. In addition, the device can generate a 3.14 GW microwave radiation as the guide magnetic field increases to 1.2 T at the diode voltage of 997 kV and the beam current of 15.3 kA. The experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained earlier by numerical simulations.

  3. [Scanning electron microscopic study of so-called carvable composite filling materials after over one-year functional period].

    PubMed

    Triadan, H

    1979-03-01

    28 class-5 and 16 class-1 fillings were made from the composite material "Epoxydent" on a macaca speciosa monkey and examined with the electron microscope after a 15 months functional period. Statistically significant differences in the size of the marginal space were found to be larger than in comparable composites Adaptic, Concise, Compo-Cap and Cosmic. The spaces were frequently not located on the filling margin but inside, within the filling material. This is attributed to the "carving" technique during the gel phase of setting. The surface shows abrasions and porosities with loss of particles, sometimes fractures and discolored margins with secondary caries. It is not recommended to replace metal fillings by so-called carvable composits.

  4. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  5. The interannual variability of trace gases in the stratosphere: A comparative study of the LIMS and UARS measurement periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, L. J.; Ruth, S.

    1992-04-01

    The inter-annual variability of trace gases in the equatorial lower stratosphere is examined in order to explore the usefulness of comparisons between measurements from LIMS and the UARS satellite instruments. The quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) is simulated in a two dimensional model by relaxing the modelled equatorial winds towards observed values. It is shown that during the LIMS data period the QBO was in the opposite phase to that expected during the first winter of the UARS measurements. The model predicts that LIMS measurements of ozone, NO2, and HNO3 may have been up to 30% less than the long-term average in the equatorial lower stratosphere while the first few months of UARS measurements may observe abundances up to 30% more than the long-term average. The importance of taking this variability into account and the desirability of several complete cycles of the QBO in the derivation of climatological values is noted.

  6. Analytical study of seismic effects of a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the seismic effects experienced by a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods. Ten concrete towers are modeled with the empty solar receiver structure and loaded solar receiver structure to examine the tower seismic effects on the solar receiver. The fundamental periods of the towers range from 0.22 seconds to 4.58 seconds, with heights ranging from 40.5 meters to 200 meters. Thirty earthquake ground motion records are used to investigate the responses of each of the combined receiver-on-tower models as well as the receiver-on-ground models by the STAAD Pro software using time history analyses. The earthquake ground motion records are chosen based on the ratio of the peak ground acceleration to the peak ground velocity, ranging from 0.29 g/m/s to 4.88 g/m/s. For each of the combined models, the base shear at the interface between the receiver and the concrete tower is compared with the base shear of the receiver-on-ground model, and the ratio of the two base shears represents the structure amplification factor. It is found that the peak mean plus one standard deviation value of the structure amplification factor matches well with equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 for the empty solar receiver structure. However, when the solar receiver structure is loaded with dead loads, the peak value is greatly suppressed, and using equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 will be overly conservative.

  7. Chemical interaction of water molecules with framework Al in acid zeolites: a periodic ab initio study on H-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés-Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2015-09-28

    Periodic quantum-chemistry methods as implemented in the CRYSTAL14 code were considered to analyse the interaction of acid clinoptilolite with water. Initially adsorbed molecules hydrolyse the Al-O bonds, giving rise to defective dealuminated materials. A suitable and representative periodic model of the partially disordered hydrated H-zeolite is the primitive cell (18 T sites) of a decahydrated trialuminated structure of HEU topology. The water distribution inside the material cavities was initially investigated. The model considered for further dealumination was the most stable one from those generated through a combined force field Monte Carlo and ab initio optimization strategy. Optimizations and energy estimations were made at the hybrid DFT level of theory (PBE0 functional) with an atomic basis set of VDZP quality. The energetics of the different pathways involved in the dealumination process was addressed by considering the Gibbs free energy with thermal and zero-point corrections through phonon analysis. It arises that hydrated models exhibit protonated water clusters stabilized by different kinds of H-bonds. The first Al extraction is slightly more energetically favourable from T3 than T2 sites, but at the same time the latter is more probable owing to its larger Al population. However, concerning the second dealumination step, it is more favourable removing the Al atom from both remaining sites after a starting abstraction from T2 rather than T3. These facts determine that the most probable overall pathways go through a first Al removal from T2. The agreement with experimental results is discussed.

  8. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  9. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  10. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  11. Business Education Index 1992. Volume 53. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This index provides entries for business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of periodicals and yearbooks published during 1992. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum with emphasis on information systems (including business communications),…

  12. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  13. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part II: experimental studies on a stimulated leg.

    PubMed

    Olson, D A; Kamm, R D; Shapiro, A H

    1982-05-01

    In this companion paper to "Part I: Numerical Simulations, " we report in vitro experimental studies performed on a simple model leg consisting of a "vein" of thin-walled latex tubing surrounded by "tissue" of open-pore foam rubber. Three modes of periodic external compression, were investigated: i) uniform compression; (ii) graded compression, decreasing from ankle to knee; and (iii) sequential compression, progressing from ankle to knee. The modes are compared on the basis of three hemodynamic criteria: degree of vessel collapse, level of fluid velocity, and level of shear stress. In uniform compression these measures of merit are distributed very nonuniformly along the length of the leg: they are high near the proximal end of the cuff but low elsewhere, a result due to the formation proximally of a partially occlusive throat. The latter does not form in either graded or sequential compression, with the consequence that favorable values of the three measures of merit occur more uniformly along the length of the pressurized region. It is concluded that either the graded or sequential mode of compression, or perhaps a combination of the two, would be more effective than uniform compression as a prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis.

  14. A study of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum and W Ursae Majoris binary systems - The global nature of H-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, S. C.

    1985-08-01

    The author presents the rotation versus emission characteristics of the Hα line for several short-period (P ⪉ 1d) RS CVn and W UMa binary systems. Estimates for the chromospheric emission arising from each component star were obtained by subtraction of "nonactive" model spectra constructed from comparison stars. Enhanced Hα emission compared to the nonactive comparison stars is seen on all components of the short-period RS CVn systems studied, while a similar enhancement is only typically seen on the primary components of the W-type W UMa systems. A possible correlation between LHα/Lbol and the Rossby number (the ratio between the rotational period and the convective time scale) is seen for those components showing emission.

  15. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  16. A light and electron microscopic study of the changes in the duodenal mucosa induced by sustained pentagastrin stimulation of gastic acid secretion in young rats.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, W. J.; Denham, D.; Hawkins, W.; Forrest, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    The histological and electron microscopic changes in the duodenal mucosa have been studied over an 8-week experimental period in rats whose gastric acid secretion was stimulated by pentagastrin in a medium of beeswax and mineral oil, and in controls that received injections of beeswax and mineral oil only. The changes leading of final disintegration of the epithelium are described in detail. The main aim of the experiment--to induce mucous change in the duodenal mucosa--was not realized. Images Figs. 1-2 Figs. 3-4 Figs. 5-6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 PMID:1222117

  17. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  18. Ground-based spectropolarimetric studies of the outer planets and Titan. High resolutiom spectral imagery for periodic and new comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Hayden

    1988-01-01

    Using novel spectropolarimeteric imaging techniques, researchers have studied the outer planets, Titan, and various comets. In the previous year, researchers submitted and have now in press or published fourteen papers on studies of comets and planets, as well as instrumentation developments to enhance observational studies.

  19. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  20. Lessons learned from the ATLAS performance studies of the Iberian Cloud for the first LHC running period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, V.; Borges, G.; Borrego, C.; del Peso, J.; Delfino, M.; Gomes, J.; González de la Hoz, S.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Salt, J.; Sedov, A.; Villaplana, M.; Wolters, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution we describe the performance of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) ATLAS cloud during the first LHC running period (March 2010-January 2013) in the context of the GRID Computing and Data Distribution Model. The evolution of the resources for CPU, disk and tape in the Iberian Tier-1 and Tier-2s is summarized. The data distribution over all ATLAS destinations is shown, focusing on the number of files transferred and the size of the data. The status and distribution of simulation and analysis jobs within the cloud are discussed. The Distributed Analysis tools used to perform physics analysis are explained as well. Cloud performance in terms of the availability and reliability of its sites is discussed. The effect of the changes in the ATLAS Computing Model on the cloud is analyzed. Finally, the readiness of the Iberian Cloud towards the first Long Shutdown (LS1) is evaluated and an outline of the foreseen actions to take in the coming years is given. The shutdown will be a good opportunity to improve and evolve the ATLAS Distributed Computing system to prepare for the future challenges of the LHC operation.

  1. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Marana, Naiara L.; Albuquerque, Anderson R.; La Porta, Felipe A.; Longo, Elson; Sambrano, Julio R.

    2016-05-15

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors. - Graphical abstract: DFT/B3LYP were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of SWZnONTs and SWCNTs with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. - Highlights: • The energies of SWZnONTs converge for chirality with diameters up 20 Å. • SWCNTs electronic properties depend on the chirality. • The properties of SWZnONTs are very similar to those of monolayer surface.

  2. The influence of Greenland melt water on climate during past and future warm periods: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, Michael; Bakker, Pepijn; Renssen, Hans

    2013-04-01

    "Can past climates teach us something about the future?" Under this general question of interest to most palaeoclimate-modeller we specified it more to "Can past changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) related to melt water from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) teach us something about future changes in the AMOC forced by predicted partial melting of the GIS?" To address this question, we developed a series of sensitivity experiments with the global atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model LOVECLIM to better understand the relationship between the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) melt over the last and present interglacials (the Eemian and the Holocene, respectively) and put these into perspective of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. In terms of radiative forcing, future emission scenarios are different from past orbitally-forced warm periods, as past insolation varied per season and per latitude, whereas radiative forcing due to future greenhouse gas emissions has no seasonal component (i.e. it is an annual forcing) and shows little variation per latitude. However, the two can be compared when we consider the radiative forcing regimes of the different considered warm climates, by focusing on the energy that is potentially available from radiative forcing to melt the GIS. In a similar approach, Swingedouw et al. (2009) have shown in simulations with an AOGCM that the AMOC sensitivity relates non-linear to freshwater input and that under Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions the climate is more sensitive compared to warmer climates. They conclude that different climatic conditions share similar patterns in response and that past climates are useful for models to evaluate their abilities in reproducing past events. The authors encourage further model sensitivity testing to gain a better understanding of this highly important question. In order to test this approach we

  3. Identifying Factors Associated With Dropout During Prerandomization Run-in Period From an mHealth Physical Activity Education Study: The mPED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl; Haskell, William; Arai, Shoshana; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The mobile phone-based physical activity education (mPED) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a mobile phone-delivered physical activity intervention for women. The study includes a run-in period to maximize the internal validity of the intervention trial, but little is known about factors related to successful run-in completion, and thus about potential threats to external validity. Objective Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the timing of dropout during the run-in period, reasons for dropout, optimum run-in duration, and relevant run-in components, and (2) to identify predictors of failure to complete the run-in period. Methods A total of 318 physically inactive women met preliminary eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study between May 2011 and April 2014. A 3-week run-in period was required prior to randomization and included using a mobile phone app and wearing a pedometer. Cross-sectional analysis identified predictors of dropout. Results Out of 318 participants, 108 (34.0%) dropped out prior to randomization, with poor adherence using the study equipment being the most common reason. Median failure time was 17 days into the run-in period. In univariate analyses, nonrandomized participants were younger, had lower income, were less likely to drive regularly, were less likely to have used a pedometer prior to the study, were generally less healthy, had less self-efficacy for physical activity, and reported more depressive symptoms than randomized participants. In multivariate competing risks models, not driving regularly in the past month and not having used a pedometer prior to the study were significantly associated with failure to be randomized (P=.04 and .006, respectively), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, shift work, and use of a study-provided mobile phone. Conclusions Regular driving and past pedometer use were associated with reduced dropout during the prerandomization run-in period

  4. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-PROPAGATING MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND THE ASSOCIATED FLARE ON 2011 MAY 30

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-01

    On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of {approx}834 km s{sup -1} during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - {omega} diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - {omega} diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.

  5. Numerical study for characteristic change of Asian summer monsoon circulation and its influence mechanism during the El Nino period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yunqi; Lin, Yuanbi

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, the relation between Asian summer monsoon circulation and sea surface temperature anomalies over equatorial central-eastern Pacific is investigated by using a global spectral model. This model has nine layers in the vertical and the model variables are represented in the horizontal as truncated expansions of the surface spherical harmonics with rhomboidal truncation at wave number 15. The model involves comparatively complete physical processes and parameterizations with mountains. Using the above model, two experimental schemes are designed, namely control case and anomalous sea surface temperature case. The above two schemes are respectively integrated for forty days and the simulated results are obtained from the last 30-day averaged simulations. The simulations show that positive SST anomalies over equatorial central-eastern Pacific weakens Indian monsoon circulation, decreases precipitation in Indian sub-continent whereas it intensifies East Asian monsoon circulation and increases precipitation in East Asian area. All these results reflect the characteristics of Asian summer monsoon during the El Nino period. In this paper, SST anomalies over equatorial central-eastern Pacific have a direct influence on the intensity and position of subtropical high via the wave train over Northern Hemisphere, which is similar to that suggested by Nitta(1987) and the wave train over Southern Hemisphere has an influence on the intensity of Mascarene high and Australia high resulting in affecting cross equatorial flow. As a result, atmospheric interior heat sources and sinks are redistributed because of the change of cross equatorial flow. And the response of atmosphere to the new heat source and sink has a significant influence on Asian summer monsoon.

  6. Multiple adsorption of NO on cobalt-exchanged chabazite, mordenite, and ferrierite zeolites: a periodic density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Ivelina; Benco, Lubomir; Tunega, Daniel; Trendafilova, Natasha; Hafner, Jürgen; Lischka, Hans

    2009-08-07

    The adsorption of NO on Co(II)-exchanged chabazite (CHA), mordenite (MOR), and ferrierite (FER) has been investigated by periodic density functional theory calculations. The most stable configurations of Co(II) in alpha and beta sites of the zeolites with two framework Al/Si substitutions at short distances and Al-(Si)(n>1)-Al ordering are used for calculating the adsorption energy of NO molecules on Co(II) cations and at Al framework sites. The less stable configurations of alpha-Co(II)-MOR/FER show larger adsorption energies for one and two NO molecules. The bonding of one, two (and three) NO molecules to alpha/beta-Co(II) sites in CHA/MOR/FER induces a shortening of the N-O bond lengths because electron density is withdrawn from the antibonding orbital of the adsorbed NO molecule. The calculated nu(NO) stretching frequencies of mono- and dinitrosyl complexes at alpha/beta-Co(II)-MOR/FER are in good agreement with the experimental data. NO molecules adsorbed on alpha-Co(II)-MOR and on alpha-Co(II)-FER show similar NO stretching frequencies as nitrosyl complexes in Co(II)-MOR/-FER/-ZSM-5. Mononitrosyl complexes of alpha/beta-Co(II)-MOR/FER display nu(NO) frequencies blueshifted relative to the free NO, while in dinitrosyl complexes both the symmetric and asymmetric components are redshifted compared to the mononitrosyl frequency. The analysis of the vibrational spectra suggests that mononitrosyls are formed by adsorption at cation in both alpha and beta sites in MOR, FER, and ZSM-5, while dinitrosyl complexes exist only at alpha-type Lewis sites. This is important for the understanding of the reduction mechanism of NO to N(2). A larger adsorption capacity of alpha-Co(II)-FER compared to alpha-Co(II)-MOR is predicted.

  7. Multiple adsorption of NO on cobalt-exchanged chabazite, mordenite, and ferrierite zeolites: A periodic density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Ivelina; Benco, Lubomir; Tunega, Daniel; Trendafilova, Natasha; Hafner, Jürgen; Lischka, Hans

    2009-08-01

    The adsorption of NO on Co(II)-exchanged chabazite (CHA), mordenite (MOR), and ferrierite (FER) has been investigated by periodic density functional theory calculations. The most stable configurations of Co(II) in α and β sites of the zeolites with two framework Al/Si substitutions at short distances and Al-(Si)n>1-Al ordering are used for calculating the adsorption energy of NO molecules on Co(II) cations and at Al framework sites. The less stable configurations of α-Co(II)-MOR/FER show larger adsorption energies for one and two NO molecules. The bonding of one, two (and three) NO molecules to α /β-Co(II) sites in CHA/MOR/FER induces a shortening of the N-O bond lengths because electron density is withdrawn from the antibonding orbital of the adsorbed NO molecule. The calculated ν(NO) stretching frequencies of mono- and dinitrosyl complexes at α /β-Co(II)-MOR/FER are in good agreement with the experimental data. NO molecules adsorbed on α-Co(II)-MOR and on α-Co(II)-FER show similar NO stretching frequencies as nitrosyl complexes in Co(II)-MOR/-FER/-ZSM-5. Mononitrosyl complexes of α /β-Co(II)-MOR/FER display ν(NO) frequencies blueshifted relative to the free NO, while in dinitrosyl complexes both the symmetric and asymmetric components are redshifted compared to the mononitrosyl frequency. The analysis of the vibrational spectra suggests that mononitrosyls are formed by adsorption at cation in both α and β sites in MOR, FER, and ZSM-5, while dinitrosyl complexes exist only at α-type Lewis sites. This is important for the understanding of the reduction mechanism of NO to N2. A larger adsorption capacity of α-Co(II)-FER compared to α-Co(II)-MOR is predicted.

  8. The study of baseline shift error in strong-motion and ground tilting during co-seismic period with collocated GPS and strong-motion observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Strong-motion's baseline shift error is very difficult to process precisely; it is mainly caused by the tilting, rotation of the ground and environment noises during the co-seismic period. In the study, we first studied how to effectively extract the strong-motion's baseline shift error with GPS observation; this also provides a new way of correcting the baseline shift errors. Then we studied how to retrieve the ground tilting information of the station point with the collocated GPS and strong-motion observations, the information is an important input parameter of rotational seismology. In addition, both experimental result and seismic data show that the baseline shift error is mainly caused by the ground tiling and rotation during the co-seismic period. Also, there is a strong directly proportional relationship between the baseline shift error and ground tilting, of which the proportionality constant is approximately equal to the value of gravitational acceleration of the station.

  9. Social Studies Instructional Factors Causing Change in High School Students' Socio-political Attitudes over a Two-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehman, Lee H.

    The paper reports findings of a three year longitudinal study of high school student social and political attitudes. The hypothesis was that openness of social studies classroom climate would be related to change in social and political attitudes toward school and, to a lesser extent, to change in general social and political attitudes. Attitude…

  10. Comparative study of clinical efficacy of amitriptyline and pregabalin in postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Achar, Arun; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Bisai, Samiran; Biswas, Asish; Guharay, Tapobrata

    2012-01-01

    The most common complication of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients is postherpetic neuralgia, which is very difficult to treat. Significant beneficial effects have been found for amitriptyline, gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, oxycodone, corticosteroid, topical capsaicin, tramadol, etc. The aim of this open randomized comparative study was to demonstrate clinical efficacy of amitriptyline and pregabalin. The study included 50 patients, 32 (64%) male and 18 (36%) female, randomized to receive either amitriptyline or pregabalin (n=25 each). Amitriptyline was administered in a dose of 25 mg once daily and pregabalin in a dose of 75 mg twice daily. Inclusion criteria were as follows: postherpetic neuralgia of more than 1 month duration; pain of at least moderate severity; and patient age 40 years or older and no pregnancy. Patients with a history of any serious diseases (renal, cardiac, hepatic or seizure) were excluded. Total treatment period spanned 8 weeks, with patient follow up visits at 2, 4 and 8 weeks to assess the degree of improvement in pain perception and any adverse reaction. Patients with four herpes zoster types were included in this study, of which thoracic type predominated (54%). Other types were cervical in 12 (24%), trigeminal in 8 (16%) and lumbosacral in 3 (6%) patients. Prodromal symptoms before herpes zoster were reported by 66% of study patients. Satisfactory improvements of pain perception at the end of 8 weeks (>75%) were noticed in pregabalin group, which was statistically significant (χ(2)2=10.08; P<0.05). Dry mouth was the commonest complication in amitriptyline group and dizziness in pregabalin group. More importantly, none of the patients stopped treatment due to adverse reaction. In conclusion, therapy with pregabalin is better compared to amitriptyline in postherpetic neuralgia patients. However, a similar study in a larger sample is required to validate the present findings.

  11. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong

    2014-03-01

    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  12. Laser-Fusion Studies at NRL. A Report to AEC for the Period July 1973 to June 1974,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report summarizes work done at NRL on laser fusion related problems during FY 1974. Included are sections related to laser development , and to experimental and theoretical studies of laser plasma interaction.

  13. Laser-Fusion Studies at NRL. A Report to ERDA for the Period July 1974 to June 1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report summarizes work done at NRL on laser fusion related to problems during FY 1975. Included are sections related to laser development and to experimental studies of laser plasma interaction. (Author)

  14. A study on the main periodicities in interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and geomagnetic AE index during HILDCAA events using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, A. M.; Echer, E.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Hajra, R.

    2016-11-01

    The interplanetary and geomagnetic characteristics of High-Intensity Long-Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) events are studied using wavelet analysis technique. The Morlet wavelet transform was applied to the 1 min interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component and the geomagnetic AE index during HILDCAA events. We have analyzed the AE data for the events occurring between 1975 and 2011, and the IMF Bz data (both in GSE and GSM) for the events between 1995 and 2011. We analyzed the scalograms and the global wavelet spectrum of the parameters. For 50% of all HILDCAA events, the main periodicities of the AE index are generally between 4 and 12 h. For the Bz component, the main periodicities were found to be less than 8 h for 56% of times in GSM system and for 54% of times in GSE system. It is conjectured that the periodicities might be associated with the Alfvén waves which have typical periods between 1 and 10 h. The results are discussed in the light of self organized criticality theory where the physical events have the capacity of releasing a considerable amount of energy in a short interval of time.

  15. Development of an on-line source-tagged model for sulfate, nitrate and ammonium: A modeling study for highly polluted periods in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Qian; Li, Jie; Xu, Jianming; Chen, HuanSheng; Ge, Baozhu; Zhou, Guangqiang; Chang, Luyu

    2017-02-01

    An on-line source-tagged model coupled with an air quality model (Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System, NAQPMS) was applied to estimate source contributions of primary and secondary sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) during a representative winter period in Shanghai. This source-tagged model system could simultaneously track spatial and temporal sources of SNA, which were apportioned to their respective primary precursors in a simulation run. The results indicate that in the study period, local emissions in Shanghai accounted for over 20% of SNA contributions and that Jiangsu and Shandong were the two major non-local sources. In particular, non-local emissions had higher contributions during recorded pollution periods. This suggests that the transportation of pollutants plays a key role in air pollution in Shanghai. The temporal contributions show that the emissions from the "current day" (emission contribution from the current day during which the model was simulating) contributed 60%-70% of the sulfate and ammonium concentrations but only 10%-20% of the nitrate concentration, while the previous days' contributions increased during the recorded pollution periods. Emissions that were released within three days contributed over 85% averagely for SNA in January 2013. To evaluate the source-tagged model system, the results were compared by sensitivity analysis (emission perturbation of -30%) and backward trajectory analysis. The consistency of the comparison results indicated that the source-tagged model system can track sources of SNA with reasonable accuracy.

  16. The secular trend in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the region of Osijek, Eastern Croatia in the period 1988-2000--a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, D; Barac, B; Trkanjec, Z; Kadojić, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the possible environmental influences in the observed peculiar rising and falling oscillations in the numbers of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in Eastern Croatia (region of Osijek) during the last thirteen-years' period (1988-2000). In this period 1,222 HS were registered and treated. A constant increase in the incidence of HS was observed, from 60 (in 1988) to 139 (in 1998), with an average annual proportion of 16.5% of all stroke cases. A sharp increase in proportion of HS in total stroke incidence was recorded during the war in Croatia (1991-1995), with a peak incidence of 27.4% in 1993. Typical hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was the most common (57.1%), atypical ICH occurred in 26.4%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 16.5%. Analysis of the annual number of hypertensive-ICH and SAH disclosed peculiar rising and falling oscillations. These variations were in correlation with heavy living conditions. During the war-period the SAH incidence sharply rose. Immediately after the war it suddenly decreased. The authors named this phenomenon a "pool depletion", supposing the relatively stable proportion of the bearers of aneurysms in population. The observed variations seem to be the consequence of the war stress and other negative psychosocial and economic factors in post-war period, which increases the risk for SAH and typical hypertensive-ICH through complex pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. Study to identify future cryogen payload elements/users for space shuttle launch during period 1990 to 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elim, Frank M.

    1989-01-01

    This study provides a summary of future cryogenic space payload users, their currently projected needs and reported planning for space operations over the next decade. At present, few users with payloads consisting of reactive cryogens, or any cryogen in significant quantities, are contemplating the use of the Space Shuttle. Some members of the cryogenic payload community indicated an interest in flying their future planned payloads on the orbiter, versus an expendable launch vehicle (ELV), but are awaiting the outcome of a Rockwell study to define what orbiter mods and payloads requirements are needed to safely fly chemically reactive cryogen payloads, and the resultant cost, schedule, and operational impacts. Should NASA management decide in early 1990 to so modify orbiter(s), based on the Rockwell study and/or changes in national defense payloads launch requirements, then at least some cryo payload customers will reportedly plan on using the Shuttle orbiter vehicle in preference to an ELV. This study concludes that the most potential for possible future cryogenic space payloads for the Space Transportation System Orbiter fleet lies within the scientific research and defense communities.

  18. GT-MHR COMMERCIALIZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1 THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY,AS

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 A copy of the original Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the US and the US for the HFR-EU2 (formally MHR-1) fuel irradiation test was sent to DOE-HQ. The startup of the HFR-EU2 test will likely be delayed until September 2004 depending on completion and check out of the fission gas sweep loop. The initial core nuclear design study using advanced fuel was completed for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This study assessed the nuclear effects of replacing the silicon carbide layer of the TRISO particle with a zirconium carbide layer (TRIZO particle). The study determined that zirconium behaves like a non-burnable poison and to achieve fuel cycle lengths equivalent to those with TRISO fuel, the fixed burnable poison would have to be adjusted. The core nuclear design study is documented in report General Atomics report number PC-000514. A test plan was completed that describes a series of screening tests to provide the technical basis for selecting and qualifying an advanced coated-particle fuel for the VHTR. The test plan is documented in General Atomics report number PC-000510.

  19. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  20. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  1. Influence of linear and undulating strength periodization on physical fitness, physiological, and performance responses to simulated judo matches.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Branco, Braulio M; Agostinho, Marcus F; Calmet, Michel; Candau, Robin

    2015-02-01

    To determine the most effective strength periodization model is important to improve judo athletes' performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training on anthropometrical, strength, and judo-specific performance. For this, 13 adult male judo athletes (LP = 6 and DUP = 7) completed a 8-week training program concomitantly to a typical judo training program. Athletes were submitted to a physical fitness test battery, before and after 8 weeks of training, consisting of: (a) maximal strength evaluation: bench press, squat, and row exercises 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests, and handgrip maximal isometric strength; (b) power evaluation: standing long jump test; (c) strength endurance evaluation: dynamic and isometric chin-up tests gripping the judogi; (d) anthropometry measurements: body mass, height, skinfold thickness and circumferences; (e) judo-specific fitness: performance during the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT); (f) match simulation: three 5-minute judo match simulations separated by 15-minute passive recovery. Eight weeks of linear and undulating strength training protocols induced similar significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in skinfold thicknesses (-6.5%) and increases in flexed arm (2.0%) and forearm (1.8%) circumferences, maximal isometric handgrip strength (4.6% and 6.1% for right and left hands, respectively), isometric strength endurance chin-up performance gripping the judogi (18.9%), maximal dynamic strength for row (11.5%), bench press (11.6%) and squat exercises (7.1%), total weight lifted at 70% 1RM for bench press (15.1%) and squat (9.6%) exercises, number of throws during sets B (3.1%) and C (9.5%) of the SJFT (resulting in increased total number of throws, 5.5%), and decreased index in this test, -4.2%). However, no changes were observed in the physiological, rating of perceived exertion, or technical actions during 3 match simulations. Thus, it seems that the short

  2. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  3. A study of backscattered spectra dynamics of agricultural crops during growth period on the territory of the Krasnoyarskii Krai (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, I. Yu.; Sid'ko, A. F.; Shevyrnogov, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    The work presents the results of the study aimed at determining the seasonal dynamics of the spectral brightness and reflectance of agricultural crops (wheat, barley and oats) in the Krasnoyarskii Krai (Russia). The analysis of spectral curves obtained through field ground measurements and from satellite data showed that fine spectral differences can be used to study the spatial distribution of various types of vegetation and their ecological state. Based on the created electronic spectral brightness data base, the possibilities are shown of using spectrophotometric information for determining morphophysiological changes occurring in the plants and their species composition. The determined contrasts can be effectively used to obtain necessary information while processing space images, which suffer from natural interferences (varying optical thickness of the atmosphere, cloudiness, alterations in the scanner's angle of view, varying solar height, and highly inhomogeneous underlying surface).

  4. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  5. FUNGEMIA CAUSED BY Candida SPECIES IN A CHILDREN'S PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: STUDY IN THE PERIOD 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Vanessa Kummer Perinazzo; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro Jesus; Moreira, Débora; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment. PMID:25076430

  6. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 < LH < 0.95 IU/24 h and 1.57 < FSH < 3.77 IU/24 h corresponding to pubescent Tanner stage II. At the end of the study (T1), 35 boys remained prepubescent (22 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  7. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Results: The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan–Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Conclusions: Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion. PMID:26488802

  8. Basic studies of microstructure of combusting turbulent flows. Final technical report for period ending 30 Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, F.

    1991-03-04

    The authors goal is to develop a state-of-the-art measurement technique--Holographic Particle Displacement Velocimetry (HPV)--which can provide instantaneous velocities everywhere in the flow field simultaneously. Another goal is to use the power of supercomputers to simulate 3D flows with heat release to study the physics of combusting turbulent flows. Computations suffer from limited flow times and Reynolds number but can provide flow properties in more detail than possible by any existing experimental techniques. Moreover, numerical simulations can provide quantities almost impossible to measure experimentally. This article discusses efforts to develop the holographic particle displacement velocimetry system and results of direct numerical simulations of combusting flows.

  9. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  10. Hyeonggaeyeongyo-Tang for Treatment of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis: A Prospective, Nonrandomized, Pre-Post Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is an ancient formula of oriental medicine traditionally used to treat rhinitis; however, clinical evidence has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy and safety of HYT for chronic rhinitis. Adult subjects with chronic rhinitis symptoms were recruited. The subjects received HYT for 4 weeks and had follow-up period of 8 weeks. Any medicines used to treat nasal symptoms were not permitted during the study. The skin prick test was performed to distinguish the subjects with allergic rhinitis from those with nonallergic rhinitis. After treatment, the total nasal symptoms score and the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score significantly improved in the whole subject group, in the allergic rhinitis group, and in the nonallergic rhinitis group, with no adverse events. This improvement lasted during a follow-up period of 8 weeks. Total IgE and eosinophil levels showed no significant difference after treatment in the allergic rhinitis group. HYT improved nasal symptoms and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the use of HYT to treat patients with rhinitis. This trial has been registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02477293. PMID:27698676

  11. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  12. Bone induction using demineralized bone in the rabbit femur: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Concannon, M J; Boschert, M T; Puckett, C L

    1997-06-01

    While traditional bone grafting is the standard for replacement of segmental bony defects, alternative options (avoiding morbidity of autologous grafts) are attractive and continue to be sought. This study attempted to determine whether demineralized bone powder could be used reliably to replace a significant bony deficit at a weight-bearing site. The long-term functional characteristics of this induced bone were analyzed to determine whether it maintained its strength and shape and reacted normally to physiologic stress over an extended period of time (12 months). In 55 New Zealand White rabbits, a 1-cm length of femur was removed (approximately 20 percent of the total length of the rabbit femur). The femur was then reconstructed with a titanium mandibular plate, leaving the gap intact. In 38 of the animals, this gap was filled with demineralized bone powder in an attempt to induce bone to form across the defect. In group 1 (n = 23), the mandibular plate remained in place for the duration of the study (12 months). In group 2 (n = 15), the plate was removed 8 weeks after placement of the demineralized bone powder, and the animals were followed for an additional 12 months. In group 3 (n = 10), nothing was placed within the bony gap. In group 4 (n = 7), the gap was repaired with autologous bone graft. All the animals that received demineralized bone powder completely filled the osteotomy gap with new bone within 6 to 8 weeks after implantation. None of control group 3 formed bone across the gap (p < 0.001). Eighty-six percent of control group 4 (autologous bone graft) successfully formed bone across the osteotomy gap. In addition, 90 percent of control group 3 had hardware failure within 8 weeks after surgery compared with 0 percent (0 of 38) of the group that received demineralized bone powder (p < 0.001). In group 1, analysis after 12 months revealed that the bone formed ultimately became thin and easily fractured, most likely because of shielding from stress

  13. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  14. Kinetic study of the physicochemical and microbiological changes in "seasoned" olives during the shelf-life period.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco Noé Arroyo; Romero, Concepción; Del Carmen Durán Quintana, Maria; López, Antonio López; García, Pedro García; Fernández, Antonio Garrido

    2005-06-29

    The changes that take place during the shelf life of "seasoned" olives (packing conditions: 4% NaCl, 0.1%citric acid, and 0.0175% sorbate) using fresh (FF) and stored (SF) cracked fruits were studied. Texture, L, b, NaCl, and pH experienced slight changes. Values of a and titratable and combined acidity increased following a first-order kinetic with higher constants for FF. Glucose was completely exhausted, and mannitol showed only a slight decline. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents in brines increased rapidly from the acidic hydrolysis of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-beta -d-glucoside, and salidroside, the concentrations of which decreased. Sorbate content decreased with time and disappeared completely in SF. Yeasts grew rapidly in FF and were markedly inhibited in SF. There was a moderate growth of lactic acid bacteria in FF, whereas they grew markedly in SF during the first few days. Some of these changes limit the shelf life of the product.

  15. Miami's Tequesta Site: Could It Be a Native American Study Site For Natural Periodicities Associated With Tornados, Hurricanes, or Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Florida invested in preserving the Tequesta Indians' "Stonehenge-like" site along the Miami River. Direct observation, and telecast reports, show that a strong association exists between this area and Native American place names, hurricanes, tornados, a waterspout, and other nearby phenomena. Electromagnetic stimulation of human nervous systems in areas like these, discernable by appropriately sensitive individuals when these types of events occur, could plausibly account for some correct "predictions" of events like earthquakes. Various sensory modalities may be activated there. It may be important to understand other historic aspects associated with cultural artifacts like Miami's Tequesta remains. If it also generates instrumentally detectable signals that correlate with visual, "auditory," or nerve ending "tinglings" like those cited by the psychiatrist Arthur Guirdham in books like his Obsessions, applied physicists could partly vindicate the investment and also provide a net return. Society and comparative religious study may benefit.

  16. Preservation of bone collagen from the late Cretaceous period studied by immunological techniques and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Avci, R; Schweitzer, M H; Boyd, R D; Wittmeyer, J L; Terán Arce, F; Calvo, J O

    2005-04-12

    Late Cretaceous avian bone tissues from Argentina demonstrate exceptional preservation. Skeletal elements are preserved in partial articulation and suspended in three dimensions in a medium-grained sandstone matrix, indicating unusual perimortem taphonomic conditions. Preservation extends to the microstructural and molecular levels. Bone tissues respond to collagenase digestion and histochemical stains. In situ immunohistochemistry localizes binding sites for avian collagen antibodies in fossil tissues. Immunohistochemical studies do not, however, guarantee the preservation of molecular integrity. A protein may retain sufficient antigenicity for antibody binding even though degradation may render it incapable of original function. Therefore, we have applied atomic force microscopy to address the integrity and functionality of retained organic structures. Collagen pull-off measurements not only support immunochemical evidence for collagen preservation for antibody recognition but also imply preservation of the whole molecular integrity. No appreciable differences in collagen pull-off properties were measured between fossil and extant bone samples under physiological conditions.

  17. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  18. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on

  19. A comparative study on low-memory iterative solvers for FFT-based homogenization of periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Nachiketa; Vondřejc, Jaroslav; Zeman, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we assess the performance of four iterative algorithms for solving non-symmetric rank-deficient linear systems arising in the FFT-based homogenization of heterogeneous materials defined by digital images. Our framework is based on the Fourier-Galerkin method with exact and approximate integrations that has recently been shown to generalize the Lippmann-Schwinger setting of the original work by Moulinec and Suquet from 1994. It follows from this variational format that the ensuing system of linear equations can be solved by general-purpose iterative algorithms for symmetric positive-definite systems, such as the Richardson, the Conjugate gradient, and the Chebyshev algorithms, that are compared here to the Eyre-Milton scheme - the most efficient specialized method currently available. Our numerical experiments, carried out for two-dimensional elliptic problems, reveal that the Conjugate gradient algorithm is the most efficient option, while the Eyre-Milton method performs comparably to the Chebyshev semi-iteration. The Richardson algorithm, equivalent to the still widely used original Moulinec-Suquet solver, exhibits the slowest convergence. Besides this, we hope that our study highlights the potential of the well-established techniques of numerical linear algebra to further increase the efficiency of FFT-based homogenization methods.

  20. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Ultrasound Envelope Statistics and Shear Wave Elastography in the Periablation Period: An In Vitro Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wan, Yung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive method for treating tumors. Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been widely applied in evaluating tissue stiffness and final ablation size after RFA. However, the usefulness of periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between periablation SWE imaging and final ablation size. An in vitro porcine liver model was used for experimental validation (n = 36). During RFA with a power of 50 W, SWE images were collected using a clinical ultrasound system. To evaluate the effects of tissue temperature and gas bubbles during RFA, changes in the ablation temperature were recorded, and image echo patterns were measured using B-mode and ultrasound statistical parametric images. After RFA, the gross pathology of each tissue sample was compared with the region of change in the corresponding periablation SWE image. The experimental results showed that the tissue temperature at the ablation site varied between 70°C and 100°C. Hyperechoic regions and changes were observed in the echo amplitude distribution induced by gas bubbles. Under this condition, the confounding effects (including the temperature increase, tissue stiffness increase, and presence of gas bubbles) resulted in artifacts in the periablation SWE images, and the corresponding region correlated with the estimated final ablation size obtained from the gross pathology (r = 0.8). The findings confirm the feasibility of using periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA. PMID:27603012

  1. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    PubMed

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2016-03-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P < 0.001) and objective stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P < 0.01) were associated with the change in subjective stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term.

  2. Review of injuries over a one year period among 87,134 adults studying at an open university in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karen; McClure, Rod; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Bain, Christopher; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    Countries need epidemiological information about population injury statistics to devise preventive strategies. To generate such information we estimated the one-year incidence and distribution of injury in a group of 87,134 adult Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University distance-learning students residing throughout Thailand. Those who participated joined the study by filling out a baseline questionnaire in 2005 which included a one-year recall of injuries serious enough to interfere with daily activities and/or require medical treatment. The more serious injuries were categorised by location, mechanism and intentionality. We collected sociodemographic information about the participants. Nearly 22% of participants reported at least one injury during the previous 12 months. Males, those with lower income and the less educated, had higher injury rates. Home injuries were more common among females. Sports, road and workplace injuries were more common among males. Transport injuries decreased with age and falls increased with age. Most injuries were unintentional. Injury rates among Thai adults are high. We identified at risk groups by injury mechanism and setting. Before interventions can be devised more research is needed regarding exposure and vulnerability in at risk socio-demographic groups.

  3. Vibrational signatures of cation-anion hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids: a periodic density functional theory and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

    2015-02-05

    Hydrogen bonding in alkylammonium based protic ionic liquids was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Normal-mode analysis within the harmonic approximation and power spectra of velocity autocorrelation functions were used as tools to obtain the vibrational spectra in both the gas phase and the crystalline phases of these protic ionic liquids. The hydrogen bond vibrational modes were identified in the 150-240 cm(-1) region of the far-infrared (far-IR) spectra. A blue shift in the far-IR mode was observed with an increasing number of hydrogen-bonding sites on the cation; the exact peak position is modulated by the cation-anion hydrogen bond strength. Sub-100 cm(-1) bands in the far-IR spectrum are assigned to the rattling motion of the anions. Calculated NMR chemical shifts of the acidic protons in the crystalline phase of these salts also exhibit the signature of cation-anion hydrogen bonding.

  4. Experimental study of complex mixed-mode oscillations generated in a Bonhoeffer-van der Pol oscillator under weak periodic perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Kuniyasu; Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko

    2015-02-15

    Bifurcations of complex mixed-mode oscillations denoted as mixed-mode oscillation-incrementing bifurcations (MMOIBs) have frequently been observed in chemical experiments. In a previous study [K. Shimizu et al., Physica D 241, 1518 (2012)], we discovered an extremely simple dynamical circuit that exhibits MMOIBs. Our model was represented by a slow/fast Bonhoeffer-van der Pol circuit under weak periodic perturbation near a subcritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation point. In this study, we experimentally and numerically verify that our dynamical circuit captures the essence of the underlying mechanism causing MMOIBs, and we observe MMOIBs and chaos with distinctive waveforms in real circuit experiments.

  5. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  6. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  7. Effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal overweight and obese Indian women: A randomized controlled 24 weeks preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Annil; Mahajan, Shagun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal (PM) overweight and obese Indian women in a randomized controlled 24 week study. Materials and Methods: Two groups were formed Group I (n = 30) was designated as intervention (dietary and exercise group) and Group II (n = 24) served as control. Comparison of weight, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were made and compared among two groups at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Results: Mean age at menopause was 48.35 years versus 49.65 years; mean number of menopausal symptoms were 5.70 ± 1.76 versus 5.10 ± 1.56 and mean duration since menopause was 2.70 versus 2.90 years in Groups I and II respectively. When the effect of Group I and control on weight was compared at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between them up to 8 week. At 8 weeks Group I caused a significant decrease in weight (P ≤ 0.05) when compared with control arm and which continued throughout the study period (P < 0.05) at both 16 and 24 weeks. Group I produced a significant reduction in WC from 8 weeks onwards up to 24 weeks (P ≤ 0.05). BMI was statistically significant in Group I and the effect started at 4th week (P ≤ 0.05) and the differences in BMI reduction were highly significant at 16th and 24th weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study strongly recommend the life-style management to be incorporated in daily style of postmenopausal women under controlled supervision. PMID:24672202

  8. The Study of School Hygiene and Physical Education in Chosun during the Early Japanese Colonial Period Carried Out through Educational Magazines: Focusing on the Time Period before the Manchurian Incident in 1910-1931.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly dealt with sanitation and hygiene related editorials quoted from educational magazines published in Chosun until the Manchurian Incident during the Japanese colonial period. The study revealed that modern Japan became aware of the importance of public sanitation from the late nineteenth century and established modern programs so that schools can comprehensively teach students about sanitation and hygiene so as to enter modern imperial society. Japan particularly introduced and carried out modern physical(gymnastics) education as a means of "complete sanitation and hygiene" to improve students' health. As a result of having two times of war, the Japanese Empire reaffirmed the significance of modern sanitation and hygiene. After colonization of Chosun, Japan organized official educational groups and enlightened the public about sanitation and hygiene through editorials on the educational magazines which the groups had published. In order for schools to promote complete sanitation and hygiene based on modern medicine, Japan actively engaged in suggesting the necessity of physical(gymnastics) education which was critical to human's growth and development. After Japanese Government-General of Korea legislated on school hygiene in 1913, Japanese governments school started hiring school doctors and nurses. They stressed the need of providing sanitation and hygiene education in school to prepare for war in 1910's in advance; highlighted that physical (gymnastics) education should be enforced to help students grow and improve their physical strength from a modern medical point of view. In April, 1919, the Japanese Empire implemented the same instruction to the schools where Chosun people attended. But it was found that the law was not applied well to those schools in effect. The Japanese Empire was seen to proclaim the second educational decree in 1922; proposed international hygienic achievement of the time and comments; enlightened the public by

  9. Beneficial Effect of Short Pretransplant Period of Hypothermic Pulsatile Perfusion of the Warm-Ischemic Kidney after Cold Storage: Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Jado, Juan Carlos; Mojena, Marina; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; Del Cañizo, Juan Francisco; Tejedor, Alberto; Lledó-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Warm ischemia (WI) produces a significant deleterious effect in potential kidney grafts. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) seems to improve immediate graft function after transplant. Our aim was to analyze the effect of short pretransplant periods of pulsatile HMP on histology and renal injury in warm-ischemic kidneys. Twelve minipigs were used. WI was achieved in the right kidney by applying a vascular clamp for 45 min. After nephrectomy, autotransplant was performed following one of two strategies: cold storage of the kidneys or cold storage combined with perfusion in pulsatile HMP. The graft was removed early to study renal morphology, inflammation (fibrosis), and apoptosis. Proinflammatory activity and fibrosis were less pronounced after cold storage of the kidneys with HMP than after cold storage only. The use of HMP also decreased apoptosis compared with cold storage only. The detrimental effects on cells of an initial and prolonged period of WI seem to improve with a preservation protocol that includes a short period of pulsatile HMP after cold storage and immediately before the transplant, in comparison with cold storage only.

  10. Beneficial Effect of Short Pretransplant Period of Hypothermic Pulsatile Perfusion of the Warm-Ischemic Kidney after Cold Storage: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Humanes, Blanca; Jado, Juan Carlos; Mojena, Marina; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; del Cañizo, Juan Francisco; Lledó-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Warm ischemia (WI) produces a significant deleterious effect in potential kidney grafts. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) seems to improve immediate graft function after transplant. Our aim was to analyze the effect of short pretransplant periods of pulsatile HMP on histology and renal injury in warm-ischemic kidneys. Twelve minipigs were used. WI was achieved in the right kidney by applying a vascular clamp for 45 min. After nephrectomy, autotransplant was performed following one of two strategies: cold storage of the kidneys or cold storage combined with perfusion in pulsatile HMP. The graft was removed early to study renal morphology, inflammation (fibrosis), and apoptosis. Proinflammatory activity and fibrosis were less pronounced after cold storage of the kidneys with HMP than after cold storage only. The use of HMP also decreased apoptosis compared with cold storage only. The detrimental effects on cells of an initial and prolonged period of WI seem to improve with a preservation protocol that includes a short period of pulsatile HMP after cold storage and immediately before the transplant, in comparison with cold storage only. PMID:27556029

  11. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams.

  12. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  13. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  14. Final Report for the Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period, N+3 Supersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Stelmack, Marc; Skoch, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The N+3 Final Report documents the work and progress made by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in response to the NASA sponsored program "N+3 NRA Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period." The key technical objective of this effort was to generate promising supersonic concepts for the 2030 to 2035 timeframe and to develop plans for maturing the technologies required to make those concepts a reality. The N+3 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing alternative system-level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight

  15. Drowning-related fatalities during a 5-year period (2008-2012) in South-West Hungary--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Mészáros, Hajnalka; Kozma, Zsolt; Mayer, Mátyás; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate all the drowning-related cases in South-West Hungary between 2008 and 2012. It is a retrospective and descriptive study of 114 drowning-related deaths during that 5-year period. The investigation includes both unintentional and intentional drowning cases. We found that the most considerable risk factor of drowning in this area of Hungary is alcohol consumption, because in more than half of the cases the victims were under the influence of alcohol. We also concluded that more than two third of the cases included males. The cause of drowning in younger victims was mostly accident. In both genders subjects aged 50-70 had the highest risk of drowning in the period investigated. Seniors frequently committed suicide by drowning. Drowning deaths occurred in all types of water, mostly in lakes, rivers, canals and other types of catchment in the vicinity of victims' homes (most commonly in wells). This study might help to understand the circumstances and the causes leading to drowning and it may draw the attention to the possible preventive interventions.

  16. A high-fiber, low-fat diet improves periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ugi, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Sadae; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakao, Keiko; Uesaki, Syoko; Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Sekine, Osamu; Makino, Taketoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; King, George L; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease is related to aging, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammation. However, there remains limited evidence about causality from intervention studies. An effective diet for prevention of periodontal disease has not been well established. The current study was an intervention study examining the effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet on periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects. Forty-seven volunteers were interviewed for recruitment into the study. Twenty-one volunteers with a body mass index of at least 25.0 kg/m(2) or with impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. After a 2- to 3-week run-in period, subjects were provided with a test meal consisting of high fiber and low fat (30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight) 3 times a day for 8 weeks and followed by a regular diet for 24 weeks. Four hundred twenty-five teeth from 17 subjects were analyzed. Periodontal disease markers assessed as probing depth (2.28 vs 2.21 vs 2.13 mm; P < .0001), clinical attachment loss (6.11 vs 6.06 vs 5.98 mm; P < .0001), and bleeding on probing (16.2 vs 13.2 vs 14.6 %; P = .005) showed significant reductions after the test-meal period, and these improvements persisted until the follow-up period. Body weight (P < .0001), HbA1c (P < .0001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = .038) levels showed improvement after the test-meal period; they returned to baseline levels after the follow-up period. In conclusion, treatment with a high-fiber, low-fat diet for 8 weeks effectively improved periodontal disease markers as well as metabolic profiles, at least in part, by effects other than the reduction of total energy intake.

  17. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  18. Intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions for crustal structure and source studies: Application in the western United States and northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongmao

    The study of intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions in Western USA (Wyoming) and Northeast China (QianAn) provides constraints on the crustal structure in these regions and the source mechanism of the explosions. Large-scale mining explosions as a result of their long time duration and large spatial extent can generate short- to intermediate-period (1--20 s) surface waves. Regional surface waves observed in the Western US were generated by four large-scale cast blasts in a Wyoming coal mine. Intermediate-period surface waves in Northeast China were generated by a mining explosion in an iron mine. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities were estimated using multiple filter analysis and refined by phase matched filtering. Station specific velocity models were determined by linear inversion of the dispersion curves and found to complement known shallow crustal structure in each area. Synthetics based on mining source models and the inverted velocity structure suggest that some combination of mine free face orientation, blasting direction and material casting contribute to the observations. The Wyoming and China studies are presented at Paper I and Paper II, respectively. Assessment of surface wave dispersion provides the opportunity to make intermediate period Ms estimates with path correction. These surface wave magnitude estimates are combined with regional body wave magnitude estimates, mb, and compared to M s:mb data from explosions and earthquakes for purposes of identifying the source type. These results suggest that mining explosions are different from simultaneously detonated explosions and may appear earthquake like. This work is discussed in Paper III. The surface wave inversions used in the first part of the study utilized common linearized inversion procedures. In order to assess the effect of the linearization, a niching genetic algorithm (NGA) was introduced, developed and tested for crustal shear-wave velocity inversion in

  19. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are reporting impact of surveillance and educational program on the rate of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods At Aga Khan University Hospital sharp injuries are reported to infection control office. To reduce these incidents a quality improvement project was inducted in the year 2005. Health care workers were educated; surveillance data from 2002 to 2007 was analyzed and compared with various risk factors. Results During study period 1382 incidents were reported. Junior doctors sustained highest number of injuries (n = 394; 28.5%) followed by registered nurses (n = 283; 20.4%). Highest number of incidents was reported during blood collection (19%). An increasing trend was observed in the pre intervention years (2002–04). However noticeable fall was noted in the post intervention period that is in year 2006 and 2007. Major decline was noted among nurses (from 13 to 5 NSI/100 FTE/year). By relating and comparing the rates with various activities directly linked with the use of syringes a significant reduction in incidents were found including; hospital admissions (p-value 0.01), surgeries and procedures performed (p = 0.01), specimens collected in the laboratory (p = 0.001) and patients visits in clinics (p = 0.01). Conclusion We report significant reduction in needle stick injuries especially during post intervention study period. This is being achieved by constant emphasis on improving awareness by regular educational sessions, implemented as a quality improvement project. PMID:19480683

  20. Importance of root development in autotransplantations: a retrospective study of 137 teeth with a follow-up period varying from 1 week to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Denys, Delphine; Shahbazian, Maryam; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Laenen, Annouschka; Wyatt, Jan; Vinckier, Frans; Willems, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of autotransplanted teeth with a variable but individually maximized follow-up period in order to provide information on the long-term clinical outcome. The sample was obtained from patients who were treated at the University Hospitals KU-Leuven, Belgium, during the period 1996-2010. Of the total of 109 subjects (137 teeth), 98 patients were invited for recall, of whom 68 patients (87 teeth) responded positively. Eleven out of the 109 patients were excluded due to loss of the transplanted tooth. Although 41 patients had no re-examination visit, clinical and radiological data from all 109 subjects were included in the sample. The follow-up period varied from 1 week of 14.8 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. Transplanted teeth receiving orthodontic treatment had a lower risk of ankylosis and were less likely to fail. The risk of root resorption was lower for teeth with stages one-half to three-quarters of root length at the time of transplantation. Molars were more susceptible to ankylosis. Almost all teeth showed partial or full obliteration of the pulp. Absence of further root development was higher in donor teeth with root length stage less than one-half. Trans-alveolar transplantation was less successful. Autotransplantation can be a valid alternative method in young adolescents for replacing missing teeth because of agenesis or trauma. The optimal time to transplant is when the root has reached two-thirds to three-quarters of the final root length.

  1. X-ray standing wave studies of strained InxGa1-xAs/InP short-period superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruta, Carmela; Lamberti, Carlo; Gastaldi, Luigi; Boscherini, Federico

    2003-05-01

    We report an x-ray standing wave (XSW) study on a set of structurally well-characterized InxGa1-xAs/InP short-period superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and chemical-beam epitaxy techniques. It was possible to model the x-ray standing wave profiles only once the superlattice period has been assumed to be constituted by four layers of well-defined chemical composition [barrier (InP), first interface (InAs0.7P0.3), well (In0.53Ga0.47As), and second interface (In0.53Ga0.47As0.7P0.3)], and of variable thickness. The thickness of the four layers have been obtained by fitting the high resolution x-ray diffraction profiles of the heterostructures. The presence of partially disordered interface layers, as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopy study, causes a significant reduction of the coherent fraction, F, of both Ga and As atoms. The difference in F values among measured samples illustrates how the XSW can provide important information on the quality of semiconductor superlattices. Comparison with a "long period (160 Å)" In0.53Ga0.47As/InP superlattice, where the role played by InAs0.7P0.3 and In0.53Ga0.47As0.7P0.3 interface layers is negligible, confirms this picture. The coherent fraction of both As and Ga correlates well with the average perpendicular lattice misfit <Δa⊥/a> determined by x-ray diffraction.

  2. Learning by Doing--Teaching Systematic Review Methods in 8 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianjing; Saldanha, Ian J.; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Yu, Tsung; Rosman, Lori; Twose, Claire; Goodman, Steven N.; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to describe the course "Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis" at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Methods: A distinct feature of our course is a group project in which students, assigned to multi-disciplinary groups, conduct a systematic review. In-class sessions comprise…

  3. The Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    extension resistance training than did a carbohydrate placebo (22%). Protein and branched chain amino acids ( BCAA ) supplementation may also improve... BCAAs scored better on both mood levels and 2 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, Public Affairs Case File No. 09-189, 27 April 2009...supplemented subjects with whey and casein (WC), whey and BCAAs (WBC), or placebo (P) over 10 weeks of resistance training (RT). They observed a significant

  4. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  5. A retrospective study of 572 patients with hand burns treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery Kosovo during the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Hysni M; Duci, Shkelzen B; Zatriqi, Violeta K; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Haxhiu, Isa I; Mekaj, Agon Y; Gashi, Musli M; Buja, Zejn A; Derguti, Shkelqim H

    2014-01-01

    Hands participate in everyday human activities and they are the most vulnerable parts of a human body. The objective of this study is to understand the common causes of hand burns, the methods of surgical interventions, duration of hospitalization and distribution of hand burns in 11 year period regarding the age. This is a retrospective study that included 572 patients with hand burns treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery Kosovo during the period 2000-2010. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package InStat 3. From statistical parameters were calculated structural index, arithmetic median and standard deviation. Data testing is done with X (2) test and the difference is significant if P<0.05. The Ministry of Health of our country should make efforts to organize training for health workers about treatment for minor burns in order to reduce the number of referral patients from other primary (Familiar Medicine) and secondary centers (regional Hospitals).

  6. A prospective, open, multicentre study to evaluate a new gelling fibre dressing containing silver in the management of venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Forlee, Martin; Rossington, Alan; Searle, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of a new gelling fibre dressing containing silver (DURAFIBER™ Ag; Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) in moderate to highly exuding venous leg ulcers with one or more clinical signs of infection. Fourteen patients with venous leg ulceration of median ulcer duration 12·5 weeks, recruited from three centres in South Africa, received treatment with the new dressing for a maximum of 8 weeks. Multilayer compression bandaging was used for all patients, at the majority of assessments. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical acceptability of the dressing in terms of the following characteristics: antimicrobial properties, the progress of the wound towards healing, wear time, exudate management, conformability, patient comfort, pain on application, pain on removal and dressing integrity. The new dressing was rated as clinically acceptable for all characteristics, for all 14 patients (100%). It was easy to apply and remove; in 96·8% of removals, the dressing stayed intact on removal and could be removed in one piece. Fifty per cent of the wounds healed within the 8-week study duration; between baseline and final assessment, the median percentage reduction in wound area was 98·2% and the median percentage reduction in devitalised tissue was 78%. Exudate levels and wound pain were significantly improved at final assessment compared to baseline assessment, and an increase in the number of patients with healthy peri-wound skin between baseline and final assessment was observed. A reduction in bioburden and signs of clinical infection and an improvement in quality of life were observed over the 8-week period. The average wear time was 6·4 days. This study supports the use of new dressing in the management of moderately to highly exuding venous leg ulcers with clinical signs of infection. PMID:24602074

  7. Using Tic-Tac software to reduce anxiety-related behaviour in adults with autism and learning difficulties during waiting periods: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-04-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting situations where the participants exhibited anxiety-related behaviour. The intervention followed a baseline and intervention (AB) design, and a partial interval recording procedure was used to code the presence of stereotypes, nervous utterances, wandering or other examples of nervousness during the selected waiting situations. The results showed that the use of Tic-Tac resulted in lower levels of anxiety-related behaviour in all three participants, compared to the baseline, suggesting that this software may be an effective technology for helping people with autism with organisation and predictability during waiting periods. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and implications for further study.

  8. Improvement of the Management of Infants, Children and Adults with a Molecular Diagnosis of Enterovirus Meningitis during Two Observational Study Periods

    PubMed Central

    Archimbaud, Christine; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Mirand, Audrey; Chambon, Martine; Demeocq, François; Labbé, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Schmidt, Jeannot; Clavelou, Pierre; Aumaître, Olivier; Regagnon, Christel; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008–09) in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) in all age groups (infants, children, and adults). The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142) between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults), greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children), and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants. PMID:23874676

  9. Studies on orthocephalization. 8. Behaviour of the visceral part of the rat head in the period between 7 and 60 days after gestation.

    PubMed

    Vilmann, H; Moss, M L

    1985-01-01

    The present paper considers the significance of interosseous flexions of the palatal complex in the process of orthocephalization of the rat skull between 7 and 60 d after birth. The study is based on a sample of 25 female rats who have been X-rayed at 7, 14, 30, and 60 d with subsequent analysis of the photographs obtained. During this period the constituents of the bony palate, i.e. the palatine bone, the palatal process of maxilla and the palatal part of premaxilla grow steadily but with decreasing rate of increase with age. The premaxilla grows the most, while the palatal bone grows the least. The angle between the cranial base and the palatal plane decreases, i.e. the rat skull becomes more orthocranial with age. At the same time, the palate becomes more orthopalatal, primarily by an increase in the angle between the palatine bone and maxilla. As the angle between the cranial base and the palatine bone after 14 d increases, i.e. rotates in the opposite direction of the palatal plane, it may be concluded that the process of orthocephalization in this period is caused by the deflexion of the angle between the palatine bone and maxilla, while it before 14 d is caused by a combination of an interosseous deflexion in the palate and an upwards rotation of the palatine bone relative to the cranial base.

  10. Analysis of the southern pre-contact W UMa binary ZZ Eridani: A 34 year period study yields a possible low-mass companion

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Clark, J. D.; Hamme, W. Van; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Complete Bessel BVRI light curves of ZZ Eridani [2MASS J04130109-1044545, HV 6280, NSVS 14888164 α(2000) = 04{sup h}13{sup m}1{sub ·}{sup s}10, δ(2000) = −10°44′54{sub ·}{sup ″}5 (ICRS), V = 13.9-14.4-15.0] are observed and analyzed. The system is a southern pre-contact W UMa binary. Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however, it is made up of dwarf solar-type components with a period of only 0.4521 days. Our 34 year period study yields a sinusoidal fit or an increasing quadratic fit. The sinusoid may indicate that a third body is orbiting the close binary. The lower-limit mass of the third body is near that of the brown dwarf limit (0.095 M α). Also included is an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVRI Wilson–Devinney solution.

  11. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream reduces catheter-related bladder discomfort in male patients during the general anesthesia recovery period: A prospective, randomized, case-control STROBE study.

    PubMed

    Mu, Li; Geng, Li-Cheng; Xu, Hui; Luo, Man; Geng, Jing-Miao; Li, Li

    2017-04-01

    Urethral catheterization is a predictor of agitation during the general anesthesia recovery period. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraurethral 5% lidocaine and 25 mg/g prilocaine cream in reducing catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) in male patients during the general anesthesia recovery period. Adult male patients undergoing elective operations that required urinary catheterization under general anesthesia were enrolled and assigned randomly to 2 groups. In the lidocaine-prilocaine cream group (n = 72), approximately 5 g of topical cream was spread in the preputial sac, the glans, the meatus, and on the urinary catheter surface before urinary catheterization. In the control group (n = 74), the urinary catheter was lubricated with lidocaine gel. The incidence and severity of CRBD were assessed 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes postoperatively. We found that the incidence of CRBD in the lidocaine-prilocaine cream group was significantly lower than in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lidocaine-prilocaine cream applications reduced moderate or severe CRBD. Thirty minutes postoperation was the most frequent time point for the incidence of CRBD. Application of lidocaine-prilocaine cream on the surface of the urinary catheter is an efficient and safe method to reduce the incidence and severity of CRBD.

  12. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time.

  13. A prospective study of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum period in women with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Pope, Carley J; Xie, Bin; Sharma, Verinder; Campbell, M Karen

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with mood disorders are at higher risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation than other psychiatric group. However, the risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation after pregnancy for women with mood disorders is unknown. This investigation assessed the prevalence of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the 1-year postpartum period in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar II disorder. Data were collected between June 2005 and March 2010 from a convenience sample of women participating in a study on the course of mood disorders during pregnancy and postpartum. Participant diagnosis was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Thoughts of self-harm were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale item 10 and suicidal ideation was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale item 3. During the 1-year postpartum period, 16.97 % reported thoughts of self-harm while 6.16 % reported suicidal ideation. Further, those reporting thoughts of self-harm or suicidal ideation postpartum also reported higher levels of depression and hypomanic symptoms. We found that a number of women in our sample of women with a diagnosed mood disorder report experiencing thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum.

  14. CPMD/GULP QM/MM interface for modeling periodic solids: Implementation and its application in the study of Y-zeolite supported Rhn clusters.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sudhir K; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-07-05

    We report here the development of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) interface between the plane-wave density functional theory based CPMD code and the empirical force-field based GULP code for modeling periodic solids and surfaces. The hybrid QM/MM interface is based on the electrostatic coupling between QM and MM regions. The interface is designed for carrying out full relaxation of all the QM and MM atoms during geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations, including the boundary atoms. Both Born-Oppenheimer and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics schemes are enabled for the QM part during the QM/MM calculations. This interface has the advantage of parallelization of both the programs such that the QM and MM force evaluations can be carried out in parallel to model large systems. The interface program is first validated for total energy conservation and parallel scaling performance is benchmarked. Oxygen vacancy in α-cristobalite is then studied in detail and the results are compared with a fully QM calculation and experimental data. Subsequently, we use our implementation to investigate the structure of rhodium cluster (Rhn ; n = 2 to 6) formed from Rh(C2 H4 )2 complex adsorbed within a cavity of Y-zeolite in a reducible atmosphere of H2 gas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Duloxetine and pregabalin: high-dose monotherapy or their combination? The "COMBO-DN study"--a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Wilhelm, Stefan; Lledo, Alberto; Schacht, Alexander; Tölle, Thomas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Skljarevski, Vladimir; Freynhagen, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    This multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain addressed whether, in patients not responding to standard doses of duloxetine or pregabalin, combining both medications is superior to increasing each drug to its maximum recommended dose. For initial 8-week therapy, either 60 mg/day duloxetine (groups 1, 2) or 300 mg/day pregabalin (groups 3, 4) was given. Thereafter, in the 8-week combination/high-dose therapy period, only nonresponders received 120 mg/day duloxetine (group 1), a combination of 60 mg/day duloxetine and 300 mg/day pregabalin (groups 2, 3), or 600 mg/day pregabalin (group 4). Primary outcome (Brief Pain Inventory Modified Short Form [BPI-MSF] 24-hour average pain change after combination/high-dose therapy) was analyzed comparing combination (groups 2, 3 pooled) with high-dose monotherapy (groups 1, 4 pooled). Secondary end points included response rates, BPI-MSF severity items, and comparison of duloxetine and pregabalin in BPI-MSF average pain. Eight hundred four patients were evaluated for initial therapy and 339 for combination/high-dose therapy. There were no significant differences between combination and high-dose monotherapy regarding BPI-MSF average pain (mean change: combination: -2.35; high-dose monotherapy: -2.16; P = 0.370) and most secondary end points, which, however, consistently favoured combination therapy. Fifty-percent response rates were 52.1% for combination and 39.3% for high-dose monotherapy (P = 0.068). In exploratory analyses of the initial 8-week therapy uncorrected for multiple comparisons, 60 mg/day duloxetine was found superior to 300 mg/day pregabalin (P < 0.001). Both drugs and their combination were well tolerated. Although not significantly superior to high-dose monotherapy, combination therapy was considered to be effective, safe, and well tolerated.

  16. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73-100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9-74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7-100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8-77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers.

  17. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers. PMID:27478849

  18. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  19. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  20. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  1. Understanding the ε and ζ High-Pressure Solid Phases of Oxygen. Systematic Periodic Density Functional Theory Studies Using Localized Atomic Basis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Calle, A J; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Hernández-Lamoneda, R; Ramírez-Solís, A

    2015-03-10

    The experimentally characterized ε and ζ phases of solid oxygen are studied by periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory calculations at pressures from 10 to 160 GPa using different types of exchange-correlation functionals with Gaussian atomic basis sets. Full geometry optimizations of the monoclinic C2/m (O2)4 unit cell were done to study the evolution of the structural and electronic properties with pressure. Vibrational calculations were performed at each pressure. While periodic HF does not predict the ε-ζ phase transition in the considered range, Local Density approximation and Generalized Gradient approximation methods predict too low transition pressures. The performance of hybrid functional methods is dependent on the amount of non-local HF exchange. PBE0, M06, B3PW91, and B3LYP approaches correctly predict the structural and electronic changes associated with the phase transition. GGA and hybrid functionals predict a pressure range where both phases coexist, but only the latter type of methods yield results in agreement with experiment. Using the optimized (O2)4 unit cell at each pressure we show, through CASSCF(8,8) calculations, that the greater accuracy of the optimized geometrical parameters with increasing pressure is due to a decreasing multireference character of the unit cell wave function. The mechanism of the transition from the non-conducting to the conducting ζ phase is explained through the Electron Pair Localization Function, which clearly reveals chemical bonding between O2 molecules in the ab crystal planes belonging to different unit cells due to much shorter intercell O2-O2 distances.

  2. Electrochemical and optical studies on model photosynthetic systems: Progress report for the period 7/1/84 to 12/1/86

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, T.M.

    1986-12-01

    Objective of this research is to study the relation between the structure of photosynthetic pigments and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Model systems under study progress from the least ordered (solutions) through the most highly ordered (Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers) systems containing BChl, BPheo, and UQ. Vesicles, intermediate between solutions and LB monolayers, are also under investigation. Molecules other than the photosynthetic pigments and quinones have been examined, including chromophores (i.e., surface active cyanine dyes and phthalocyanines) and redox active compounds (methyl viologen (MV) and surfactant ferrocenes), in order to develop the techniques needed to study the photosynthetic components. The chlorophylls are photosensitive and labile. Thus, it is easier first to develop procedures using stable species. During this period, we have focused on the application of electrochemical methods for determining the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of BChl and BPheo at metal electrodes (Pt and Au). We have also determined the effect of adsorption on the redox properties of quinones. Resonance Raman (RR) and surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy were used to study solution and surface species.

  3. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  4. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  5. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  6. An open-label, two-period comparative study on pharmacokinetics and safety of a combined ethinylestradiol/gestodene transdermal contraceptive patch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Haiyan; Xiong, Xin; Zhai, Suodi; Wei, Yudong; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profiles of a newly developed combined ethinylestradiol (EE)/gestodene (GSD) transdermal contraceptive patch after a single-dose administration and compared with the market available tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects. An open-label, two-period comparative study was conducted in 12 healthy women volunteers. A single dose of the study combined EE/GE transdermal contraceptive patch and oral tablet (Milunet(®)) were administered. Blood samples at different time points after dose were collected, and concentrations were analyzed. A reliable, highly sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay method was developed in this study to determine the plasma concentrations of EE and GSD. Compared to the tablet, the study patch had a significantly decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), extended time to reach the Cmax and half-life, as well as increased clearance and apparent volume of distribution. The half-lives of EE and GSD of the patch were 3.3 and 2.2 times, respectively, than the half-life of the tablet. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCs) of EE and GSD of the patch were 8.0 and 16.2 times, respectively, than the AUC of the tablet. No severe adverse event was observed during the whole study, and the general safety was acceptable. In conclusion, compared to the oral tablet Milunet, the study contraceptive patch was well tolerated and showed potent drug exposure, significant extended half-life and stable drug concentrations.

  7. An open-label, two-period comparative study on pharmacokinetics and safety of a combined ethinylestradiol/gestodene transdermal contraceptive patch

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Haiyan; Xiong, Xin; Zhai, Suodi; Wei, Yudong; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profiles of a newly developed combined ethinylestradiol (EE)/gestodene (GSD) transdermal contraceptive patch after a single-dose administration and compared with the market available tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects. An open-label, two-period comparative study was conducted in 12 healthy women volunteers. A single dose of the study combined EE/GE transdermal contraceptive patch and oral tablet (Milunet®) were administered. Blood samples at different time points after dose were collected, and concentrations were analyzed. A reliable, highly sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay method was developed in this study to determine the plasma concentrations of EE and GSD. Compared to the tablet, the study patch had a significantly decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), extended time to reach the Cmax and half-life, as well as increased clearance and apparent volume of distribution. The half-lives of EE and GSD of the patch were 3.3 and 2.2 times, respectively, than the half-life of the tablet. The areas under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUCs) of EE and GSD of the patch were 8.0 and 16.2 times, respectively, than the AUC of the tablet. No severe adverse event was observed during the whole study, and the general safety was acceptable. In conclusion, compared to the oral tablet Milunet, the study contraceptive patch was well tolerated and showed potent drug exposure, significant extended half-life and stable drug concentrations. PMID:28331292

  8. Single d-metal atoms on F(s) and F(s+) defects of MgO(001): a theoretical study across the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Konstantin M; Inntam, Chan; Matveev, Alexei V; Nasluzov, Vladimir A; Rösch, Notker

    2005-08-24

    Single d-metal atoms on oxygen defects F(s) and F(s+) of the MgO(001) surface were studied theoretically. We employed an accurate density functional method combined with cluster models, embedded in an elastic polarizable environment, and we applied two gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals. In this way, we quantified how 17 metal atoms from groups 6-11 of the periodic table (Cu, Ag, Au; Ni, Pd, Pt; Co, Rh, Ir; Fe, Ru, Os; Mn, Re; and Cr, Mo, W) interact with terrace sites of MgO. We found bonding with F(s) and F(s+) defects to be in general stronger than that with O2- sites, except for Mn-, Re-, and Fe/F(s) complexes. In M/F(s) systems, electron density is accumulated on the metal center in a notable fashion. The binding energy on both kinds of O defects increases from 3d- to 4d- to 5d-atoms of a given group, at variance with the binding energy trend established earlier for the M/O2- complexes, 4d < 3d < 5d. Regarding the evolution of the binding energy along a period, group 7 atoms are slightly destabilized compared to their group 6 congeners in both the F(s) and F(s+) complexes; for later transition elements, the binding energy increases gradually up to group 10 and finally decreases again in group 11, most strongly on the F(s) site. This trend is governed by the negative charge on the adsorbed atoms. We discuss implications for an experimental detection of metal atoms on oxide supports based on computed core-level energies.

  9. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation of the nurses in a structured SARS caring unit during outbreak: a prospective and periodic assessment study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (p<0.05). For the SARS unit nurses, significant reduction in mood ratings, insomnia rate and perceived negative feelings as well as increasing knowledge and understanding of SARS at the end of the study (all p<0.001) indicated that a gradual psychological adaptation had occurred. The adjustment of nurses in the more structured SARS ICU environment, where nurses care for even more severely ill patients, may have been as good or better than that of nurses in the regular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.

  10. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  11. Preclinical animal study and clinical trail of modified extraoral craniofacial implants.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, L; Schlegel, K A; Wiltfang, J; Neukam, F W; Rupprecht, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on our experience using a new endosseous implant designed to provide sufficient retention to various types of facial prostheses. In a preclinical animal experiment implants (N=12, 4 x 3.5 mm) were placed in the frontal calvarial region of nine adult pigs. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks to evaluate the implant incorporation microradiographically. The clinical outcome and patient satisfaction of implant-retained prostheses were evaluated in a group of 10 patients with facial defects by using clinical assessment and standardized questionnaires for patients and relatives. In the prospective clinical study 33 identical modified implants for extraoral anchorage were placed for the fixation of various prostheses in the midfacial (eye, nose) and ear regions in the course of a clinical trial and observed over a follow-up period of 34 months. The bone-implant contact in the animal experiment reached 31% (+/-2) at 2 weeks, 39% (+/-1) after 4 weeks and 51% (+/-5) at 8 weeks. In the clinical trial, no implants were lost and all implants remained osseointegrated as confirmed clinically and radiographically, providing a stable prosthetic restoration. The analysis of the questionnaire indicates an improvement of the quality of life of patients with respect to aesthetic and psychological well-being. The results demonstrate that extraoral implants not only achieve sufficient osseointegration but also show good clinical handling and easy fixation possibilities for prosthetic anchorage.

  12. Maternal Bonding through Pregnancy and Postnatal: Findings from an Australian Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Larissa; Hutchinson, Delyse; Wilson, Judy; Burns, Lucinda; Allsop, Steve; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Jacobs, Sue; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Olsson, Craig; Mattick, Richard P

    2017-02-17

    Background Mother-infant bonding provides the foundation for secure attachment through the lifespan and organizes many facets of infant social-emotional development, including later parenting. Aims To describe maternal bonding to offspring across the pregnancy and postnatal periods, and to examine a broad range of sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of the maternal-offspring bond. Methods Data were drawn from a sample of 372 pregnant women participating in an Australian population-based longitudinal study of postnatal health and development. Participants completed maternal bonding questionnaires at each trimester and 8 weeks postnatal. Data were collected on a range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Results Bonding increased significantly through pregnancy, in quality and intensity. Regression analyses indicated that stronger antenatal bonding at all time points (trimesters 1 through 3) predicted stronger postnatal bonding. Older maternal age, birth mother being born in a non-English speaking country, mother not working full time, being a first-time mother, breast-feeding problems, and baby's crying behavior all predicted poorer bonding at 8 weeks postpartum. Conclusion These novel findings have important implications for pregnant women and their infant offspring, and for health care professionals working in perinatal services. Importantly, interventions to strengthen maternal-fetal bonding would be beneficial during pregnancy to enhance postnatal bonding and infant health outcomes.

  13. Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggiani, Alberto; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Valentina, Andrea Della; Mapelli, Laurent; Sosio, Silvia; Milano, Valeria; Bianchi, Manuel; Badi, Francesco; Lavazza, Carolina; Grandini, Marco; Corna, Giovanni; Prometti, Paola; Lunetta, Christian; Riva, Nilo; Ferri, Alessandra; Lanfranconi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. Objective: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. Methods: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-blind design (12 weeks, T0-T1), in order to receive OMT (weekly for 4 weeks, and fortnightly for the following 8 weeks) versus usual-care (n=7 each group), followed by an OMT open period (T1-T2, once a week for 8 weeks, n=10). Secondary aims included blind osteopathic assessment of somatic dysfunctions (SD) for goal attainment scale (GAS) calculation, Brief Pain Inventory-short form and McGill QoL-16 items. Results: OMT was demonstrated feasible and safe and patients displayed high satisfaction (T1-VAS=8.34 ± 0.46; T2-VAS=8.52 ± 0.60). Considering secondary aims no significant differences emerged. Finally, at study entry (T0), a cervico-dorsal SD was found in 78% of ALS patients versus 28% of healthy matched controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: OMT was found feasible, safe and satisfactory in ALS. The lack of secondary aim differences can be due to the limited sample size. OMT could be an interesting option to explore in ALS. PMID:27651843

  14. Comparison of modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period storage of dry-cured ham: effects on colour, texture and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    García-Esteban, Marta; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-05-01

    Slices of dry-cured hams (Biceps femoris muscle) were stored during 8 weeks under vacuum and modified atmospheres (100% N(2) and a mixture of 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2)) in order to study the modifications on colour, texture and microbial counts during that period. Lightness was found to be more stable when samples were stored with 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2) without statistical differences between vacuum and 100% N(2). A slight whiteness was observed in the vacuum packed samples. Yellowness increased during time in vacuum packed samples, although no differences were found among the three conditions at the end of the study. Redness values were not affected by time or by the packaging system. With regard to texture, values found for all samples were within the normal range for this type of products, although it was observed that modified atmosphere packaging preserved samples better from hardening than vacuum packaging. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case. In general, no clear differences were found among the three packaging systems for colour, texture and microbial quality in the storage conditions studied.

  15. Periodontal health status and implication of periodic acid–Schiff diastase - a key in exfoliative cytology among diabetics mellitus patients: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Aesha; Parakh, Mayank Kumar; Kumar, Satish Muthu; Nachiammai, N.; Sriram, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study are: (i) To determine if periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-Diastase is an effective tool to diagnose DM noninvasively, (ii) to use three different types of staining procedures to identify the staining pattern over the exfoliated cells of normal and diabetic patients, (iii) to study the periodontal health status of DM and normal subjects. Materials and Methods: Basic questions regarding the demographic data were asked, following which community periodontal index (CPI) was recorded. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal buccal mucosa of 150 patients using wooden tongue spatulas. The subjects were asked to gargle their mouth with water and the wooden spatula was scraped at the site from buccal mucosa. The smears were spread evenly on a dry clean glass slide and fixed immediately with absolute ethyl alcohol. Three slides were prepared for each of the patients. PAS, PAS with diastase digestion, and Papanicolaou staining were performed and examined under a microscope. Results: Average CPI for study subjects was 3.2 and control subjects was 2.1. The average loss of attachment was 1.1 in the study group and 0.2 in the control group (P - 0.00) and the result are statistically highly significant. All the 150 cases (100%) were positive for PAS staining, while PAS-diastase (PAS-D) staining showed positivity only for normal subjects and was negative (100%) in the diabetic group (P - 0.00) and the result are statistically highly significant. Conclusions: Results of our study showed that exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity, when stained with PAS and PAS-D, can be used as an effective screening and diagnostic tool for DM patients. PMID:28042261

  16. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrice