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Sample records for 8-week treatment period

  1. Areas of fat loss in overweight young females following an 8-week period of energy intake reduction.

    PubMed

    Jones, P R; Edwards, D A

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the main areas of fat loss after an 8-week period of energy intake reduction, the distribution of body fat was assessed on 14 females (BMI 27.3+/-0.83 kgm(-2)) (mean +/- SEM), aged 18-22 years. Total body fat was determined by hydrostatic weighing and subcutaneous fat mass and distribution were assessed using ultrasound and waist-hip circumference ratios prior to, and following, an 8-week period during which subjects attempted to reduce their energy intake by about 4.2 MJ day(-1). Subjects lost an average of 2.99+/-0.34 kg (p < 0.001), with greater loss (p < 0.001) of internal fat (1.5+/-0.2 kg) than of subcutaneous fat (0.7+/-0.1). Subjects reduced their waist-hip ratio from 0.771+/-0.01 to 0.762+/-0.01 (p < 0.01), their waist circumference from 807+/-24 to 790+/-23 mm (p < 0.001) and their hip circumference from 1047+/-29 to 1037+/-29 mm (p < 0.001). Those with an android distribution of fat (n = 5) lost more weight than those with gynoid distribution (n = 9) (3.80+/-0.38 kg vs 2.54+/-0.14 kg, p < 0.05); they also showed a greater decrease in waist circumference (27+/-5 vs 14+/-4 mm, p < 0.05) and a greater loss from internal fat stores (2.1+/-0.3 kg vs 1.1+/-0.2 kg, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that individuals are prone to lose internal fat during a short period of reduced energy intake. As the visceral fat store is the largest internal fat depot in the body, this suggests that individuals are indeed losing fat that could predispose to upper body obesity.

  2. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  3. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  4. Failure of dietary alpha-difluoromethylornithine to inhibit gastric carcinogenesis in rats after 8 weeks of treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tanakamaru, Z; Nishikawa, A; Furukawa, F; Imazawa, T; Lee, I S; Kasahara, K; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, M

    1997-11-25

    The modifying effects of alpha-difluoromethylomithine (DFMO) on glandular stomach carcinogenesis after initiation with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and sodium chloride were investigated in male outbred Wistar rats. Animals were simultaneously given MNNG solution (100 ppm) as their drinking water and diet supplemented with 10% sodium chloride for 8 weeks, and administered DFMO (dietary levels of 2000 ppm or 500 ppm) and tap water for the following 70 weeks. The DFMO treatment did not show any tendency to inhibit the development of gastric adenocarcinomas. The incidences and multiplicities of atypical hyperplasias in the glandular stomachs were also comparable in all groups of rats given MNNG/sodium chloride. Neither gastric carcinomas nor atypical hyperplasias were observed without the carcinogen treatment. Thus, DFMO did not exert any inhibitory effects when given during the post-initiation phase of two-stage glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats initiated with MNNG and sodium chloride for 8 weeks.

  5. Comparing the Efficacy of 8 Weeks Treatment of Cipram® and its Generic Citalopram in Patients With Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khoonsari, Hasan; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Kargar, Mona; Moin, Mahdiyeh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Torkamandi, Hassan; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) suffer both anxiety and depression. Antidepressants, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are among agents of choice for treating this condition. Objectives: This study compared the efficacy of Cipram® with its generic, citalopram. Patients and Methods: Forty adult outpatients (between 18 to 55 years of age) with a diagnosis of MADD who met the trial criteria, entered this double-blind, randomized study. Subjects were assigned to receive either generic citalopram or Cipram® for 8 weeks. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) were utilized to assess depression and anxiety at baseline, weeks 4 and 8 of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 14.0. Results: Twenty patients received citalopram (mean dosages of 22 mg/day during the first 4 weeks and 33 mg/day during weeks 4 to 8) and 20 received Cipram® (mean dosages of 22 mg/day during the first 4 weeks and 29 mg/day during weeks 4 to 8). Both treatments were noted to be effective in improving the symptoms of MADD at weeks 4 and 8. The mean differences of HAM-D and HAM-A between Citalopram and Cipram® groups were significantly different at the end of week 4 (HAM-D: P = 0.038, HAM-A: P = 0.025), but not at the end of week 8 (HAM-D: P = 0.239, HAM-A: P = 0.204). Both medications were tolerated well by the patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that the efficacy of citalopram is similar to that of Cipram® in the treatment of MADD after 8 weeks. Meanwhile, Cipram® may reduce depression and anxiety quicker than its generic, citalopram. PMID:26288644

  6. Clinical evaluation of the depigmenting effect of Glechoma Hederacea extract by topical treatment for 8 weeks on UV-induced pigmentation in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae Hyoun; Kang, Won Hyung; Lee, Jung Ok; Cho, Youn Ki; Park, Sang Kyu; Lee, Sang Keun; Cho, Han Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    UV is a major environmental factor inducing and worsening the symptoms of hyperpigmentation disorders such as freckles, melasma and solar lentigines. During UV-induced skin inflammatory reactions, pro-inflammatory mediators initiate the production of various paracrine melanogenic factors (α-MSH, SCF, ET-1, bFGF and NO) in keratinocytes. These paracrine factors activate melanin synthase in melanocytes through the paracrine network between melanocytes and keratinocytes. Glechoma hederacea (GH) is a herbal plant used in oriental medicine to treat inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory effects, through inhibition of NO synthesis (NOS) as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, have been reported. However, there has not yet been any report of a depigmenting effect. In this study of placebo-controlled, 8 week topical treatment with a 1% GH extract lotion on UV-induced pigmented spots in female Asian subjects, significant effects of anti-inflammation and depigmenting were proven. The depigmenting effect of GH seems to be related to inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and melanogenic paracrine factors from keratinocytes, rather than to direct inhibition of melanogenic activities in melanocytes.

  7. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  9. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of RBP-7000 Once-Monthly Risperidone for the Treatment of Acute Schizophrenia: An 8-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Azmi F; Henderson, David C; Fava, Maurizio; Fudala, Paul J; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Kouassi, Alex; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-04-01

    RBP-7000 is a sustained-release formulation of risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia, designed to be administered by once-monthly subcutaneous injection using the ATRIGEL delivery system. This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of RBP-7000 compared with placebo in subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Inpatients were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with subcutaneous 90 or 120 mg of RBP-7000 or placebo. Efficacy was evaluated using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of the change from baseline (the last nonmissing value before the first dose of RBP-7000 or placebo on day 1) to end of the study in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary efficacy measure) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity score (secondary efficacy measure). The least-squares means from the repeated-measures analysis for the change from baseline in the PANSS total scores for placebo was -9.219 (SE, 1.2162). RBP-7000 produced statistically and clinically significant differences in mean reductions from baseline in PANSS total scores (90-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -6.148 [-9.982 to -2.314], P = 0.0004; 120-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -7.237 [-11.045 to -3.429], P < 0.0001) and significantly improved Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores (90-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -0.350 [-0.557 to -0.143], P = 0.0002; 120-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -0.396 [-0.602 to -0.190], P < 0.0001). Both RBP-7000 dosages were generally well tolerated. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events in RBP-7000 groups compared with placebo were somnolence, weight gain, and akathisia. The overall incidence of extrapyramidal syndrome-related effects was low and similar across groups. RBP-7000 may provide a new, long-acting alternative treatment for use in adults with acute schizophrenia.

  10. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  11. The effects of 8-week balance training or weight training

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Roberto, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of participating in an 8-week physical training (ie: balance or weight training) on psychosocial outcomes for independently living healthy older adults. Eighteen older adults (65 years old or older) voluntarily participated for this study. Participants were randomly and evenly distributed in 3 different groups such as balance, weight, or control group; 6 participants each. Fear of falling and social activity levels were statistically tested by evaluating questionnaires validated in previous studies. Psychological factors improved in all groups after 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Social interaction level did not improve in any of the three groups, although all participants exhibited improvements in being physically independent (P < 0.05). Results suggested that being physically active as well as being socially active could result in being less fearful of falls, more confident of leaving residency, being more independent, and being more active. PMID:21394234

  12. Bisecting and behavior: lateral inattention predicts 8-week academic performance.

    PubMed

    Drake, Roger A

    2002-10-01

    Converging evidence supports a left hemisphere role in defensive repression and sensation seeking. This led to the hypothesis that students with a relatively active left hemisphere would perform poorly during 8 weeks of a college class. The measure of relative hemispheric activation was the visual line-bisecting task given early in the course. The hypothesis was supported. Previous evidence that activation asymmetry is stable over time was supported because the single measurement of line bisecting was a longitudinal predictor of multiple behaviors. A temporal pattern of increasing correlation between the bisecting and performance measures favors a feedback repression model. Alternative explanations based on sensation seeking, subject-matter repression, and cooperation were considered but not eliminated.

  13. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  14. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner. PMID:25471318

  15. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner.

  16. Proteomic changes at 8 weeks after infection are associated with chronic liver pathology in experimental schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Bhagyashree; Jordan, T William; Secor, W Evan; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2012-03-16

    Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection can present as a moderate or severe disease, termed intestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, respectively. Similarly, either moderate splenomegaly or hypersplenomegaly syndrome develops in CBA/J mice by 20weeks of infection and is similar to intestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis respectively. Using this mouse model and two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis, the liver proteomic signatures of uninfected mice and mice infected for 6, 8, 12, or 20weeks were compared, and significant protein spots identified using mass spectrometry. We found the greatest number of changes at 12weeks suggesting that this period represents the peak time of change. Pathway analysis identified specific proteins and pathways that correlated to the pathological changes indicative of severe disease, and these pathways were involved as early as 8weeks after infection. These findings provide insight into the development of severe liver pathology in schistosomiasis and may aid in developing biomarkers for hepatosplenic schistosomiasis.

  17. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  18. Changes in cerebral blood flow and anxiety associated with an 8-week mindfulness programme in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniel A; Kash, Kathryn M; Kunkel, Elisabeth J S; Brainard, George; Wintering, Nancy; Moss, Aleezé S; Rao, Hengyi; Zhu, Senhua; Newberg, Andrew B

    2012-12-01

    This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with the Mindfulness-based Art Therapy (MBAT) programme and correlate such changes to stress and anxiety in women with breast cancer. Eighteen breast cancer patients were randomized to the MBAT or education control group. The patients received the diagnosis of breast cancer between 6 months and 3 years prior to enrollment and were not in active treatment. The age of participants ranged from 52 to 77 years. A voxel-based analysis was performed to assess differences at rest, during meditation and during a stress task. The anxiety sub-scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised was compared with changes in resting CBF before and after the programmes. Subjects in the MBAT arm demonstrated significant increases in CBF at rest and during meditation in multiple limbic regions, including the left insula, right amygdala, right hippocampus and bilateral caudate. Patients in the MBAT programme also had a significant correlation between increased CBF in the left caudate and decreased anxiety scores. In the MBAT group, responses to a stressful cue resulted in reduced activation of the posterior cingulate. The results demonstrate that the MBAT programme was associated with significant changes in CBF, which correlated with decreased anxiety over an 8-week period.

  19. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention.

  20. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  1. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  2. Four weeks of mobility after 8 weeks of immobility fails to restore normal motion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Guy; Zhou, Jian; Uhthoff, Hans K; Laneuville, Odette

    2008-05-01

    Prolonged immobilization reduces passive range of motion of joints creating joint contractures. Whether and to what extent these iatrogenic contractures can be reduced is unknown. We raised three questions using an animal model: What degree of contracture remains at the end of a defined remobilization period? Do contractures in sham-operated and immobilized joints differ? What is the contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee extension? We immobilized one knee of 11 adult male rats in flexion to induce a joint contracture; 10 control animals underwent a sham operation. After 8 weeks, the internal fixation device was removed, and the animals were allowed to resume unrestricted activity for 4 weeks at the end of which the knee range of motion was measured with standardized torques. The mean flexion contracture was higher in the immobilized group (51.9 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees ) than in the sham-operated group (18.9 degrees +/- 2.1 degrees ). Eighty-eight percent of the contractures remained in the immobilized group after dividing skin and muscle, suggesting an important contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee mobility. Based on our preliminary study the range of motion of rat knees immobilized for 8 weeks remained substantially reduced after a 4-week period of unassisted remobilization.

  3. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  4. Can 8-weeks of Training Affect Active Drag in Young Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Daniel A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Figueiredo, Catarina; Reis, Victor M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8-weeks of training on active drag in young swimmers of both genders. Eight girls and twelve boys’ belonging to the same swimming team and with regular competitive participation in national and regional events for the previous two seasons participated in this study. Active drag measurements were conducted in two different evaluation moments: at the beginning of the season and after 8 weeks of training (6.0 ± 0.15 training units per week, 21.00 ± 3.23 km per week and 3.50 ± 0.23 km per training unit). The maximal swimming velocity at the distance of 13 m, active drag and drag coefficient were measured on both trials by the method of small perturbations with the help of an additional hydrodynamic body. After 8 weeks of training, mean active drag (drag force and drag coefficient) decreased in girls and boys, although no significant differences were found between the two trials. It seems that 8 weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming technique. Key points The velocity perturbation method seems to be a good, simple and reliable approach to assess active drag in young swimmers. Eight weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming hydrodynamics. There were no differences between boys and girls concerning active drag. A possible explanation may be related to the similar values of body mass and height in boys and girls found in this study. Specific training sets concerning technique correction and improvement in young swimmers might be a main aim during training planning. PMID:24149388

  5. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  6. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  7. Effect of preservation method on spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) fecal microbiota over 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hale, Vanessa L; Tan, Chia L; Knight, Rob; Amato, Katherine R

    2015-06-01

    Studies of the gut microbiome have become increasingly common with recent technological advances. Gut microbes play an important role in human and animal health, and gut microbiome analysis holds great potential for evaluating health in wildlife, as microbiota can be assessed from non-invasively collected fecal samples. However, many common fecal preservation protocols (e.g. freezing at -80 °C) are not suitable for field conditions, or have not been tested for long-term (greater than 2 weeks) storage. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples from captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Columbian Park Zoo (Lafayette, IN, USA). The samples were pooled, homogenized, and preserved for up to 8 weeks prior to DNA extraction and sequencing. Preservation methods included: freezing at -20 °C, freezing at -80 °C, immersion in 100% ethanol, application to FTA cards, and immersion in RNAlater. At 0 (fresh), 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks from fecal collection, DNA was extracted and microbial DNA was amplified and sequenced. DNA concentration, purity, microbial diversity, and microbial composition were compared across all methods and time points. DNA concentration and purity did not correlate with microbial diversity or composition. Microbial composition of frozen and ethanol samples were most similar to fresh samples. FTA card and RNAlater-preserved samples had the least similar microbial composition and abundance compared to fresh samples. Microbial composition and diversity were relatively stable over time within each preservation method. Based on these results, if freezers are not available, we recommend preserving fecal samples in ethanol (for up to 8weeks) prior to microbial extraction and analysis.

  8. Urinary tract infections in febrile infants younger than 8 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Crain, E F; Gershel, J C

    1990-09-01

    In this prospective study of 442 infants younger than 8 weeks of age who attended a pediatric emergency department with temperature greater than or equal to 100.6 degrees F (38.1 degrees C), urinary tract infections (UTIs) were found in 33 patients (7.5%), 2 of whom were bacteremic. Clinical and laboratory data were not helpful for identifying UTIs. Of the 33 patients with UTIs, 32 had urinalyses recorded; 16 were suggestive of a UTI (more than five white blood cells per high-power field or any bacteria present). Of the 16 infants with apparently normal urinalysis results, three had an emergency department diagnosis suggesting an alternative bacterial focus of infection. If the physician had decided on the basis of apparently normal urinalysis results to forgo obtaining a urine culture, more than half of the UTIs would have been missed. Bag-collected specimens were significantly more likely to yield indeterminate urine culture results than either catheter or suprapubic specimens. In addition, uncircumcised males were significantly more likely to have a UTI than circumcised boys. These results suggest that a suprapubic or catheter-obtained urine specimen for culture is a necessary part of the evaluation of all febrile infants younger than 8 weeks of age, regardless of the urinalysis findings or another focus of presumed bacterial infection.

  9. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  10. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  11. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  12. Energy balance and physical demands during an 8-week arduous military training course.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Victoria L; Horner, Fleur E; Wilkinson, David M; Rayson, Mark P; Wright, Antony; Izard, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed soldier's physical demands and energy balance during the Section Commanders' Battles Course (SCBC). Forty male soldiers were monitored during the 8-week tactics phase of the SCBC. Energy expenditure was measured using the doubly labeled water method. Cardiovascular strain (heart rate) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometer) were also monitored. Average sized portions of meals were weighed, with all recipes and meals entered into a dietary analysis program to calculate the calorie content. Energy expenditure averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 2 to 3 and 21.3 ± 2.0 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 6 to 7. Soldiers lost 5.1 ± 2.6 kg body mass and body fat percent decreased from 23 ± 4% to 19 ± 5%. This average weight loss equates to an estimated energy deficit of 2.69 MJ · d(-1). The Army provided an estimated 14.0 ± 2.2 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 2 to 3 and 15.7 ± 2.2 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 6 to 7. Although this provision adheres to the minimum requirement of 13.8 MJ · d(-1) set by Army regulations, soldiers were in a theoretical 5.6 MJ · d(-1) energy deficit. The physical demands of SCBC were high, and soldiers were in energy deficit resulting in loss in body mass; primarily attributed to a loss in fat mass. PMID:24690967

  13. Repeated Warm Water Immersion Induces Similar Cerebrovascular Adaptations to 8 Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Exercise Training in Females.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T G; Cable, N T; Miller, G D; Sprung, V S; Low, D A; Jones, H

    2016-09-01

    Exercise training has the potential to enhance cerebrovascular function. Warm water immersion has recently been shown to enhance vascular function including the cerebrovascular response to heating. We suggest that passive heating can be used alternatively to exercise. Our aim was to compare the effects of exercise with warm-water immersion training on cerebrovascular and thermoregulatory function. 18 females (25±5 y) performed 8 weeks of cycling (70% HRmax) or warm water immersion (42°C) for 30 min 3 times per week. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peak cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) were measured prior to and following both interventions. A passive heat stress was employed to obtain temperature thresholds (Tb) and sensitivities for sweat rate (SR) and cutaneous vasodilation (CVC). Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured throughout. FMD and VO2peak improved following both interventions (p<0.05). MCAv and cerebrovascular conductance were higher at rest and during passive heating (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively) following both interventions. SR occurred at a lower Tb following both interventions and SR sensitivity also increased, with a larger increase at the chest (p<0.001) following water immersion. CVC occurred at a lower Tb (p<0.001) following both interventions. Warm water immersion elicits similar cerebrovascular, conduit, and thermoregulatory adaptations compared to a period of moderate-intensity exercise training. PMID:27286178

  14. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry.

  15. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry. PMID:26194655

  16. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  17. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in generalized anxiety disorder: results of an 8-week, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Yan, Mingjin; Sheehan, David V

    2012-12-01

    Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant, with anxiolytic properties observed in preclinical studies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 5mg vs placebo in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Adults with a primary diagnosis of GAD (HAM-A total score ≥20 and MADRS score ≤16) received vortioxetine 5mg or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in HAM-A total scores from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo. Key secondary measurements were HAD anxiety subscore, CGI-I, SDS total score, HAM-A response rates, HAM-A total score for subjects whose baseline HAM-A total score was ≥25, and SF-36 social functioning subscore. HAM-A remission rates were also measured. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. In total, 301 subjects (mean age, 45.2 years; 31% male) were randomized (1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5mg (n=150) or placebo (n=151). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction from baseline in HAM-A total score for the vortioxetine group (-14.30) compared with placebo recipients (-10.49) (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed for all key secondary outcomes favoring vortioxetine treatment (vs placebo), using a mixed model for repeated measurements (MMRM) analysis. Active treatment resulted in a significantly higher rate of remission. Vortioxetine was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related AEs were nausea, headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. In sum, vortioxetine was safe and effective in treating adults with GAD in this multinational population. PMID:22898365

  18. The effects of a mid-winter 8-week course of sub-sunburn sunbed exposures on tanning, vitamin D status and colds.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, Frank R; Pavel, Stan

    2012-12-01

    Like UV irradiation, which generates vitamin D(3) in the skin, the hormonally active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), boosts innate immunity against viruses and bacteria. Epidemiologic studies have found high vitamin D levels to be associated with lower risk of infections of the upper respiratory tract (colds). We have therefore performed an intervention study in 105 young adults (ages 18-30 years; 91% female) over a mid-winter 8-week period (January-March 2010). The participants were randomised to 3 groups: (A) subjected to 3 times a week sub-sunburn sunbed exposure (n = 35), (B) daily vitamin D supplementation, @ 1000 IU (n = 37), and (C) a control group without any intervention (n = 33). The mean serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dropped from 62 to 55 nmol l(-1) in group C, while these levels rose from 62 to 109 and from 58 to 93 nmol l(-1) in groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.001). The skin on the chest darkened significantly in group A (mean difference in lightness, L*, equalled -5.7, p < 0.001), correlating significantly, but weakly, with increases in 25(OH)D (3.3 nmol l(-1) per unit drop in L*, R(2) = 0.17, p = 0.014). The percentage of self-reported colds with proper signs and symptoms was only slightly and not significantly reduced in groups A and B in comparison to group C: 57 and 51 versus 67%, respectively. Hence, the sub-sunburn sunbed treatment was effective in tanning and increasing the 25(OH)D serum level, more so than 1000 IU per day, but had no appreciable effect on colds.

  19. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  20. An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

    2014-09-01

    Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.

  1. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure.

  2. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  3. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  4. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  5. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  6. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  7. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-06-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response.

  8. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  9. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  10. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  11. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  12. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. PMID:26239913

  13. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    PubMed Central

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001), and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05) was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001), as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01) were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05), and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength

  14. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    PubMed Central

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students. PMID:20098584

  15. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  16. Effect of daily short bouts of trampoline exercise during 8 weeks on the pulmonary function and the maximal oxygen uptake of children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stanghelle, J K; Hjeltnes, N; Bangstad, H J; Michalsen, H

    1988-02-01

    Six girls and two boys with cystic fibrosis (CF) 10-13.5 years of age (mean 11.5 years) participated in a prescribed exercise program on a mini-trampoline, maximum 109 min/week, during 8 weeks. The training consisted of three short bouts of trampoline exercise. The CF children were divided into two groups. The first group was a control as the other group exercised on the trampoline and vice versa. Three patients in each group completed the study. Pulmonary and exercise tests were performed before and after the exercise/control periods. The pulmonary tests (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) showed minor changes during the exercise period, but a slight increase in FVC (P less than 0.05) during the total time of the study was found. The two patients with more advanced lung disease improved their spirometric results during the training period. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) improved from 45 to 49 ml/kg/min (P less than 0.025) during the exercise period. Trampoline exercise programs are suggested to supply other types of training to avoid monotony in the training for CF patients. PMID:3360541

  17. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  18. Increased heart rate variability but no effect on blood pressure from 8 weeks of hatha yoga – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga exercises are known to decrease stress and restore autonomic balance. Yet knowledge about the physiological effects of inversion postures is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inversion postures (head below the heart) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Twelve healthy women and men took part in an 8-week yoga program (60 min once a week). BP was measured with an automatic Omron mx3 oscillometric monitoring device and HRV with a Holter 24-hour ECG at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention. Results There was no significant effect of inversion postures on BP. Nine out of 12 participants showed a significant increase in HRV (p < 0.05) at night (2 hours) on pNN50% (12.7 ± 12.5 to 18.2 ± 13.3). There were no significant changes in other HRV measures such as NN50, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, LF normalized units (n.u.), HF n.u. and RMSSD. Conclusion Eight weeks of hatha yoga improved HRV significantly which suggests an increased vagal tone and reduced sympathetic activity. PMID:23398959

  19. Effects of an 8-week meditation program on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward religious/spiritual self-representations.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Campanella, Fabio; Eleopra, Roberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-11-01

    Explicit self-representations often conflict with implicit and intuitive self-representations, with such discrepancies being seen as a source of psychological tension. Most of previous research on the psychological effects of mindfulness-meditation has assessed people's self-attitudes at an explicit level, leaving unknown whether mindfulness-meditation promotes changes on implicit self-representations. Here, we assessed the changes in implicit and explicit self-related religious/spiritual (RS) representations in healthy participants following an 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation (MOM) program. Before and after meditation, participants were administered implicit (implicit association test) and explicit (self-reported questionnaires) RS measures. Relative to control condition, MOM led to increases of implicit RS in individuals whit low pre-existing implicit RS and to more widespread increases in explicit RS. On the assumption that MOM practice may enhance the clarity of one's transcendental thoughts and feelings, we argued that MOM allows people to transform their intuitive feelings of implicit RS as well as their explicit RS attitudes.

  20. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  1. An open-label, rater-blinded, 8-week trial of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder with atypical features.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-J; Lee, B C; Seok, J-H; Jeon, H J; Paik, J-W; Kim, W; Kwak, K-P; Han, C; Lee, K-U; Pae, C-U

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness and tolerability of -bupropion hydrochloride extended release (XL) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with atypical features (AF).51 patients were prescribed bupropion XL for 8 weeks (6 visits: screening, baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8). The primary efficacy measure was a change of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD) from baseline to endpoint. Secondary efficacy measures included the SIGH-SAD atypical symptoms subscale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Epworth Sleepiness Questionnaire (ESQ). Response or remission was defined as ≥50% reduction or ≤7 in SIGH-SAD total scores, respectively, at end of treatment.The HAM-D-29 total score reduced by 55.3% from baseline (27.3±6.5) to end of treatment (12.2±6.3) (p<0.001). Atypical symptom subscale scores also reduced by 54.5% from baseline (9.2±3.0) to end of treatment (4.2±2.8) (p<0.001). At the end of treatment, 24.4% (n=10) and 51.2% (n=21) subjects were classified as remitters and responders, respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (13.7%), dry mouth (11.8%), dizziness (9.8%), and dyspepsia (9.8%).Our preliminary study indicates that bupropion XL may be beneficial in the treatment of MDD with atypical features. Adequately powered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to determine our results.

  2. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  3. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  4. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  5. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  6. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  7. A Controlled Evaluation of Behavioral Treatment with Children with ADHD Attending a Summer Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Tresco, Katy E.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2005-01-01

    Individual treatment response to behavior modification was examined in the context of a summer treatment program. Four children ages 11 to 12 and diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were examined in a BABAB design in which a comprehensive behavioral program was utilized and withdrawn across an 8-week period. Dependent measures…

  8. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  9. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  10. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance].

    PubMed

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Vasen, Hans F A; Cats, Anemieke

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prophylactic gastrectomy is advised for this patient group. This group is small and little is known about other types of familial gastric cancer. The Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer has formulated criteria for various aspects of medical care for families and individuals at high risk of developing gastric cancer, including criteria for diagnostics and periodic gastric surveillance. In order to optimize the care and increase the knowledge on hereditary gastric cancer it is important to centralize medical care for these patients.

  11. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  12. Chronic Alcohol Treatment in Rats Alters Sleep by Fragmenting Periods of Vigilance Cycling in the Light Period with Extended Wakenings

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Simasko, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that disturbed sleep produced by chronic alcohol abuse in humans can predict relapse drinking after periods of abstinence. How alcohol produces disturbed sleep remains unknown. In this study we used a novel analysis of sleep to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep patterns in rats. This analysis separates waking into multiple components and defines a period labeled vigilance cycling (VC) in which the rat rapidly cycles through various vigilance states. These VC episodes are separated by long duration wake periods (LDW). We find that 6 weeks of alcohol (6% in a liquid diet) caused fragmentation of extended VC episodes that normally occur in the light period. However, total daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) remained constant. The daily amount of wake, SWS, and REMS remained constant because the alcohol treated rats increased the amount of VC in the dark period, and the sleep nature of VC in the dark period became more intense. In addition, we observed more wake and less REMS early in the light period in alcohol treated rats. All effects completely reversed by day 16 of alcohol withdrawal. Comparison of the effects of chronic alcohol to acute alcohol exposure demonstrated the effects of chronic alcohol are due to adaptation and not the acute presence of alcohol. The effects of chronic alcohol treatment in rats mimic the effects reported in humans (REMS suppression, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty remaining asleep). PMID:19014977

  13. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  14. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  16. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  17. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings.

  18. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. PMID:27660489

  19. Treatment with an orthopedic appliance system in relation to treatment intensity and growth periods. A study of initial effects.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, O; Omblus, J; Hägg, U; Pancherz, H

    1987-02-01

    The study comprises an analysis of the effect of treatment with a modified activator combined with a high-pull headgear during a standardized observation period of the initial 6 months of treatment. All patients (24 girls and 32 boys, aged 8.5 to 15 years) had severe skeletal Class II malocclusion. In the first part of the study, the effect of treatment with the appliance both day and night is compared with the effect when it was worn only at night. Only a small and nonsignificant difference was found, but the patients tended to cooperate better if they were instructed to wear the appliance continuously. In the second part of the study, the effect of treatment is related to the somatic maturation of the patients. Longitudinal records of standing height were used to assess whether treatment had been performed before maximal pubertal growth (prepeak period), during maximal pubertal growth (peak period), or after maximal pubertal growth (postpeak period). The skeletal effect was significantly greater in boys treated during the peak period than in those treated during the prepeak period and a similar tendency, although not significant, was found among girls. The number of patients treated during the postpeak period was too small for statistical analysis.

  20. Periodicity in cell dynamics in some mathematical models for the treatment of leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halanay, A.

    2012-11-01

    A model for the evolution of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and of leukocytes in leucemia under periodic treatment is introduced. It consists of a system of periodic delay differential equations and takes into consideration the asymmetric division. A guiding function is used, together with a theorem of Krasnoselskii, to prove the existence of a strictly positive periodic solution and its stability is investigated.

  1. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  2. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes.

  3. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  4. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  5. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  6. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  7. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  8. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  9. Marketing EPSDT to Clients: A Self-Instructional Module for Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…

  10. Lessons learned from muscle fatigue: implications for treatment of patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jean-Marc; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) is a disease characterized by periods of myotonic discharges and paralytic attacks causing weakness, the latter associated with increases in plasma [K(+)]. The myotonic discharge is due to increased Na(+) influx through defective Na(+) channels that triggers generation of several action potentials. The subsequent increase in extracellular K(+) concentration causes excessive membrane depolarization that inactivates Na(+) channels triggering the paralysis. None of the available treatments is fully effective. This paper reviews the capacity of Na(+) K(+)ATPase pumps, KATP and ClC-1 Cl(-) channels in improving membrane excitability during muscle activity and how using these three membrane components we can study future and more effective treatments for HyperKPP patients. The review of current patents related to HyperKPP reinforces the need of novel approaches for the treatment of this channelopathy.

  11. Regeneration of Aqueous Periodate Solutions by Ozone Treatment: A Sustainable Approach for Dialdehyde Cellulose Production.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Slavica; Siller, Martin; Hosoya, Takashi; Roggenstein, Walter; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2016-04-21

    A method for easy and fast regeneration of aqueous periodate solutions from dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) production by ozone treatment is presented, along with a direct and reliable simultaneous quantification of iodate and periodate by reversed-phase HPLC. The influence of iodate and ozone concentration, solution pH, and reaction time on the regeneration efficiency was studied, as well as the reaction kinetics. Regeneration of spent periodate solutions by ozone was successfully performed in alkaline medium, which favors the formation of free (.) OH radicals, as supported by the addition of radical scavengers and quantum mechanical calculations. At pH 13 and an ozone concentration of approximately 150 mg L(-1) , periodate was completely regenerated from a 100 mm solution of iodate within 1 h at room temperature. A cyclic process of cellulose oxidation and subsequent regeneration of spent periodate with 90 % efficiency has been developed. So far, commercial applications of DAC have been hampered by difficulties in reusing the costly periodate. This work overcomes this hurdle and presents a highly efficient, clean, and low-cost protocol for the preparation of DAC with integrated periodate recycling, with the possibility of scaling the process up.

  12. Tumor Volume Decrease at 8 weeks is Associated with Longer Survival in EGFR-mutant Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients treated with EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Mizuki; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Cardarella, Stephanie; Jackman, David M.; Rabin, Michael S.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Jänne, Pasi A.; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The study investigated if tumor volume changes at 8 weeks of therapy are associated with outcomes in advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients and methods In 56 advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations treated with first-line erlotinib or gefitinib, tumor volumes of dominant lung lesions were measured on baseline and follow-up CT and were analyzed for association with survival. Results Among 56 eligible patients, the median tumor volume was 17.8 cm3 (range: 1.3-172.7 cm3) on the baseline scans. 49 patients had follow-up CT at approximately 8 weeks; the median tumor volume at 8 weeks was 7.1 cm3 (range: 0.4-62.3 cm3), with the median proportional volume change of -59% (range: -90% to +91%) from baseline. The proportional volume change at 8 weeks was associated with survival (p=0.02). Using the cut-off value of 38% volume decrease (75th percentile) at 8 weeks, patients with volume decrease >38% (n=37) had a median overall survival of 43.5 months compared to 16.3 months among those with volume decrease ≤38% (n=12) (p=0.01). The median progression-free survival for patients with >38% volume decrease was 12.6 months, compared to 5.5 months for those with ≤38% volume decrease (p=0.2). Conclusions The proportional volume change at 8 weeks is associated with overall survival in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients treated with first-line EGFR-TKIs. The observation of the study, if confirmed in larger study cohorts, indicates that tumor volume analysis at 8 weeks may provide an early marker for survival, and contribute to therapeutic decision making by identifying patients who may benefit from additional anti-cancer therapy after 8 weeks of EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:23787800

  13. Is psychotherapy mandatory during the acute refeeding period in the treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Danziger, Y; Carel, C A; Tyano, S; Mimouni, M

    1989-07-01

    Forty-five adolescent and preadolescent patients (42 females, three males) with anorexia nervosa (AN) were treated in a pediatric day care unit of a large urban hospital by a multidisciplinary team. In our treatment model, the pediatrician has the responsibility for the initial evaluation and physical rehabilitation while the pediatric psychiatrist does the initial evaluation of the patient and family and is available for intervention in an emergency. Parents are actively involved in the treatment program. Family psychotherapy is recommended for each patient and his or her family. Among 45 patients, 24 did not enter psychotherapy during the first 2 months of the refeeding period, while the remaining 21 patients started psychotherapy (family and/or individual) during this period. Weight gain was higher in the group without formal psychotherapy during the initial period of refeeding (7.3 +/- 3.1 kg versus 5 +/- 2.5 kg; p less than 0.01). It is suggested that the initiation of structured psychotherapy is not mandatory and does not contribute to treatment effectiveness in the acute phase when emaciation and negativism may hinder the psychotherapeutic process. We believe a multidisciplinary team, together with the parents, is the treatment of choice during the acute phase of AN.

  14. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke.

  15. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. PMID:26720411

  16. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering.

  17. Effects of 8 weeks of military training on lower extremity and lower back clinical findings of young Iranian male recruits: A prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Amir Momeni; Yousefi, Elham; Moayednia, Amir; Tahririan, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this prospective case series we have assessed the clinical effects of 8 weeks military training on the lower extremity of the recruits. Materials and Methods: Military recruits who met the eligibility criteria and gave informed consent were entered into the study. They were asked to fill out a self-reporting pain and functionality questionnaire before and after their training. They were also examined by a physician before and after their military training. The questionnaire and examination were concentrated on three blocs: lower back, knee, and foot. Results: Three-hundred and seventy-three study subjects were evaluated. The study showed that there is a significant difference in reporting lower back pain after the training compared to the rate of complaints prior to the training (P < 0.001), knee pain, and foot pain also increased significantly (P < 0.1 and P < 0.0001, respectively) The difference was most prominent in foot complaints. Physical examination also showed significant increase in lower extremity findings following the training (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study shows that there is a need for a new approach to military training of male recruits in Iran in order to minimize the adverse health effects. PMID:24600600

  18. Response of BAX, Bcl-2 Proteins, and SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA Expression to 8-Week Treadmill Running in the Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Hui; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Yan-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise training on Bax and Bcl-2 protein content and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aging rats. Eight 18 months old male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 5 days weekly for 8 weeks on a treadmill, and eight sedentary rats served as controls. Gastrocnemius muscles were dissected 2 days after the last training session. The mRNA content of PGC-1α, caspase-3, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2, and SIRT1 was estimated by RT-PCR with GAPDH used as an internal control. The protein expression of BAX and Bcl-2 was assessed by Western immunoblot. After training, significant (p < 0.05) increases were noted for the gastrocnemius muscle weights, the gastrocnemius mass/body mass ratio, the bcl-2/BAX ratio, the Bcl-2 protein and the SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2 mRNA content in the trained gastrocnemius, relative to the control samples. No difference was found in the BAX protein between control and trained muscles, whereas the caspase-3 mRNA content decreased by 50 %, in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained animals. Exercise training may inhibit age-induced myonuclear apoptosis by stimulating SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA expression, thereby preventing sarcopenia in aging rat. PMID:27526155

  19. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  20. Effect of 8 Weeks of Overfeeding on Ectopic Fat Deposition and Insulin Sensitivity: Testing the “Adipose Tissue Expandability” Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Tam, Charmaine S.; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Xie, Wenting; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Bajpeyi, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The presence of large subcutaneous adipocytes in obesity has been proposed to be linked with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the “adipose tissue expandability” hypothesis, which holds that large adipocytes have a limited capacity for expansion, forcing lipids to be stored in nonadipose ectopic depots (skeletal muscle, liver), where they interfere with insulin signaling. This hypothesis has, however, been largely formulated by cross-sectional findings and to date has not been prospectively demonstrated in the development of insulin resistance in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-nine men (26.8 ± 5.4 years old; BMI 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were fed 40% more than their baseline requirement for 8 weeks. Before and after overfeeding, insulin sensitivity was determined using a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were measured by 1H-MRS and abdominal fat by MRI. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were collected to measure adipocyte size and markers of tissue inflammation. RESULTS Subjects gained 7.6 ± 2.1 kg (55% fat) and insulin sensitivity decreased 18% (P < 0.001) after overfeeding. IHL increased 46% from 1.5% to 2.2% (P = 0.002); however, IMCL did not change. There was no association between adipocyte size and ectopic lipid accumulation. Despite similar weight gain, subjects with smaller fat cells at baseline had a greater decrease in insulin sensitivity, which was linked with upregulated skeletal muscle tissue inflammation. CONCLUSIONS In experimental substantial weight gain, the presence of larger adipocytes did not promote ectopic lipid accumulation. In contrast, smaller fat cells were associated with a worsened metabolic response to overfeeding. PMID:25011943

  1. [The treatment of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Gülöksüz, Sinan; Akdeniz, Fisun; Ince, Bahri; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) in males and females is almost equal. The onset of BD in females typically occurs during the reproductive years, complicating its treatment. Although it was once believed that pregnancy prevents recurrence, studies have shown that recurrence is common and severe during pregnancy. On the other hand, the effects of pharmacological treatment on obstetrical outcome are not well known and some of these agents are considered teratogenic. Thus, the decision to treat pregnant patients with psychotropic agents requires solving an ethical dilemma. Risk-benefit decisions should be made while considering both the risk of relapse of BD and its morbidity, and the risk of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications. Moreover, the risk of recurrence increases dramatically in the postpartum period. It is well known that all of the psychotropic medications studied enter the breast milk. Thus, their effects on infants should be considered while prescribing for a breastfeeding mother. The aim of this review was to discuss the safety profiles of the treatment options for pregnant and breastfeeding BD patients. Firstly, each medication's effects on organ dysgenesis, neonatal toxicity, and neurobehavioral development, and their associated adverse events during pregnancy and the postpartum period are discussed, with a focus on the emerging literature. Given this background, practical suggestions on tailoring treatment in BD patients, from preconception to breastfeeding are highlighted.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shama V; Jacques, Hélène; Plourde, Mélanie; Mitchell, Patricia L; McLeod, Roger S; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-07-01

    The usefulness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a nutraceutical remains ambiguous. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition, blood lipids, and safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. A double-blinded, 3-phase crossover trial was conducted in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), borderline hypercholesterolemic [LDL-cholesterol (C) ≥ 2.5 mmol/L] men aged 18-60 y. During three 8-wk phases, each separated by a 4-wk washout period, 27 participants consumed under supervision in random order 3.5 g/d of safflower oil (control), a 50:50 mixture of trans 10, cis 12 and cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11) CLA:Clarinol G-80, and c9, t11 isomer:c9, t11 CLA. At baseline and endpoint of each phase, body weight, body fat mass, and lean body mass were measured by DXA. Blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers, including insulin sensitivity, blood concentrations of adiponectin, and inflammatory (high sensitive-C-reactive protein, TNFα, and IL-6) and oxidative (oxidized-LDL) molecules, were measured. The effect of CLA consumption on fatty acid oxidation was also assessed. Compared with the control treatment, the CLA treatments did not affect changes in body weight, body composition, or blood lipids. In addition, CLA did not affect the β-oxidation rate of fatty acids or induce significant alterations in the safety markers tested. In conclusion, although no detrimental effects were caused by supplementation, these results do not confirm a role for CLA in either body weight or blood lipid regulation in humans.

  3. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  4. Formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzin, Serguei P.

    2015-09-01

    A method of the formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment was developed. In this study, the multicomponent aluminum-iron brass was considered and the nanoporous structure across the entire cross section of the material with a thickness of 50 μm was formed. The method was implemented using a CO2 laser processing unit. The pulse-periodic laser treatment of the Cu-Zn-Al-Fe alloy with pulse frequency of 5 Hz has led to the formation of nanosized cavities due to accumulation of internal stresses during cyclic heating and cooling at high speeds. It was determined that the pores of a channel type with average widths of 80-100 nm are formed in the central region of the heat-affected zone during laser action with thermocycling. When implementing the chosen conditions of the pulse-periodic laser processing, the localness in depth and area of the physical processes occurring in the heat-affected zone is ensured, while maintaining the original properties of the material and the absence of significant deformations in the rest of the volume. This patented process is perspective for the production not only catalysts for chemical reactions, but for ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes as well.

  5. Periodic mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine for the control of filariasis in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, John F.; Siliga, Nofo; Tompkins, Harry; Jones, Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    Filariasis surveys made during 1962-63 in 5 villages in American Samoa among persons over 5 years of age gave an elephantiasis rate of 3.4%, a microfilarial rate of 26% and a median microfilarial rate (MfD50) of 29. These rates were somewhat higher than those found in surveys made in the same villages among villagers of the same ages some 20 years previously. A mass treatment programme with diethylcarbamazine was then decided on. Preliminary treatment with a single total regimen of 72 mg of the drug per kg of body weight, given in 12 doses of 6 mg/kg, was administered in several villages over a period of 6 months. Among villagers of all ages at the end of 3 years, the microfilarial rate was 7.3% and the MfD50 value was 2. These results appeared to be inadequate for a successful control programme and a periodic mass treatment project of 2 or more regimens of 72 mg/kg to be administered every 2 years was instituted on the Island of Tutuila, to be continued until considered no longer necessary. Surveys made 2 years after the second mass treatment in the villages of Amouli, Amanave, Onenoa, Tula, Alao, Utumea and Alofau, in which 1407 persons were examined, showed that 3 villages were negative for microfilariae, that the average microfilarial rate in all 7 villages was 0.4% and that the MfD50 was 1. These villages were also negative in intensive mosquito surveys for infective-stage larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti. It is suggested that interruption of transmission has been observed in the 3 villages negative for both microfilariae and infective-stage larvae and that, if favourable surveys continue, eradication programmes should be established. PMID:4396819

  6. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  7. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  8. Linear-scaling explicitly correlated treatment of solids: Periodic local MP2-F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis

    2013-11-21

    Theory and implementation of the periodic local MP2-F12 method in the 3*A fixed-amplitude ansatz is presented. The method is formulated in the direct space, employing local representation for the occupied, virtual, and auxiliary orbitals in the form of Wannier functions (WFs), projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, respectively. Local approximations are introduced, restricting the list of the explicitly correlated pairs, as well as occupied, virtual, and auxiliary spaces in the strong orthogonality projector to the pair-specific domains on the basis of spatial proximity of respective orbitals. The 4-index two-electron integrals appearing in the formalism are approximated via the direct-space density fitting technique. In this procedure, the fitting orbital spaces are also restricted to local fit-domains surrounding the fitted densities. The formulation of the method and its implementation exploits the translational symmetry and the site-group symmetries of the WFs. Test calculations are performed on LiH crystal. The results show that the periodic LMP2-F12 method substantially accelerates basis set convergence of the total correlation energy, and even more so the correlation energy differences. The resulting energies are quite insensitive to the resolution-of-the-identity domain sizes and the quality of the auxiliary basis sets. The convergence with the orbital domain size is somewhat slower, but still acceptable. Moreover, inclusion of slightly more diffuse functions, than those usually used in the periodic calculations, improves the convergence of the LMP2-F12 correlation energy with respect to both the size of the PAO-domains and the quality of the orbital basis set. At the same time, the essentially diffuse atomic orbitals from standard molecular basis sets, commonly utilized in molecular MP2-F12 calculations, but problematic in the periodic context, are not necessary for LMP2-F12 treatment of crystals.

  9. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plants optimisation to face pollution overloads during grape harvest periods.

    PubMed

    Beck, C; Prades, G; Sadowski, A G

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of our study was to optimise a municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to face high organic flows due to viticulture effluents inputs. Treatment file optimization consisted in testing different treatment lines, changing the number and volume of biological basins and clarifiers, with or without a buffer basin upstream, with a view to achieving a better reduction of COD. The actual WWTP biological stage is composed of two aerated basins whose total volume is 1365 m3. The studied cases are successively, the installation of a single basin of 1365 m3, then of several basins whose total volume remains constant and equal to 1365 m3. Another case was also considered, that of an aerated basin followed by a first clarifier and then, by another aerated basin and a second clarifier. All scenarios presented below were evaluated, for standard dry weather conditions and for high organic load conditions, as encountered during the grape harvest period. The method used was to carry out various simulations, using numerical modelling, and to compare the impact of different process line scenarios and management strategies on the activated sludge WWTP efficiencies.

  10. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  11. Interleukin-1 antagonists in the treatment of autoinflammatory syndromes, including cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quartier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) include a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders, the spectrum of which ranges from the mildest form, ie, familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome to more severe phenotypes, ie, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome, also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Three interleukin (IL)-1 antagonists have been tested in adults and children with CAPS, ie, anakinra, a recombinant homolog of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist; rilonacept, a fusion protein comprising the extracellular domains of IL-1 receptor I and the IL-1 adaptor protein, IL-1RAcP, attached to a human immunoglobulin G molecule; and canakinumab, the anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody. Following rapid clinical development, rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in adults and children. This review describes how the study of CAPS has helped us to understand better the way the innate immune system works, the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes, and the key role of IL-1. It also reviews the effects of IL-1 blockade in CAPS and other disorders, in particular systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, and gout. Finally, this review covers some issues addressed by very recent and ongoing work regarding treatment indications, from orphan diseases to common disorders, continuous versus intermittent treatment, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal dosages of the different drugs, as well as the need for Phase IV trials, exhaustive registries, and long-term follow-up of several patient cohorts.

  12. Using a pharmacogenomic algorithm to guide the treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Flavin, D K; Winner, J G; Allen, J D; Jordan, J J; Nesheim, R S; Snyder, K A; Drews, M S; Eisterhold, L L; Biernacka, J M; Mrazek, D A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of utilizing a pharmacogenomic testing report to guide the selection and dosing of psychotropic medications in an outpatient psychiatric practice. The non-randomized, open label, prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2010. In the first cohort, depressed patients were treated without the benefit of pharmacogenomic testing (the unguided group). A DNA sample was obtained from patients in the unguided group, but the results were not shared with either the physicians or patients until the end of the 8-week study period. In the second cohort (the guided group), testing results were provided at the beginning of the 8-week treatment period. Depression ratings were collected at baseline and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rated (QIDS-C16) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17). Clinician and patient satisfaction was also assessed. The reduction in depressive symptoms achieved within the guided treatment group was greater than the reduction of depressive symptoms in the unguided treatment group using either the QIDS-C16 (P=0.002) or HAM-D17 (P=0.04). We concluded that a rapidly available pharmacogenomic interpretive report provided clinical guidance that was associated with improved clinical outcomes for depressed patients treated in an outpatient psychiatric clinic setting. PMID:23047243

  13. Anakinra and related drugs targeting interleukin-1 in the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bachove, Inessa; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Anakinra is an interleukin (IL) receptor antagonist that works by blocking the biological activity of IL-1 by competitively inhibiting binding of IL-1 to the type 1 interleukin receptor. IL-1 production is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli and mediates various physiological mechanisms, including inflammation and immunological reactions. Patients with neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) produce excess IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine that regulates innate immune responses. Anakinra binds competitively and this results in a rapid reduction in disease severity. NOMID, also known as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome, is the most severe clinical phenotype in the spectrum of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. It is characterized by cutaneous symptoms, arthropathy, and central nervous system involvement. Extensive studies in patients with NOMID have led to advances in characterizing the extent of organ-specific involvement and damage that occurs with chronic overproduction of IL-1β. NOMID is caused predominantly by mutations in the NLRP3/CIAS1 gene that encodes for the protein cryopyrin, leading to activation of the “NLRP3 inflammasome complex”. This in turn regulates the maturation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The clinical value of IL-1β has been demonstrated by the positive response of patients after treatment with anakinra, with rapid improvement in clinical symptoms, markers of inflammation, and a significant decrease in major organ manifestations.

  14. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  15. The impact of exercise on depression and anxiety symptoms among abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals in a residential treatment setting

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Chudzynski, Joy; Gonzales, Rachel; Mooney, Larissa; Dickerson, Daniel; Ang, Alfonso; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper reports data from a study designed to determine the impact of an 8-week exercise program on depression and anxiety symptoms among newly abstinent methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals in residential treatment. Methods One hundred thirty-five MA-dependent individuals, newly enrolled in residential treatment, were randomly assigned to receive either a 3-times-per-week, 60-minute structured exercise program for 8 weeks (24 sessions) or an equivalent number of health education sessions. Using mixed-modeling repeated-measures regression, we examined changes in weekly total depression and anxiety scores as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory over the 8-week study period. Results Mean age of participants was 31.7 (SD = 6.9); 70.4% were male and 48% Latino. Analyses indicate a significant effect of exercise on reducing depression (β = −0.63, P = 0.001) and anxiety (β = −0.95, P = 0.001) symptoms (total scores) over the 8-week period compared to a health education control group. A significant dose interaction effect between session attendance and exercise was found as well on reducing depression (β = −0.61, P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (β = −0.22, P = 0.009) over time compared to the control group. Conclusions Results support the role of a structured exercise program as an effective intervention for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety associated with MA abstinence. PMID:25934458

  16. Effects on outpatient and emergency mental health care of strict Medicaid early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment enforcement.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Wallace, Neal T; Evans-Cuellar, Allison

    2007-11-01

    We investigated enforcement of mental health benefits provided by California Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. Enforcement, compelled by a consumer-driven lawsuit, resulted in an almost 4-fold funding increase over a 5-year period. We evaluated the impact of enforcement on outpatient treatment intensity (number of visits per child) and rates of emergency care treatment. Using fixed-effects regression, we examined the number of outpatient mental health visits per client and the percentage of all clients using crisis care across 53 autonomous California county mental health plans over 32 three-month periods (quarters; emergency crisis care rates) and 36 quarters (out-patient mental health visits). Enforcement of EPSDT benefits in accordance with federal law produced favorable changes in patterns of mental health service use, consistent with policy aims.

  17. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (−52.3% [2.8%] vs −0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was −51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: −59.8% to −43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (−10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was −10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: −14.1 to −6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large

  18. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong).

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (-52.3% [2.8%] vs -0.6% [3.5%], P<0.0001), and the difference was -51.7% (4.1%) (95% confidence interval: -59.8% to -43.6%). The least square mean change (standard error) from baseline in diastolic blood pressure 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC group than in the rosuvastatin group (-10.4 [1.2] mmHg vs 0.1 [1.6] mmHg, P<0.0001), and the difference was -10.5 (1.8) mmHg (95% confidence interval: -14.1 to -6.9 mmHg). There were 50 adverse events in 41 patients (22.7%) and eight adverse drug reactions in five patients (2.8%). The study found that FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large pill burden. PMID

  19. Theoretical treatment of the interaction between two-level atoms and periodic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaorun; Lalanne, Philippe

    2015-08-15

    Light transport in periodic waveguides coupled to two-level atoms is investigated theoretically. By using optical Bloch equations and a photonic modal formalism, we derive a convenient semi-analytical expression for calculating the scattering matrix of single atoms trapped in periodic waveguides. The expression that holds for both photonic and plasmonic waveguides represents a basic building block toward the study of collective effects arising from photon-mediated multi-atom interactions in periodic waveguides. PMID:26274681

  20. From methadone to buprenorphine: changes during a 10 year period within a national opioid maintenance treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Riksheim, Marianne; Gossop, Michael; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the most widely used treatment for opioid dependence. Maintenance programmes differ in various aspects and may also change over time. This paper investigates the changes in treatment practices within a national OMT programme during a 10 year period (2002-2011), especially with regard to the prescribing of methadone and buprenorphine. Data (n=34,001) were collected by annual assessments questionnaires. In 2002, only 16% of the OMT patients received buprenorphine as their maintenance medication. By 2011 this percentage had increased significantly (p<.001) to 50.3%. In the same period the number of patients more than tripled (from 1,984 to 6,640, p<.001), and programme attrition rates decreased (p=.020). This relatively rapid shift is a part of the increasing reliance of addiction medicine upon a range of medications administered by different routes which has not been previously charted within a national treatment programme.

  1. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  2. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  3. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  4. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  5. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  6. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication.

  7. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication. PMID:27157719

  8. Defaulting from tuberculosis treatment in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and trend in the period 1993-1997.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, M W; Veen, J; Kalisvaart, N A; Broekmans, J F; Nagelkerke, N J

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of defaulting from treatment among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in the Netherlands in the period 1993-1997, whether risk groups for defaulting can be identified at the start of treatment and the trend of defaulting over time. The Netherlands Tuberculosis Register provided data on all patients diagnosed in the Netherlands during the period 1993-1997. Defaulting probabilities were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and risk factors were identified with Cox's proportional hazard analysis. Of 7,529 patients with reported treatment outcome, 718 (10%) defaulted or left the country within 1 yr after starting treatment. Defaulting probabilities were 9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-10%) among 5,256 patients in low-risk groups, 17% (95% CI 14-19%) among 1,437 asylum seekers and 29% (95% CI 24-34%) among 836 patients in other high-risk groups (other recent immigrants, illegal immigrants, the homeless, prisoners and nationals from Eastern Europe). Defaulting probabilities decreased over time from 12% in 1993 to 7% in 1997. Risk groups for defaulting can be recognized at the start of treatment. The decreasing defaulting probabilities were probably due in part to shortening treatment from 9 to 6 months and improved follow-up of asylum seekers. However, additional measures are needed to reduce defaulting among the homeless, recent immigrants, illegal immigrants and prisoners.

  9. Effects of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats after treatment and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Simão, Vinícius Augusto; Berloffa Belardin, Larissa; Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) will cause changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of adult rats; and investigated the duration of the recovery period that is sufficient to restore the damage in the animals treated with different doses. Wistar rats were treated with ND at doses of 1.87, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg body weight, or received mineral oil (control group) for 15 days, subcutaneously. All animals were divided into three groups according to the treatment periods: (i) ND treatment for 15 days; (ii) ND treatment followed by a 30-day recovery; and (iii) ND treatment followed by a 60-day recovery. Estrous cycle was monitored daily, and at the end of each period, the animals were euthanized for histopathological analysis. During ND treatment and after 30-day recovery, all animals exhibited persistent diestrus. After a 60-day recovery, persistent diestrus was only maintained in the group that had received the highest dose. Ovarian weight was decreased significantly after the 30-day recovery, regardless of ND doses, compared with the control group. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of corpora lutea and antral and growing follicles, in contrast to an increase (P < 0.05) in atretic follicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Remarkable histopathological changes occurred in the ovaries of all ND-treated groups. In conclusion, the different doses of ND caused changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats, and recovery periods (30 and 60 days) were insufficient to completely restore the damage in the animals treated with the highest dose. PMID:26575430

  10. Successful treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) with tocilizumab: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Soyfoo, Muhammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disease linked to chromosome 12p13 and, more specifically, with mutations within the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A gene (TNFRSF1A gene). It is characterized by the presence of fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, arthralgia or arthritis, and skin rash. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) treated successfully with the anti-interleukin-6 (anti-IL-6) receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab, while treatment with anti-TNF α etanercept and infliximab had both failed.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  12. CRYSCOR: a program for the post-Hartree-Fock treatment of periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cesare; Schütz, Martin; Casassa, Silvia; Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Lorenz, Marco; Erba, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Cryscor is a periodic post-Hartree-Fock program based on local functions in direct space, i.e., Wannier functions and projected atomic orbitals. It uses atom centered Gaussians as basis functions. The Hartree-Fock reference, as well as symmetry information, is provided by the Crystal program. Cryscor presently features an efficient and parallel implementation of periodic local second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), which allows us to study 1D-, 2D- and 3D-periodic systems beyond 1000 basis functions per unit cell. Apart from the correlation energy also the MP2 density matrix, and from that the Compton profile, are available. Very recently, a new module for calculating excitonic band gaps at the uncorrelated Configuration-Interaction-Singles (CIS) level has been added. Other advancements include new extrapolation techniques for calculating surface adsorption on semi-infinite solids. In this paper the diverse features and recent advances of the present Cryscor version are illustrated by exemplary applications to various systems: the adsorption of an argon monolayer on the MgO (100) surface, the rolling energy of a boron nitride nanoscroll, the relative stability of different aluminosilicates, the inclusion energy of methane in methane-ice-clathrates, and the effect of electron correlation on charge and momentum density of α-quartz. Furthermore, we present some first tentative CIS results for excitonic band gaps of simple 3D-crystals, and their dependence on the diffuseness of the basis set. PMID:22334044

  13. Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders over Periods Ranging from One to Twenty Years following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Tansi, Robert; Lafratta, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the recidivism data for juvenile offenders discharged from a Massachusetts residential treatment center between 1976 and 1995. The criminal histories, juvenile and adult, of 162 delinquent youth referred through the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services who left the program were reviewed. Recidivism was defined as any…

  14. [Clinical and pharmacoeconomic peculiarities of the treatment with cerebrolysin in the period of rehabilitation of is ischemic stroke.].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Gekht, A B; Belousov, Iu B; Pavlov, N A; Galanov, D V; Popov, G R; Mil'chakova, L E

    2007-01-01

    The results of the clinical and pharmacoeconomic study of cerebrolysin in the rehabilitative therapy of ischemic stroke presented in the paper revealed the statistically significant regress of neurological disturbances in patients receiving cerebrolysin in daily dosages of 10 and 20 ml as compared to the control group. The rehabilitation of motor functions was more rapid than sensitive ones in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to those switched to the basic antihypertensive and antiaggregate therapy. The positive dynamics of speech rehabilitation was observed, the regress of aphatic disturbances being more significant for daily dosage of 20 ml. Rehabilitation rate in the period of treatment with cerebrolysin was higher for daily dosage of 20 ml than that of 10 ml. A prolonged effect of the drug during the long period after its withdrawal was found that resulted in higher rates of rehabilitation to the 11th week in patients receiving cerebrolysin as compared to the control group. Average total cost of direct medical expenses per a patient estimated in the pharmacoeconomic analysis for the groups receiving cerebrolysin and the control group was higher in the former groups, in particular in that with 20 ml dosage of cerebrolysin. A cost-efficacy analysis revealed that the cost of cerebrolysin treatment per effective unit (a cost of one score on the Lindmark scale and the Barthel scale) was less or comparable in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to the control group. The study suggests clinical and pharmacoeconomic expediency of cerebrolysin treatment in rehabilitative period of ischemic stroke.

  15. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  16. A Case Report on Juvenile Neuromyelitis Optica: Early Onset, Long Remission Period, and Atypical Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Christiane; Gross, Catharina C; Fiedler, Barbara; Meuth, Sven G; Kurlemann, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO is rare in children and clinical course of the disease is highly variable as described in studies. Here, we present a case report of a young girl presenting with a rare course of pediatric NMO with an early disease onset at the age of 12 years, a relapse free interval of 4 years, evidence of NMO immunoglobulin G (IgG) and an unusual response against immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this report is to highlight the potentially long remission period between relapses complicating proper diagnosis despite well defined diagnostic criteria. In addition, we want to encourage the use of rituximab in pediatric NMO, although larger cohorts are warranted to establish B cell depleting therapies in juvenile NMO.

  17. Current treatment recommendations and considerations for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Galeotti, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) encompasses a spectrum of three phenotypes of increasing severity. The syndrome is due to dominant mutations in NLRP3, which encodes a key component of the innate immunity that regulates the secretion of IL-1β. CAPS manifests as systemic inflammation, which compromises quality of life and leads to serious complications and handicap. Anti-IL-1 drugs have shown remarkable efficacy in treating CAPS symptoms and have significantly changed patients' lives. They have acceptable safety profiles but do have some differences. We review three drugs that are currently marketed for CAPS, give additional information for the practical use of these drugs, and provide some recommendations for management. PMID:26312542

  18. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation.

  19. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation. PMID:26714103

  20. [Asthenic syndrome in clinical course of acute period of brain concussion during complex treatment using nootropic agents].

    PubMed

    Tkachov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a complex examination of 108 persons aged from 16 till 60 years in acute period of closed craniocerebral injury (CCCT) has been done. Every participants have been divided into 2 groups depending on a nootrop medication they receive in a complex treatment. A control group consisted of 30 practically healthy people. Objective examination by means of tests was done on the 1-st, 10-th that 30-th day of treatment. Patients of 1-st (37 persons) group received piracetam in complex treatment and patients of the 2-nd group (71 persons) pramistar. Patients of the first group received a base treatment (analgetics, tranquilizers, vitamins of group B, magnesium sulfate, diuretic preparations) as well as piracetam at dosage 0.2, two tablets three times per day. The Patients of the 2-nd group received a base treatment as well as pramistar at dosage 0.6, one tablet 2 times per day. Specially developed multiaspects scales and questionnaires, MRT of the brain and EEG have been used for objectification of patient, complaints. During a complex clinico-neuropsychological examination it was found that all cases of concussion of the brain are accompanied by those or other asthenic disorders.

  1. Give them prizes, and they will come: contingency management for treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M; Martin, B; Cooney, J L; Kranzler, H R

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) procedure that provided opportunities to win prizes as reinforcers. At intake to outpatient treatment, 42 alcohol-dependent veterans were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment or standard treatment plus CM, in which they earned the chance to win prizes for submitting negative Breathalyzer samples and completing steps toward treatment goals. Eighty-four percent of the CM participants were retained in treatment for an 8-week period compared with 22% of the standard treatment participants (p < .001). By the end of the treatment period, 69% of those receiving CM were still abstinent, but 61% of those receiving standard treatment had used alcohol (p < .05). These results support the efficacy of this CM procedure. Participants earned an average of $200 in prizes. This CM procedure may be suitable for use in standard treatment settings because prizes can be solicited from the community. PMID:10780125

  2. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  3. [Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Holodova, N B; Zhavoronkova, L A; Ryzhov, B N

    2013-01-01

    Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes.

  4. [Experience of systematization on the treatment of patients with upper jaws fractures, during the period 1991-2000].

    PubMed

    Khinkov, D

    2005-01-01

    A retrospecive analysis was done of the 128 patients with fractures in a upper jaw, treated during the period 1991-2000. The treatment of the patients with partial fractures in a alveolar part of maxilla and frontal wall of maxillary sinus, consist of debridement on the open wound, primery stiched and stabilization by arch bar of perspective teeth. In the cases with fractures of tuber maxilla and opening of maxillary sinus they tray to clouse it by Rhermann technique, with or without radical antrothomy by Caldwell-Luc technique. On the patients by total upper jaw fractures they try lead by princip of duble stage fixation: from one side-of intact upper bone structures and the other side-on a mandible. On the cases of upper jaw fractures, combine with barain traums. was treated conservativly - the specialize treatment of facial injures was postpoun until stabilization of brain status.

  5. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis as the presenting symptom of silent thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Debmalya; Bhattacharjee, Shakya

    2013-01-01

    Silent thyroiditis is a rare cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The objective was to present a case of silent thyroiditis presenting as periodic paralysis. A 23-year-old man presented with recurrent acute flaccid predominantly proximal weakness of all four limbs. He had a similar episode 3 weeks back. On examination he was found to have hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Clinically there were no features of thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis. He was initially treated with intravenous and later oral potassium supplementation and propranolol. At 8 weeks of follow-up his thyroid profile became normal and his propranolol was stopped. He had no further recurrence of paralysis. He was diagnosed as a case silent thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. In cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to suspect thyrotoxicosis, even if asymptomatic. Definitive treatment of thyrotoxicosis prevents recurrence. PMID:23956568

  6. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24), 12 hr (post-36) and 0 hr (post-48) after the start of maturation culture, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the post-24, post-36 and post-48 groups (3.3%, 4.0% and 2.6%, respectively) than those in the control group without treatment (0%). Furthermore, when the oocytes were cultured with Ca-EDTA for 0 hr (control), 12 hr (pre-12), 24 hr (pre-24), 36 hr (pre-36) and 48 hr (pre-48) from the start of maturation culture, the oocytes formed blastocysts only in the pre-36 and pre-48 groups (0.4% or 0.8%, respectively). Pronuclei (<66.7%) were observed only when the periods of Ca-EDTA treatment were more than 12 hr during maturation culture. In the control group, no pronuclei were detected. Our findings demonstrate that porcine immature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by Ca-EDTA treatment for at least 24 hr to 36 hr during maturation culture, leading to pronucleus formation followed by the formation of blastocysts. PMID:26947170

  7. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period. PMID:25958084

  8. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period.

  9. [Establishment of the intestinal microflora and regulation of bacterial translocation after caffeine citrate treatment during postnatal period in rat].

    PubMed

    Moumen Chentouf, W; Tir Touil Meddah, A; Léké, A; Mullié, C; Krim, G; Canarelli, J-P; Meddah, B

    2012-10-01

    To relieve respiratory problems such as apnea in newborns, caffeine citrate is the drug of choice because of its good tolerance and therapeutic index. However, its impact on the intestinal microbial ecosystem and on bacterial translocation in the neonatal period remains insufficiently investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine citrate on the establishment of the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in rats from birth to the 30th day of life. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 14 animals, each subdivided into a control group receiving a placebo (12mL tap water/kg/day) and another treated with caffeine citrate (12mg/kg/day). The animals were nursed by their mothers and weighed daily. A group of 14 rats was killed at birth and after 10, 20, or 30 days of life. Organs in which translocation was assessed (liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys) and various fragments of intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were surgically removed. The bacteriological analysis performed involved enumeration of the total microflora, staphylococci, enterobacteria, and lactobacilli. From the 10th day, caffeine was shown to significantly decrease the weight of treated animals as compared with controls (P<0.05). However, caffeine treatment did not drastically alter the kinetics of establishment of the intestinal microflora as only enterobacteria were found to be significantly lower in any intestinal segment of the treated group (P<0.05). Moreover, from the 20th day of life, caffeine citrate significantly downregulated bacterial translocation of both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (P<0.05). This preliminary study on the effects of treatment with caffeine citrate may open opportunities in clinical pediatrics; the treatment will remain partially effective in preventing bacterial translocation in the neonatal period. PMID:22920890

  10. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  11. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated.

  12. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  13. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  14. Arthroscopic treatment of infrapatellar tendonitis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, A A; Larson, R V

    1999-04-01

    Infrapatellar tendonitis is a chronic overload lesion in the patellar ligament at the attachment to the lower pole of the patella. This lesion is found primarily in athletes who participate in jumping sports. Magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound can show the extent of tendon pathology. Patellar tendonitis is treated with modification of activities, medications, and therapy. When conservative measures fail, operative debridement has been recommended. Previous reports have described a technique of open debridement of the patellar tendon, followed by an extended period of rehabilitation before returning to sports. Two athletes with persistent infrapatellar tendonitis were treated with an arthroscopic debridement. Both athletes returned to full activities without restrictions within 8 weeks of surgery. Arthroscopic treatment of infrapatellar tendonitis has not been previously described. This technical note describes the technique and two case reports of the arthroscopic treatment of infrapatellar tendonitis.

  15. A long hangover from party drugs: residual proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats 8 weeks after γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or their combination.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Kashem, Mohammed A; Matsumoto, Izuru; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2010-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are popular party drugs that are used for their euphoric and prosocial effects, and sometimes in combination. Both drugs increase markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and can cause lasting impairments in hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. To gain further information on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these effects, the current study examined residual changes in hippocampal protein expression measured 8 weeks after chronic administration of GHB (500mg/kg), MDMA (5mg/kg) or their combination (GHB/MDMA). The drugs were administered once a day for 10 days in an environment with an elevated ambient temperature of 28 degrees C. Results showed significant changes in protein expression, relative to controls, in all three groups: MDMA and GHB given alone caused residual changes in 8 and 5 proteins respectively, while the GHB/MDMA combination significantly changed 6 proteins. The altered proteins had roles in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, intracellular signalling and cytoskeletal function. The largest change (-4.3-fold) was seen in the MDMA group with the protein C-crk: a protein implicated in learning-related neuroplasticity. The second largest change (3.0-fold) was seen in the GHB group in Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a protein that protects against oxidative stress. Two cytoskeletal proteins (Tubulin Folding Cofactor B and Tropomyosin-alpha-3 chain) and one plasticity related protein (Neuronal Pentraxin-1 NP1) were similarly changed in both the MDMA and the GHB groups, while two intracellular signalling proteins (alpha-soluble NSF-attachment protein and subunits of the V-type proton ATPase) were changed in both the MDMA/GHB and the MDMA groups. These results provide some insight into the molecular pathways possibly underlying the lasting cognitive deficits arising from GHB and/or MDMA use.

  16. A conditional analysis for two-treatment multiple-period crossover designs with binomial or poisson outcomes and subjects who drop out.

    PubMed

    McKnight, B; Van den Eeden, S K

    1993-05-15

    We propose a conditional analysis for outcome data on numbers of recurrent symptoms arising in a two-treatment, multiple-period crossover trial. Conditioning on subject-specific totals removes any dependence on mean subject-specific symptom rates and permits the use of standard software to perform regression analysis to examine treatment, period, carryover and interaction effects. The addition of offsets to the regression equations allows the incorporation of data from subjects who do not complete all periods in the trial. We apply the proposed method to data from a crossover trial and discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool. PMID:26864127

  18. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  19. Differential efficacy of treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease over a 6-month period.

    PubMed

    López-Pousa, S; Turon-Estrada, A; Garre-Olmo, J; Pericot-Nierga, I; Lozano-Gallego, M; Vilalta-Franch, M; Hernández-Ferràndiz, M; Morante-Muñoz, V; Isern-Vila, A; Gelada-Batlle, E; Majó-Llopart, J

    2005-01-01

    There are various anticholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AChEIs have shown greater efficacy than placebo in randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trials. No differential studies have yet been made of the efficacy between all AChEIs. The study aims to determine the differential efficacy of the AChEIs with respect to a historical sample of patients with AD that were not treated with AChEIs. An open-label, prospective, observational study with a retrospective control group was undertaken to examine the evolution of the cognitive function over a 6-month period. The patients were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at study entry and at 6 months. A general linear model was applied for repeated measurements with the MMSE score as the dependent variable, treatment type as an independent variable and the severity of the deterioration, age and the MMSE baseline score as covariables. Of the sample of 147 patients, 40 initiated treatment with donepezil, 32 with galantamine, 30 with rivastigmine and 45 were part of a historical sample of the memory clinic patients between 1991 and 1996 that had not been treated with AChEIs. The average age was 73.7 years (SD = 6.9; range = 52-86), 67.3% were women, 78.2% of the cases were mild and the MMSE baseline score was 18.1 points (range = 11-27). No significant intergroup differences were observed in these variables. The average doses of donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine were 5.87 mg/day (SD = 1.92), 14.81 mg/day (SD = 6.25) and 6.41 mg/day (SD = 1.82), respectively. At 6 months, the difference in the MMSE score with respect to the untreated group was 1.6 points for donepezil (95% CI 0.79-2.37; p < 0.001), 0.99 points for galantamine (95% CI 0.14-1.85; p = 0.01) and 0.90 points for rivastigmine (95% CI 0.05-1.74; p = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the efficacy among the groups treated with AChEIs (p

  20. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  1. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTINUOUS BACTERIAL TREATMENTS OVER A TWO-WEEK PERIOD ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-07-17

    These experiments indicated that in waters at 23 C the window of opportunity to kill zebra mussels with bacterial strain CL0145A is limited to the first two days of treatment. Treatments beyond two days will not increase mortality.

  2. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  3. [Possibilities of magnetic-laser therapy in comprehensive treatment of patients with brain concussion in acute period].

    PubMed

    Zubkova, O V; Samosiuk, I Z; Polishchuk, O V; Shul'ga, N M; Samosiuk, N I

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of magnetic-laser therapy used according to the method developed by us was studied in patients having the brain concussion (BC) in an acute period. The study was based on the dynamics of values of the evoked vestibular potentials and the disease clinical course. It was shown that following the magnetic-laser therapy in combination with traditional pharmacotherapy in BC acute period, the statistically significant positive changes were registered in the quantitative characteristics of the evoked vestibular brain potentials that correlated with the dynamics of the disease clinical course. The data obtained substantiate the possibility of using the magnetic-laser therapy in patients with a mild craniocereblal injury in an acute period.

  4. A Collaborative Care Telemedicine Intervention to Overcome Treatment Barriers for Latina Women with Depression during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10 to 20%) during the perinatal period with rates as high as 35 to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. To address these disparities, the Perinatal Mental Health Model (PMH) was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, and collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors within obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the PMH. Participants (n=79) were selected from a first year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction. PMID:22709321

  5. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  6. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  7. Correlates of satisfaction with pain treatment in the acute postoperative period: results from the international PAIN OUT registry.

    PubMed

    Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Taylor, Rod S; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Komann, Marcus; Rothaug, Judith; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Zaslansky, Ruth; Brill, Silviu; Ullrich, Kristin; Gordon, Debra B; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    Patient ratings of satisfaction with their postoperative pain treatment tend to be high even in those with substantial pain. Determinants are poorly understood and have not previously been studied in large-scale, international datasets. PAIN OUT, a European Union-funded acute pain registry and research project, collects patient-reported outcome data on postoperative day 1 using the self-reported International Pain Outcome Questionnaire (IPO), and patient, clinical, and treatment characteristics. We investigated correlates of satisfaction and consistency of effects across centres and countries using multilevel regression modelling. Our sample comprised 16,868 patients (median age 55 years; 55% female) from 42 centres in 11 European countries plus Israel, USA, and Malaysia, who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures, for example, joint, limb, and digestive tract surgeries. Median satisfaction was 9 (interquartile range 7-10) on a 0-10 scale. Three IPO items showed strong associations and explained 35% of the variability present in the satisfaction variable: more pain relief received, higher allowed participation in pain treatment decisions, and no desire to have received more pain treatment. Patient factors and additional IPO items reflecting pain experience (eg, worst pain intensity), pain-related impairment, and information on pain treatment added little explanatory value, partially due to covariate correlations. Effects were highly consistent across centres and countries. We conclude that satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment is associated with the patients' actual pain experience, but more strongly with impressions of improvement and appropriateness of care. To the degree they desire, patients should be provided with information and involved in pain treatment decisions. PMID:24785269

  8. Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morone, Natalia E; Greco, Carol M; Weiner, Debra K

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this pilot study were to assess the feasibility of recruitment and adherence to an eight-session mindfulness meditation program for community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to develop initial estimates of treatment effects. It was designed as a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Participants were 37 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older with CLBP of moderate intensity occurring daily or almost every day. Participants were randomized to an 8-week mindfulness-based meditation program or to a wait-list control group. Baseline, 8-week and 3-month follow-up measures of pain, physical function, and quality of life were assessed. Eighty-nine older adults were screened and 37 found to be eligible and randomized within a 6-month period. The mean age of the sample was 74.9 years, 21/37 (57%) of participants were female and 33/37 (89%) were white. At the end of the intervention 30/37 (81%) participants completed 8-week assessments. Average class attendance of the intervention arm was 6.7 out of 8. They meditated an average of 4.3 days a week and the average minutes per day was 31.6. Compared to the control group, the intervention group displayed significant improvement in the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire Total Score and Activities Engagement subscale (P=.008, P=.004) and SF-36 Physical Function (P=.03). An 8-week mindfulness-based meditation program is feasible for older adults with CLBP. The program may lead to improvement in pain acceptance and physical function.

  9. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  11. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  12. [Prevention and treatment of pressure sores--a neglected research subject? An overview of clinically controlled studies in the period 1987-91].

    PubMed

    Tewes, M

    1993-01-01

    Pressure sores are frequently seen in elderly hospitalized patients and leads to prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality. The object of this paper was to retrieve the last five years literature regarding prevention and treatment of pressure sores. During the period 1987-1991, 751 papers on this topic were published and indexed in Medline. Only 9 of these papers represented controlled clinical trials. Three of them dealt with prevention, and the remaining 6 with treatment. Although 4 of 9 studies showed statistically significant differences between the actively treated group and the placebo group, none of the studies showed convincing clinical differences. Serious methodological flaws with respect to design, blinding, randomisation, sample size and statistical analysis were found in 8 of 9 studies. None of the clinical controlled studies on prevention of pressure sores showed any statistically significant differences between the control group and treatment with, respectively Prevasore lotion, Foam cushion and Silicore mattress. In the 6 trials on treatment of pressure sores, respectively mucopolysaccharide polysulphate creme, ketanserin creme and air-fluidized beds showed statistically better results than control treatment. We conclude that well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to establish rational routines for prevention and treatment of pressure sores.

  13. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country. PMID:27570345

  14. Effect of Peruvosid (CD412) on excitability and functional refractory period of atrial and ventricular tissues in cardiomyopathy caused by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moleiro, Frederico; Anselmi, Alfonso; Suárez, Régulo; Suárez, José Angel; Drayer, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Attempts were made to produce myocarditis by Trypanosoma cruzi inoculation in healthy dog puppies 6 to 8 weeks old. Significant electrocardiographic abnormalities were produced, coinciding with interstitial inflammatory processes in the cardiac tissue and with degenerative changes in the myocardial fibres. In puppies showing these changes, profound changes in the excitability and the functional refractory period of the atrial and ventricular muscular tissue were observed. The administration of Peruvosid in doses of 0·0240 to 0·0647 mg./kg. tended to diminish the excitability, previously increased by the inflammatory process, at the same time increasing the functional refractory period duration which had previously been shortened. The fact that Peruvosid corrects these fundamental factors in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias suggests that the drug may be useful in the treatment of cardiac insufficiency produced by Chagas' myocardiopathy, in which arrhythmias are one of the basic characteristics. Images PMID:4985863

  15. Cardiac Atrial Circadian Rhythms in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE and per1:luc Mice: Amplitude and Phase Responses to Glucocorticoid Signaling and Medium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yang; Li, Lei; Duffield, Giles E.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in cardiac function are apparent in e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, and acute adverse cardiac events. A circadian clock in heart tissue has been identified, but entrainment pathways of this clock are still unclear. We cultured tissues of mice carrying bioluminescence reporters of the core clock genes, period 1 or 2 (per1luc or PER2LUC) and compared in vitro responses of atrium to treatment with medium and a synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and liver. We observed that PER2LUC, but not per1luc is rhythmic in atrial tissue, while both per1luc and PER2LUC exhibit rhythmicity in other cultured tissues. In contrast to the SCN and liver, both per1luc and PER2LUC bioluminescence amplitudes were increased in response to DEX treatment, and the PER2LUC amplitude response was dependent on the time of treatment. Large phase-shift responses to both medium and DEX treatments were observed in the atrium, and phase responses to medium treatment were not attributed to serum content but the treatment procedure itself. The phase-response curves of atrium to both DEX and medium treatments were found to be different to the liver. Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured tissues, but the magnitude of this response was uniquely large in atrial tissue. The current data describe novel entrainment signals for the atrial circadian clock and specifically highlight entrainment by mechanical treatment, an intriguing observation considering the mechanical nature of cardiac tissue. PMID:23110090

  16. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)).

  17. Administration of Mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid complex in the immediate postoperative period for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This review sought to investigate the safety of intravesical administration of Mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid (MCNA) in the immediate postoperative period after biopsy/resection for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: Patients with NMIBC who failed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy and at high risk of recurrence and progression participated in this study. Treatment involved an induction phase of six weeks and maintenance of three weekly instillations every six months for two years. Biopsies were mandatory at six months and resections/biopsies as indicated. Of the 129 patients enrolled, 18 (14%) received one or more instillations of MCNA within 24 hours of an endoscopic procedure for a total of 32 instillations. Results: Fourteen patients (78%) received MCNA in the immediate postoperative period. Two (11%) received treatment the day after surgery, but a second treatment immediately after a transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The remaining two patients received an instillation each the day after surgery. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 31.3% of those treated immediately after the procedure; they were mild, limited to the lower urinary tract, and not drug-related. Only one patient experienced systemic symptoms of moderate severity. None of the AEs resulted in postponement of treatment. There were no AEs among those receiving MCNA the day after surgery. Conclusions: The dual mechanism of action of MCNA suggests that early treatment would take advantage of its chemotherapeutic (pro-apoptotic) activity. Concerns about early administration due to the presence of live bacteria are circumvented with this sterile preparation. These preliminary results warrant further investigation to confirm the safety of perioperative administration of MCNA. PMID:27800054

  18. Induction of anoxic microenvironment in multi-phase metabolic shift strategy during periodic discontinuous batch mode operation enhances treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Variation in anoxic microenvironment (multi-phase (MP) metabolic shift strategy) during cycle operation of periodic discontinuous batch/sequencing batch (PDBR/SBR) mode operation showed enhanced degradation of recalcitrant azo dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) at higher dye load (1250mg/l). The process performance was evaluated by varying anoxic phasing period during cycle operation. Before multiphase (BMP) operation with 2.1% of anoxic period showed color/COD removal efficiency of 41.9%/46.3%. Increment in anoxic period responded favorable in enhancing treatment efficiency [AMPI (16.2%), 49.4%/52.4%; AMPII (26.6%), 54.7%/57.2%; AMPIII (34.9%), 58.4%/61.5%]. Relatively higher bio-electrochemical activity, persistent reductive behavior (redox catalytic currents, 0.26/-0.72μA), prevalence of redox shuttlers (Fe-S proteins, cytochromes, quinones) facilitating enhanced electron transfer by minimization of associated losses and higher enzyme activities were observed with induction of anoxic phase. Anoxic condition shifts system microenvironment between oxidation and reduction assisting reduction of dye to its intermediates followed by their mineralization.

  19. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. I - The treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the region of period formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Kawaler, S. D.; Tassoul, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental issue of the region of period formaton in a degenerate star is examined, with special attention given to the treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. It is shown that, in order to obtain reliable numerical results in degenerate stellar models, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency must be appropriately transformed, because it is defined in terms of a difference between two numbers which become nearly equal in highly degenerate matter, causing serious numerical problems and systematic errors. An alternative expression is derived, which is valid for multicomponent nonideal partially degenerate and partially ionized plasmas such as those encountered in white dwarf envelopes. This expression is used to compute the period structure of the same white dwarf considered by Pesnell (1987). It is shown that the implicit numerical differencing used in the Lagrangian pulsation code of Pesnell leads to very serious difficulties when used with models of degenerate stars.

  20. Case report: Successful treatment of recurrent chordoma and bilateral pulmonary metastases following an 11-year disease-free period

    PubMed Central

    Erkmen, Cherie P.; Barth, Richard J.; Raman, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chordomas are rare but aggressive tumors due to local recurrence and distant metastases. They originate commonly in the sphenooccipital and sacrococcygeal regions, and metastasize to the lungs, bone, skin, liver, and lymph nodes. They occur more frequently in men and people over the age of 40. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 year-old female presented with sacrococcygeal chordoma for which she received wide local excision and adjuvant radiation therapy. She enjoyed an unusual disease-free survival for 11 years until a routine surveillance scan of the pelvis identified local recurrence. Further work up revealed bilateral pulmonary metastases. She underwent local excision of the recurrent tumor and video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) wedge resection of pulmonary metastases. She also received adjuvant radiation therapy to the recurrent resection bed. Two years later, she remains free of disease and symptoms. DISCUSSION Chordomas are commonly insensitive to chemotherapy and radiation, making surgery the most successful therapeutic modality. However, there are few guidelines on the surveillance and treatment of recurrent chordoma. We report success with aggressive surgical resection of recurrence and metastasis as well as adjuvant radiation therapy. CONCLUSION The prolonged survival of our patient underscores the importance of (1) aggressive surgical resection of chordoma, whether primary, recurrent, or metastatic, with adjuvant radiation therapy, (2) minimization of surgical seeding of tumor, and (3) diligent cancer surveillance. PMID:24907541

  1. Standard and escalating treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min-Suk; Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuritis that is progressive or relapsing over a period of at least 8 weeks. Although the exact pathogenesis is unclear, it is thought to be mediated by both cellular and humoral immune reactions directed against the peripheral nerve myelin or axon. CIDP also involves spinal nerve roots. Early medical treatment of CIDP is important to prevent axonal loss. Only three treatment regimens for CIDP have demonstrated benefit in randomized, controlled studies: corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Approximately 25% of patients respond inadequately to corticosteroids, plasma exchange or IVIg. Large placebo-controlled trials with alternative immunosuppressive compounds, e.g. mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, or monoclonal antibodies, are lacking. PMID:21694819

  2. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  3. Comparison of different combined treatment processes to address the source water with high concentration of natural organic matter during snowmelt period.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Yani; Liu, Shuming; Chen, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The source water in one forest region of the Northeast China had very high natural organic matter (NOM) concentration and heavy color during snowmelt period. The efficiency of five combined treatment processes was compared to address the high concentration of NOM and the mechanisms were also analyzed. Conventional treatment can hardly remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the source water. KMnO4 pre-oxidization could improve the DOC removal to 22.0%. Post activated carbon adsorption improved the DOC removal of conventional treatment to 28.8%. The non-sufficient NOM removal could be attributed to the dominance of large molecular weight organic matters in raw water, which cannot be adsorbed by the micropore upon activated carbon. O3+activated carbon treatment are another available technology for eliminating the color and UV254 in water. However, its performance of DOC removal was only 36.4%, which could not satisfy the requirement for organic matter. The limited ozone dosage is not sufficient to mineralize the high concentration of NOM. Magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment could remove 96.2% of color, 96.0% of UV254 and 87.1% of DOC, enabling effluents to meet the drinking water quality standard. The high removal efficiency could be explained by the negative charge on the surface of NOM which benefits the static adsorption of NOM on the anion exchange resin. The results indicated that magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment is the best available technology to remove high concentration of NOM.

  4. Effect of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Inoculated During Anti-Cancer Treatment Period in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shen, Bing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) inoculated during defined “vaccination period,” first 6 months post cancer diagnosis (ie, an anti-cancer treatment period), in elderly lung cancer patients on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization incidence. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 157 newly diagnosed elderly lung cancer patients receiving PPSV23 during “vaccination period”, and 628 age and sex one-to-one matched controls enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. All patients were ≥75 years old and still survival post “vaccination period.” Incidence density (ID) of all-cause inpatient CAP and cumulative survival risk were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression and Kaplan–Meier method, respectively. After a 4-year follow-up, IDs of all-cause inpatient CAP for vaccination and control cohorts were 297 and 444 per 1000 PYs, respectively. Less vaccinated patients had CAP incidence density >1 time per PY (12.7% vs 21.2%) than non-vaccinated patients. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, like influenza vaccination, comorbidities, cancer treatment modalities, and socioeconomic status, adjusted inpatient CAP incidence rate in PPSV23 vaccination cohort was 0.74 times lower than control cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.740, P = 0.0339). Two-year cumulative CAP hospitalization rates and overall survival rates were 37.1% vs. 55.4%, and 46.6% vs. 26.2%, respectively, for lung cancer patients with and without PPSV23 (both P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that for elderly lung cancer patients not ever receiving influenza vaccine, PPSV23 still had trend to reduce all-cause inpatient CAP. For elderly lung cancer patients aged ≥75 years, PPSV23 inoculated during anti-cancer treatment period could reduce CAP hospitalizations and improve survival. PMID:26131806

  5. Sequential combination of imipramine and self-directed exposure in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Mavissakalian, M

    1990-05-01

    Thirty-eight patients who had panic disorder with agoraphobia completed 8 weeks of treatment with imipramine followed by 8 weeks of treatment with imipramine combined with behavior therapy consisting of self-directed exposure. Sixty-three percent (24) of the patients responded markedly to this cost-effective combined pharmacologic and behavioral approach. Results also revealed that most of the improvement in panic occurred during the first 8 weeks of treatment when imipramine treatment alone was used, whereas improvement in severity, anxiety, depression, and phobias, in particular, continued to be significant between midtreatment and end of study. Further analysis revealed that improvement in phobic anxiety and avoidance in the first 8 weeks of treatment, rather than improvement in panic, predicted final outcome. Implications of these findings on the complex issue of differential antipanic and antiphobic effects of imipramine are briefly discussed. PMID:2335493

  6. Temporary Neurotrophin Treatment Prevents Deafness-Induced Auditory Nerve Degeneration and Preserves Function.

    PubMed

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-09-01

    After substantial loss of cochlear hair cells, exogenous neurotrophins prevent degeneration of the auditory nerve. Because cochlear implantation, the current therapy for profound sensorineural hearing loss, depends on a functional nerve, application of neurotrophins is being investigated. We addressed two questions important for fundamental insight into the effects of exogenous neurotrophins on a degenerating neural system, and for translation to the clinic. First, does temporary treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) prevent nerve degeneration on the long term? Second, how does a BDNF-treated nerve respond to electrical stimulation? Deafened guinea pigs received a cochlear implant, and their cochleas were infused with BDNF for 4 weeks. Up to 8 weeks after treatment, their cochleas were analyzed histologically. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) were recorded using stimulation paradigms that are informative of neural survival. Spiral ganglion cell (SGC) degeneration was prevented during BDNF treatment, resulting in 1.9 times more SGCs than in deafened untreated cochleas. Importantly, SGC survival was almost complete 8 weeks after treatment cessation, when 2.6 times more SGCs were observed. In four eCAP characteristics (three involving alteration of the interphase gap of the biphasic current pulse and one involving pulse trains), we found large and statistically significant differences between normal-hearing and deaf controls. Importantly, for BDNF-treated animals, these eCAP characteristics were near normal, suggesting healthy responsiveness of BDNF-treated SGCs. In conclusion, clinically practicable short-term neurotrophin treatment is sufficient for long-term survival of SGCs, and it can restore or preserve SGC function well beyond the treatment period. Significance statement: Successful restoration of hearing in deaf subjects by means of a cochlear implant requires a healthy spiral ganglion cell population. Deafness

  7. Benefit–risk assessment of paliperidone oral extended-release tablet versus monthly injectable for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Michael; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Gopal, Srihari; Alphs, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a post-hoc benefit–risk assessment of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable versus oral paliperidone extended-release (ER) in schizophrenia maintenance treatment. The Benefit–Risk Action Team framework was used to structure the analysis based on patient-level data from two similar, double-blind, placebo-controlled relapse studies. Efficacy outcomes were relapse, psychiatric hospitalization, Clinical Global Impression–Severity scale, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Safety outcomes were extrapyramidal symptom–related adverse events, weight gain, prolactin-related adverse events, somnolence, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic use, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol/high–density lipoprotein. For the first 8 weeks of maintenance treatment, most efficacy outcomes significantly favored PP1M compared with paliperidone ER. Per 1000 patients, there would be 165, 115, 85, and 53 fewer cases of PSP worsening, relapse, PANSS worsening, and hospitalizations, respectively. For the first 40 weeks, PSP worsening significantly favored PP1M (140 fewer cases). Relapse, PANSS, hospitalizations, and Clinical Global Impression–Severity scale showed a consistent pattern favoring PP1M but were not significant. Safety outcomes for both 8-week and 40-week periods demonstrated no statistically significant differences between groups. These analyses suggest a benefit–risk profile favoring PP1M over oral paliperidone ER throughout 40 weeks of treatment, particularly in early treatment. PMID:27434314

  8. Benefit-risk assessment of paliperidone oral extended-release tablet versus monthly injectable for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Bennett; Markowitz, Michael; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Gopal, Srihari; Alphs, Larry

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a post-hoc benefit-risk assessment of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable versus oral paliperidone extended-release (ER) in schizophrenia maintenance treatment. The Benefit-Risk Action Team framework was used to structure the analysis based on patient-level data from two similar, double-blind, placebo-controlled relapse studies. Efficacy outcomes were relapse, psychiatric hospitalization, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Safety outcomes were extrapyramidal symptom-related adverse events, weight gain, prolactin-related adverse events, somnolence, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic use, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein. For the first 8 weeks of maintenance treatment, most efficacy outcomes significantly favored PP1M compared with paliperidone ER. Per 1000 patients, there would be 165, 115, 85, and 53 fewer cases of PSP worsening, relapse, PANSS worsening, and hospitalizations, respectively. For the first 40 weeks, PSP worsening significantly favored PP1M (140 fewer cases). Relapse, PANSS, hospitalizations, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale showed a consistent pattern favoring PP1M but were not significant. Safety outcomes for both 8-week and 40-week periods demonstrated no statistically significant differences between groups. These analyses suggest a benefit-risk profile favoring PP1M over oral paliperidone ER throughout 40 weeks of treatment, particularly in early treatment. PMID:27434314

  9. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  10. Criminal convictions among dependent heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment: a longitudinal national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bukten, Anne; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Stangeland, Per; Gossop, Michael; Willersrud, Astrid B; Waal, Helge; Havnes, Ingrid; Clausen, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates frequency and types of criminal convictions among a national sample of heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). All heroin users (N = 3,789) in Norway who applied for and were eligible for OMT (1997-2003) were included. The OMT records were cross-linked to Norwegian crime statistics. During observation, 24,478 convictions were recorded among 60.9% of the sample. Differences of criminal convictions were found within the group; a large proportion (39.1%) had no convictions, whereas 10% of the sample was responsible for 37.8% of all convictions. Convictions for acquisitive crimes and drug crimes were the most common. Variations in the cohort's individual crime sequences were found. The heavy involvement of heroin users with the criminal justice system provides an opportunity to intervene with dependent offenders. Coordination between treatment providers and police or courts can play an important role in improving outcomes through better access to treatment.

  11. Hyeonggaeyeongyo-Tang for Treatment of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis: A Prospective, Nonrandomized, Pre-Post Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is an ancient formula of oriental medicine traditionally used to treat rhinitis; however, clinical evidence has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy and safety of HYT for chronic rhinitis. Adult subjects with chronic rhinitis symptoms were recruited. The subjects received HYT for 4 weeks and had follow-up period of 8 weeks. Any medicines used to treat nasal symptoms were not permitted during the study. The skin prick test was performed to distinguish the subjects with allergic rhinitis from those with nonallergic rhinitis. After treatment, the total nasal symptoms score and the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score significantly improved in the whole subject group, in the allergic rhinitis group, and in the nonallergic rhinitis group, with no adverse events. This improvement lasted during a follow-up period of 8 weeks. Total IgE and eosinophil levels showed no significant difference after treatment in the allergic rhinitis group. HYT improved nasal symptoms and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the use of HYT to treat patients with rhinitis. This trial has been registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02477293. PMID:27698676

  12. Restoration of cardiomyocyte function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after treatment with vanadate in a tea decoction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tod A; Maddaford, Thane G; Tappia, Paramjit S; Heyliger, Clayton E; Ganguly, Pallab K; Pierce, Grant N

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) transients and contractile performance. We investigated the possibility that an alteration in inositol trisphosphate/phospholipase C (IP₃/PLC) signalling may be involved in this dysfunction. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiomyocyte contraction through an IP₃/PLC signaling cascade. We also tested a novel therapeutic intervention to assess its efficacy in reversing any potential defects. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin treatment and maintained for an 8 week experimental period. Active cell shortening was significantly depressed in cardiomyocytes obtained from diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats in comparison to normal control animals. Perfusion of the cells with phosphatidic acid induced an increase in contraction of control rat cardiomyocytes whereas its effect was inhibitory in cells from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were also treated orally with vanadate administered in a black tea extract (T/V) for the 8 week period. T/V treatment resulted in a contractile response that was not different from cells of control animals. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes from T/V-treated animals exhibited significantly improved Ca(2+) transients in comparison to diabetic animals and exhibited a normalized response to phosphatidic acid perfusion. It is concluded that a T/V glycemic therapy is capable of preventing the defect in IP₃/PLC signaling that occurs in diabetes and can restore normal cardiac contractile function. PMID:20874687

  13. Restoration of cardiomyocyte function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after treatment with vanadate in a tea decoction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tod A; Maddaford, Thane G; Tappia, Paramjit S; Heyliger, Clayton E; Ganguly, Pallab K; Pierce, Grant N

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) transients and contractile performance. We investigated the possibility that an alteration in inositol trisphosphate/phospholipase C (IP₃/PLC) signalling may be involved in this dysfunction. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiomyocyte contraction through an IP₃/PLC signaling cascade. We also tested a novel therapeutic intervention to assess its efficacy in reversing any potential defects. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin treatment and maintained for an 8 week experimental period. Active cell shortening was significantly depressed in cardiomyocytes obtained from diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats in comparison to normal control animals. Perfusion of the cells with phosphatidic acid induced an increase in contraction of control rat cardiomyocytes whereas its effect was inhibitory in cells from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were also treated orally with vanadate administered in a black tea extract (T/V) for the 8 week period. T/V treatment resulted in a contractile response that was not different from cells of control animals. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes from T/V-treated animals exhibited significantly improved Ca(2+) transients in comparison to diabetic animals and exhibited a normalized response to phosphatidic acid perfusion. It is concluded that a T/V glycemic therapy is capable of preventing the defect in IP₃/PLC signaling that occurs in diabetes and can restore normal cardiac contractile function.

  14. Hyeonggaeyeongyo-Tang for Treatment of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis: A Prospective, Nonrandomized, Pre-Post Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is an ancient formula of oriental medicine traditionally used to treat rhinitis; however, clinical evidence has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy and safety of HYT for chronic rhinitis. Adult subjects with chronic rhinitis symptoms were recruited. The subjects received HYT for 4 weeks and had follow-up period of 8 weeks. Any medicines used to treat nasal symptoms were not permitted during the study. The skin prick test was performed to distinguish the subjects with allergic rhinitis from those with nonallergic rhinitis. After treatment, the total nasal symptoms score and the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score significantly improved in the whole subject group, in the allergic rhinitis group, and in the nonallergic rhinitis group, with no adverse events. This improvement lasted during a follow-up period of 8 weeks. Total IgE and eosinophil levels showed no significant difference after treatment in the allergic rhinitis group. HYT improved nasal symptoms and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the use of HYT to treat patients with rhinitis. This trial has been registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02477293.

  15. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  16. Establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment: analysis of data from a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Kiarie, James; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R Scott

    2011-07-15

    Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ≥3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.

  17. Comparison between Long- and Short-Acting Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in the Period Required for Haemoglobin Stabilisation in Treatment of Anaemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Matsushita, Ayako; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Nishibe, Seira; Noguchi, Ayaka; Kato, Rina; Toda, Takahiro; Tanaka, Junko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yuzawa, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of the potency of long- and short-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (L-ESAs and S-ESAs) on erythropoietic activity in patients with chronic kidney disease without dialysis have not been performed, although L-ESAs are used in many countries. We performed a retrospective analysis of non-dialysis (ND) patients who had received L-ESA or S-ESA. More days were needed for the S-ESA-treated group (368 d) to reach the haemoglobin (Hb) reference range than for the L-ESA-treated group (126 d). Therefore, we investigated risk factors that influence the period until the Hb level reaches the reference range. Patients were classified into two groups by the period until the Hb level was stabilised within the reference range: the short- and long-term group. Two risk factors for delayed Hb stabilisation were identified: age ≥60 years; and administration of an S-ESA for initial treatment. These findings suggest that the Hb level should be carefully monitored during ESA therapy in elderly ND patients, and that the ESA dose should be increased or L-ESA therapy should be utilised to treat renal anaemia.

  18. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  19. Depression in Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression. PMID:21206814

  20. Attenuation of hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by anti-apoptotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linlin; Zhang, Heng; Han, Xu; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Fangyuan; Li, Ping; Xie, Gang; Gao, Lixiang; Cheng, Lin; Song, Xicheng; Han, Fengchan

    2015-09-01

    DBA/2J mice are characterized by early onset hearing loss at about 3-4 weeks of age. Mutations in cadherin 23 (Cdh23) and fascin-2 (Fscn2) are responsible for the phenotypes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In the present study, DBA/2J mice displayed progressive hair cell loss and degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) after 2 weeks of age; however, the mRNA level of Caspase-3 in the inner ears was much higher at 2 weeks of age than that at 4 or 8 weeks of age. Moreover, transcriptional levels of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the inner ears of DBA/2J mice were significantly higher than those of C57BL/6J mice at 2 or 8 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry localized Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mainly to the hair cells, SGNs and stria vascularis of the cochleae. To determine the significance of caspase-dependent apoptosis in the hearing loss, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was given intraperitoneally to DBA/J2 mice over an 8-week period starting at one week of age. Blockage of caspases preserved hearing in the mice by more than 10 dB (dB) sound pressure level (SPL) of the ABR thresholds and significantly reduced outer hair cell loss at the basal turns of the cochleae. These results demonstrate that apoptosis in the cochleae of DBA/J2 mice contributes to the early onset of hearing loss, which can be attenuated by anti-apoptotic treatment.

  1. The use of twice daily nedocromil sodium in the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Creticos, P; Burk, J; Smith, L; Comp, R; Norman, P; Findlay, S

    1995-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of nedocromil sodium inhalation aerosol (4 mg of Tilade administered by metered-dose inhaler) given twice daily was compared with placebo in 112 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma who had been receiving maintenance therapy with oral or inhaled bronchodilators or both. After a 2-week run-in period and a subsequent 2-week baseline period, patients were randomized to active treatment (n = 56) or placebo (n = 56) for 8 weeks. All maintenance bronchodilators were withdrawn before the baseline period, and patients entered the treatment period only after demonstrating a specified level of asthma symptoms. Twice daily administration of nedocromil sodium improved all asthma symptoms in these patients who had symptoms as a result of the withdrawal of their maintenance theophylline and/or oral and inhaled beta 2-agonist bronchodilators. During the primary time period (treatment weeks 5 to 8), statistically significant between-group differences favored nedocromil sodium for the asthma summary score (primary variable, p = 0.001), daytime asthma (p = 0.001), and sleep difficulty caused by asthma (p = 0.006). Furthermore, significant reductions in the use of as-needed rescue medications were reported in the nedocromil sodium group (p = 0.003) compared with the placebo group. Final overall opinions of treatment effectiveness expressed by physicians (p = 0.016) and patients (p = 0.002) strongly favored nedocromil sodium.

  2. Treatment and control of bovine sarcoptic and psoroptic mange infestation with ivermectin long-acting injectable (IVOMEC(®) GOLD).

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Joachim, Anja; Löwenstein, Michael; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Yoon, Stephen; Cramer, Luiz; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI, IVOMEC® GOLD, Merial; 3.15 % ivermectin w/v) formulation was evaluated in cattle with induced Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis or Psoroptes ovis infestations. A total of 64 cattle were included in this series of four studies, with 16 animals per study. Approximately, 8 weeks following initial induced mite infestation, cattle were allocated to treatment groups based on decreasing pre-treatment bodyweights. Treatments (saline (control) or IVM LAI (630 mcg ivermectin/kg bodyweight) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight) were administered by a single subcutaneous injection in front of the right shoulder on Day 0. Skin scrapings were collected prior to treatment and at approximately weekly intervals for 8 weeks thereafter to establish live mite counts. Character and extent of skin lesions were evaluated at each sampling. Animals were weighed before treatment and at the end of the studies. Mite counts of the IVM LAI-treated animals were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of the controls in all four studies at all occasions post-treatment. In the two Sarcoptes studies, IVM LAI-treated cattle were free of mites at 14 days after treatment and in the Psoroptes studies at 13 or 28 days post-treatment. All IVM LAI-treated cattle remained free of mites to the end of the studies while all control animals remained infested. Mange lesions of the IVM LAI-treated animals improved significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those of the controls from Day 21 (Sarcoptes studies) and from Days 28 or 34 (Psoroptes studies). In all studies, mean weight gain over the 8 week post-treatment period was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for the IVM LAI-treated animals than for the controls: Sarcoptes studies, 64.1 and 68.6 kg vs. 46.9 and 48.6 kg, respectively; Psoroptes studies, 43.0 and 43.4 kg vs. 20.8 and 34.9 kg, respectively. All animals accepted the treatment well, and no treatment-related health problems and adverse events were

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from pigs during metaphylactic trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole treatment and in the post-exposure period.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Justyna; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed. PMID:25689993

  4. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  5. Treatment of fatty solid waste from the meat industry in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: start-up period and establishment of the design criteria.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sosa, D; Torrijos, M; Buitron, G; Sousbie, P; Devillers, P H; Delgenès, J P

    2009-01-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat the dissolved air flotation skimmings from a cooked pork meat plant. During the start-up period, the reactor was operated in fed-batch mode for 25 days and 7 batches were treated. The SBR was inoculated with sludge taken from a reactor treating distillery vinasse. The results showed that this kind of sludge is a very good source of inoculum for digesters treating residues with a high content in fats and long-chain fatty acids because it was able to adapt very rapidly to the new substrate and, from the second batch on, the sludge was already able to metabolize the fatty residue at quite high rates. The AnSBR was then operated with 5 batches per week for 110 days and the quantity of VS added per batch was regularly increased until the maximum treatment capacity of the reactor (i.e. maximum loading rate) was reached. The maximum organic loading rates were found to be 0.16 g VS/g VSS d, or 0.224 g VS/g VSS.batch when the reactor is fed 5 times a week. The biodegradability of the skimmings was very high, with more than 97% of TS removal, and the methane production was 880+/-90 mL of methane/g of VS(added).

  6. Randomized, observer-blind, split-face study to compare the irritation potential of 2 topical acne formulations over a 14-day treatment period.

    PubMed

    Ting, William

    2012-08-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, split-face study assessed the irritation potential and likelihood of continued use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% gel or adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel once daily over a 14-day treatment period in 21 participants (11 males; 10 females) with acne who were 18 years or older. Investigator clinical assessment (erythema and dryness) and self-assessment (dryness and burning/stinging) were performed at baseline and each study visit (days 1-14) using a 4-point scale (O = none; 3 = severe). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry measurements were performed at baseline and days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. Lesions were counted at baseline and on day 14. Participant satisfaction questionnaires were completed on days 7 and 14. At the end of the study, investigators reported none or only mild erythema in 86% (18/21) of participants treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel compared with 62% (13/21) of participants treated with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. No severe erythema was reported with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel was prematurely discontinued due to severe erythema in 1 participant on day 5 and a second participant on day 9. Additionally, 2 more participants reported severe erythema on day 14. Mean erythema scores were 0.9 (mean change from baseline, 0.7) with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and 1.4 (mean change from baseline, 1.3) with adapalene 0. 1%--BPO 2.5% gel on day 14 (P < .05 for days 6-14). Similar results were seen with dryness. Mean scores were 0.5 (mean change from baseline, 0.4) and 1.0 (mean change from baseline, 1.0), respectively (P < .05 for days 6-14). Self-assessment, TEWL, and corneometry results underscored the investigator clinical assessment. Participant preference and likelihood of continued usage was greater with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Continued use and efficacy results for the treatment of acne were

  7. Comparison of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. with fluoxetine in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Boostani, Hatam; Pakseresht, Siroos; Malayeri, Alireza

    2010-03-17

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition. Although a variety of pharmaceutical agents is available for the treatment of OCD, psychiatrists often find that many patients cannot tolerate the side effects of these medications; do not respond properly to the treatment; or the medications lose their effectiveness after a period of treatment. Herbal medicine can be a solution to some of these problems. In fact many herbs with psychotropic effects exist which can have fewer side effects. They can provide an alternative treatment or be used to enhance the effectiveness of conventional anti-obsessive and compulsive symptoms. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in Iran. This plant is reported to be safe on humans. Our objective in this study was to compare the efficacy of the extract of S.marianum (L.) with fluoxetine in the treatment of OCD. The study was an 8-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. Thirty five adult outpatients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD based on the structured clinical interview participated in the trial. The minimum score of Yale-Brown Scale for OCD was 21 for all patients. In this double-blind and randomized trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive either capsule of the extract (600 mg/day) or fluoxetine (30 mg/day) for 8 weeks. The results showed no significant difference between the extract and fluoxetine in the treatment of OCD. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects.

  8. Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggiani, Alberto; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Valentina, Andrea Della; Mapelli, Laurent; Sosio, Silvia; Milano, Valeria; Bianchi, Manuel; Badi, Francesco; Lavazza, Carolina; Grandini, Marco; Corna, Giovanni; Prometti, Paola; Lunetta, Christian; Riva, Nilo; Ferri, Alessandra; Lanfranconi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. Objective: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. Methods: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-blind design (12 weeks, T0-T1), in order to receive OMT (weekly for 4 weeks, and fortnightly for the following 8 weeks) versus usual-care (n=7 each group), followed by an OMT open period (T1-T2, once a week for 8 weeks, n=10). Secondary aims included blind osteopathic assessment of somatic dysfunctions (SD) for goal attainment scale (GAS) calculation, Brief Pain Inventory-short form and McGill QoL-16 items. Results: OMT was demonstrated feasible and safe and patients displayed high satisfaction (T1-VAS=8.34 ± 0.46; T2-VAS=8.52 ± 0.60). Considering secondary aims no significant differences emerged. Finally, at study entry (T0), a cervico-dorsal SD was found in 78% of ALS patients versus 28% of healthy matched controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: OMT was found feasible, safe and satisfactory in ALS. The lack of secondary aim differences can be due to the limited sample size. OMT could be an interesting option to explore in ALS.

  9. Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggiani, Alberto; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Valentina, Andrea Della; Mapelli, Laurent; Sosio, Silvia; Milano, Valeria; Bianchi, Manuel; Badi, Francesco; Lavazza, Carolina; Grandini, Marco; Corna, Giovanni; Prometti, Paola; Lunetta, Christian; Riva, Nilo; Ferri, Alessandra; Lanfranconi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. Objective: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. Methods: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-blind design (12 weeks, T0-T1), in order to receive OMT (weekly for 4 weeks, and fortnightly for the following 8 weeks) versus usual-care (n=7 each group), followed by an OMT open period (T1-T2, once a week for 8 weeks, n=10). Secondary aims included blind osteopathic assessment of somatic dysfunctions (SD) for goal attainment scale (GAS) calculation, Brief Pain Inventory-short form and McGill QoL-16 items. Results: OMT was demonstrated feasible and safe and patients displayed high satisfaction (T1-VAS=8.34 ± 0.46; T2-VAS=8.52 ± 0.60). Considering secondary aims no significant differences emerged. Finally, at study entry (T0), a cervico-dorsal SD was found in 78% of ALS patients versus 28% of healthy matched controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: OMT was found feasible, safe and satisfactory in ALS. The lack of secondary aim differences can be due to the limited sample size. OMT could be an interesting option to explore in ALS. PMID:27651843

  10. Surgical treatment of 137 cases with chronic subdural hematoma at the university clinical center of Kosovo during the period 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Agon Y.; Morina, Arsim A.; Mekaj, Ymer H.; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Miftari, Ermira I.; Duci, Shkelzen B.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Gashi, Musli M.; Xhelaj, Mentor R.; Kelmendi, Fatos M.; Morina, Qamile Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is frequent pathology in neurosurgical practice. The aim of this study is to present the first series of patients with CSDH, who got surgically treated in Clinic of Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that included 137 patients with CSDH who had been treated during the period 2008–2012. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Patients were analyzed in many aspects such as age, gender, etiological factors, clinical features, localization, diagnoses, methods of surgical interventions, recurrences and mortality of patients. Results: From 137 patients with CSDH, 106 (77.3%) were males and 31 (22.7%) females. Average age of patients was 62.85 years. Analyzed according to the decades, the highest number of causes with CSDH was between 70 and 79 years (46%). The head trauma has been responsible for CSDH in 88 patients (64.3%), while the main symptom was headache (92 patients or 67.1%). One burr-hole trepanation with closed drainage system has been used in majority of cases (in 101 patients or 73.7%). The recurrence of CSDH was 6.5%, whereas mortality 2.9%. Conclusion: CSDH is more common in elderly patients. The male-female ratio is 3.4:1. Like other authors we also think that treatment with one burr-hole and drainage is a method of choice, because of its simplicity and safety. PMID:25883478

  11. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  12. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check with a doctor to find out about pain relievers and other treatments that can reduce cramps. If you get them, don't let cramps sneak up on you! It's best to start taking pain relievers slightly in advance of the cramps. Your mom ...

  13. O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides systemic and local treatment in chronic venous disease and microangiopathy: an independent prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Rosaria Cesarone, Maria; Ledda, Andrea; Cacchio, Marisa; Ruffini, Irma; Ricci, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo; Di Renzo, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Corsi, Marcello; Marino Santarelli, Anna Rita; Grossi, Maria Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (HR) is used to treat chronic venous disease and signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), varicose veins, and deep venous disease. This independent prospective controlled trial (a registry study) evaluates how the efficacy of HR at the local level (perimalleolar region) can be increased by the administration of a topical HR gel. The study is based on evaluation of microcirculatory variables in patients with severe CVI (ambulatory venous pressure, > 56 mm Hg) and venous microangiopathy. Patients are treated using 1 of the following 3 regimens: oral treatment with 1 g sachets of HR (2 g/d total) plus topical HR 2% gel applied 3 times daily at the internal perimalleolar region; oral treatment only (same dosage), or light elastic compression stockings. Laser Doppler skin flux at rest, skin flux at the perimalleolar region, and transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2 are measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. A comparable group of healthy individuals without treatment is observed for 8 weeks. In the treatment groups, flux is increased, PO2 is decreased, and PCO2 is increased compared with normal skin. At 4 and 8 weeks, the improvement in skin flux (which is decreased by all measurements), the increase in PO2, and the decrease in PCO2 (indicating microcirculatory improvement) are statistically significantly greater in the combined oral plus topical treatment group (P < .05). No adverse effects, tolerability problems, or compliance issues are noted. These results indicate an important role of HR in the treatment and control of CVI and venous microangiopathy.

  14. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Selective Alpha-Blockers in the Treatment of Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction—Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Paweł; Gajewska, Ewa; Zachwieja, Jacek; Sobieska, Magdalena; Mańkowski, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of selective α1-blockers in children with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions and increased leak point pressure (LPP). 14 children from age 6 to 16 years with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions (neurogenic bladder) and LPP > 40 cm H2O were enrolled in the study. All patients received a selective α1-blocker (doxazosin) for 6–8 weeks with an initial dosage of 0.03 mg/kg. During the observation period the continuation of oral anticholinergics, Clean Intermittent Catheterization (CIC), observation of “urinary dryness” and urinary incontinence periods were recommended. Patients were scheduled for a follow-up visit and urodynamic investigation after 6–8 weeks after the doxazosin therapy was started. In 4 patients, urine leakage occurred at lower pressures; in 9 patients, no significant changes in urine leak point pressures were detected; in 3 patients, there was a significant increase in the bladder capacity; in one patient, deterioration in continence was noted. The differences both in LPP and LPV before and after the treatment were not statistically significant. Our observations are consistent with the conclusions from other studies and showed no evident efficacy of doxazosin in children with neurogenic bladder. PMID:26999168

  15. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  16. Predictability of antitumor efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan based on skin rash severity according to observation period in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer following failure of fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin

    PubMed Central

    HORIE, YOSHIKI; YAMAZAKI, KENTARO; FUNAKOSHI, TARO; HAMAUCHI, SATOSHI; TANIGUCHI, HIROYA; TSUSHIMA, TAKAHIRO; TODAKA, AKIKO; MACHIDA, NOZOMU; TAKU, KEISEI; FUKUTOMI, AKIRA; ONOZAWA, YUSUKE; YASUI, HIROFUMI; MIZUKAMI, TAKURO; IZAWA, NAOKI; HIRAKAWA, MAMI; TSUDA, TAKASHI; NAKAJIMA, TAKAKO; BOKU, NARIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of cetuximab correlates with the severity of skin toxicity, although its onset may vary. The AIM of this retrospective study was to investigate the optimal observation period for skin rash as a predictor of the efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan. The subjects comprised 33 patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who had received prior chemotherapy with fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. The response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the presence or absence of ≥grade 2 skin rash within 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks following cetuximab initiation. The overall RR was 45% (15/33) and the median PFS and OS were 188 and 383 days, respectively. A total of 26 patients experienced ≥grade 2 skin rash within 8 weeks. The proportion of responders among patients who developed ≥grade 2 skin rash (severe group) decreased depending on the duration of the observation period (50% within 8 weeks), whereas the proportion of non-responders among patients with 8 weeks). Similarly, the proportion of patients with an unfavorable prognosis (PFS <6 months, OS <1 year) in the mild group increased (86% for PFS and 71% for OS within 8 weeks), whereas the proportion of those with a favorable prognosis in the severe group remained stable (73% for PFS and 62% for OS within 8 weeks). Therefore, the absence of ≥grade 2 skin rash within 8 weeks may be predictive of unfavorable efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan in mCRC patients. PMID:26623045

  17. The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. II. Proliferative retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Sparrow, J M; Grey, R H; Cheng, H

    1998-01-01

    The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit is a prospective survey of laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy throughout the United Kingdom. This paper presents data on 284 patients who were undergoing their first panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative retinopathy during a 2 month period in 1995, describing the demographic features, the level of systematic screening, the sources of referral, and the waiting times. For those cases where proliferative retinopathy was present at the first ophthalmology outpatient visit, the retinopathy was detected as a result of systematic screening in 46.8%, whilst 28.7% presented symptomatically. Of these patients 28.4% waited for more than 12 weeks from referral to the time of laser treatment, but once the patient had been listed for laser treatment this was performed within 8 weeks in 95.3%. The retinopathy features and the type of treatment given are also described. Compared with the DRS and ETDRS recommendations, at least 32.5-40.2% of eyes may be undertreated initially, and for those with high-risk characteristics these figures were at least 30.8-38.5%.

  18. Metallothionein (MT) induction in channel catfish following treatment with therapeutic levels of copper sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenk, D.; Perkins, E.J.; Griffin, B.

    1995-12-31

    Copper sulfate is regularly used in the aquaculture industry for the treatment of various ectoparasitic infestations. Male and female Channel catfish (Ictlurus punctatus) were treated for 8 weeks with three therapeutic doses of copper sulfate (1.7, 2.7 and 3.6 mg/L). Liver, gill, spleen, and gonads were dissected from 6 fish sampled at two week intervals. Samples were frozen and will be analyzed for MT in each tissue. Total MT will be measured by ELISA using antibodies raised against the first 10 amino acid residues which are conserved in fish. MT mRNA will also be measured in each tissue by the Ribonuclease Protection Assay using winter flounder CDNA and compared to protein measurements during the exposure period. MT levels also will be compared to total copper accumulation levels in each fish.

  19. Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) product for the topical treatment of psoriasis: a Hungarian/Czech and Slovak study.

    PubMed

    Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory T cell-mediated skin disease, affecting about 2% of Hungarian population. Genetic predisposition as well as environmental triggering factors, and innate immune processes play a role in its etiology. Treatment of psoriasis during the initial stages and first years of disease tend to be conservative and frequently based on topical agents. The aim of this study was to investigate and to describe the efficacy and safety of Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) skin-care products for the topical treatment of stable chronic plaque psoriasis in a Hungarian population. Two-hundred-and-eight-six (120 female/166 male) patients, aged 10-80 years old (mean age 43 years) with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis had participated in the study. The products, including cleansing gel containing a coal tar solution, herbal oils and emulsifiers, were used twice daily and in the same manner for all the skin lesions. The study period was eight weeks. Assessment, using the Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI) scores and photographic analysis, was done 2 weeks before treatment, at time 0, and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Patient’s improvement was determined by the percentage reduction of the PASI scores. Side effects and tolerability were also evaluated. After 8 weeks treatment course, 46 patients had a moderate improvement, with the regression of 25-50% of skin lesions; 77 patients showed a good improvement, with the resolution of 51-75% of lesions. Another 115 patients had an outstanding improvement, with the regression of 76-98.9% of lesions. Only 13 patients did not achieve an improvement of psoriasis. Fifteen patients experienced folliculitis, which resolved after cessation of treatment. Seven patients worsened and discontinued treatment. Thirteen patients dropped out because of non-compliance. Our investigation demonstrates that Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) products, an Australian treatment, can be used successfully in the treatment of stable chronic plaque

  20. Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) product for the topical treatment of psoriasis: a Hungarian/Czech and Slovak study.

    PubMed

    Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory T cell-mediated skin disease, affecting about 2% of Hungarian population. Genetic predisposition as well as environmental triggering factors, and innate immune processes play a role in its etiology. Treatment of psoriasis during the initial stages and first years of disease tend to be conservative and frequently based on topical agents. The aim of this study was to investigate and to describe the efficacy and safety of Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) skin-care products for the topical treatment of stable chronic plaque psoriasis in a Hungarian population. Two-hundred-and-eight-six (120 female/166 male) patients, aged 10-80 years old (mean age 43 years) with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis had participated in the study. The products, including cleansing gel containing a coal tar solution, herbal oils and emulsifiers, were used twice daily and in the same manner for all the skin lesions. The study period was eight weeks. Assessment, using the Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI) scores and photographic analysis, was done 2 weeks before treatment, at time 0, and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Patient’s improvement was determined by the percentage reduction of the PASI scores. Side effects and tolerability were also evaluated. After 8 weeks treatment course, 46 patients had a moderate improvement, with the regression of 25-50% of skin lesions; 77 patients showed a good improvement, with the resolution of 51-75% of lesions. Another 115 patients had an outstanding improvement, with the regression of 76-98.9% of lesions. Only 13 patients did not achieve an improvement of psoriasis. Fifteen patients experienced folliculitis, which resolved after cessation of treatment. Seven patients worsened and discontinued treatment. Thirteen patients dropped out because of non-compliance. Our investigation demonstrates that Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) products, an Australian treatment, can be used successfully in the treatment of stable chronic plaque

  1. Treatment of delocalized electron transfer in periodic and embedded cluster DFT calculations: The case of Cu on ZnO (10(1)0).

    PubMed

    Hellström, Matti; Spångberg, Daniel; Hermansson, Kersti

    2015-12-15

    We assess the consequences of the interface model-embedded-cluster or periodic-slab model-on the ability of DFT calculations to describe charge transfer (CT) in a particularly challenging case where periodic-slab calculations indicate a delocalized charge-transfer state. Our example is Cu atom adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), and in fact the periodic slab calculations indicate three types of CT depending on the adsorption site: full CT, partial CT, and no CT. Interestingly, when full CT occurs in the periodic calculations, the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy depends on the underlying ZnO substrate supercell size, since when the electron enters the ZnO it delocalizes over as many atoms as possible. In the embedded-cluster calculations, the electron transferred to the ZnO delocalizes over the entire cluster region, and as a result the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy does not agree with the value obtained using a large periodic supercell, but instead to the adsorption energy obtained for a periodic supercell of roughly the same size as the embedded cluster. Different density functionals (of GGA and hybrid types) and basis sets (local atom-centered and plane-waves) were assessed, and we show that embedded clusters can be used to model Cu adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), as long as care is taken to account for the effects of CT. PMID:26525161

  2. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or check their website. Prescription Assistance Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Medicare pays for prescription medications ... you during the Annual Open Enrollment Period. Part D Low-Income Subsidy (LIS) If you have Medicare ...

  3. Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has long-term effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Childhood/adolescent antipsychotic drug (APD) use is exponentially increasing worldwide, despite limited knowledge of the long-term effects of early APD treatment. Whilst investigations have found that early treatment has resulted in some alterations to dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems (essential to APD efficacy), there have only been limited studies into potential long-term behavioural changes. This study, using an animal model for childhood/adolescent APD treatment, investigated the long-term effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone on adult behaviours of male and female rats. Open-field/holeboard, elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim (FS) tests were then conducted in adult rats. Our results indicated that in the male cohort, early risperidone and olanzapine treatment elicited long-term hyper-locomotor effects (open-field/holeboard and FS tests), whilst a decrease in depressive-like behaviour (in FS test) was observed in response to olanzapine treatment. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like behaviours were found following testing in the open-field/holeboard and EPM in response to all three drug treatments. Effects in the female cohort, however, were to a far lesser extent, with behavioural attributes indicative of an increased depressive-like behaviour and hypo-locomotor activity exhibited in the FS test following early risperidone and olanzapine treatment. These results suggest that various APDs have different long-term effects on the behaviours of adult rats.

  4. Does a period of detraining cause a decrease in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor?

    PubMed

    Goekint, Maaike; Roelands, Bart; De Pauw, Kevin; Knaepen, Kristel; Bos, Inge; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-12-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the neurotrophins promoting cognitive function and contributing to neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Available evidence suggests that exercise influences serum BDNF concentrations, but that the effect is transient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a period of aerobic training, followed by a period of detraining, can influence basal serum BDNF levels in humans. Sixteen young, sedentary subjects were assigned to an experimental group (n=9) and a control group (n=7). The experimental group performed an aerobic training program during 8 weeks, followed by 8 weeks of detraining, during which subjects returned to their previous, sedentary activity level. The control group remained physically inactive during 16 weeks. In both groups, performance on short-term (Digit Span test) and mid-term memory (Recall of Images) was assessed. Aerobic training significantly increased the VO(2) peak in the experimental group, and these values returned to baseline after 8 weeks of detraining. Basal serum BDNF was not influenced by 8 weeks of aerobic training and detraining did not seem to have an effect on basal peripheral BDNF concentrations. Both training and detraining did not clearly influence short-term memory performance on the Digit Span test and no differences were present between the experimental and control group on the mid-term memory test. Future studies should focus on patient groups and elderly to further investigate the effect of training and detraining on neurotrophic factors and cognitive function, and on the effects of training and detraining on the BDNF response to acute exercise.

  5. The Social Validation of Behavioral Treatments for Bedwetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.

    Both urine alarms and dry bed training (DBT) have been used in the treatment of enuresis. To investigate the acceptability of the most recent version of DBT and urine alarm training, two studies were conducted. In the first study, the evaluation of 42 parents, who had participated in an 8-week program of either DBT or urine alarm training, were…

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  7. Treatment of Wilson's disease with tetrathiomolybdate: V. Control of free copper by tetrathiomolybdate and a comparison with trientine.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J; Askari, Fred; Dick, Robert B; Sitterly, Julia; Fink, John K; Carlson, Martha; Kluin, Karen J; Lorincz, Matthew T

    2009-08-01

    It has become clear that serum "free" copper (the copper not bound to ceruloplasmin in the blood) is the copper causing copper toxicity in Wilson's disease. But up until now, free copper has not been closely followed during initiation of anticopper therapy in neurologically presenting patients. During this period of initial therapy, the future fate of these patients hangs in the balance-if they worsen neurologically as often happens with penicillamine or trientine therapy, many never recover. We hypothesize that free copper levels are a biological marker of clinical outcome in these patients. In this article, we evaluate the control of free copper in 3 studies of initial anticopper treatment in neurologically presenting Wilson's disease patients. The first (study 1) is a 55-patient open-label trial of tetrathiomolybdate, the second (study 2) is a 48-patient double-blind trial comparing tetrathiomolybdate and trientine, and the third (study 3) is a 40-patient double-blind comparison of 2 disease regimens of tetrathiomolybdate. Free copper levels were determined by subtracting ceruloplasmin and tetrathiomolybdate bound copper from total serum copper. Tetrathiomolybdate showed very strong control of free copper levels over the 8 weeks of treatment in the 55-patient open-label study (study 1), reducing it to a mean value of about one fourth, or less, of baseline. In the tetrathiomolybdate/trientine double blind (study 2), tetrathiomolybdate again showed good control of free copper levels over 8 weeks of treatment, which is significantly better than trientine. In the trientine arm of study 2, mean free copper levels actually went up during trientine therapy. The 5 patients who neurologically worsened on trientine therapy over 8 weeks of treatment showed significant spikes in serum free copper levels associated in time with their neurologic worsening. Patients who did not worsen neurologically generally did not show significant spikes in free copper. Tetrathiomolybdate

  8. Anaerobic treatment of tequila vinasses under seasonal operating conditions: start-up, normal operation and restart-up after a long stop and starvation period.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Álvarez, V; Snell-Castro, R; Alcaraz-González, V; Godon, J J

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the performance of an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor under seasonal operating conditions prevailing in medium and small size Tequila factories: start-up, normal operation and particularly, during the restart-up after a long stop and starvation period. The proposed start-up procedure attained a stable biofilm in a rather short period (28 days) despite unbalanced COD/N/P ratio and the use of non-acclimated inoculum. The bioreactor was restarted-up after being shut down for 6 months during which the inoculum starved. Even when biofilm detachment and bioreactor clogging were detected at the very beginning of restart-up, results show that the bioreactor performed better as higher COD removal and methane yield were attained. CE-SSCP and Q-PCR analyses, conducted on the biofilm prokaryotic communities for each operating condition, confirmed that the high COD removal results after the bioreactor clogging and the severe starvation period were mainly due to the stable archaeal and resilient bacterial populations.

  9. Short-term alpha-tocopherol treatment during neonatal period modulates pro-inflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS) challenge in the same calves several months later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E, a major natural antioxidant, has been previously shown to attenuate pro-inflammatory response to immune challenge in cattle. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of short-term treatment with alpha-tocopherol in newborn calves on selected elements of the pro-inflamatory response to LPS...

  10. Use of cervical cerclage as a treatment option for cervical incompetence: patient characteristics, presentation and management over a 9 year period in a Kenyan centre.

    PubMed

    Karau, Paul B; Mutwiri, Mwikamba G; Ogeng'o, Julius A; Karau, Geoffrey M

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of cervical incompetence by cerclage and other methods has yet to be standardized, as its diagnosis is not uniformly accepted. Its diagnosis, particularly in the African setting, is mostly based on past obstetric history of pregnancy losses, while in developed centres; ultrasound diagnosis is increasingly being used. The mainstay of treatment in developing countries is cervical cerclage, although the indications and contraindications of this mode of treatment are not documented. Our aim was to appraise this practice in terms of patient characteristics, the diagnostic process and management at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. This was a descriptive retrospective study over 9 years. Predesigned questionnaires were employed to collect data on patient's socio-demographic profile, presentation, risk factors, diagnosis and management of cervical incompetence. Chi-squared test and student's t-test were used to correlate variables. A total of 199 patients were treated for cervical incompetence, with the patient mean age being 27.97. 87.4% of the patients (p = 0.02) were in the 20 to 35 years category. Most of the patients (60.1%) were of low socio-economic status. Cervical cerclage was employed in all the patients, although ultrasound investigation was not employed in 65.8% of them. Diagnosis of cervical incompetence still relies on history of previous pregnancy losses, with the standard transvaginal ultrasound relatively unemployed. There is need to intensify investigations for this condition, standardize the indications for cerclage, and diversify management to other newer modalities.

  11. Long-term efficacy of psoriasis vulgaris treatments: analysis of treatment with topical corticosteroid and/or vitamin D3 analog, oral cyclosporin, etretinate and phototherapy over a 35-year period, 1975-2010.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Emiko; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Manabe, Yasuaki; Yahagi, Eiichiro; Yamada-Hiruma, Azusa; Yamaoka, Hanako; Kojima, Tomoko; Kato, Masayuki; Ikoma, Norihiro; Ozawa, Akira; Haruki, Yasuo

    2013-04-01

    Various therapies have been tried for psoriasis. In Japan, biologics began to be used for psoriasis treatment in January 2010. Their clinical efficacy is well known, but biologics cannot be used in all psoriasis patients for reasons such as side-effects and cost. It is necessary to evaluate the effect of long-term psoriasis treatment, but there have been no reports evaluating long-term treatment. Therefore, the outcomes of patients who had been treated at the Tokai University Hospital for more than 5 years, before biological agents were released, were examined. Three categories, classified by initial severity, changes in severity by method of treatment and background characteristics, were investigated. In conclusion, cases of long-term treatment with a combination of topical corticosteroid and topical vitamin D3 analog or oral cyclosporin were found to be effective therapies. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease of psoriasis were likely to be treatment resistant.

  12. Changes in soil C-isotopic composition in an agroecosystem under Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) treatment during a crop rotation period.

    PubMed

    Giesemann, Anette

    2005-01-01

    FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) has been used since 1999 to evaluate the effects of future atmospheric CO(2) concentrations on an arable crop agroecosystem. The experiment conducted at the Institute of Agroecology at the Federal Research Centre in Braunschweig consists of a typical local crop rotation of winter barley, a cover crop, sugar beet and winter wheat. The atmospheric CO2 concentration of ambient air is about 375 ppm with a delta13C value of -7 to -9 per thousand, and 550 ppm (delta13C value = -20.2 per thousand) during daylight hours in the rings fumigated with additional CO2. Thus, the surplus C can be traced in the agricultural system. Over the course of the first experimental period (3-year crop rotation period), the C-isotopic composition and the C concentration in soil were monitored monthly. Plant samples were analysed according to the relevant developmental stages of the crop under cultivation. A 13C depletion was observed in plant parts, as well as in soil samples from the FACE rings under CO2 enrichment, indicating that labelled C has reached both respective ecosystem compartments. Albeit farming management practice (especially ploughing) leads to a mixing of 'old' and 'new' C compounds throughout all soil horizons down to the end of the ploughing layer and resulted in a heterogeneous distribution of newly formed C compounds in the soil, isotope analysis of soil C reflected where the surplus C went.

  13. Long-term and preventative treatment for seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Westrin, Asa; Lam, Raymond W

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent major depressive disorder with regular seasonal patterns, commonly known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD), has evoked substantial research in the last two decades. It is now recognised that SAD is a common condition with prevalence rates between 0.4% and 2.9% of the general population, and that patients with SAD experience significant morbidity and impairment in psychosocial function. There is good evidence that bright light therapy and antidepressant medications are effective for the short-term treatment of SAD; however, given that SAD is characterised by recurrent major depressive episodes, long-term and maintenance treatment must be considered. Unfortunately, there are few studies of longer term (>8 weeks) and maintenance (preventative) treatments for SAD. The weight of evidence suggests that light therapy usually needs to be continued daily throughout the winter season because of rapid relapse when light is stopped too early in the treatment period. However, some studies support the use of antidepressants to continue the response from a brief (1-2 weeks) course of light therapy early in the depressive episode, as soon as the first symptoms emerge in autumn. Only small studies have examined preventative treatment (before onset of symptoms) with light therapy, all of which have methodological limitations. The best evidence for preventative treatment in SAD comes from antidepressant studies. Three large, randomised, placebo-controlled studies have shown that preventative treatment with bupropion XL reduces the recurrence rate of depressive episodes in patients with SAD. Given the limitations in the evidence base and the inconsistent recurrence rate of winter depressive episodes, clinical recommendations for long-term and preventative treatment must individualise treatment choices and weigh potential benefits against possible adverse effects. PMID:17927295

  14. Growth hormone treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period: results of a survey among adult and paediatric endocrinologists from Italy. Endorsed by SIEDP/ISPED, AME, SIE, SIMA.

    PubMed

    Aimaretti, G; Attanasio, R; Cannavò, S; Nicoletti, M C; Castello, R; Di Somma, C; Garofalo, P; Iughetti, L; Loche, S; Maghnie, M; Mazzanti, L; Saggese, G; Salerno, M; Tonini, G; Toscano, V; Zucchini, S; Cappa, M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period is a controversial issue. This paper is a contribution from the Italian community of paediatric and adult endocrinologists surveyed in a Delphi panel. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. There was substantial agreement on the definition of the problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with GHD in the transition period, as well as on the identification of the controversial issues which need further studies. There is general consensus on the need of re-testing all isolated idiopathic GHD after at least 30-day withdrawn from treatment, while in patients with multiple pituitary deficiency and low IGF-I levels there is generally no need to re-test. In patients with permanent or confirmed GHD, a starting low rhGH dose (0.01-0.03 mg per day) to be adjusted according to IGF-I concentrations is also widely accepted. For those continuing treatment, the optimal therapeutic schedule to obtain full somatic maturation, normalization of body composition and bone density, cardiovascular function and Quality of Life, need to be evaluated. PMID:25362629

  15. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers.

  16. Efficacy and safety of Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) product family for the topical treatment of psoriasis: a monitored status study.

    PubMed

    França, K; Novotny, F; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Roccia, M G; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Michaels® (Soratinex®) remedies in patients suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis in a Czech population. Seventy-five (34 female/41 male) patients, aged 18-72 years old (mean age: 38.5 years) with mild to severe plaque psoriasis participated in the study. The products, including cleansing gel, ointment and skin conditioner, containing fruit acid complex, herbal oils and emulsifiers, were used twice daily and in the same manner for all the skin lesions. The study period was eight weeks. Histologic variables and various blood picture parameters, including FW, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglyceroles, bilirubin, GMT, ALT, AST, creatinine, uric acid and urea in blood were monitored, before and after therapy with Michaels® (Soratinex®) treatment. Assessment, using the Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI) scores and photographic analysis, was done at time 0, and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Patient’s improvement was determined by the percentage reduction of the PASI scores. Side effects and tolerability were also evaluated. After 8 weeks using Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) treatment course, 5 patients had a moderate improvement, with the resolution of 25-50% of skin lesions; 11 patients showed a good improvement, with the resolution of 51-75% of lesions. Another 50 patients had an outstanding improvement, with the regression of 76-100% of lesions. Only 4 patients did not achieve an improvement of psoriasis. Six patients experienced folliculitis, which resolved without cessation of treatment. Three patients worsened and discontinued treatment. Six patients dropped out because of non-compliance. The blood results and histologic findings were all normal. Our investigation shows that Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) products can be safely and successfully used in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. PMID:27498668

  17. Efficacy and safety of Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) product family for the topical treatment of psoriasis: a monitored status study.

    PubMed

    França, K; Novotny, F; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Roccia, M G; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Michaels® (Soratinex®) remedies in patients suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis in a Czech population. Seventy-five (34 female/41 male) patients, aged 18-72 years old (mean age: 38.5 years) with mild to severe plaque psoriasis participated in the study. The products, including cleansing gel, ointment and skin conditioner, containing fruit acid complex, herbal oils and emulsifiers, were used twice daily and in the same manner for all the skin lesions. The study period was eight weeks. Histologic variables and various blood picture parameters, including FW, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglyceroles, bilirubin, GMT, ALT, AST, creatinine, uric acid and urea in blood were monitored, before and after therapy with Michaels® (Soratinex®) treatment. Assessment, using the Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI) scores and photographic analysis, was done at time 0, and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Patient’s improvement was determined by the percentage reduction of the PASI scores. Side effects and tolerability were also evaluated. After 8 weeks using Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) treatment course, 5 patients had a moderate improvement, with the resolution of 25-50% of skin lesions; 11 patients showed a good improvement, with the resolution of 51-75% of lesions. Another 50 patients had an outstanding improvement, with the regression of 76-100% of lesions. Only 4 patients did not achieve an improvement of psoriasis. Six patients experienced folliculitis, which resolved without cessation of treatment. Three patients worsened and discontinued treatment. Six patients dropped out because of non-compliance. The blood results and histologic findings were all normal. Our investigation shows that Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) products can be safely and successfully used in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis.

  18. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity is reduced during induction of pituitary tumors by chronic estrogen treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; Borgundvaag, B.; Sturtridge, W.C.; George, S.R.

    1987-11-02

    The role that estrogen plays in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is not known. A radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF was utilized to measure the CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol for periods up to 12 weeks. Compared to ovariectomized controls, estradiol treatment resulted in significantly reduced CRF-ir after 3 and 12 weeks, although no significant change was seen after 8 weeks. Anterior pituitary (AP) weight was greatly increased by estradiol treatment at all time points studied. Bromocriptine treatment for the last 3 weeks of the 12-week period, or removal of estradiol for 3 weeks after 9 weeks of treatment did not reverse the changes in CRF-ir even though significant regressions of tumor size was achieved. There was no correlation between AP weight and CRF-ir in individual animals. These data show that chronic treatment with estrogen reduced hypothalamic CRF-ir content. Neither a direct estrogenic effect or an indirect effect mediated through alterations in the adenohypophysis could be ruled out. 21 references, 3 figures.

  19. Should home-based HIV testing and counseling services be offered periodically in programs of ARV treatment as prevention? A case study in Likoma (Malawi)

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Mkandawire, James; Reniers, Georges; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    To reduce HIV incidence, prevention programs centered on the use of antiretrovirals require scaling-up HIV testing and counseling (HTC). Home-based HTC services (HBHTC) increase HTC coverage, but HBHTC has only been evaluated during one-off campaigns. Two years after an initial HBHTC campaign (“round 1”), we conducted another HBHTC campaign (“round 2”) in Likoma (Malawi). HBHTC participation increased during round 2 among women (from 74% to 83%, p<0.01). New HBHTC clients were recruited, especially at ages 25 and older. Only 6.9% of women but 15.9% of men remained unreached by HBHTC after round 2. HIV prevalence during round 2 was low among clients who were HIV-negative during round 1 (0.7%), but high among women who first tested during round 2 (42.8%). The costs per newly diagnosed infection increased significantly during round 2. Periodically conducting HBHTC campaigns can further increase HTC, but supplementary interventions to enroll individuals not reached by HBHTC are needed. PMID:23180155

  20. The classical electrostatic periodic table, capacitance of few electron dielectric spheres and a novel treatment of one- and two-electron finite quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, Tim, Jr.

    The centerpiece of this dissertation is the discovery of the classical electrostatic periodic table of elements through non-linear ground state energies coincident with atomic shell-filling resulting from symmetry properties of discrete electrons constrained by a spherically-symmetric system. The time-independent electrostatic equilibrium configuration of few electrons confined to a large classical dielectric sphere is obtained by minimization of the total interaction energy. The interactions model yields more than twice the energy predicted by the classical Gauss model. Each N-electron system is proposed as a unique phase characterized by its symmetry properties. A new mono-phasic capacitance definition of dielectric spheres is derived from the fundamental relation Q=CV. Large differences from the Gauss model are obtained for few-electron systems, but convergence is found in the metallic limit. Of particular significance is the means by which symmetry-dependent properties of atomic-scale devices may be exploited by controlling the internal architecture of charge distributions. This work will be useful to modeling of many-electron chemical and biological systems, such as macromolecules, owing largely to symmetry differences between the Gauss model and the interactions model. The foundation upon which all Nature rests is the symmetry of fundamental particles.

  1. Randomized Trial of Periodic Presumptive Treatment With High-Dose Intravaginal Metronidazole and Miconazole to Prevent Vaginal Infections in HIV-negative Women

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R. Scott; Balkus, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeannette; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Schwebke, Jane; Bragg, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Kavak, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vaginal infections are common, frequently recur, and may increase women's risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We tested the efficacy of a novel regimen to prevent recurrent vaginal infections. Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative women 18–45 years old with 1 or more vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), were randomly assigned to receive vaginal suppositories containing metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or matching placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Primary endpoints, evaluated every 2 months, were BV (Gram stain) and VVC (positive wet mount and culture). Results. Participants (N = 234) were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 118) or placebo (N = 116) arm. Two hundred seventeen (93%) women completed an end-of-study evaluation. The intervention reduced the proportion of visits with BV compared to placebo (21.2% vs 32.5%; relative risk [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] .48–.87). In contrast, the proportion of visits with VVC was similar in the intervention (10.4%) versus placebo (11.3%) arms (RR 0.92, 95% CI .62–1.37). Conclusions. Monthly treatment with intravaginal metronidazole plus miconazole reduced the proportion of visits with BV during 12 months of follow-up. Further study will be important to determine whether this intervention can reduce women's risk of STIs. PMID:25526757

  2. Exercise training prevents hyperinsulinemia, muscular glycogen loss and muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone treatment.

    PubMed

    Barel, Matheus; Perez, Otávio André Brogin; Giozzet, Vanessa Aparecida; Rafacho, Alex; Bosqueiro, José Roberto; do Amaral, Sandra Lia

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether exercise training could prevent the negative side effects of dexamethasone. Rats underwent a training period and were either submitted to a running protocol (60% physical capacity, 5 days/week for 8 weeks) or kept sedentary. After this training period, the animals underwent dexamethasone treatment (1 mg/kg per day, i.p., 10 days). Glycemia, insulinemia, muscular weight and muscular glycogen were measured from blood and skeletal muscle. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein was analyzed in skeletal muscles. Dexamethasone treatment evoked body weight loss (-24%), followed by muscular atrophy in the tibialis anterior (-25%) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, -15%). Dexamethasone also increased serum insulin levels by 5.7-fold and glucose levels by 2.5-fold compared to control. The exercise protocol prevented atrophy of the EDL and insulin resistance. Also, dexamethasone-treated rats showed decreased muscular glycogen (-41%), which was further attenuated by the exercise protocol. The VEGF protein expression decreased in the skeletal muscles of dexamethasone-treated rats and was unaltered by the exercise protocol. These data suggest that exercise attenuates hyperglycemia and may also prevent insulin resistance, muscular glycogen loss and muscular atrophy, thus suggesting that exercise may have some benefits during glucocorticoid treatment.

  3. Cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels in neurovascular unit targets of ischemic stroke in the recovery period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Sipei; Zheng, Xiaolu; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to analyze the mechanism of cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) in the neurovascular unit treatment of ischemic stroke in the recovery period. A total of 24 healthy adult male Wistar rats of 5–8 weeks age, weighing 160–200 g were randomly divided into the control (sham-operation group), model, KATP blocker and KATP opener groups (n=6 rats per group). Nylon cerebral artery occlusion was conducted using nylon monofilament coated with Poly-L-lysine, which was used to produce a cerebral infarction model. After feeding normally for 3 days, 5-hydroxydecanoate (40 mg/Kg), and diazoxide (40 mg/Kg) were injected to the abdominal cavity in the blocker, and opener groups, respectively. The control received an equivalent normal saline that was injected into the sham-operation and model groups. The animals were mutilated and samples were collected after 3 days. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of the three subunits of KATP, i.e., kir6.1, and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) 1 and SUR2 mRNA, as well as to calculate infarct size in tetrazolium chloride staining. The expression level of mRNA in the opener group were significantly higher, followed by the model and blocker groups, with the control group being the lowest (P<0.05). Infarct size in the opener group was markedly smaller than the model and blocker groups, and infarct size in the blocker group was significantly larger (P<0.05). Thus, the target treatment on KATP may improve the prognosis of ischemic stroke during the recovery period. PMID:27446320

  4. SU-E-T-575: Isocenter Shifts in Treatment Planning and Its Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Y; Damiani, S; Cao, Y; Jamshidi, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate causes of isocenter shifts in treatment planning and its clinical impact on patient treatment efficiency and safety. Methods/Materials: Treatment planning data of 340 patients under treatment over 8 weeks period were gathered to identify isocenter shifts according to site of the treatment, types of treatment plan or types of the machine used. Treatment plans included inversed and forward IMRT, as well as 3D plans. Treatment sites included pelvis, chest, abdomen, breasts, head and necks and extremities. Re-planning were performed without the isocenter shift for pelvis and chest plans, the dosimetric parameters such as PTV coverage, and dose sparing of OARs of these plans were analyzed and compared. Results/Discussions: Results showed that the isocenter shift was always necessary for some of sites such as breasts, two or more distinctive PTVs, or special cases such as large PTV treated with enhanced dynamic wedge. Many other cases, the re-planning results indicated 53% of the plans that the same quality of the plan can be achieved without the shift of the isocenter. Repositioning patients on a daily basis demanded unambiguous instructions for therapists for patient setups, and additional time to perform the shifts before treatment. Opportunities for error propagation exist during the communication and hand-over of such plans. Conclusion: Isocenter shifts demanded unambiguous instructions and times for therapists for daily patient setups, therefore it impacted both safety and efficiency of the patient treatment. Based on the analysis, the isocenter shifts were unavoidable for cases such as treatment of multiple sites, overcoming limitations of treatment machines, and/or sometime better dosimetry. However, we found many initially proposed shifts may have been eliminated either by careful planning or by improved CT simulation process such as detailed review of the images and localization of the PTV during simulation.

  5. [Treatment response of depressive patients with comorbid problem drink].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Eri; Tayama, Masaya; Saito, Toshikazu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of Problem Drink on depression. Forty participants with depression were divided into 2 groups: non-Problem Drinker (NPD) group (n = 22) and Problem Drinker (PD) group (n = 18) according to Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score (NPD < 12, PD > or = 12). Depression was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The effect of medication on depressive symptoms was monitored over 12 weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Significant improvement in HAM-D score was observed at 2 weeks in NPD patients but not until 4 weeks in PD patients. Total HAM-D scores were lower in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. Therapeutic doses (dose of antidepressant used was equivalent to greater than 75 mg of imipramine) of antidepressants resulted in significant improvement in HAM-D scores at 2 weeks in NPD patients, but not until 8 weeks in PD patients and brought lower HAM-D scores in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. The AUDIT score and total alcohol consumption during the study period were negatively correlated to the improvement in HAM-D score. In NPD patients, the level of education of patients in remission was higher than those by patients not in remission. In contrast, level of education of patients in remission were similar to those in PD patients not in remission. The above results suggest that co-occurrence of alcohol use disorders with depression is associated with a lower response to antidepressants which may reflect not only the result of biological alterations in the brain by chronic ethanol ingestion but also an inhibitory effect of ethanol on antidepressant action in the brain. Drinking-related cognitive dysfunction may also relate to the decreased response to treatment in the depressed patients with comorbid Problem Drinker. PMID:24427900

  6. Early stationary phase culture supernatant accelerates growth of sputum cultures collected after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolwijck, E; Friedrich, S O; Karinja, M N; van Ingen, J; Warren, R M; Diacon, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture supernatant added to sputum cultures collected during the first 8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment. With ongoing treatment duration, time to culture positivity decreased significantly in supernatant-enriched cultures, possibly due to stimulation of dormant or slowly metabolizing M. tuberculosis cells.

  7. A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Self-Help Support Groups in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Annette; Blanchard, Edward B.

    1995-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n=34) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions for 8 weeks: individualized cognitive treatment, support group, or control. Results indicated significantly greater reductions in gastrointestinal symptoms and amelioration of depression and anxiety for the cognitive therapy group, and these results…

  8. Treatment of Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety: A September 11, 2001, Case Study with a 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Shawn; McCone, Dave

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of a 20-year-old White male manifesting an adjustment disorder with anxiety, who initially presented on September 11, 2001, following the terrorist attacks. The initial treatment regime lasted 8 weeks. In addition, follow-up sessions at 6, 11, and 12 months…

  9. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma in comparison with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus exercise: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Angoorani, Hooman; Mazaherinezhad, Ali; Marjomaki, Omid; Younespour, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is a disabling musculoskeletal disease with no definite treatment. This study compared the effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) plus exercise in the treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 54 eligible patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into two groups. (IRCT2012110611382N) Group A (27 patients) received 2 injections of PRP (4 weeks apart) and group B (27 patients) received 10 sessions of TENS as well as exercise during the study period. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) questionnaire before the treatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after that the treatment. Pain was also assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Time to an intolerable knee pain during treadmill workout was also evaluated using an objective test. Results: In the PRP group, the mean KOOS symptom score improved significantly from baseline to the end of study, while the change was not significant over this period for the group B. In both groups, significant reductions were observed in VAS scores from baseline till the end of study. The mean time to feel intolerable knee pain during treadmill work out of PRP group increased significantly from baseline to week 4, but no significant changes were found in this parameter over the time of study in the group B. Conclusion: Intraarticular injection of PRP is an effective, safe method for short-term treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. PMID:26478881

  10. Treatment of hesitation marks on the forearm by the pinhole method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; No, Yeon A; Kang, Jin Moon; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Seo, Seong Jun; Park, Kui Young

    2016-09-01

    Scars from self-inflicted wounds, referred to as "hesitation marks," are usually linear, flat, poorly oriented, white in color, and often located on the forearm. Many patients do not undergo treatment for these due to limited available modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the pinhole method using a 10,600 nm carbon dioxide (CO2) laser for treating hesitation marks on the forearm. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with hesitation marks treated by the pinhole method from March 2010 to April 2014. Eleven patients with hesitation marks (mean age 37.8 years; range, 23-67 years) were treated with the pinhole method over the 4-year study period. Subjects were treated via the pinhole method in one to six treatment sessions at 4- to 8-week intervals. Two blinded observers evaluated photographs taken at baseline and 3 months after the final treatment and assessed improvement using a quartile grading scale. Compared with baseline, there was mild to moderate improvement in all patients (mean score 3.0). The patient satisfaction survey revealed a mean improvement score of 2.82. The pinhole method using a CO2 laser may be an effective treatment option in patients with hesitation marks on the forearm. PMID:27329380

  11. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

    PubMed

    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  12. Inoculation site leprosy in a tattoo as a paradoxical reaction following tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Branagan, P; Moran, B; Fitzgibbon, M; Reid, V; McMenamin, M; Kane, M; Kelly, F; Barnes, L; McLaughlin, A; Keane, J

    2016-05-01

    We present a patient who developed inoculation site leprosy in a tattoo, which was confirmed by Mycobacterium leprae DNA sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction product from a skin biopsy. His leprosy became manifest as a paradoxical reaction only after 8 weeks of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27084829

  13. Parents May Hold the Keys to Success in Immersion Treatment of Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Katharine A.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Pecora, Kristina M.; Germann, Julie N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the potential impact of parents on the long-term results of an immersion program for the treatment of adolescent obesity. Teenagers participated in a 4- to 8-week therapeutic camp. Those who continued losing weight 8- to 12-months postcamp were identified as "Losers"; those who regained weight were considered "Gainers." Parents…

  14. Beat the Blues: A CBT Based Program for the Treatment of Depressive Symptomatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    The present Beat the Blues Program is based in a cognitive-behavioral model. It has been developed as an 8-module group treatment program for 8-10 participants and is usually run over 8 weeks. Each module focuses on aspects of the model and provides exercises, strategies, and techniques for understanding and dealing with depression and anxiety.…

  15. Hypnotic Taper with or without Self-Help Treatment of Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Genevieve; Guay, Catherine; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a minimal intervention focusing on hypnotic discontinuation and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. Fifty-three adult chronic users of hypnotics were randomly assigned to an 8-week hypnotic taper program, used alone or combined with a self-help CBT. Weekly hypnotic use decreased in both…

  16. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were…

  17. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry; Alexander, Joshua; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Calle, Luz marina

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatment was used as a rapid repair measure to mitigate chloride induced corrosion of reinforced concrete in the field. EN treatment uses an electric field to transport positively charged nanoparticles to the reinforcement through the concrete capillary pores. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were batched with 4.5 wt % salt content (based on cement mass). Three distinct electrokinetic treatments were conducted using high current density (up to 5 A/m2) to form a chloride penetration barrier that was established in 5 days, as opposed to the traditional 6-8 weeks, generally required for electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). These treatments included basic EN treatment, EN with additional calcium treatment, and basic ECE treatment. Field exposures were conducted at the NASA Beachside Corrosion Test Site, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The specimens were subjected to sea water immersion at the test site as a posttreatment exposure. Following a 30-day post-treatment exposure period, the specimens were subjected to indirect tensile testing to evaluate treatment impact. The EN treated specimens exhibited 60% and 30% increases in tensile strength as compared to the untreated controls and ECE treated specimens respectively. The surfaces of the reinforcement bars of the control specimens were 67% covered by corrosion products. In contrast, the EN treated specimens exhibited corrosion coverage of only 4%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a dense concrete microstructure adjacent to the bars of the treated specimens as compared to the control and ECE specimens. Energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of the polished EN treated specimens showed a reduction in chloride content by a factor of 20 adjacent to the bars. This study demonstrated that EN treatment was successful in forming a chloride penetration barrier rapidly. This work also showed that the chloride barrier was effective when samples were exposed to

  18. A high glycerol-containing leave-on scalp care treatment to improve dandruff.

    PubMed

    Harding, Clive R; Matheson, Jane R; Hoptroff, Michael; Jones, David A; Luo, Yanjun; Baines, Fiona L; Luo, Shengjun

    2014-01-01

    Dandruff is a common cosmetic condition associated with flaky scalp skin and pruritus. It is generally treated with regular use of antifungal-based shampoos. Research into factors underlying the characteristic skin lesions has revealed perturbations in epidermal differentiation and a dramatic deterioration in the associated process of stratum corneum (SC) maturation. These observations suggest that directly addressing the quality of the SC could have a scalp benefit. In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of a moisturising leave-on lotion (LOL) containing a high concentration of glycerol (10%) and other known skin benefit agents (saturated fatty acid and sunflower seed oil) to reduce dandruff over an 8-week treatment period with 3 applications per week. Results of expert visual grading and biophysical measurements of SC parameters (transepidermal water loss and hydration) revealed a significant reduction in the dandruffcondition over this period, with significant improvement in both SC water barrier function and hydration. These scalp skin benefits were maintained for up to a week following cessation of the treatment. This study indicates that use of a glycerol-rich substantive LOL, designed to directly improve the quality of the SC barrier can have a significant impact on the dandruff condition.

  19. A high glycerol-containing leave-on scalp care treatment to improve dandruff.

    PubMed

    Harding, Clive R; Matheson, Jane R; Hoptroff, Michael; Jones, David A; Luo, Yanjun; Baines, Fiona L; Luo, Shengjun

    2014-01-01

    Dandruff is a common cosmetic condition associated with flaky scalp skin and pruritus. It is generally treated with regular use of antifungal-based shampoos. Research into factors underlying the characteristic skin lesions has revealed perturbations in epidermal differentiation and a dramatic deterioration in the associated process of stratum corneum (SC) maturation. These observations suggest that directly addressing the quality of the SC could have a scalp benefit. In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of a moisturising leave-on lotion (LOL) containing a high concentration of glycerol (10%) and other known skin benefit agents (saturated fatty acid and sunflower seed oil) to reduce dandruff over an 8-week treatment period with 3 applications per week. Results of expert visual grading and biophysical measurements of SC parameters (transepidermal water loss and hydration) revealed a significant reduction in the dandruffcondition over this period, with significant improvement in both SC water barrier function and hydration. These scalp skin benefits were maintained for up to a week following cessation of the treatment. This study indicates that use of a glycerol-rich substantive LOL, designed to directly improve the quality of the SC barrier can have a significant impact on the dandruff condition. PMID:25134312

  20. Dynamics of nitrifying bacterial communities in the Seine river and estuary as affected by changes in the treatment of Paris wastewater : a comparison of 2001-2003 vs 2012-2013 periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa Grouz, Najla; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mercier, Benjamin; Martinez, Anun

    2014-05-01

    The major branch of the Seine river from the confluence with the Marne river to the entrance of the estuary is deeply affected by the release of wastewater from the huge Paris agglomeration. In the first years of 2000, the largest part of the effluents were still discharged at the Seine-Aval (Achères) treatment plant with only a standard, low residence time, activated sludge treatment, thus releasing a high ammonium load. NH4 concentration as high as 7 mgN/l were frequently observed downstream from Paris agglomeration. Cébron et al. (2003, 2005) and Garnier et al. 2007 described in details how this massive reduced nitrogen concentrations triggered the growth of nitrifying bacteria, already present in the upstream Seine and Marne rivers, but also brought in large amount by the effluents of the wastewater treatment plant themselves. The decrease of ammonium concentration was slow, however, and was only completed 200 km downstream, in the upper estuarine area, where it causes a severe oxygen deficiency. Since 2007, important changes occurred in the treatment of nitrogen in the Parisian wastewater purification plants. In 2007, the Seine-Aval plant treated up to 90% of the ammonium contained in wastewater through nitrification, and 30% of the total supply of nitrates is treated by denitrification. These modifications have of course favorably affected the water quality of the Seine river: ammonium concentrations are reduced by a factor of 5 and the area of oxygen depletion in the upstream estuary is no more observed. However, nitrites, still released in the effluents, are a matter of concern for the water quality of the Seine downstream from Paris. Using measurements of potential microbial activities carried out with the same experimental protocol for the 2000-2003 and 2012-2013 periods, we here examine and model the dynamics of ammonium oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing microbial populations before and after the implementation of nitrification treatment of Paris

  1. [Clinical evaluation of calcium-polycarbophil in the treatment of non-specific diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Gizzi, G; Villani, V; Rubinetto, M P; Cianci, M; La Froscia, A; Barbara, L

    1993-09-01

    We performed a study on 10 patients aged between 26 and 54 males and females, affected by non-specific diarrhea. A single-blind clinical trial has been developed where Calcium-Polycarbophil was administered (2 cps t.i.d.) for a period of 8 weeks, half with placebo and half with drug in cross-over. No drop-out occurred. Number of evaluations, cramps and consistency of stools, have been evaluated before and after treatment. A definite decrease of evacuations per day and of cramps, when present, together with a higher consistency of stools, are reported when Calcium-Polycarbophil is administered, according to the favourable medical judgement. Haematochemical parameters, evaluated before, during and after the treatment didn't show any relevant variation, apart from slight increase (not statistically significant) of calcium both in blood and in urine). No other unwanted event has been detected. Hence, the high therapeutic index of Calcium-Polycarbophil makes it highly desirable in the treatment of diarrhea.

  2. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  3. Atomoxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Milton, Denai R.; Michelson, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine (1) moderating effects of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment response and (2) responses of ODD symptoms to atomoxetine. Method: Children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with ADHD were treated for approximately 8 weeks with placebo or atomoxetine (fixed dosing: 0.5,…

  4. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…

  5. Mexiletine is an effective antimyotonia treatment in myotonic dystrophy type 1(LOE Classification)

    PubMed Central

    Logigian, E.L.; Martens, W.B.; Moxley, R.T.; McDermott, M.P.; Dilek, N.; Wiegner, A.W.; Pearson, A.T.; Barbieri, C.A.; Annis, C.L.; Thornton, C.A.; Moxley, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if mexiletine is safe and effective in reducing myotonia in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Background: Myotonia is an early, prominent symptom in DM1 and contributes to decreased dexterity, gait instability, difficulty with speech/swallowing, and muscle pain. A few preliminary trials have suggested that the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine is useful, symptomatic treatment for nondystrophic myotonic disorders and DM1. Methods: We performed 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials, each involving 20 ambulatory DM1 participants with grip or percussion myotonia on examination. The initial trial compared 150 mg of mexiletine 3 times daily to placebo, and the second trial compared 200 mg of mexiletine 3 times daily to placebo. Treatment periods were 7 weeks in duration separated by a 4- to 8-week washout period. The primary measure of myotonia was time for isometric grip force to relax from 90% to 5% of peak force after a 3-second maximum grip contraction. EKG measurements and adverse events were monitored in both trials. Results: There was a significant reduction in grip relaxation time with both 150 and 200 mg dosages of mexiletine. Treatment with mexiletine at either dosage was not associated with any serious adverse events, or with prolongation of the PR or QTc intervals or of QRS duration. Mild adverse events were observed with both placebo and mexiletine treatment. Conclusions: Mexiletine at dosages of 150 and 200 mg 3 times daily is effective, safe, and well-tolerated over 7 weeks as an antimyotonia treatment in DM1. Classification of Evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that mexiletine at dosages of 150 and 200 mg 3 times daily over 7 weeks is well-tolerated and effective in reducing handgrip relaxation time in DM1. GLOSSARY DM1 = myotonic dystrophy type 1; MVIC = maximal voluntary isometric contraction; PF = peak force; RT = relaxation time; TID = 3 times daily. PMID:20439846

  6. More Power to the Executive? A Preliminary Test of CBT plus Executive Skills Training for Treatment of Late-Life GAD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan

    2008-01-01

    One hypothesized reason for the lower rates of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) response among older as compared to younger anxiety patients is that they are more likely to show age-related deficits in executive skills, which are complex cognitive skills involved in the regulation of negative affect. Following an 8-week baseline period, this pilot…

  7. Effects of Short-Term Free-Weight and Semiblock Periodization Resistance Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    South, Mark A; Layne, Andrew S; Stuart, Charles A; Triplett, N Travis; Ramsey, Michael; Howell, Mary E; Sands, William A; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Hornsby, W Guy; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; Stone, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    South, MA, Layne, AS, Stuart, CA, Triplett, NT, Ramsey, MW, Howell, ME, Sands, WA, Mizuguchi, S, Hornsby, WG, Kavanaugh, AA, and Stone, MH. Effects of short-term free-weight and semiblock periodization resistance training on metabolic syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2682-2696, 2016-The effects of short-term resistance training on performance and health variables associated with prolonged sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome (MS) were investigated. Resistance training may alter a number of health-related, physiological, and performance variables. As a result, resistance training can be used as a valuable tool in ameliorating the effects of a sedentary lifestyle including those associated with MS. Nineteen previously sedentary subjects (10 with MS and 9 with nonmetabolic syndrome [NMS]) underwent 8 weeks of supervised resistance training. Maximum strength was measured using an isometric midthigh pull and resulting force-time curve. Vertical jump height (JH) and power were measured using a force plate. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and type were examined using muscle biopsy and standard analysis techniques. Aerobic power was measured on a cycle ergometer using a ParvoMedics 2400 Metabolic system. Endurance was measured as time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. After training, maximum isometric strength, JH, jump power, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased by approximately 10% (or more) in both the metabolic and NMS groups (both male and female subjects). Over 8 weeks of training, body mass did not change statistically, but percent body fat decreased in subjects with the MS and in women, and lean body mass increased in all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Few alterations were noted in the fiber type. Men had larger CSAs compared those of with women, and there was a fiber-specific trend toward hypertrophy over time. In summary, 8 weeks of semiblock free-weight resistance training improved several performance variables and some cardiovascular factors

  8. Determining an Optimal Testing Strategy for Infants at Risk for Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV-1 During the Late Postnatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth; Chi, Benjamin H.; Read, Jennifer S.; Taha, Taha E.; Sharma, Usha; Hoffman, Irving F.; Pikora, Cheryl; Goldenberg, Robert; Fiscus, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal time for a second HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification assay to detect late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 (first negative test at 4–8 weeks of age) in resource limited settings. Design A longitudinal analysis of data from HPTN 024 Methods Children born to HIV-1 infected mothers enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024 (HPTN 024) were tested for HIV-1 infection at six intervals within the first year of life. Mothers and infants received nevirapine prophylaxis. We estimated the probability of being alive and having a positive test in each interval after 4–8 weeks and at 30 days post-weaning, conditional on having acquired HIV during the late postnatal period. The interval with the highest probability was taken to be the optimal visit interval. Results A total of 1609 infants from HPTN 024 had at least one HIV-1 diagnostic test and were included in the analysis. We found that testing at one month after weaning or 12 months of age (whichever comes first), identified 81% of those infected during the late postnatal period (after 4–8 weeks) through breastfeeding. In total, 93% (95% CI: 89,98) of all infected infants would be detected if tests were performed at these two time points. Conclusions In resource-limited settings, HIV-1 PCR testing at 4–8 weeks followed by a second test at one month after weaning or at one year of age (whichever comes first), led to the identification of the vast majority of HIV-1 infected infants. PMID:18981773

  9. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  10. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  11. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

  12. Open-label treatment with risperidone of 26 psychiatrically-hospitalized children and adolescents with mixed diagnoses and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Buitelaar, J K

    2000-01-01

    Open-label risperidone was administered to 26 subjects (24 boys: 19 with borderline IQ and 5 with mild mental retardation), 10-18 years old, who were hospitalized for treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with aggressive behavior. Risperidone was given in daily doses ranging from 0.5 to 4 mg for periods of 2-12 months. Treatment response was monitored by means of the improvement scale of the CGI and the modified OAS. Extrapyramidal side effects were measured on the ESRS. Fourteen (54%) of 26 subjects had a marked reduction in aggression; 10 subjects had a moderate reduction; two subjects had mild changes; and none worsened. Two subjects had a marked weight gain in the first 8 weeks of treatment. In seven of the 22 children who continued taking risperidone after week 8, tiredness and sedation that necessitated dose reduction emerged between weeks 8 and 16. These results suggest that risperidone may be useful when treating severe aggressive behavior in children and adolescents. Weight gain and sedation can be troublesome side effects.

  13. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  15. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  16. Tinea capitis: diagnostic criteria and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

    2009-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection involving the hair shaft of the scalp. It is commonly referred to as ringworm and occurs primarily in children. Treatment with a systemic anti-fungal rather than topical treatment is required. Currently, two medications, griseofulvin (Grifulvin) and terbinafine (Lamisil Granules), are FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis. Treatment with griseofulvin is usually 6 to 8 weeks, while treatment with terbinafine requires 6 weeks. There are other medications currently not FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis that have similar cure rates and shorter durations of treatment for tinea capitis, and as a result, are being used off-label. This article reviews the research-based literature related to the treatment of tinea capitis with various pharmacologic agents.

  17. Effects of continuous lactation and short dry periods on mammary function and animal health.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Annen-Dawson, E L; Pezeshki, A

    2012-03-01

    The dry period is required to facilitate cell turnover in the bovine mammary gland in order to optimize milk yield in the next lactation. Traditionally, an 8-week dry period has been a standard management practice for dairy cows based on retrospective analyses of milk yields following various dry period lengths. However, as milk production per cow has increased, transitioning cows from the nonlactating state to peak milk yield has grown more problematic. This has prompted new studies on dry period requirements for dairy cows. These studies indicate a clear parity effect on dry period requirement. First parity animals require a 60-day dry period, whereas lactations following later parities demonstrate no negative impact with 30-day dry period or even eliminating the dry period when somatotropin (ST) is also used to maintain milk yields. Shortened dry periods in first parity animals were associated with reduced mammary cell turnover during the dry period and early lactation and increased numbers of senescent cells and reduced functionality of lactating alveolar mammary cells postpartum. Use of ST and increased milking frequency postpartum reduced the impact of shortened dry periods. The majority of new intramammary infections occur during the dry period and persist into the following lactation. There is therefore the possibility of altering mastitis incidence by modifying or eliminating the dry period in older parity animals. As the composition of mammary secretions including immunoglobulins may be reduced when the dry period is reduced or eliminated, there is the possibility that the immune status of cows during the peripartum period is influenced by the length of the dry period. PMID:22436219

  18. Lasting effects of developmental dexamethasone treatment on neural cell number and size, synaptic activity, and cell signaling: critical periods of vulnerability, dose-effect relationships, regional targets, and sex selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Marisa L; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Oliver, Colleen A; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids administered to prevent respiratory distress in preterm infants are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To evaluate the long-term effects on forebrain development, we treated developing rats with dexamethasone (Dex) at 0.05, 0.2, or 0.8 mg/kg, doses below or spanning the range in clinical use, testing the effects of administration during three different stages: gestational days 17-19, postnatal days 1-3, or postnatal days 7-9. In adulthood, we assessed biomarkers of neural cell number and size, cholinergic presynaptic activity, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and synaptic signaling mediated through adenylyl cyclase (AC), in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Even at doses that were devoid of lasting effects on somatic growth, Dex elicited deficits in the number and size of neural cells, with the largest effect in the cerebral cortex. Indices of cholinergic synaptic function (choline acetyltransferase, hemicholinium-3 binding) indicated substantial hyperactivity in males, especially in the hippocampus, effectively eliminating the normal sex differences for these parameters. However, the largest effects were seen for cerebrocortical cell signaling mediated by AC, where Dex treatment markedly elevated overall activity while obtunding the function of G-protein-coupled catecholaminergic or cholinergic receptors that stimulate or inhibit AC; uncoupling was noted despite receptor upregulation. Again, the effects on signaling were larger in males and offset the normal sex differences in AC. These results indicate that, during critical developmental periods, Dex administration evokes lasting alterations in neural cell numbers and synaptic function in forebrain regions, even at doses below those used in preterm infants.

  19. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  20. Prophylactic treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus: effects on epileptogenesis, neuronal damage, and behavioral changes in a kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Petkova, Zlatina; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Melatonin is a potent antioxidant which showed anticonvulsant activities both in experimental and clinical studies. In the present study, we examined the effect of melatonin treatment (10mg/kg/day, diluted in drinking water, 8 weeks) during epileptogenesis on the consequences of a kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Melatonin increased the latency in the appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) and decreased their frequency only during the treatment period. The behavioral alterations associated with hyperactivity, depression-like behavior during the light phase, and deficits in hippocampus-dependent working memory were positively affected by melatonin treatment in rats with epilepsy. Melatonin reduced the neuronal damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and recovered the decrease of hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) level in rats with epilepsy. Taken together, long-term melatonin treatment after SE was unable to suppress the development of epileptogenesis. However, it showed a potential in reducing some of the deleterious alterations that develop during the chronic epileptic state in a diurnal phase-dependent mode. PMID:23435277

  1. Prophylactic treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus: effects on epileptogenesis, neuronal damage, and behavioral changes in a kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Petkova, Zlatina; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Melatonin is a potent antioxidant which showed anticonvulsant activities both in experimental and clinical studies. In the present study, we examined the effect of melatonin treatment (10mg/kg/day, diluted in drinking water, 8 weeks) during epileptogenesis on the consequences of a kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Melatonin increased the latency in the appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) and decreased their frequency only during the treatment period. The behavioral alterations associated with hyperactivity, depression-like behavior during the light phase, and deficits in hippocampus-dependent working memory were positively affected by melatonin treatment in rats with epilepsy. Melatonin reduced the neuronal damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and recovered the decrease of hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) level in rats with epilepsy. Taken together, long-term melatonin treatment after SE was unable to suppress the development of epileptogenesis. However, it showed a potential in reducing some of the deleterious alterations that develop during the chronic epileptic state in a diurnal phase-dependent mode.

  2. Postural and Balance Disorders in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Prospective Open-Label Feasibility Study with Two Months of Action Observation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cinone, Nicoletta; Stuppiello, Lucia Anna; Valeno, Giovanni; De Sanctis, Jula Laura; Fortunato, Francesca; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy) for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients. PMID:26798551

  3. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... recognized medical and dental organizations involved in child health care; (b) Specifies screening services applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age...

  4. Sustained Release Myofascial Release as Treatment for a Patient with Complications of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Collagenous Colitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cubick, Erin E.; Quezada, Vanessa Y.; Schumer, Ariel D.; Davis, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Myofascial release (MFR) is a manual therapeutic technique used to release fascial restrictions, which may cause neuromusculoskeletal and systemic pathology. Purpose: This case report describes the use of sustained release MFR techniques in a patient with a primary diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a secondary diagnosis of collagenous colitis. Changes in pain, cervical range of motion, fatigue, and gastrointestinal tract function, as well as the impact of RA on daily activities, were assessed. Methods: A 54-year-old white woman presented with signs and symptoms attributed to RA and collagenous colitis. Pre and post measurements were taken with each treatment and during the interim between the initial and final treatment series. The patient recorded changes in pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal tract function, and quality of life. Cervical range of motion was assessed. Six sustained release MFR treatment sessions were provided over a 2-week period. Following an 8-week interim, two more treatments were performed. Results: The patient showed improvements in pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal tract function, cervical range of motion, and quality of life following the initial treatment series of six sessions. The patient maintained positive gains for 5 weeks following the final treatment, after which her symptoms returned to near baseline measurements. Following two more treatments, positive gains were achieved once again. Conclusions: In a patient with RA and collagenous colitis, the application of sustained release MFR techniques in addition to standard medical treatment may provide short-term and long-term improvements in comorbid symptoms and overall quality of life. PMID:22016756

  5. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  6. Saturn's variable radio period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    Temporal modulations in radio emissions are often used to determine the rotation rate of the emitting body. The rotation period (presumably) of Jupiter's interior was established in this way [Burke et al., 1962] and has recently been refined by Higgins et al. [1997]. Rotation periods for the remainder of the outer planet gas giants were determined from Voyager planetary radio astronomy observations. Similar techniques have been applied to astrophysical objects, including pulsars, for which the radio period is assumed to be the rotation period of the neutron star. In 2001, however, this simple relation between the radio period and rotation period became suspect, at least for the case of Saturn. Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] reported that the radio period of Saturn had changed by as much as 1% from that determined by Voyager and, further, exhibited variations on time scales of years. More recently, Cassini observations indicate that the Saturn kilometric radiation is modulated with a period longer than that observed by Voyager and that this period is variable on a time scale of a year or less. The recent Higgins et al. result suggests that Jupiter's period is steady, within measurement accuracy. There are no additional measurements from Uranus or Neptune with which to look for time variations in their radio periods. For conservation of energy and angular momentum reasons, true variations of the rotation period of Saturn's deep interior are not believed to be a viable explanation for the variation in radio period, hence, it would appear that there is some disconnection of the radio period from the rotation period in the case of Saturn. One possible contributing factor may be that since Saturn's magnetic field is very accurately aligned with its rotational axis, there is no first-order beaming effect caused by the wobbling of the magnetic field, contrary to the situation at the other magnetized planets. Another explanation suggested by Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] and

  7. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish.

  8. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  9. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  10. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  11. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  12. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  13. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  14. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  15. Systemic Treatment with Strontium Ranelate Does Not Influence the Healing of Femoral Mid-shaft Defects in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie; Sørensen, Thomas Givskov; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-02-01

    Strontium ranelate (SrR) has both bone anabolic and anti-resorption properties and has therefore the potential to increase the healing of bone defects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of systemic treatment with SrR during the healing of cortical bone defects in rats. In addition, the vertebral bodies were examined in order to elucidate the effect of short-term treatment with SrR on intact trabecular bone. Sixty 16-week-old female Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. A cylindrical defect was drilled through the anterior cortex of the mid-femoral diaphysis in both hind limbs. Two of the groups were treated with SrR (900 mg/kg b.w.) mixed into the food and two groups served as controls. The animals were euthanized after either 3 or 8 weeks of treatment. Healing of the defects was analyzed with µCT, mechanical testing, and stereology. Treatment with SrR resulted in increased thickness of the defects after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas no effect on bone volume fraction (BV/TV), mechanical properties (maximum strength and maximum stiffness), periosteal callus volume, or osteoclast-covered bone surfaces (Oc.S/BS) after either 3 or 8 weeks of treatment was found. Furthermore, SrR increased the bone material density (ρ) of the vertebral bodies, and tended to increase BV/TV after 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.087). The mechanical properties of the vertebral bodies were not influenced by SrR treatment. In conclusion, 3 weeks of treatment with SrR increased the thickness of the healing mid-femoral cortical bone defects in rats, but did not influence BV/TV, mechanical properties, periosteal callus volume, or Oc.S/BS after either 3 or 8 weeks. Furthermore, SrR had no effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the vertebral bodies. PMID:26543033

  16. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  17. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  18. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  20. Can mobile phone messages to drug sellers improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea?--A randomized controlled trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Willa; Woodman, Benjamin; Chatterji, Minki

    2015-03-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc are the recommended treatment in developing countries for the management of uncomplicated diarrhoea in children under five (World Health Organization and UNICEF 2004). However, drug sellers often recommend costly and unnecessary treatments instead. This article reports findings from an experiment to encourage licensed chemical sellers (LCS) in Ghana to recommend ORS and zinc for the management of childhood diarrhoea. The intervention consisted of mobile phone text messages (Short Message Service or SMS) sent to a randomly assigned group of LCS who had been trained on the diarrhoea management protocols recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The SMS campaign comprised informational messages and interactive quizzes sent over an 8-week period. The study measured the impact of the SMS messages on both reported and actual practices. Analysis of data from both face-to-face interviews and mystery client visits shows that the SMS intervention improved providers' self-reported practices but not their actual practices. The study also finds that actual practices deviate substantially from reported practices. PMID:25759456

  1. Infliximab, methotrexate and their combination for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Lemos, Lívia Lovato Pires de; Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Araújo, Vânia de Eloísa; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of infliximab + methotrexate (IFX + MTX) regimens versus MTX alone or in combination with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). We searched through major databases, the grey literature and did a manual search. Two independent reviewers conducted the selection, data extraction and analysis of the quality of the studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager(®) 5.1 software. Nine trials were included. The mean modified Jadad score was 4.4, but only one study showed low risk of bias. IFX + MTX regimen presented better responses in clinical outcomes of ACR and DAS28 by up to 54 weeks, and of radiographic progression by up to 104 weeks. Withdrawals due to lack of efficacy was lower in the IFX + MTX group. No significant difference in adverse events was observed. The IFX + MTX combination is more effective than treatment with MTX alone or DMARDs combination. This regimen presented good tolerability in patients previously treated with DMARDs, not treated with MTX or with insufficient responses to MTX. The efficacy of IFX + MTX is noted primarily during initial periods of treatment. High doses of IFX were as effective as the standard dose, but with possible higher risk of serious infections. Therefore, we advise clinicians to use the standard dose of IFX 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks.

  2. Can mobile phone messages to drug sellers improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea?--A randomized controlled trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Willa; Woodman, Benjamin; Chatterji, Minki

    2015-03-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc are the recommended treatment in developing countries for the management of uncomplicated diarrhoea in children under five (World Health Organization and UNICEF 2004). However, drug sellers often recommend costly and unnecessary treatments instead. This article reports findings from an experiment to encourage licensed chemical sellers (LCS) in Ghana to recommend ORS and zinc for the management of childhood diarrhoea. The intervention consisted of mobile phone text messages (Short Message Service or SMS) sent to a randomly assigned group of LCS who had been trained on the diarrhoea management protocols recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The SMS campaign comprised informational messages and interactive quizzes sent over an 8-week period. The study measured the impact of the SMS messages on both reported and actual practices. Analysis of data from both face-to-face interviews and mystery client visits shows that the SMS intervention improved providers' self-reported practices but not their actual practices. The study also finds that actual practices deviate substantially from reported practices.

  3. Nitrification processes in scrubbing liquid of an exhaust air treatment system of a large-scale pig housing facility.

    PubMed

    Haneke, J; Siemers, V; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2011-01-01

    The use of multi-staged exhaust air treatment systems is an effective method of substantially reducing the emission of ammonia, dust particles and odorous substances. Wet filter walls are able to absorb large amounts of ammonia when scrubbing fluid containing sulphuric acid is used. In addition, due to their large surface areas and the permanent supply of oxygen and nutrients, wet filter walls provide a basis for the development of biofilms containing nitrogen-converting bacteria. Cyclic nitrification processes could be observed in a two-stage exhaust air treatment system, which had been converted to function as a regulated process control system (elutriation at κ = 20 mS cm(-1); pH 6.5-6.8). With this system, the sulphuric acid requirement was periodically reduced every 6-8 weeks to less than 1 kg H(2)SO(4) per fattening place and year. There was an increased formation of nitrous oxide gas during nitrification after the wet filter stage. Electron-microscopic images of the biofilm growing on the wet filter wall showed aggregates of possible ammonium-oxidising and nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  4. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Duarte, J. J.; Lozano-Márquez, H.; Grajales-Lombana, H. A.; Manrique-Perdomo, C.; Martínez-Bello, D. A.; Saegerman, C.; Raes, M.; Kirschvink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC) and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1) was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n = 15) or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n = 14). 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C). Suckling lambs (n = 58) remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1) and 96.9% (T2). Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER) was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8%) and T2 (96.7%) ewes (p < 0.05). All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p < 0.05). Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea) showed time- and treatment-related differences (p < 0.05). Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER. PMID:26078913

  5. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  6. Use of client-specific outcome measures to assess treatment effects in geriatric, arthritic dogs: controlled clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel A; Strobel, Janna D

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire method was designed for dog owners to monitor the orthopedic disabilities of their pets for evaluation of a nutraceutical with joint health claims. Fifty large-breed dogs, 7 to 12 years of age, presenting with signs of osteoarthritis, were randomly allocated to placebo and active treatment groups. Degree of disability was assessed by physical examination, a standard questionnaire on daily activities, and a case-specific questionnaire that monitored specific impairments of each dog. The test product was a special milk protein concentrate (SMPC) from hyperimmunized cows, previously shown to express antiinflammatory and antiarthritic activity in humans. After a 1-week run-in period of dosing with placebo, each dog was randomly assigned to a treatment and given gelatin capsules containing either SMPC or a placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. Overall improvement was noted in 68% and 35% of the SMPC and placebo groups, respectively. Significant (P <.05) improvement in mean standardized and patient-specific questionnaire scores and in owner global assessments was detected in the SMPC group but not in the placebo group. Compared with the placebo group, the treatment response was significantly better in the SMPC group with regard to case-specific scores (P lt;.001) and owner global assessments (P =.004). The product was well tolerated and serum chemistry findings remained within normal limits. PMID:15136979

  7. Use of client-specific outcome measures to assess treatment effects in geriatric, arthritic dogs: controlled clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel A; Strobel, Janna D

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire method was designed for dog owners to monitor the orthopedic disabilities of their pets for evaluation of a nutraceutical with joint health claims. Fifty large-breed dogs, 7 to 12 years of age, presenting with signs of osteoarthritis, were randomly allocated to placebo and active treatment groups. Degree of disability was assessed by physical examination, a standard questionnaire on daily activities, and a case-specific questionnaire that monitored specific impairments of each dog. The test product was a special milk protein concentrate (SMPC) from hyperimmunized cows, previously shown to express antiinflammatory and antiarthritic activity in humans. After a 1-week run-in period of dosing with placebo, each dog was randomly assigned to a treatment and given gelatin capsules containing either SMPC or a placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. Overall improvement was noted in 68% and 35% of the SMPC and placebo groups, respectively. Significant (P <.05) improvement in mean standardized and patient- specific questionnaire scores and in owner global assessments was detected in the SMPC group but not in the placebo group. Compared with the placebo group, the treatment response was significantly better in the SMPC group with regard to case-specific scores (P <.001) and owner global assessments (P =.004). The product was well tolerated and serum chemistry findings remained within normal limits. PMID:12756636

  8. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  9. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  10. Comparison of clinical efficacies of sodium ascorbyl phosphate, retinol and their combination in acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruamrak, C; Lourith, N; Natakankitkul, S

    2009-02-01

    Acne vulgaris impairs the appearance of an individual and causes psychological irritation. Inflammatory acne lesion is caused by multifactor incorporates in each step of acne pathogenesis. In an attempt to archive inflammatory lesion treatment with the promise of prevention of acne vulgaris, randomized and double-blind studies on the comparison of the efficacies of topical formulations containing 5% sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) and 0.2% retinol, separately as well as in combination application, were conducted. The resulting data showed that SAP reduced the inflammatory lesion by 20.14% and 48.82% within 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Application of the formulation containing retinol slightly improved the treatment efficacy as the lesion reduced by 21.79% and 49.50% after 4 and 8 weeks respectively. The combination treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory lesion by 29.28% after 4 weeks and 63.10% after 8 weeks of application. The most effective treatment was by using the combination of 5% SAP and 0.2% retinol, which incorporated the synergistic effects on lipid peroxidation and sebaceous gland function in addition to the enhancement of SAP permeability by the desquamation of stratum corneum influenced by retinol, keratin plug removal and anti-inflammatory effect of retinol. This study promises for the development of cosmetic products to overcome aesthetic and psychological problems caused by acne vulgaris. PMID:19134126

  11. Aripiprazole: in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P

    2011-06-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric patients aged 6-17 years. In two, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in pediatric patients aged 6-17 years with irritability associated with autistic disorder, 8 weeks of treatment with aripiprazole 2-15 mg/day, compared with placebo, resulted in significant improvements in the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale score at endpoint (primary endpoint), and the mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated in this patient population in the two 8-week studies and a 52-week study, with most adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Aripiprazole was associated with weight gain in both the short- and long-term studies; data from the long-term study indicated that the increase in bodyweight reached a plateau at 3-6 months.

  12. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  13. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  14. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  15. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  16. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  17. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  18. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  19. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  20. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous periodic hypothermia is a rare syndrome of recurrent, centrally mediated hypothermia without an identifiable systemic cause or brain lesion. Most patients defend a temporarily lowered temperature "set point" during episodes of hypothermia, despite manifesting many well-known systemic consequences of core temperature hypothermia. No case of death directly attributable to an episode of spontaneous periodic hypothermia has been reported, although many of the serious systemic effects of hypothermia have been documented in these cases, so it is not unlikely that death may occur. The syndrome's cause, and that of Shapiro syndrome, remains unknown. Pharmacologic trials to date have been only modestly successful. Anticonvulsant agents, clonidine, and cyproheptadine appear the most likely to succeed, with cyproheptadine being a reasonable first choice. Given that the term "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" describes a syndrome, and not a pathophysiologic mechanism, it is likely to encompass a common eventuality, arrived at via several different pathways. One can postulate mechanisms such as structural abnormalities, trauma, infection, irritation, and degeneration involving strategic locations which create a focus for epileptic or other periodic dysfunction whose scope involves the centers for thermoregulation. The existence of 2 distinct, oppositional thermoregulatory centers would allow for speculation of similar mechanisms accounting for cases of both periodic hypo- and hyperthermia (61). Postmortem data regarding the hypothalamic and surrounding areas from future cases of Shapiro syndrome and spontaneous periodic hypothermia would be of great interest. Further, more sensitive in vivo testing methods are clearly needed. The role of PET or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) performed acutely during an episode remains to be characterized (64, 103, 105). The term

  1. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... need surgery. In some cases, a mix of treatments works best. What medications are used to treat dysmenorrhea? Certain pain relievers, called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), target prostaglandins. ...

  2. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  3. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  4. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  5. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  6. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  7. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  8. Urinary kallidinogenase for the treatment of cerebral arterial stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liandong; Zhao, Ying; Wan, Qi; Zhang, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Aim Urinary kallidinogenase (UK) has shown promise in improving cerebral perfusion. This study aimed to examine how UK affects cognitive status and serum levels of amyloid betas (Aβs) 1-40 and 1-42 in patients with cerebral arterial stenosis. Methods Ninety patients with cerebral arterial stenosis were enrolled, of whom 45 patients received UK + conventional treatment (UK group), and 45 patients received conventional treatment alone as control group. Cognitive status and Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 serum levels were determined before treatment and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after treatment. Results At 4 weeks after treatment, cognitive status in patients treated with UK clearly improved accompanied by Aβ1-40 serum levels decreasing while there was no change of Aβ1-42. Cognitive status in patients receiving UK continued to improve, Aβ1-40 serum levels declined further as well as Aβ1-42 serum levels began to decrease dramatically at 8 weeks after treatment. Conclusion UK could improve cognitive status and decrease both Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 serum levels to prevent ischemic cerebral injury, which represents a good option for patients with cerebral arterial stenosis. PMID:26508834

  9. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21–89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. Conclusion: In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the

  10. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and socio-economic status: a prospective study in Duque de Caxias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belo, M T C T; Luiz, R R; Teixeira, E G; Hanson, C; Trajman, A

    2011-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate tuberculosis treatment outcomes according to socio-economic status (SES) using different classification criteria. Patients aged ≥18 years under treatment for ≤8 weeks were interviewed. Outcomes were classified as successful (cure/completed) or unsuccessful (default/failure/death). The overall treatment default ratio was 20.9% and the unsuccessful outcome rate was 24.1%. Unsuccessful treatment was associated with SES according to any criteria used, except for the definition of poverty line. Poverty seems to be hampering the achievement of the World Health Organization targeted 90% cure rate in developing settings.

  11. Preliminary results of fast neutron treatments in carcinoma of the pancreas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahbauer, R.; Koh, K. Y.; Rodriguez-Antunez, A.; Jelden, G. L.; Turco, R. F.; Horton, J.; Bukowski, R.; Reimer, R.; Blue, J.; Roberts, W.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 30 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas including some patients with very advanced disease, were treated with the so-called mixed beam modality employing photon treatments three times per week and neutron treatments twice a week. Two hundred Rads or equivalent Rads (RBE 3.3) were given in daily fractions aiming at a total dose of 6000 Rads in 6 to 8 weeks. The treatments were well tolerated and significant palliation was achieved in 26 to 30 cases. Twelve months survival was 33 percent with a median survival of 7 months or 210 days. Treatment techniques and localization procedures are discussed.

  12. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  13. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  14. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  15. Trajectories of change during a randomized controlled trial of internet-delivered psychological treatment for adolescent chronic pain: how does change in pain and function relate?

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Zhou, Chuan; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Logan, Deirdre; Tai, Gabrielle

    2015-04-01

    Although pain and function improve at immediate posttreatment for youth receiving cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain, limited data are available to understand changes that youth make during psychological treatment. We sought to characterize distinct trajectory patterns of change in pain and function to understand the temporal association of these changes during internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Weekly repeated assessments of pain and function were conducted during 8 weeks of treatment among 135 adolescents, aged 11 to 17 years, with chronic pain who were randomized to the cognitive behavioral intervention arm of an ongoing trial of internet-delivered CBT (Web-based management of adolescent pain; Web-MAP2). Using random-effects growth mixture models, we characterized pain and functional disability trajectories finding distinct trajectory groups indicating patterns of both linear and quadratic effects. Trajectories of change showed that some patients' pain and functional disability were improving, others worsened or changed minimally. Paired t tests compared the within-subject relative change rate in pain and function demonstrating similar change range for pain and function during the treatment period. There was no support for improvements in either pain or function to precede changes in the other domain. Findings may be useful in informing future studies of psychosocial treatments for pediatric chronic pain to consider how to target treatment strategies to distinct patient response profiles. This may lead to the development of intervention strategies that can both more effectively target children's pain and function during treatment and lead to sustained changes after treatment.

  16. Modified Fenton oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils and the potential of bioremediation as post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Venny; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2012-03-01

    This work focuses on the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil using modified Fenton (MF) treatment coupled with a novel chelating agent (CA), a more effective technique among currently available technologies. The performance of MF treatment to promote PAH oxidation in artificially contaminated soil was investigated in a packed column with a hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) delivery system simulating in-situ soil flushing which is more representative of field conditions. The effectiveness of process parameters H(2)O(2)/soil, Fe(3+)/soil, CA/soil weight ratios and reaction time were studied using a 2(4) three level factorial design experiments. An optimised operating condition of the MF treatment was observed at H(2)O(2)/soil 0.05, Fe(3+)/soil 0.025, CA/soil 0.04 and 3h reaction time with 79.42% and 68.08% PAH removals attainable for the upper and lower parts of the soil column respectively. The effects of natural attenuation and biostimulation process as post-treatment in the remediation of the PAH-contaminated soil were also studied. In all cases, 3-aromatic ring PAH (phenanthrene) was more readily degraded than 4-aromatic ring PAH (fluoranthene) regardless of the bioremediation approach. The results revealed that both natural attenuation and biostimulation could offer remarkable enhancement of up to 6.34% and 9.38% in PAH removals respectively after 8 weeks of incubation period. Overall, the results demonstrated that combined inorganic CA-enhanced MF treatment and bioremediation serves as a suitable strategy to enhance soil quality particularly to remediate soils heavily contaminated with mixtures of PAHs.

  17. SU-E-J-17: Intra-Fractional Prostate Movement Correction During Treatment Delivery Period for Prostate Cancer Using the Intra-Fractional Orthogonal KV-MV Image Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Azawi, S; Cho-Lim, J; Wei, R; Williams, R; Frank, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the intra-fractional prostate movement range during the beam delivery and implement new IGRT method to correct the prostate movement during the hypofractionated prostate treatment delivery. Methods: To evaluate the prostate internal motion range during the beam delivery, 11 conventional treatments were utilized. Two-arc RapidArc plans were used for the treatment delivery. Orthogonal KV imaging is performed in the middle of the treatment to correct intra-fractional prostate movement. However, it takes gantry-mounted on-board imaging system relative long time to finish the orthogonal KV imaging because of gantry rotation. To avoid gantry movement and accelerate the IGRT processing time, orthogonal KV-MV image pair is tested using the OBI daily QA Cube phantom. Results: The average prostate movement between two orthogonal KV image pairs was 0.38cm (0.20cm ∼ 0.85cm). And the interval time between them was 6.71 min (4.64min ∼ 9.22 min). 2-arc beam delivery time is within 3 minutes for conventional RapidArc treatment delivery. Hypofractionated treatment or SBRT need 4 partial arc and possible non-coplanar technology, which need much longer beam delivery time. Therefore prostate movement might be larger. New orthogonal KV-MV image pair is a new method to correct the prostate movement in the middle of the beam delivery if real time tracking method is not available. Orthogonal KV-MV image pair doesn’t need gantry rotation. Images were acquired quickly which minimized possible new prostate movement. Therefore orthogonal KV-MV image pair is feasible for IGRT. Conclusion: Hypofractionated prostate treatment with less PTV margin always needs longer beam delivery time. Therefore prostate movement correction during the treatment delivery is critical. Orthogonal KV-MV imaging pair is efficient and accurate to correct the prostate movement during treatment beam delivery. Due to limited fraction number and high dose per fraction, the MV imaging dose is

  18. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  19. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  20. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  1. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  2. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  3. Modification of Osteoarthritis in the Guinea Pig with Pulsed Low-Intensity Ultrasound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gurkan, Ilksen; Ranganathan, Archana; Yang, Xu; Horton, Walter E.; Todman, Martin; Huckle, James; Pleshko, Nancy; Spencer, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Hartley guinea pig develops articular cartilage degeneration similar to that seen in idiopathic human osteoarthritis. We investigated whether the application of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (PLIUS) to the Hartley guinea pig joint would prevent or attenuate the progression of this degenerative process. Methods Treatment of male Hartley guinea pigs was initiated at the onset of degeneration (8 weeks of age) to assess the ability of PLIUS to prevent osteoarthritis, or at a later age (12 months) to assess the degree to which PLIUS acted to attenuate the progression of established disease. PLIUS (30 mW/cm2) was applied to stifle joints for 20 minutes per day over periods ranging from three to ten months, with contralateral limbs serving as controls. Joint cartilage histology was graded according to a modified Mankin scale to evaluate treatment effect. Immunohistochemical staining for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), MMP-3, MMP-13, and TGF-β1 was performed on the cartilage to evaluate patterns of expression of these proteins. Results PLIUS did not fully prevent cartilage degeneration in the prevention groups, but diminished the severity of the disease, with the treated joints showing markedly decreased surface irregularities and a much smaller degree of loss of matrix staining as compared to controls. PLIUS also attenuated disease progression in the groups with established disease, although to a somewhat lesser extent as compared to the prevention groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a markedly decreased degree of TGF-β1 production in the PLIUS-treated joints. This indicates less active endogenous repair, consistent with the marked reduction in cartilage degradation. Conclusions PLIUS exhibits the ability to attenuate the progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model of idiopathic human OA. The effect was greater in the treatment of early, rather than established, degeneration. PMID:20175971

  4. Treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus attenuates seizure activity and neuronal damage but does not prevent the disturbance in diurnal rhythms and behavioral alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats in kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Zlatina; Tchekalarova, Jana; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Popov, Deyan; Markova, Petya; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin is involved in the control of circadian and seasonal rhythmicity, possesses potent antioxidant activity, and exerts a neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effect. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are widely accepted as an experimental model of essential hypertension with hyperactivity, deficient sustained attention, and alterations in circadian autonomic profiles. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether melatonin treatment during epileptogenesis can prevent the deleterious consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in SHRs in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe of epilepsy (TLE). Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were EEG- and video-recorded during and after the treatment protocol. Melatonin (10mg/kg diluted in drinking water, 8weeks) increased the seizure-latent period, decreased the frequency of SRSs, and attenuated the circadian rhythm of seizure activity in SHRs. However, melatonin was unable to affect the disturbed diurnal rhythms and behavioral changes associated with epilepsy, including the decreased anxiety level, depression, and impaired spatial memory. Melatonin reduced neuronal damage specifically in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and decreased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels both in control and epileptic SHRs. Although long-term melatonin treatment after SE shows a potential to attenuate seizure activity and neuronal loss, it is unable to restore epilepsy-associated behavioral abnormalities in SHRs. PMID:24440891

  5. Treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus attenuates seizure activity and neuronal damage but does not prevent the disturbance in diurnal rhythms and behavioral alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats in kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Zlatina; Tchekalarova, Jana; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Popov, Deyan; Markova, Petya; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin is involved in the control of circadian and seasonal rhythmicity, possesses potent antioxidant activity, and exerts a neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effect. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are widely accepted as an experimental model of essential hypertension with hyperactivity, deficient sustained attention, and alterations in circadian autonomic profiles. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether melatonin treatment during epileptogenesis can prevent the deleterious consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in SHRs in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe of epilepsy (TLE). Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were EEG- and video-recorded during and after the treatment protocol. Melatonin (10mg/kg diluted in drinking water, 8weeks) increased the seizure-latent period, decreased the frequency of SRSs, and attenuated the circadian rhythm of seizure activity in SHRs. However, melatonin was unable to affect the disturbed diurnal rhythms and behavioral changes associated with epilepsy, including the decreased anxiety level, depression, and impaired spatial memory. Melatonin reduced neuronal damage specifically in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and decreased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels both in control and epileptic SHRs. Although long-term melatonin treatment after SE shows a potential to attenuate seizure activity and neuronal loss, it is unable to restore epilepsy-associated behavioral abnormalities in SHRs.

  6. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 412.426 Section 412.426 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... inpatient operating costs and capital costs in accordance with part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment...

  7. Patterns of faecal nematode egg shedding after treatment of sheep with a long-acting formulation of moxidectin.

    PubMed

    Crilly, James Patrick; Jennings, Amy; Sargison, Neil

    2015-09-15

    Much of the current information on the effects of long-acting anthelmintics on nematode populations derives either from research farms or mathematical models. A survey was performed with the aim of establishing how moxidectin is currently being used on sheep farms in the south-east of Scotland. A study was undertaken on a subsection of the surveyed farms to examine the effects of long-acting moxidectin treatments in both spring and autumn on faecal nematode egg output. The survey showed that whole flock treatments of injectable 2% moxidectin were used to control sheep scab on 21% of farms. Injectable 2% moxidectin and oral moxidectin were used to control the periparturient rise in faecal nematode egg shedding by ewes on 13% and 55% of farms respectively. The effects of injectable 2% moxidectin treatment on faecal nematode egg shedding post-treatment in both the autumn and spring were investigated by faecal nematode egg counts at the time of treatment and at 2-weekly interval thereafter on eight and six farms in the autumn and spring, respectively. Faecal egg shedding recommenced at 8 weeks (autumn) and 4 weeks (spring) post-treatment. Counts increased to a peak and then declined. The mean (95% confidence interval) peak counts post-treatment were 2.8 (0.6, 5.1), 3.6 (1.7, 5.5) and 53.5 (25.1, 82.0) eggs per gram (EPG) for autumn-treated ewes, autumn-treated lambs and spring-treated ewes respectively. The spring treated sheep showed a statistically significantly earlier return to faecal egg shedding (p=0.0125, p=0.0342) compared to both other groups, statistically significantly higher peak in egg counts than the autumn treated sheep (p<0.001) and a statistically significantly longer period of positive egg counts (p=0.0148). There was no statistically significant difference in the timing of the peak FECs between autumn and spring (p=0.211). The FECs of all groups of sheep treated with an injectable long-acting formulation of moxidectin became positive earlier than

  8. [Clinical study for the evaluation of the tolerability of O-(beta-hydroxy-ethyl)-rutoside in the treatment of hemorrhoids during the 3d trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Benzi, G; Vanzulli, A; Pozzi, E; Acerboni, S

    1992-11-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is particularly frequent in the last trimester of pregnancy and immediately after birth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in patients affected by this pathology. Forty-two women with hemorrhoid varices of varying severity which had appeared during the last trimester of pregnancy or immediately post-partum were treated by administering 3 g/day of the substance in question for 14 consecutive days. At the start and end of treatment a series of clinical and objective parameters were measured and at the end of treatment efficacy and tolerability were assessed. The latter was found to be excellent; in fact, it was not necessary to suspend treatment in any of the subjects treated. Clinical efficacy, assessed by the researcher, was judged to be positive in 95% of cases treated. Clinical improvements in the parameters examined were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results obtained confirm the value of oral therapy using O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in pregnant or puerperal patients since the preparation was found to be efficacious and easily managed, above all significantly reducing pain, subjectively the most urgent symptom to be treated.

  9. A critical period of vulnerability to adolescent stress: epigenetic mediators in mesocortical dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Minae; Lee, Richard S; Tanaka, Teppei; Okada, Kinya; Kano, Shin-Ichi; Sawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The molecular basis of vulnerability to stress during the adolescent period is largely unknown. To identify potential molecular mediators that may play a role in stress-induced behavioral deficits, we imposed social isolation on a genetically vulnerable mouse model. We report that 3-week (5-8 weeks of age) adolescent stress in combination with disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (Disc1) genetic risk elicits alterations in DNA methylation of a specific set of genes, tyrosine hydroxylase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and FK506 binding protein 5. The epigenetic changes in the mesocortical dopaminergic neurons were prevented when animals were treated with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486 during social isolation, which implicates the role for glucocorticoid signaling in this pathological event. We define the critical period of GR intervention as the first 1-week period during the stress regimen, suggesting that this particular week in adolescence may be a specific period of maturation and function of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons and their sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Our study may also imply the clinical significance of early detection and prophylactic intervention against conditions associated with adolescent social stress in individuals with genetic risk. PMID:26908623

  10. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  11. The Safety and Tolerability Profile of Vilazodone, A Novel Antidepressant for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liebowitz, Michael; Croft, Harry A.; Kajdasz, Daniel K.; Whalen, Heidi; Gallipoli, Susan; Athanasiou, Maria; Reed, Carol R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This report summarizes the safety and tolerability of vilazodone 40 mg/day during short- and long-term treatment of adult MDD. Methods Pooled data from two 8-week, double-blind studies of vilazodone (n = 436) vs placebo (n = 433) and data from one 52-week, open-label study (n = 616, vilazodone only) were analyzed. Patients aged 18-70 with DSM-IV-TR-defined MDD received vilazodone or placebo (8-week studies only) once daily, with food, titrated to 40 mg/day over 2 weeks. Safety and tolerability assessments included adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and weight. Results The most common AEs in all studies were diarrhea, nausea, and headache. Vilazodone-associated AEs in the two 8-week studies, defined as an incidence rate of ≥5% in the vilazodone group and at least twice that for placebo, were diarrhea (28.0% vs 9.2%), nausea (23.4% vs 5.1%), and insomnia (6.0% vs 2.1%), with the majority reported as mild to moderate and <5% of those patients requiring concomitant (directed) treatment for these conditions. Discontinuation rates due to AEs were 7.1% (vilazodone) and 3.2% (placebo) in the 8-week studies and 20.7% in the 52-week study. Vilazodone had no clinically significant effects on vital signs, laboratory tests, or electrocardiograms. Conclusion Vilazodone 40 mg/day was well tolerated during short- and long-term MDD treatment in these trials. Safety profiles associated with 8- and 52-week exposure were consistent.

  12. Pilot Study of Treatment for Major Depression Among Women Prisoners with Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2012-01-01

    This study, the largest randomized controlled trial of treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in an incarcerated population to date, wave-randomized 38 incarcerated women (6 waves) in prison substance use treatment with MDD to group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) or to an attention-matched control. Intent-to-treat analyses found that IPT participants had significantly lower depressive symptoms at the end of 8 weeks of in-prison treatment than did control participants. Control participants improved later, after prison release. IPT's rapid effect on MDD within prison may reduce serious in-prison consequences of MDD. PMID:22694906

  13. Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness, acceptance, and compassion. They reported less emotional distress and improved abilities to manage stress. This treatment may help the 40% of women who do not improve with current therapies and might be useful to prevent symptoms in younger women.

  14. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  15. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  16. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study.

  17. A comparative study of the clinical efficacy of nedocromil sodium and placebo. How does cromolyn sodium compare as an active control treatment?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H J; Blumenthal, M; Brady, R; Braun, S; Lockey, R; Myers, D; Mansfield, L; Mullarkey, M; Owens, G; Ratner, P; Repsher, L; van As, A

    1996-04-01

    Nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are the only two currently available nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of asthma. Clinical differences between the two agents remain under continuous investigation with reports differentiating the two on the basis of atopy of the patient and reversibility of bronchoconstriction. This study investigated the efficacy of nedocromil sodium (4 mg, qid) for treatment of mild-to-moderate asthma in comparison to placebo using cromolyn sodium (2 mg, qid) as an active control treatment. Patients were primarily allergic asthmatics (with at least 15% reversibility) previously maintained on a regimen of regular bronchodilator therapy. During a 2-week run-in period, the patient's slow-release theophylline therapy was removed, and the patients were randomized to treatment after deterioration of asthma control (asthma symptom summary score of 3 for 7 of the 14 days). After 8 weeks of treatment, patients were returned to as occasion requires bronchodilator therapy, as per the 2-week baseline period. The results demonstrate that patients treated with nedocromil sodium showed statistically significant improvements during the primary time period (mean weeks 3 through 8) over placebo-treated patients as evidenced by all indexes of asthma symptoms, pulmonary function measures, and decreased bronchodilator reliance (p<0.05). Patients treated with cromolyn sodium demonstrated similar improvements over placebo-treated patients. Comparisons between nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium showed the two agents to be comparable in this group of primarily allergic patients with reversible disease. Between-group differences were noted for 3 of the 13 variables (nighttime asthma, FEV1, and forced expiratory flow rate between 25 % and 75% of the FVC) in favor of cromolyn sodium when the data were pooled during the primary time period. The number of patients missing 1 or more days from work/school/regular activity due to asthma was significantly

  18. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  19. [Bibliometry of biomedical periodicals].

    PubMed

    Similowski, T; Derenne, J P

    1995-01-01

    Bibliometry or the science citation index is a quantitative evaluation of periodical literature, biomedical or others. It depends above all on an analysis of citations which allows for a calculation of different indices characterising and classifying journals (number of articles published, frequency of citation, impact, topicality...). The applications of bibliometry are varied from the administration of library collections to the appreciation of the significance of a review in its own speciality area. By extension the bibliometry index are sometimes used to evaluate the importance of a discipline in the literature, the place of a nation within a discipline, the significance of certain opinions or the quality of research. The intrinsic limits of bibliometry are such that this last application should be handled with caution. In effect, various biases can mechanically affect the value of different indices and particularly the fact that an article appearing in a prestigious review should not prejudge its quality such as the relevance of the question posed, the validity of the methodology employed or the accuracy of the results. For this, the study of citations is insufficient and some qualitative or semi-quantitative criteria bearing on the contents of the article should be used (critical reading, gate analysis, etc.) This general review has, as its aim, to expose both the definitions and limits of bibliometry illustrating them with some information calculated from the principal respiratory journals.

  20. Striving for more good days: patient perspectives on botulinum toxin for the treatment of cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Poliziani, Michele; Koch, Marco; Liu, Xierong

    2016-01-01

    Background The recommended reinjection interval for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) formulations in the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD) is generally ≥12 weeks, though intervals ≥10 weeks are approved for incobotulinumtoxinA in Europe. However, recurring symptoms can occur before the end of this period. Using qualitative research, we sought a greater understanding of disease burden, unmet patient needs, and barriers to treatment. Methods We conducted online semistructured, focus-group discussions, and online forum follow-up discussions among patients with CD, focusing on disease burden, patient needs, injection cycle preferences, and relationships with health care professionals. A subset of patients was also questioned in telephone interviews about individual experiences of CD and BoNT treatment. All participants were UK residents who had received onabotulinumtoxinA or abobotulinumtoxinA for CD for ≥1 year. Results Thirty-one patients (81% female; mean duration of CD 16.4 [range 4–31] years; mean BoNT injection cycle length 12.8 weeks) participated in the online focus-group and forum follow-up discussions. Of these, seven patients participated in telephone interviews. All had recurring symptoms between treatments, which substantially impacted on their work, family, and social life. Symptom severity fluctuated throughout an injection cycle and differed between patients and across injection cycles. Participants’ relationships with health care professionals and treatment satisfaction varied greatly. Many participants wanted longer-lasting and/or more stable symptom relief with shorter and/or more flexible injection intervals, according to individual needs. Lack of health care resources, long journeys to treatment centers, and immunogenicity/side-effect concerns were perceived as the main barriers to more flexible treatment. Conclusion The high burden of recurring primary and secondary symptoms of CD considerably affects patients’ quality of life. Patient

  1. Effect of acetic acid repeated treatments on post-harvest quality of "Taloppo" table grape.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    The most important pathogen for table grapes is Botrytis cinerea which causes a rapid deterioration of fruit. Postharvest losses are controlled with SO2 fumigations carried out every 7 or 10 days, but the use of this gas is becoming more difficult to justify because of undesirable effects on the fruit and the increasing concern for human health. Acetic acid, classified as a GRAS compound, can be employed with no restriction as preservative and represents a possible substitute to sulphur dioxide. The aims of the present work were: (1) to evaluate if repeated treatments with AAC during storage preserve table grapes fruit quality; (2) to verify the effectiveness of 3 different concentrations and time intervals between each treatment and compare the effects with SO2 treatment; The amounts of AAC used in each fumigation, performed for 15 minutes, were 30, 50 and 75 microL/L, and treatments were carried out 5, 3 and 2 times respectively during storage, in order to have the same final concentration (150 microL/L). Table grapes were also fumigated with SO2. Fruit was stored for 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 95% of RH, followed by 4 days of a simulated shelf-life (SSL) at 20 degrees C and 85% RH. At the end of experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. After eight weeks of storage the incidence of grey mould, with respect to untreated fruit, was reduced in all treatments. The comparison among the different treatments did not show significant differences between the fumigations performed 3 and 2 times, with 24.9% and 27.2% of rots respectively. A better decay control was achieved with 5 fumigations carried out every 2 weeks, (18.1% of rots), while decay in fruit treated with SO2 was 26.2%. During the SSL period no particular differences were observed among all treatments. None of the treatments affected weight loss, as well as no differences were found in the score attributed for the external quality (rachis browning and berries appearance). The results

  2. Effect of acetic acid repeated treatments on post-harvest quality of "Taloppo" table grape.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    The most important pathogen for table grapes is Botrytis cinerea which causes a rapid deterioration of fruit. Postharvest losses are controlled with SO2 fumigations carried out every 7 or 10 days, but the use of this gas is becoming more difficult to justify because of undesirable effects on the fruit and the increasing concern for human health. Acetic acid, classified as a GRAS compound, can be employed with no restriction as preservative and represents a possible substitute to sulphur dioxide. The aims of the present work were: (1) to evaluate if repeated treatments with AAC during storage preserve table grapes fruit quality; (2) to verify the effectiveness of 3 different concentrations and time intervals between each treatment and compare the effects with SO2 treatment; The amounts of AAC used in each fumigation, performed for 15 minutes, were 30, 50 and 75 microL/L, and treatments were carried out 5, 3 and 2 times respectively during storage, in order to have the same final concentration (150 microL/L). Table grapes were also fumigated with SO2. Fruit was stored for 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 95% of RH, followed by 4 days of a simulated shelf-life (SSL) at 20 degrees C and 85% RH. At the end of experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. After eight weeks of storage the incidence of grey mould, with respect to untreated fruit, was reduced in all treatments. The comparison among the different treatments did not show significant differences between the fumigations performed 3 and 2 times, with 24.9% and 27.2% of rots respectively. A better decay control was achieved with 5 fumigations carried out every 2 weeks, (18.1% of rots), while decay in fruit treated with SO2 was 26.2%. During the SSL period no particular differences were observed among all treatments. None of the treatments affected weight loss, as well as no differences were found in the score attributed for the external quality (rachis browning and berries appearance). The results

  3. ART uptake, its timing and relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.; Sandy, C.; Murimwa, T.; Mugurungi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Setting: All public health facilities in two provinces of Zimbabwe. Objective: To determine, among tuberculosis (TB) patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) registered in 2010, 1) the proportion started on antiretroviral treatment (ART), 2) the timing of ART in relation to the start of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and 3) whether timing of ART influenced anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of the 2655 HIV-positive TB patients, 1115 (42%) were documented as receiving ART. Of these, 178 (16%) started ART prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Of those who started after anti-tuberculosis treatment, 17% started within 2 weeks, 43% between 2 and 8 weeks and 40% after 8 weeks. Treatment success in the cohort was 82%, with 14% deaths before completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Not receiving ART during anti-tuberculosis treatment was associated with lower anti-tuberculosis treatment success (adjusted RR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53–0.91) and more deaths (adjusted RR 3.43, 95%CI 2.2–5.36). There were no differences in TB treatment outcomes by timing of ART initiation. Conclusion: ART uptake is low given the improved treatment outcomes in those put on ART during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Better integration of HIV and TB services is needed to ensure increased coverage and earlier ART uptake. PMID:26392951

  4. Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20 degrees C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 500C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20 degrees C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50 degrees C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1 degrees C, storage (5 weeks at 8 degrees C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11degrees C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20 degrees C. IMZ at 50 degrees C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50 degrees C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20 degrees C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C TFX residues

  5. Treatment of proximal fifth metatarsal bone fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Japjec, M; Starešinić, M; Starjački, M; Žgaljardić, I; Štivičić, J; Šebečić, B

    2015-11-01

    Proximal fifth metatarsal (V MT) bone fractures are common injuries that are a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Lawrence and Botte considered different treatment options and the possibility of recovery and divided these fractures into three different regions: tuberosity avulsion fractures (zone I), acute fractures of the metaphysis at the level of the intermetatarsal junction (zone II) and proximal diaphysis stress fracture (zone III). A total of 42 athletes with fracture of the V MT bone in zone II and III were treated in our institution during a 6-year period. All patients were offered surgical treatment, but nine patients refused surgery. Thus, the patients were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 33 patients who underwent an intramedullary screw fixation operation under regional anaesthesia immediately after the fracture was diagnosed; group 2 contained the remaining nine patients who had refused surgery and received conservative therapy with non-weight-bearing short-leg casts or orthosis. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 24 months. All fractures healed in group 1: healing occurred within 8 weeks in 26 patients and was prolonged to 16 to 18 weeks in four patients. In group 2, fractures healed in four patients but did not heal in five patients even after 6 months. Four of the five patients in whom the fracture did not heal required subsequent osteosynthesis because they had constant problems that caused absence from sport. After the operation, their fractures healed in an average of 10 weeks. One patient decided not to undergo the operation due to the absence of subjective symptoms. Three patients in group 1 who started intensive training sustained a refracture and underwent re-operation in which osteosynthesis was performed with a stronger screw. The fractures then healed again. Treatment results were evaluated radiologically and clinically using the Modified Foot Score. Results in group 1 were significantly better than those in group 2 and there

  6. Effect of Moderate Exercise on Serum Interferon-Gamma and Interleukin-17 Levels in the Morphine Withdrawal Period

    PubMed Central

    Heidarianpour, Ali; Vahidian Rezazadeh, Majid; Zamani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug addiction triggers the infliction of a variety of diseases. Various subjects have indicated that during the withdrawal syndrome period, the immune system is weakened. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the changes in serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) during the morphine withdrawal syndrome induced by 8 weeks of moderate exercise and their effects on the immune system function. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6): healthy control (HC), addicted control (AC), healthy trained (HT), and addicted trained (AT) groups. AC and AT groups were made addicted to morphine sulfate (0.4 mg/mL) in 21 days. To ensure their dependence on morphine, naloxone (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into the body of a number of the rats. HT and AT groups were made to run on a treadmill 5 days per week for 8 weeks while time and speed gradually increased. Both prior to the exercises and 24 hours after the last training session, blood samples were collected from all the animals, and serum IFN-γ and IL-17 serum levels were measured using the ELISA method. This research was performed at the Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran. Results After 8 weeks of exercise, a significant increase was observed in the serum IFN-γ level in the HT group (251.17 ± 13.045) in comparison with the HC group (234 ± 12.884) (P = 0.045). Furthermore, the serum IFN-γ level in the AT group (218.33 ± 5.164) in comparison to the AC group (190.67 ± 8.477) showed a significant increase (P = 0.000). In addition, the serum level of IFN-γ in the HT group showed a significant increase compared to the AT group (P = 0.000). After 8 weeks of exercise, there was a significant decrease in the serum IL-17 level in the HT group (22.67 ± 4.46) compared with the HC group (38.17 ± 7.68) (P = 0.005). In addition, a significant decrease was observed in serum IL-17 in the AT group (42.17 ± 7.41) in comparison

  7. Effect of Moderate Exercise on Serum Interferon-Gamma and Interleukin-17 Levels in the Morphine Withdrawal Period

    PubMed Central

    Heidarianpour, Ali; Vahidian Rezazadeh, Majid; Zamani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug addiction triggers the infliction of a variety of diseases. Various subjects have indicated that during the withdrawal syndrome period, the immune system is weakened. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the changes in serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) during the morphine withdrawal syndrome induced by 8 weeks of moderate exercise and their effects on the immune system function. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6): healthy control (HC), addicted control (AC), healthy trained (HT), and addicted trained (AT) groups. AC and AT groups were made addicted to morphine sulfate (0.4 mg/mL) in 21 days. To ensure their dependence on morphine, naloxone (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into the body of a number of the rats. HT and AT groups were made to run on a treadmill 5 days per week for 8 weeks while time and speed gradually increased. Both prior to the exercises and 24 hours after the last training session, blood samples were collected from all the animals, and serum IFN-γ and IL-17 serum levels were measured using the ELISA method. This research was performed at the Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran. Results After 8 weeks of exercise, a significant increase was observed in the serum IFN-γ level in the HT group (251.17 ± 13.045) in comparison with the HC group (234 ± 12.884) (P = 0.045). Furthermore, the serum IFN-γ level in the AT group (218.33 ± 5.164) in comparison to the AC group (190.67 ± 8.477) showed a significant increase (P = 0.000). In addition, the serum level of IFN-γ in the HT group showed a significant increase compared to the AT group (P = 0.000). After 8 weeks of exercise, there was a significant decrease in the serum IL-17 level in the HT group (22.67 ± 4.46) compared with the HC group (38.17 ± 7.68) (P = 0.005). In addition, a significant decrease was observed in serum IL-17 in the AT group (42.17 ± 7.41) in comparison

  8. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  9. Longitudinal Cell Tracking and Simultaneous Monitoring of Tissue Regeneration after Cell Treatment of Natural Tendon Disease by Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Dagmar; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin; Gittel, Claudia; Offhaus, Julia; Paebst, Felicitas; Scharner, Doreen; Burk, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of tendon disease with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is a promising option to improve tissue regeneration. To elucidate the mechanisms by which MSC support regeneration, longitudinal tracking of MSC labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide important insight. Nine equine patients suffering from tendon disease were treated with SPIO-labelled or nonlabelled allogeneic umbilical cord-derived MSC by local injection. Labelling of MSC was confirmed by microscopy and MRI. All animals were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographical, and low-field MRI examinations before and directly after MSC application as well as 2, 4, and 8 weeks after MSC application. Hypointense artefacts with characteristically low signal intensity were identified at the site of injection of SPIO-MSC in T1- and T2∗-weighted gradient echo MRI sequences. They were visible in all 7 cases treated with SPIO-MSC directly after injection, but not in the control cases treated with nonlabelled MSC. Furthermore, hypointense artefacts remained traceable within the damaged tendon tissue during the whole follow-up period in 5 out of 7 cases. Tendon healing could be monitored at the same time. Clinical and ultrasonographical findings as well as T2-weighted MRI series indicated a gradual improvement of tendon function and structure. PMID:26880932

  10. Subcutaneous C.E.R.A. for the Treatment of Chronic Renal Anemia in Predialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Üstündağ, Sedat; Doğan, Ekrem; Duranay, Murat; Kazancıoğlu, Rümeyza; Çelik, Vedat; Ünsal, Abdülkadir; Altıntepe, Lütfullah; Dursun, Belda; Akbaş, Ertuğrul; Özdener, Fatih; Yıldız, Alaattin

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-monthly administration of C.E.R.A. in erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) naive predialysis patients with CKD for anemia treatment Study Design: Single arm, open label study. Methods: A total of 75 patients (mean (SD) age was 52.8 (16.4) years, 76.0% were female) were included in this study conducted between 12 August 2008 and 30 October 2009 in 9 centers across Turkey. The mean change in Hb concentration (g/dL) between baseline (week 0) and the efficacy evaluation period (EEP) was the primary efficacy parameter evaluated in three consecutive periods including a dose titration period (DTP; with initial 1.2 μg/kg dose of C.E.R.A., subcutaneously, 28 weeks), EEP (8 weeks) and a long-term safety period (16 weeks). Results: Our analysis revealed an improvement in Hb levels from baseline value of 9.4 (0.4) g/dL to time adjusted average level of 11.4 (0.7) g/dL in EEP in the per protocol (PP) population and from 9.3 (0.5) g/dL to 11.1 (1.0) g/dL in intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Mean (SD) change in Hb levels from baseline to EEP was 2.0 (0.7) g/dl in the PP population (primary endpoint) and 1.7 (1.1) g/dL in the ITT population. The percentage of patients whose Hb concentrations remained within the target range of 10.0–12.0 g/dL throughout the EEP was 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5–60.3%) in the PP population and 38.7% (95% CI: 27.6% to 50.6%) in the ITP population. A total of 206 adverse events (AE) were reported in 77.0% of patients with hypertension (20%) as the most frequent AE. Conclusion: Once-monthly subcutaneous C.E.R.A. administration is effective and safe in the treatment of anemia in pre-dialysis patients with CKD, who are not currently treated with ESAs. PMID:27308077

  11. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  12. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  13. Cholestasis beyond the Neonatal and Infancy Periods.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Racha; Phen, Claudia; Karjoo, Sara; Wilsey, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Cholestasis results from impairment in the excretion of bile, which may be due to mechanical obstruction of bile flow or impairment of excretion of bile components into the bile canaliculus. When present, cholestasis warrants prompt diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis beyond the neonatal period is broad and includes congenital and acquired etiologies. It is imperative that the clinician differentiates between intrahepatic and extrahepatic origin of cholestasis. Treatment may be supportive or curative and depends on the etiology. Recent literature shows that optimal nutritional and medical support also plays an integral role in the management of pediatric patients with chronic cholestasis. This review will provide a broad overview of the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management of cholestasis beyond the neonatal and infancy periods. PMID:27066444

  14. Cholestasis beyond the Neonatal and Infancy Periods

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Racha; Phen, Claudia; Karjoo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cholestasis results from impairment in the excretion of bile, which may be due to mechanical obstruction of bile flow or impairment of excretion of bile components into the bile canaliculus. When present, cholestasis warrants prompt diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis beyond the neonatal period is broad and includes congenital and acquired etiologies. It is imperative that the clinician differentiates between intrahepatic and extrahepatic origin of cholestasis. Treatment may be supportive or curative and depends on the etiology. Recent literature shows that optimal nutritional and medical support also plays an integral role in the management of pediatric patients with chronic cholestasis. This review will provide a broad overview of the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management of cholestasis beyond the neonatal and infancy periods. PMID:27066444

  15. General acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Qiu, HongYu; Fan, WenXing; Fu, Ping; Zuo, Chuan; Feng, Ping; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Li; Chen, Feng; Zhong, Hui; Liang, YaPing; Shi, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of the randomized, parallel, and controlled trial of Traditional Chinese Medicine, general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves, compared with piperazine ferulate in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis. Rehmanniae leaves and piperazine ferulate can reduce proteinuria and erythrocyturia effectively in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis. A total of 400 patients diagnosed with primary chronic glomerulonephritis were recruited from outpatient clinics and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves, two 200mg tablets, bid) or the control group (piperazine ferulate, four 50-mg tablets, bid ). The primary outcome was 24-h urinary protein. Secondary outcome measures included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), erythrocyturia, and electrolytes. After 8 weeks of treatment, the treatment group and the control group showed a mean reduction in 24-h proteinuria of 34.81% and 37.66%. The 95% CI of difference of the mean reduction in 24-h proteinuria between the two groups was [-11.50%, 5.80%]. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the erythrocyturia reduction. Neither group showed obvious changes between baseline and 8 weeks in eGFR or electrolytes. Adverse events occurred at a similarly low rate in the treatment group (1.5%) and control group (2.5%, P = 0.7238). Both general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves and piperazine ferulate can reduce proteinuria and erythrocyturia effectively in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis.

  16. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael; Sheran, Jane; Smith, Natalie; Fonseca, Sofia; Lee, Amanda J

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite effective treatments, asthma outcomes remain suboptimal. Interest exists in complementary therapies, particularly in herbal remedies for asthma treatment, currently with inconclusive evidence of efficacy. The encapsulated botanical mixture AKL1 has anecdotal evidence of effectiveness in asthma. Methods We performed a randomised controlled cross over study comparing the effectiveness of AKL1 with indistinguishable placebo as add-on therapy in patients uncontrolled on standard asthma treatment. Thirty two adult asthmatics completed a 36 week trial consisting of a 4 week single blind run in period, during which placebo was added to usual treatment, a 12 week double blind active phase in which subjects received AKL1 or placebo, a single blind 8 week washout period receiving placebo and a final 12 week double blind cross-over active treatment phase. Daily diaries were kept of peak expiratory flow and symptoms, and spirometry, validated symptom and health status questionnaire scores and adverse events were monitored at study visits. Paired T tests were used to compare the effects of placebo and AKL1 on outcomes. Changes in outcome measures over treatment phases are presented as means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of means. Results No significant differences in lung function (active-placebo) were found (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second: mean difference [95% CI] = 0.01 [-0.12 to 0.14] L, p = 0.9. Peak Expiratory Flow: -4.08 [-35.03 to 26.89]. L/min, p = 0.8). Trends to clinical improvements favouring active treatment were however consistently seen in the patient-centered outcomes: Asthma Control Questionnaire mean difference (active – placebo) [95% CI] = -0.35 [-0.78 to 0.07], p = 0.10, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire mean difference 0.42 [-0.08 to 0.93], p = 0.09, Leicester Cough Questionnaire mean difference 0.49, [-0.18 to 1.16], p = 0.15. Nine exacerbations occurred during placebo treatment and five whilst on AKL1. No significant

  17. Evolutionary ecology of periodical insects.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Simon, C

    1994-12-01

    To be periodical, a species must have a fixed life cycle length and adults must appear synchronously, reproduce only once, and die. The consequence of this life history is that, at a given location, adults of a periodical species will be absent or rare in some years and abundant in others. The relative scarcity of periodical Insect species suggests that periodicity does not evolve easily. The major obstacle to its evolution is selection favoring life cycles In which the offspring of any given female appear over a two- or three-year period. Chance events which disrupt this 'bet-hedging' strategy set the stage for periodicity. Mathematical models predict that, given certain initial conditions, intraspecific competition and predation favor its development. Recent studies suggest that periodicity is rarely perfect but that it can persist in the face of limited gene flow through time.

  18. The clinical outcome of pazopanib treatment in Japanese patients with relapsed soft tissue sarcoma: A Japanese Musculoskeletal Oncology Group (JMOG) study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Kawai, Akira; Araki, Nobuhito; Goto, Takahiro; Yonemoto, Tsukasa; Sugiura, Hideshi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Hiraga, Hiroaki; Honoki, Kanya; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Boku, Shogen; Sudo, Akihiro; Ueda, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because the efficacy and safety of pazopanib in Japanese patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) had not been evaluated previously in a large‐scale cohort, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of pazopanib in 156 Japanese patients with relapsed STS. This was a retrospective study based on the collection of real‐life, postmarketing surveillance data. METHODS Patients received pazopanib with the objective of treating local recurrence (n = 20), metastasis (n = 104), and both (n = 32). The patient median age was 53.8 years. The primary objective of this study was to clarify the efficacy of pazopanib for patients with STS. RESULTS The median treatment duration was 28.7 weeks, and the average dose intensity of pazopanib was 609 mg. Adverse events occurred in 127 patients (81.4%). In addition to the main common toxicities, such as hypertension and liver disorder, pneumothorax (n = 11) and thrombocytopenia (n = 16) also were observed. The median progression‐free survival for all patients was 15.4 weeks. The median progression‐free survival for patients with leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, and liposarcoma was 18.6 weeks, 16.4 weeks, 15.3 weeks, and 8 weeks, respectively. The median survival for all patients was 11.2 months. The median survival for patients with leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, and liposarcoma was 20.1 months, 10.6 months, 9.5 months, and 7.3 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There were apparent differences in the efficacy of pazopanib treatment among histologic types of STS. Pazopanib treatment is a new treatment option; however, adverse events like pneumothorax and thrombocytopenia, which did not occur frequently in the PALETTE study (pazopanib for metastatic soft‐tissue sarcoma), should be taken into consideration. Cancer 2016;122:1408‐16. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society

  19. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  20. Fractional-period excitations in continuum periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Nicolin, A.; Chin, J. K.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the generation of fractional-period states in continuum periodic systems. As an example, we consider a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical-lattice potential. We show that when the potential is turned on nonadiabatically, the system explores a number of transient states whose periodicity is a fraction of that of the lattice. We illustrate the origin of fractional-period states analytically by treating them as resonant states of a parametrically forced Duffing oscillator and discuss their transient nature and potential observability.

  1. Treatment with escitalopram improves the attentional bias toward negative facial expressions in patients with major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Cao, Suxia; Li, Hengfen; Li, Youhui

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that treatment with escitalopram would improve cognitive bias and contribute to the recovery process for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Many previous studies have established that patients with MDD tend to pay selective attention to negative stimuli. The assessment of the level of cognitive bias is regarded as a crucial dimension of treatment outcomes for MDD. To our knowledge, no prior studies have been reported on the effects of treatment with escitalopram on attentional bias in MDD, employing a dot probe task of facial expression. We studied 25 patients with MDD and 25 controls, and used a dot probe task of facial expression to measure cognitive bias. The patients' psychopathologies were rated using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. All participants performed the facial expression dot probe task. The results revealed that the 8 week escitalopram treatment decreased the HAMD scores. The patients with MDD at baseline exhibited an attentional bias towards negative faces, however, no significant bias toward either negative or happy faces were observed in the controls. After the 8 week escitalopram treatment, no significant bias toward negative faces was observed in the patient group. In conclusion, patients with MDD pay more attention to negative facial expressions, and treatment with escitalopram improves this attentional bias toward negative facial expressions. This is the first study, to our knowledge, on the effects of treatment with escitalopram on attentional bias in patients with MDD that has employed a dot probe task of facial expression. PMID:26149404

  2. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology. PMID:27176238

  3. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology.

  4. Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Careaga, Milo; Bent, Stephen; Ashwood, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atypical antipsychotics decrease irritability in autism. They also affect the cytokine network. Psychological stress, depression, and, possibly, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We sought to determine if risperidone treatment led to changes in plasma cytokine levels. Methods: Forty-five subjects from an open-label study of risperidone treatment of children and adolescents with ASD, ages 4–18 years, had an analysis of 27 different cytokines at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment using multiplex assays (Millipore) and read on the Luminex 100™ platform. We examined changes in each of the cytokine levels in the entire group, and also compared changes in cytokines in responders versus nonresponders. Results: After 8 weeks of risperidone treatment, 2 of the 27 plasma cytokines showed statistically significant decreases in median levels: Eotaxin (p=0.0003) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p=0.0024). Six of the 48 subjects met two criteria for responders to risperidone, and the median values of interleukin (IL)-5 were significantly higher (p=0.005) in the overall responder group than in nonresponders. Conclusions: Two cytokines, eotaxin and MCP-1, which have previously been identified as abnormally elevated in children with autism, decreased during treatment with risperidone. This suggests a possible mechanism of action of risperidone treatment and a balancing of the immune system in affected subjects in this very preliminary study. PMID:24828014

  5. Risedronate, a highly effective oral agent in the treatment of patients with severe Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Singer, F R; Clemens, T L; Eusebio, R A; Bekker, P J

    1998-06-01

    Thirteen patients with severe Paget's disease of bone [mean serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) level 17 times the upper limit of normal] were treated with 30 mg oral risedronate daily for 8 weeks. Patients were followed for 16 weeks without treatment. The change from baseline SAP was the primary end point. Those patients whose SAP levels did not reach the normal range were retreated with 30 mg for another 8 weeks. There was a mean percent decrease in SAP of 77% after the first course of risedronate treatment and 87% after the second course of treatment. All patients who completed the study had a decrease in SAP of at least 77% from the baseline. The urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine level was decreased by 64% and 79%, respectively, during the first and second treatment courses. There were transient asymptomatic decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The urinary calcium/creatinine ratio also decreased in these patients. Serum intact PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels increased transiently during risedronate treatment. Oral risedronate was well tolerated by the patients. Only one patient discontinued treatment because of an adverse event (diarrhea) thought to be related to risedronate therapy.

  6. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  7. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  8. Posterior bilateral condylar displacement: its diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A

    1976-10-01

    One type of condylar displacement (posterior bilateral) was discussed as an etiologic factor in TMJ dysfunction. Joint noise, tenderness on muscle palpation, and acute TMJ pain are all considered signs of TMJ dysfunction. Any joint noise is considered to be an early dysfunctional symptom because of its higher incidence in association with palpable muscle pain or acute TMJ dysfunction. Sometimes the joint noise will immediately precede acute muscle pain and/or fluctuate with the painful symptoms. The treatment of bilateral posterior condyle displacement has been described. The mandibular anterior teeth were shortened and the maxillary posterior occlusion adjusted so that the mandible could be respositioned in an anterior position without increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion. A silver-plated maxillary cast was obtained and mounted on a semiadjustable articulator (Hanau) with a face-bow. The mandibular cast was mounted in the dysfunctional (retruded) centric relation. The articulator was moved into a protrusive position by the amount of anterior correction that is needed to reposition the condyles into the middle of the fossae symmetrically on both sides. The original TMJ radiographs provide the necessary information for this clinical judgment. Acrylic resin was placed in the space created between the condylar sphere and stop on the articulator. An acrylic resin temporary repositioning prosthesis constructed on the metal cast has two functions. It provides a therapeutic trial for the anterior condylar respositioning, and it holds the mandible in the therapeutic position while TMJ radiographs confirm the corrective position of the condyles in the fossae. After a successful 6 to 8 week trial period with remission of symptoms, a gold prosthesis was constructed on the same cast in the same therapeutic position. It remains to be seen whether, after several years, the condylar suspension system changes from a dysfunctional centric relation to a new functional

  9. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  10. Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.

    PubMed

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Starič, J; Robić, M; Belić, M; Zrimšek, P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation.

  11. Scalp psoriasis: a promising natural treatment.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Tirant, M; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong chronic inflammatory disease affecting 2-3% of the worldwide population. Scalp psoriasis is a particular form of psoriasis characterized by lesions on the scalp, which may occur isolated or in association with other skin lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safeness of an innovative treatment of scalp psoriasis, which is based on the topical application of natural products. Fifty adult subjects with scalp psoriasis (23 females, 27 males) from different European dermatological centres were included in the study. Forty-six patients with severely infiltrated psoriatic lesions were invited to use the products of Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®), according to a three-phase application, twice a day (morning and evening). The other 4 patients followed a different regimen: after a shampoo in the evening, they applied the conditioner in the night and washed it in the morning with the cleansing gel. The application time of Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) products was 8 weeks. The treatment was evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks. The evaluation was based on the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) and on a photographic analysis at each of the medical evaluation points. At the end of the study, all patients showed an outstanding improvement. Five patients referred a transient pruritus, which regressed spontaneously without discontinuing the application. No other side effects have been described. We observe that Dr Michaels® (Soratinex®) natural product family can be considered as a valid therapeutic tool for scalp psoriasis when considering the exclusion criteria. The tested products provided an outstanding improvement of lesions in all the patients, without side effects. PMID:27498666

  12. Assessing Periodicity of Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W.; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the “unfolding” procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA. PMID:20948585

  13. Arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-yan; Wang, Fei; Lu, Keke; Li, Yue-heng; Zhou, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods Databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, China Biology Medicine disc, Wangfang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Trials Register were searched, and Google was used as a supplementary tool to search for information through February 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the treatment of DH with arginine-containing toothpaste were included. Relevant information was extracted, and a quality evaluation was performed. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Eighteen RCTs with 1,423 patients were included. The results of the meta-analyses demonstrated that at days 0 and 3; weeks 2, 4, and 8; and more than 12 weeks, arginine-containing toothpaste led to significantly improved results on the tactile sensitivity test (standardized mean difference [SMD] =1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.14, 2.76]) and the air-blast test (SMD =−1.60, 95% CI [−2.14, −1.05]) at 4 weeks and the tactile sensitivity test (SMD =2.01, 95% CI [1.41, 2.61]) and the air-blast test (SMD =−1.41, 95% CI [−1.83, −0.98]) at 8 weeks compared to toothpastes containing other desensitizing components, thus indicating a superior therapeutic effect of arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste. However, no significant differences between arginine-containing toothpaste and toothpastes containing other desensitizing components were observed in the air-blast test at days 0 and 3 and week 2 and in the tactile sensitivity and air-blast tests at more than 12 weeks. Conclusion The current evidence indicates that arginine-containing toothpaste is effective for DH. However, further high-quality, large-sample RCTs are needed. PMID:26793006

  14. Changes in hormone and lipid levels in male patients with focal seizures when switched from carbamazepine to lacosamide as adjunctive treatment to levetiracetam: A small phase IIIb, prospective, multicenter, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Elger, Christian E; Rademacher, Michael; Brandt, Christian; Elmoufti, Sami; Dedeken, Peter; Eckhardt, Klaus; Tennigkeit, Frank; De Backer, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as carbamazepine (CBZ) can lead to changes in reproductive, endocrine, and lipid parameters, resulting in clinical symptoms for some patients. Previous studies indicate that these changes can be reversed by switching to a nonenzyme-inducing AED. Lacosamide is a newer-generation AED, not known to induce or strongly inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. In this phase IIIb, prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial (NCT01375374), the serum concentrations of CYP-related reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, and lipids were assessed in otherwise healthy male patients with focal seizures (N=11), before and after a switch from CBZ (600-1200mg/day at baseline) to lacosamide (target dose: 400mg/day by the end of titration) as adjunctive treatment to the nonenzyme-inducing AED levetiracetam (LEV, stable dosage of >1000mg/day throughout). Cross titration took place over 4weeks, followed by an 8-week maintenance period. Serum measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of maintenance. The median serum sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentration was towards the higher end of the normal range at baseline and decreased following the switch (61.7 to 47.5nmol/L, N=10, p=0.027 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Free androgen index (100×testosterone/SHBG) and free thyroxine serum concentration increased (25.4 to 36.4 and 13.0 to 14.9pmol/L, respectively, both N=10 and p=0.002). At baseline, the median progesterone serum concentration was below the normal range (0.7nmol/L), whereas median cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were above the normal range (5.5 and 3.6mmol/L, respectively). By the end of maintenance, all measured parameters were within the normal range. The safety and tolerability profile of lacosamide was consistent with that observed in previous studies. Furthermore, antiseizure efficacy appeared to be maintained, suggesting that deinduction of CYP enzymes

  15. [Critical approach to diagnostics and treatment of lumbar radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Bosković, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    Although the majority of patients suffering lumbar radiculopathy have a very good prospective outcome, some 20-30% persist having problems even in two or three years time. Diagnosis is based on anamnesis and physical examination. Imaging screening with additional diagnostic methods is indicated only in patients with the extremely complicated illnesses, or in cases where the surgical intervention is inevitable. Passive (bed rest) treatment is replaced by active one. In general, there is a consensus that the initial treatment during 6-8 weeks has to be conservative. Surgical intervention of discal lesion can bring faster pain relief in patients, but in a year or two after the medical treatment, there is no clear distinction between these two approaches. PMID:19368270

  16. Successful treatment of bipolar disorder II and ADHD with a micronutrient formula: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Harrison, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Bipolar disorder with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenge to treat. Ten previous reports have shown potential benefit of a micronutrient treatment (consisting mainly of vitamins and minerals) for various psychiatric symptoms, including mood and ADHD. This case study aimed to investigate the longer term impact of the micronutrients on both psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning in an off-on-off-on (ABAB) design with 1 year follow-up. A 21-year-old female with bipolar II disorder, ADHD, social anxiety, and panic disorder entered an open-label trial using a nutritional treatment following a documented 8 year history of on-going psychiatric symptoms not well managed by medications. After 8 weeks on the formula she showed significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Blood test results remained normal after 8 weeks on the formula. She did not report any adverse side effects associated with the treatment. She then chose to come off the formula; after 8 weeks her depression scores returned to baseline, and anxiety and ADHD symptoms worsened. The formula was reintroduced, showing gradual improvement in all psychiatric symptoms. This case represents a naturalistic ABAB design showing on-off control of symptoms. After 1 year, the patient is now in remission from all mental illness. Neurocognitive changes mirrored behavioral changes, showing improved processing speed, consistency in response speed, and verbal memory. A placebo response and expectancy effects cannot be ruled out although previous poor response to treatment and the duration of the current positive response decrease the likelihood that other factors better explain change. These consistently positive outcomes alongside an absence of side effects indicate that further research, particularly larger and more controlled trials, is warranted using this multinutrient approach. PMID:20448519

  17. The Antidepressant Treatment Response Index as a Predictor of Reboxetine Treatment Outcome in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Marissa M; Hunter, Aimee M; Cook, Ian A; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers to predict clinical outcomes early during the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) could reduce suffering and improve outcomes. A quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) biomarker, the Antidepressant Treatment Response (ATR) index, has been associated with outcomes of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in patients with MDD. Here, we report the results of a post hoc analysis initiated to evaluate whether the ATR index may also be associated with reboxetine treatment outcome, given that its putative mechanism of action is via norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI). Twenty-five adults with MDD underwent qEEG studies during open-label treatment with reboxetine at doses of 8 to 10 mg daily for 8 weeks. The ATR index calculated after 1 week of reboxetine treatment was significantly associated with overall Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) improvement at week 8 (r=0.605, P=.001), even after controlling for baseline depression severity (P=.002). The ATR index predicted response (≥50% reduction in HAM-D) with 70.6% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity, and remission (final HAM-D≤7) with 87.5% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity. These results suggest that the ATR index may be a useful biomarker of clinical response during NRI treatment of adults with MDD. Future studies are warranted to investigate further the potential utility of the ATR index as a predictor of noradrenergic antidepressant treatment response.

  18. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  19. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR 58449 (Sept. 24, 2010). On December 20, 2010, the Postal Service...

  20. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  1. Latino Periodicals: A Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerena, Salvador, Ed.; Pisano, Vivian M., Ed.

    This guide is a collection development tool of national scope for librarians who need in-depth coverage of Latino periodicals suitable for public, school, and academic libraries. Periodicals evaluated include general interest and popular magazines and newspapers that appeal to Spanish-speaking, bilingual, and English-speaking library patrons and…

  2. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  3. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Proposed Changes in Analytical Principles (Proposals Four-Eight), August 8, 2011 (Petition). Proposal...

  4. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  5. Periodic and aperiodic synchronization in skilled action.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import.

  6. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  7. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  8. The Effect of Combination Antiviral Therapy in the Treatment of Hepatitis C on the Occurrence of Depressive Disorder in Patients Treated for Hepatitis C in the Republic of Srpska

    PubMed Central

    Banjac, Visnja; Zivlak-Radulovic, Nera; Miskovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of pegylated interferon alpha in combination with ribavirin. Interferon therapy has many psychiatric side effects, with depressive symptomatology being most prominent. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency and severity of depression in patients with chronic hepatitis C during two months of the aforementioned therapy. Subjects and Methods: The overall sample consisted of 46 subjects, divided into three subgroups, aged 18 to 65. The study population consisted of subjects treated for chronic hepatitis C (n = 15), subjects infected but not treated for chronic hepatitis C (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 16). The assessment and level of depression were based on the Structural clinical interview (SCID), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The assessments were conducted before interferon therapy (on the day 0), after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. Results: Regarding its frequency, MADRS scoring showed that the number of depressed subjects receiving therapy increased after 8 weeks (46.7%). There was statistical significance between the subgroups after 4 and 8 weeks. Likewise, the ZUNG scale showed that the number of depressed subjects receiving therapy increased after 8 weeks (73.3%). There was statistical significance between the subgroups on the day 0, after 4 and 8 weeks. Conclusions: Depression was significantly more frequent in chronic hepatitis C subjects treated with interferon alpha in combination with ribavirin than in subjects in the group without therapy. Mild depression was most prevalent. PMID:27147788

  9. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  10. Combination therapy with relaxin and methylprednisolone augments the effects of either treatment alone in inhibiting subepithelial fibrosis in an experimental model of allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Royce, Simon G; Sedjahtera, Amelia; Samuel, Chrishan S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Although CSs (corticosteroids) demonstrate potent effects in the control of airway inflammation in asthma, many patients continue to experience symptoms and AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness) despite optimal treatment with these agents, probably due to progressive airway remodelling. Identifying novel therapies that can target airway remodelling and/or airway reactivity may improve symptom control in these patients. We have demonstrated previously that the anti-fibrotic hormone RLN (relaxin) can reverse airway remodelling (epithelial thickening and subepithelial fibrosis) and AHR in a murine model of AAD (allergic airways disease). In the present study, we compared the effects of RLN with a CS (methylprednisolone) on airway remodelling and AHR when administered independently or in combination in the mouse AAD model. Female mice at 6-8 weeks of age were sensitized and challenged to OVA (ovalbumin) over a 9-week period and treated with methylprednisolone, RLN, a combination of both treatments or vehicle controls. Methylprednisolone was administered intraperitoneally on the same day as nebulization for 6 weeks, whereas recombinant human RLN-2 was administered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps from weeks 9-11. RLN or methylprednisolone alone were both able to significantly decrease subepithelial thickness and total lung collagen deposition; whereas RLN but not methylprednisolone significantly decreased epithelial thickness and AHR. Additionally, combination therapy with CS and RLN more effectively reduced subepithelial collagen thickness than either therapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RLN can modulate a broader range of airway remodelling changes and AHR than methylprednisolone and the combination of both treatments offers enhanced control of subepithelial fibrosis. PMID:22817662

  11. Effect of treatment with a hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor on fasting and postprandial plasma lipoproteins and cholesteryl ester transfer activity in patients with NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, D; Durrington, P N; Kumar, S; Mackness, M I; Dean, J; Boulton, A J

    1995-04-01

    Patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have a greater risk of developing coronary heart disease than would be expected from a similar degree of hyperlipidemia in nondiabetic populations. Accelerated transfer of cholesteryl esters (CET) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), a process that is associated with atherosclerosis, may be a possible explanation for this. CET, plasma lipoprotein concentration, and mass in the fasting and postprandial state have been examined in 31 hyperlipidemic patients with NIDDM before and after 8 weeks of treatment with the hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase inhibitor pravastatin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Body mass index, glycemic control, and blood pressure remained unaltered during the study period. Compared with placebo, pravastatin decreased fasting serum cholesterol (P < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol (P < 0.002) levels. The high basal CET (34.4 +/- 13.1 nmol.ml-1.h-1) was decreased significantly by pravastatin treatment (27.5 +/- 13.7 nmol.ml-1.h-1, P = 0.013). There was a fall in the total cholesterol, free cholesterol, and phospholipid content of the Sf 0-12, 20-60, and 60-400 lipoproteins (all P = 0.001). Lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase activity was not altered. The postprandial increase in VLDL cholesterol 5 h after a standardized mixed meal was attenuated after pravastatin treatment (P = 0.011). Inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in hyperlipidemic patients with NIDDM decreased serum cholesterol content of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein, thereby decreasing the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to LDL and VLDL. PMID:7698516

  12. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependent. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment.

  13. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  14. Periodic fevers and autoinflammatory syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ostring, Genevieve T; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent fever is a common presentation in paediatric practice and can be caused by a wide variety of diseases including autoinflammatory conditions. The innate immune system plays an essential role in the 'first line' response to infection through mediation of inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes are part of the regulatory process for this system and result in the production of the powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B. Dysregulation of inflammasomes, and Interleukin 1 production, contributes to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. This review focuses on described periodic fever syndromes (PFS) which are now collectively referred to as autoinflammatory syndromes. Conditions discussed include periodic fever aphthous stomatitis pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy, familial Mediterranean fever, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndromes, hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Presenting features, complications, diagnostic and treatment approaches for these conditions are discussed. Nonetheless, as most of these conditions are rare and may have significant long-term complications, it is recommended that they be managed in consultations with a physician experienced in managing PFS. PMID:27650143

  15. Cyclical Period Changes in Short-Period Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Borges, B. W.; Bond, H. E.; Jablonski, F.; Steiner, J. E.; Grauer, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    The observed-minus-calculated (O-C) diagrams of the eclipse timings of three dwarf novae of the SU UMa sub-class are presented and discussed. The (O-C) diagrams cover 28 24 and 15 years respectively for Z~Cha V2051~Oph and V4140~Sgr and show clear orbital period changes. Z~Cha shows conspicuous cyclical changes of period 28+/-2 yr and amplitude 60+/-12 s. V2051~Oph shows a cyclical period change of period 22+/-2 yr and amplitude 17+/-3 s. The (O-C) diagram of V4140~Sgr shows less convincing evidence but can also be explained in terms of a cyclical period modulation with an amplitude of about 16s and a time scale of 6.9+/-0.3 years. The best explanation for these observations is that of a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star modulating its radius and consequently the mass transfer rate and the orbital separation on time scales of years. These results support the recent findings of Ak Ozkan & Mattei that the quiescent magnitudes and outburst interval of a sample of dwarf novae (including many SU UMa stars) show cyclical variations produced by solar-type magnetic activity cycles. Our results also confirm that the fully-convective secondary stars of these short period binaries still possess non-negligible magnetic fields.

  16. Treatment choices and subsequent attendance by substance-dependent patients who disengage from intensive outpatient treatment

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Drapkin, Michelle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rennert, Lior; Goodman, Jessica D.; Thomas, Tyrone; Ivey, Megan; McKay, James R.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase engagement in effective treatment, we offered a choice of alternate evidence-based treatments to 137 alcohol- or cocaine-dependent adults (110 males, 27 females) who entered an intensive outpatient program (IOP) but disengaged within the first 8 weeks. We hypothesized that disengaged patients would choose and subsequently attend alternatives to IOP when given the chance, that their choices would be consistent with their previously-stated preferences, and that demographic and clinical characteristics would be predictive of alternatives chosen. Of 96 participants reached by phone, 19% chose no treatment; 49% chose to return to IOP; 24% chose individual psychotherapy; 6% chose telephone counseling; 2% chose naltrexone with medication management. There were few relationships between participant characteristics and choices made upon disengagement. Participants who chose alternative treatments were equally likely to attend their chosen treatment as those who chose IOP. Limited interest in alternative treatments may reflect allegiance to IOP, which was initially chosen by all participants. Implications for implementation of patient-centered adaptive treatment are discussed. PMID:27667970

  17. Treatment choices and subsequent attendance by substance-dependent patients who disengage from intensive outpatient treatment

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Drapkin, Michelle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rennert, Lior; Goodman, Jessica D.; Thomas, Tyrone; Ivey, Megan; McKay, James R.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase engagement in effective treatment, we offered a choice of alternate evidence-based treatments to 137 alcohol- or cocaine-dependent adults (110 males, 27 females) who entered an intensive outpatient program (IOP) but disengaged within the first 8 weeks. We hypothesized that disengaged patients would choose and subsequently attend alternatives to IOP when given the chance, that their choices would be consistent with their previously-stated preferences, and that demographic and clinical characteristics would be predictive of alternatives chosen. Of 96 participants reached by phone, 19% chose no treatment; 49% chose to return to IOP; 24% chose individual psychotherapy; 6% chose telephone counseling; 2% chose naltrexone with medication management. There were few relationships between participant characteristics and choices made upon disengagement. Participants who chose alternative treatments were equally likely to attend their chosen treatment as those who chose IOP. Limited interest in alternative treatments may reflect allegiance to IOP, which was initially chosen by all participants. Implications for implementation of patient-centered adaptive treatment are discussed.

  18. Mental Fitness for Life: Assessing the Impact of an 8-Week Mental Fitness Program on Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Sandra A.; Thompson, Wendy J. A.; Rogers, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    A mental fitness program taught goal setting, critical thinking, creativity, positive attitudes, learning, memory, and self-expression to adults over 50 (n=22). Pre/posttests of depression and cognition revealed significant impacts on mental fitness, cognitive confidence, goal setting, optimism, creativity, flexibility, and memory. Not significant…

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure in lines of chickens divergently selected for high and low 8-week body weight.

    PubMed

    Márquez, G C; Siegel, P B; Lewis, R M

    2010-12-01

    A long-term selection experiment for high or low 8-wk BW in White Plymouth Rock chickens was conducted to study effects of selection on BW and correlated characters. Two lines [high (HWS), low (LWS) weight] were established and have undergone 48 generations of selection. The lines were managed to curtail inbreeding and to maintain similar population structures; such is necessary for equitable comparison of selection response between lines. Our objective was to test the success of that breeding strategy by characterizing genetic diversity and inbreeding in these lines. A pedigree of 5,998 individuals was assembled, with 68 founders, 2,962 HWS chickens, and 2,968 LWS chickens. Inbreeding coefficients (F) were calculated for each line. Maximum F was 0.53 and 0.61, mean F was 0.26 (SD 0.15) and 0.30 (SD 0.17), and change in F was 1.3 and 1.6% per generation in LWS and HWS lines, respectively. The effective population size was 38.3 in LWS and 32.1 in HWS lines. The effective number of founders was 15.7 in both lines, and the effective number of ancestors was 17.5 and 15.5 in LWS and HWS lines, respectively. Thirty ancestors accounted for 90% of the genetic makeup of both lines. Seven male and eight female founders still contributed to both lines at generation 48, although some contributed more to one line than the other. Family sizes were similar for males and females of each line, with males having larger family sizes with greater variance. Accumulated inbreeding was high and effective population size was low, as expected in closed lines. Effective number of founders was relatively low compared with actual number of founders, indicating some contributed more than others to the last generation. Family size statistics indicated that fewer males than females were used, leading to the observed levels of inbreeding. Given their similarity in genetic diversity and family size, it can be concluded that breeding decisions throughout the project resulted in similar population structures in the lines.

  20. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  1. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Rules Concerning Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... waiver request. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to address a recent Postal...

  2. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing Systems... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement...). Proposal Sixteen: proposed productivity measurement for Flats Sequencing System. Proposal...

  3. Paroxysmal hypertension and spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    De Plaen, J L; Sepulchre, D; Bidingija, M

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old Zairian male who presented with paroxysmal attacks of hypertension accompanied by spontaneous recurrent hypothermia and profuse sweating of unknown origin. Routine and extensive examination failed to indicate a usual cause of arterial hypertension or for periodic hypothermia. Based on the hypothesis of an epileptic center influencing both the thermoregulatory and the vasomotor mechanisms, an anticonvulsant treatment was successfully installed. The present study makes a correlation between the present condition and certain neurologic abnormalities described in the literature. PMID:1337813

  4. Period Adjustment of TT Scuti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederbloom, Steve E.

    1985-12-01

    The RR Lyrae variable TT Scuti was studied using photographic photometry. The O-C data show a possible downwards curve, which would indicate a decreasing period, but the results are not conclusive. New linear elements are: JD(max) = 2439384.915 + 0.45293855 E. A limit for the maximum rate of change of the period is -0.03 +/- 0.04 cycles per million years.

  5. Treatment of acne vulgaris with the retinoic acid derivative Ro 11-1430. A controlled clinical trial against retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, J; Holm, P; Reymann, F

    1976-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized, group-comparative clinical trial, 31 patients with acne vulgaris received topical treatment for 6-8 weeks with a lotion containing either 0.05% retinoic acid or 0.1% of the retinoic acid derivative Ro 11-1430. The side-effects erythema, desquamation and burning were significantly less frequent with Ro 11-1430 than with retinoic acid. The treatments appeared to be approximately equally effective in reducing the number of acne elements, but due to the limited number of patients studied, the trial was admittedly not sufficient to detect differences with regard to therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Substance use in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  7. Substance Use in the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-11-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these, contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health, and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  8. Positive effects of melatonin treatment on the reproductive performance of young border leicester rams mated to merino ewes in spring: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, D O; Kelly, J M; Arney, L J; Farley, I L; Tilbrook, A J; Walker, S K

    2014-12-01

    Poor reproductive performance of Merino ewe flocks when mated to Border Leicester rams during spring may be due to seasonality of the Border Leicester breed. Two approaches were taken to test this assumption. Six young (12 months old) or six mixed-age (12, 24 and ≥36 months old) Border Leicester rams were either treated or not treated with melatonin implants (2 × 2 design) 6 weeks before the four groups of rams were each put with approximately 300 Merino ewes for an 8-week mating period. Implants were inserted in early September (experiment 1). The second approach was to yard or not yard ewes and mixed-age rams on several occasions during the first 3 weeks of the mating period (experiment 2). Pregnancy rate and twinning percentage were assessed by ultrasonography. In experiment 1, melatonin treatment in young rams increased (p < 0.001) pregnancy rate from 5.0% to 92.6%, but mixed-age rams did not respond (90.7% vs 89.5% for melatonin and non-melatonin treatments, respectively). Twinning rate was similar (p > 0.05) for ewes mated to either melatonin or non-melatonin-treated young rams (36.8% vs 40.0%, respectively), whereas melatonin significantly improved (p < 0.05) twinning rate in those ewes mated to mixed-age rams (49.1% vs 36.1%). After 6 weeks of melatonin treatment, scrotal circumference was greater (p < 0.05) in both young and mixed-aged rams than in untreated counterparts. In experiment 2, yarding of ewes and rams overnight on several occasions early in the mating period reduced (p < 0.001) pregnancy rate compared with non-yarded counterparts (89.5% vs 65.5%). Twinning rate was not affected (37.7% vs 36.1%, respectively). In summary, melatonin treatment of Border Leicester rams significantly improved flock reproductive performance in spring due to improved pregnancy rates with young rams and improved litter size with mixed-age rams.

  9. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  10. Effects of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment on Diabetic Gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Van Ravenswaay, Valerie J; Hain, Simeon J; Grasso, Sierra; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-07-01

    As the number of diagnoses of diabetes mellitis continues to increase, so does the incidence of diabetic complications, such as gastroparesis. The current case report examines the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on the symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. After a prescribed regimen of OMT, the patient's Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index score improved from 13 to 8, and his hospitalization stays decreased from once every 6 to 8 weeks to once in 6 months. After 6 sessions of OMT, the patient experienced a reduction in and subsequent relief of diabetic gastroparesis symptoms and improved quality of life. The role of OMT needs to be further investigated as a cost-effective adjunctive treatment for patients with diabetic gastroparesis.

  11. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  12. Rapid sequence treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Moran, E.M.; Azawi, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A review of the literature suggested that prolonged treatment time may lessen the probability of cure for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. To shorten treatment time, rapid sequence treatment (RST) was devised in which chemotherapy, surgery, and irradation were administered in a total treatment time of 8 weeks. Twelve patients were treated and followed 3 years or longer. Medical complications were minor. Osteonecrosis occurred in each of the first five patients and was the only major complication of the protocol. Surgical techniques were modified, and no additional patient developed osteonecrosis. No patient developed local or regional recurrence. Two patients developed distant metastases and three other patients developed second primaries. Absolute survival was 50%. Rapid sequence treatment is an aggressive and potentially hazardous protocol that yielded encouraging results in this pilot study.

  13. Hormonal correlates of changes in interest in unrelated infants across the peripartum period in female baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis sp.).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Stephanie M; Bardi, Massimo; French, Jeffrey A; Brent, Linda

    2004-12-01

    In past research on human and nonhuman primates, maternal responsiveness and behavior has been thought of as an experiential, cognitive mechanism; however, recent findings have shown that maternal motivation and behavior may not be entirely divorced from the endocrine system. To investigate the relationship between interest in infants and the hormonal changes related to pregnancy, we examined the nature of social interactions across parturition between a large sample (n = 133) of adult female baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis sp.) and unrelated infants. Prepartum data were collected during ten 30-min focal observations for each subject. Each mother-infant pair was then observed through the infant's first 8 weeks of life. A total of 2325 h of observation was recorded. Urine was collected on 65 subjects, starting 5 weeks before the expected date of parturition and ending 4 weeks after parturition. Evidence for a connection between endocrine function and responsiveness toward infants was found. Affiliative behaviors during the prepartum period were positively correlated to the estrogen/cortisol ratio and high dominance rank. In the postpartum period, affiliative behaviors were positively correlated with prepartum progesterone and dominance rank, and negatively correlated with postpartum cortisol levels. Finally, a positive correlation was recorded during the postpartum period between prepartum progesterone and aggression, and a negative correlation between postpartum cortisol and aggression and submission. Our data suggest that the endocrine changes that may help regulate maternal care of offspring also influence the way in which pre- and postpartum female baboons interact with unrelated infants in their social group.

  14. Divergent endometrial inflammatory cytokine expression at peri-implantation period and after the stimulation by copper intrauterine device

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Yu-Shih; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial inflammation has contradictory effects. The one occurring at peri-implantation period is favourable for embryo implantation, whereas the other occurring after the stimulation by copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) prevents from embryo implantation. In this study, 8 week female ICR mice were used to investigate the endometrial inflammation, in which they were at proestrus stage (Group 1), at peri-implantation period (Group 2), and had a copper wire implanted into right uterine horn (Group 3). Cytokine array revealed that two cytokines were highly expressed in Group 2 and Group 3 as compared with Group 1, and seven cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), had selectively strong expression in Group 3. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent TNF-α staining on the endometrium after Cu-IUD stimulation, and in vitro culture of human endometrial glandular cells with Cu induced TNF-α secretion. The increased TNF-α concentration enhanced in vitro THP-1 cells chemotaxis, and reduced embryo implantation rates. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokine profiles of endometrium are different between those at peri-implantation period and after Cu-IUD stimulation, and TNF-α is the one with selectively strong expression in the latter. It might account for the contradictory biological effects of endometrial inflammation. PMID:26469146

  15. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  16. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  17. Extended Release Quetiapine Fumarate (Quetiapine XR) as Adjunct Therapy in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder and a History of Inadequate Treatment Response: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arifulla; Atkinson, Sarah; Mezhebovsky, Irina; She, Fahua; Leathers, Todd; Pathak, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of adjunct extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/ serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs). Methods 11-week (1-week single-blind placebo run-in; 8-week randomized treatment; 2-week post-treatment period), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to quetiapine XR or placebo adjunct to SSRI/SNRI. 50 mg initial dose; 150 mg/day, Day 3; 300 mg/day, Weeks × and 4 if indicated (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness [CGI-S] ≥ 4; 150 mg/day tolerated). Primary endpoint: change from randomization to Week 8 in HAM-A total score. Secondary variables: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) psychic/somatic clusters, response and remission; and CGI-S. Results 409 patients were randomized to quetiapine XR (n = 209) or placebo (n = 200); 41% and 55% of patients, respectively, had dose increases (300 mg/day). Week 8 mean change in HAM-A total score was not statistically significant for quetiapine XR (–10.74; p = 0.079) versus placebo (–9.61). Secondary variables were generally consistent with the primary analysis, except a significant reduction in HAM-A total score at Week 1 (–6.45, quetiapine XR versus –4.47, placebo; p < 0.001); significant improvements in HAM-A psychic cluster (p < 0.05) and CGI-S total (p < 0.05) scores at Week 8. Adverse events (.10% either group) were dry mouth, somnolence, sedation, headache, and dizziness. Conclusions In patients with GAD and inadequate response to SSRI/SNRI, adjunct quetiapine XR did not show a statistically significant effect for the primary endpoint at Week 8, although some secondary endpoints were statistically significant versus placebo. Quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated.

  18. Mitomycin-C assisted photorefractive keratectomy in the treatment of buttonholed laser in situ keratomileusis flaps associated with epithelial ingrowth.

    PubMed

    Taneri, Suphi; Koch, Jörg M; Melki, Samir A; Azar, Dimitri T

    2005-10-01

    The prophylactic intraoperative use of mitomycin-C (MMC) to prevent haze and scarring after excimer laser surface ablation (phototherapeutic/photorefractive keratectomy [PTK/PRK]) in an eye with a previous laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap buttonhole with epithelial ingrowth is described. A well-centered buttonhole measuring 2.0 mm in diameter was cut within a thin LASIK flap in an amblyopic eye. Over the next 8 weeks, corneal haze and progressive epithelial ingrowth formed centrally. An early transepithelial PTK/PRK approach was chosen to manage the buttonhole together with the epithelial ingrowth and to treat ametropia before the onset of scarring. The approach included epithelial removal with PTK, application of MMC 0.02% for 1 minute, irrigation, a short waiting period to allow for diffusion, PRK correction of -4.0 diopters without nomogram adjustment, and bandage contact lens. A regimen of prednisolone acetate 1% and ofloxacin 0.03% 5 times a day for 1 week (steroid tapered) was prescribed. Epithelial ingrowth was removed successfully. Minimal haze formation was visible 2 weeks after the retreatment but did not reduce best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and resolved within the next few weeks. After 6 weeks, uncorrected visual acuity was equal to BSCVA preoperatively (20/50). There was no evidence of recurrent epithelial ingrowth or central scarring after 24 months. Transepithelial PTK/PRK was effective in managing central epithelial ingrowth in a buttonholed LASIK flap. Prophylactic intraoperative use of MMC may reduce haze formation and corneal scarring in early treatments and may also prevent recurrent epithelial ingrowth. This approach may offer faster visual recovery and no risk for a repeated buttonhole creation compared with the widespread recutting a new flap after a couple of months. The optimal application time and concentration of MMC need to be established.

  19. Factors affecting breast cancer treatment delay in Turkey: a study from Turkish Federation of Breast Diseases Societies

    PubMed Central

    Boylu, Sukru; Ok, Engin; Canturk, Nuh Zafer; Celik, Varol; Kapkac, Murat; Girgin, Sadullah; Tireli, Mustafa; Ihtiyar, Enver; Demircan, Orhan; Baskan, Mazhar Semih; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Tasdelen, Ismet; Dumanli, Esra; Ozdener, Fatih; Zaborek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important factors in breast cancer (BC) mortality is treatment delay. The primary goal of this survey was to identify factors affecting the total delay time (TDT) in Turkish BC patients. Methods: A total of 1031 patients with BC were surveyed using a uniform questionnaire. The time between discovering the first symptom and signing up for the first medical visit (patient delay time; PDT) and the time between the first medical visit and the start of therapy (system delay time; SDT) were modelled separately with multilevel regression. Results: The mean PDT, SDT and TDT were 4.8, 10.5 and 13.8 weeks, respectively. In all, 42% of the patients had a TDT >12 weeks. Longer PDT was significantly correlated with disregarding symptoms and having age of between 30 and 39 years. Shorter PDT was characteristic of patients who: had stronger self-examination habits, received more support from family and friends and had at least secondary education. Predictors of longer SDT included disregard of symptoms, distrust in success of therapy and medical system and having PDT in excess of 4 weeks. Shorter SDT was linked to the age of >60 years. Patients who were diagnosed during a periodic check-up or opportunistic mammography displayed shorter SDT compared with those who had symptomatic BC and their first medical examination was by a surgeon. Conclusion: TDT in Turkey is long and remains a major problem. Delays can be reduced by increasing BC awareness, implementing organized population-based screening programmes and founding cancer centres. PMID:25096257

  20. Rotational Period of 2770 Tsvet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Papini, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    Photometric observations of main-belt asteroid 2770 Tsvet were made over three nights during 2014 March. Lightcurve analysis shows a synodic period P = 7.82 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude A = 0.47 ± 0.03 mag.

  1. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May 25, 2010, at 22-24 (Order No. 465). Order... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing...

  2. On Some Periodic Toda Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Kac, M.; Van Moerbeke, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A discrete version of Floquet's theory is developed and applied to a system of non-linear differential equations related to the periodic Toda lattice. A special solution previously found by Toda is thus seen to fit into the formalism of inverse scattering problems. PMID:16592244

  3. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  4. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  5. Quantifying periodicity in omics data.

    PubMed

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively.

  6. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  7. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  8. Relative Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention, Standard Relapse Prevention, and Treatment as Usual for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Sarah; Witkiewitz, Katie; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Grow, Joel; Chawla, Neharika; Hsu, Sharon H.; Carroll, Haley A.; Harrop, Erin; Collins, Susan E.; Lustyk, M. Kathleen; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Relapse is highly prevalent following substance abuse treatments, highlighting the need for improved aftercare interventions. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), a group-based psychosocial aftercare, integrates evidence-based practices from mindfulness-based interventions and cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (RP) approaches. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term efficacy of MBRP in reducing relapse compared with RP and treatment as usual (TAU [12-step programming and psychoeducation]) during a 12-month follow-up period. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Between October 2009 and July 2012, a total of 286 eligible individuals who successfully completed initial treatment for substance use disorders at a private, nonprofit treatment facility were randomized to MBRP, RP, or TAU aftercare and monitored for 12 months. Participants medically cleared for continuing care were aged 18 to 70 years; 71.5% were male and 42.1% were of ethnic/racial minority. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomly assigned to 8 weekly group sessions of MBRP, cognitive-behavioral RP, or TAU. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes included relapse to drug use and heavy drinking as well as frequency of substance use in the past 90 days. Variables were assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up points. Measures used included self-report of relapse and urinalysis drug and alcohol screenings. RESULTS Compared with TAU, participants assigned to MBRP and RP reported significantly lower risk of relapse to substance use and heavy drinking and, among those who used substances, significantly fewer days of substance use and heavy drinking at the 6-month follow-up. Cognitive-behavioral RP showed an advantage over MBRP in time to first drug use. At the 12-month follow-up, MBRP participants reported significantly fewer days of substance use and significantly decreased heavy drinking compared with RP and TAU. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE For individuals in aftercare

  9. [Treatment of nonresectable liver metastases].

    PubMed

    Moehler, Markus; Ridwelski, Karsten; Karthaus, Meinolf; Staib, Ludger; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Kneba, Michael; Schlitt, Hans-Jürgen; Arnold, Dirk; Tannapfel, Andrea; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Piso, Pompiliu

    2008-01-01

    A standardized procedure for dealing with nonresectable liver metastases does not currently exist. It is important that an interdisciplinary approach to treatment be taken, in order to look for the optimum solution for each individual patient. High response rates appear to be important, in order to make more patients with nonresectable liver metastases 'resectable' and thus provide a chance of cure. A series of randomized phase II-III trials found a clear increase in response rates and an improvement in the R0 resection rate as a result of more intensive therapy (triple chemotherapy or combination chemotherapy plus cetuximab or bevacizumab). In the NO16966 trial, too, under blinded conditions, more liver metastasis resections were carried out among patients who had received bevacizumab than among patients in the control arm without bevacizumab, although the response rates in the two arms were the same. A gap of 6-8 weeks between the last dose of bevacizumab and surgery is clinically optimal from the point of view of perioperative safety. If neoadjuvant treatment is given, then resection should be carried out as soon as the metastases are resectable. If the patient's response is not adequate, then consideration should be given to an adaptation or change of the treatment regimen. Regular evaluation for secondary resectability is important. Surgically, in addition to 2- or multi-stage surgery, other possible techniques include portal embolization and intraoperative ablation. The goal remains R0 resection. In order to minimize complications, clinicians must select patients carefully, take account of comorbidities, and know the critical resection volume.

  10. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  11. Periodic Structures in Optical Fibres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan Paul

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work presented in this thesis concerns techniques for the formation of periodic structures in optical fibres. Two different methods of producing such structures are studied in detail. The first of these involves a breakdown mechanism (known as the 'fibre fuse') that permanently damages the core glass in a periodic manner leaving it unable to guide light. The dynamics of this mechanism are studied, with a view to controlling it for the production of interactive grating structures. It is determined that, due to a sharp rise in fibre absorption with temperature, a thermal shock -wave, with a typical thermal gradient of several hundred degrees Kelvin per micron, forms and travels along the fibre, heating the core glass to such an extent that damage occurs. The periodicity of the resultant damage arises from thermal focusing and defocusing of light in the region of this shock-wave. The second method makes use of the photorefractivity observed in certain germanosilicate fibres on exposure to moderate intensity blue light of wavelength ~480nm or UV light ~240nm. A single-mode fibre transmission filter is demonstrated for the first time, produced by exposing a fibre Sagnac loop mirror to 488nm holographic fringes. Average index changes are shown to occur if such fibres are exposed to spatially uniform blue or UV light, indicating that grating formation is by a different mechanism to the local charge separation which occurs in photorefractive crystals. The various characteristics of these average index changes are measured and analysed, with the conclusion that they result from defect centre formation, driven by two photon absorption with blue light, or single photon absorption with UV light. Associated birefringence changes are also measured and are exploited in a hi-bi fibre to periodically perturb the birefringence axes, producing a narrow-line transmission filter.

  12. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  13. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  14. A Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Rifapentine plus Moxifloxacin-Based Regimen for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Marcus B.; Mello, Fernanda C. Q.; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Rolla, Valeria; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Loredo, Carla; Durovni, Betina; Armstrong, Derek T.; Efron, Anne; Barnes, Grace L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Savic, Radojka M.; Dooley, Kelly E.; Cohn, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Chaisson, Richard E.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The combination of rifapentine and moxifloxacin administered daily with other anti-tuberculosis drugs is highly active in mouse models of tuberculosis chemotherapy. The objective of this phase 2 clinical trial was to determine the bactericidal activity, safety, and tolerability of a regimen comprised of rifapentine, moxifloxacin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide administered daily during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomized to receive either rifapentine (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) plus moxifloxacin (investigational arm), or rifampin (approximately 10 mg/kg) plus ethambutol (control) daily for 8 weeks, along with isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The primary endpoint was sputum culture status at completion of 8 weeks of treatment. Results 121 participants (56% of accrual target) were enrolled. At completion of 8 weeks of treatment, negative cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium occurred in 47/60 (78%) participants in the investigational arm vs. 43/51 (84%, p = 0.47) in the control arm; negative cultures using liquid medium occurred in 37/47 (79%) in the investigational arm vs. 27/41 (66%, p = 0.23) in the control arm. Time to stable culture conversion was shorter for the investigational arm vs. the control arm using liquid culture medium (p = 0.03), but there was no difference using LJ medium. Median rifapentine area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) was 313 mcg*h/mL, similar to recent studies of rifapentine dosed at 450–600 mg daily. Median moxifloxacin AUC0-24 was 28.0 mcg*h/mL, much lower than in trials where rifapentine was given only intermittently with moxifloxacin. The proportion of participants discontinuing assigned treatment for reasons other than microbiological ineligibility was higher in the investigational arm vs. the control arm (11/62 [18%] vs. 3/59 [5%], p = 0.04) although the proportions of grade 3 or higher adverse events were

  15. Behavioural activation: a pilot trial of transdiagnostic treatment for excessive worry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junwen; Liu, Xi; Rapee, Ronald M; Pillay, Pallavi

    2013-09-01

    Transdiagnostic interventions present pragmatic benefits in treatment dissemination and training of mental health professionals when faced with emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. Excessive worry is a common feature across emotional disorders and represents an ideal candidate target for transdiagnostic intervention. The current pilot trial examined the efficacy of a behavioural activation treatment for worry (BAW) in a community population. 49 individuals experiencing excessive worry were randomised to waitlist or BAW receiving an 8 week group based intervention. Results demonstrated that BAW was successful in reducing excessive worry, depressive symptoms, cognitive avoidance, Intolerance of Uncertainty and improving problem solving orientation. Twice as many individuals showed clinically significant reductions in excessive worry after treatment compared to the waitlist control. Despite limitations to sample size and power, this study presents promising support for BAW as a practical transdiagnostic treatment for worry.

  16. uPA, uPAR and TGFβ₁ expression during early and late post myocardial infarction period in rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Philippou, Anastassios; Halapas, Antonios; Sourla, Antigone; Pissimissis, Nikolaos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The expression patterns of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ₁), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and uPA receptor (uPAR) were analysed after artery ligation-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in the rat myocardium. uPA and uPAR expressions were significantly increased both at transcriptional and protein level during early phase post MI period (uPA at 1 hour and uPAR at 24 hours post infarction). TGFβ1 mRNA expression profile revealed a significant increase of TGFβ1 expression from day 4 up to 8 weeks post infarction. These data suggest that the need for an increasing TGFβ₁ bioavailability during the post-infarction period in rat myocardium is achieved in the early post MI period by an increased expression of uPA/uPAR proteolytic system (indirect activation of latent TGFβ₁) and in the late post MI period by direct regulation of TGFβ₁ expression. It is therefore concluded that differential regulation of the TGFβ₁ bioavailability may be a crucial step of the repair mechanisms during the post MI infarction period in the rat myocardium.

  17. Qualitative and/or quantitative drinking water recommendations for pediatric obesity treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi D.; Del Toro, Rigoberto; Hamer, Janice; Medina, Alma; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; TinajeroDeck, Lydia; Juarez, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Objective The qualitative recommendation to ‘drink water instead of caloric beverages’ may facilitate pediatric obesity treatment by lowering total energy intake. The quantitative recommendation to ‘drink enough water to dilute urine’ might further facilitate weight loss by increasing fat oxidation via cell hydration-mediated changes in insulin. Methods This 8 week randomized intervention tested whether both qualitative-plus-quantitative (QQ) drinking water recommendations result in more weight loss than the qualitative recommendation alone (Q) in 25 children (9–12y) with body mass index at or above the 85th Percentile, given a reduced glycemic diet and usual physical activity. Random urine osmolality, saliva insulin, and body weight were assessed weekly. Mixed models explored if insulin mediated an effect of urine osmolality on weight loss. Results In intention-to-treat analyses, QQ and Q participants did not differ significantly with respect to level of urine osmolality, saliva insulin, or weight loss. Only 4 out of 16 QQ participants complied with instruction to drink enough water to dilute urine, however. In completers analyses, the compliant QQ participants, who diluted urine osmolality from 910 ± 161 mmol/kg at baseline to below 500 mmol/kg over time (8 week mean±SE: 450 ± 67 mmol/kg), had significantly lower saliva insulin over time (8 week mean±SE: 13 ± 8 pmol/l vs. 22 ± 4 pmol/l) and greater weight loss (mean ± SE: −3.3 ± 0.7kg vs. −2.0 ± 0.5 kg) than compliant Q participants (7 out of 9 participants) who maintained elevated urine osmolality over time (8- week mean±SE: 888 ± 41 mmol/kg). Urine osmolality below 500 mmol/kg was significantly associated with weight loss. Change in saliva insulin partially explained the association. Conclusions QQ recommendations may increase weight loss for those able to dilute urine. Work is warranted to pursue cell hydration effects of drinking water for pediatric obesity treatment. PMID:25632375

  18. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  19. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  20. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  1. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  2. Clofazimine Contributes Sustained Antimicrobial Activity after Treatment Cessation in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Rosemary V.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Ngcobo, Bongani; Adamson, John; Moodley, Chivonne; Dorasamy, Afton; Moodley, Sashen; Mgaga, Zinhle; Bester, Linda A.; Singh, Sanil D.; Almeida, Deepak V.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have indicated that the antileprosy drug clofazimine may contribute treatment-shortening activity when included in tuberculosis treatment regimens. Clofazimine accumulates to high levels in tissues, has a long half-life, and remains in the body for months after administration is stopped. We hypothesized that in tuberculosis treatment, accumulated clofazimine may contribute sustained antimicrobial activity after treatment cessation, and we used the BALB/c mouse model of chronic tuberculosis chemotherapy to address this hypothesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice were treated for 4 weeks or 8 weeks with either isoniazid alone, clofazimine alone, the first-line regimen rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol, or a first-line regimen where clofazimine was administered in place of ethambutol. To evaluate posttreatment antimicrobial activity, bacterial regrowth in the lungs and spleens was assessed at the day of treatment cessation and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment was stopped. Bacterial regrowth was delayed in all mice receiving clofazimine, either alone or in combination, compared to the mice that did not receive clofazimine. This effect was especially evident in mice receiving multidrug therapy. In mice not receiving clofazimine, bacterial regrowth began almost immediately after treatment was stopped, while in mice receiving clofazimine, bacterial regrowth was delayed for up to 6 weeks, with the duration of sustained antimicrobial activity being positively associated with the time that serum clofazimine levels remained at or above the 0.25-μg/ml MIC for M. tuberculosis. Thus, sustained activity of clofazimine may be important in the treatment-shortening effect associated with this drug. PMID:26926638

  3. Novel neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for treatment of dysphagia after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Kurasawa, Miho; Setoguchi, Haruka; Noma, Tomokazu; Takenaka, Keita; Soeda, Akina; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a novel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to the effects of conventional treatment in patients with dysphagia after brain injury. In total, 26 patients were non-randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 14). The experimental group received NMES intervention followed by conventional treatment, including thermaltactile stimulation with intensive repetition of a dry-swallow task. The control group received conventional treatment without NMES. NMES at a fixed pulse duration of 50 μs and a frequency of 50 Hz was delivered over the skin areas above the motor point of the target muscles, i.e., the bilateral geniohyoid, mylohyoid/anterior belly of the digastric, and thyrohyoid muscles, using a high-voltage pulsed-current device. The two groups received 40-min treatments once a day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks. Outcome, assessed before and 8 weeks after treatment, was evaluated with regard to the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS), the anterior and superior displacement of the hyoid bone and larynx, and the functional oral intake scale. Both groups exhibited improvement, but the experimental group exhibited more significant improvement in the displacement of the hyoid bone and larynx, VDS-total score, and VDS-pharyngeal score than the control group did. The results suggest that NMES combined with conventional treatment is superior to conventional treatment alone in patients with dysphagia following treatment for brain injury. Further investigations are necessary to examine the effects of NMES in patients with more varied types of diseases. PMID:24670314

  4. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  5. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  6. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  7. 7 CFR 930.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.7 Section 930.7...

  8. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment: an observational study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Wen-Fu; Yip, Bak-Sau; Yang, Yu-Wan; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Tsai, Shih-Jei; Liao, Yi-Chu; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Among the medications approved for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), rivastigmine is the only one available as transdermal patch. The aim of this study was to evaluate compliance and caregivers’ preference with oral and transdermal (rivastigmine) monotherapy in patients with mild-to-moderate AD from Taiwan. Methods Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment (RECAP) in Taiwan was a prospective, noninterventional, observational study with a 24-week (±8 weeks) observational period for each participant. Eligible patients were grouped into one of the two treatment cohorts based on the baseline AD therapy: oral (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine) or transdermal (rivastigmine patch). The primary end points were caregiver preference and caregiver assessment of patients’ compliance to the current medication (oral or transdermal medication) at Week 24 (end of the study). Safety was assessed by recording any adverse events. Results A total of 301 patients (age: 77.6±7.19 years) were enrolled from nine centers in Taiwan, of whom 138 (45.8%) patients were in the transdermal monotherapy cohort. Caregivers of patients who were exposed to both forms of therapies demonstrated a higher preference for transdermal rivastigmine monotherapy than the oral monotherapy (82.4% [n=61] versus 17.6% [n=13], P<0.0001); for patients treated with only one therapy, the caregivers’ preference was significantly in favor of the treatment to which the patient was exposed (both P<0.0001). In both cohorts, patients showed good compliance, with an overall score of 8.65±1.38 on an 11-point scale. Of 301 enrolled patients, 102 (33.9%) reported at least one adverse event during the study (51 patients each in the two cohorts). Conclusion With the higher caregiver preference and a good patient compliance, the trans-dermal rivastigmine patch is a suitable treatment choice for patients with mild-to-moderate AD, especially for patients

  9. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    PubMed

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  10. Effects of chronic cochlear electrical stimulation after an extended period of profound deafness on primary auditory cortex organization in cats.

    PubMed

    Fallon, James B; Shepherd, Robert K; Irvine, Dexter R F

    2014-03-01

    Extended periods of deafness have profound effects on central auditory system function and organization. Neonatal deafening results in loss of the normal cochleotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI), but environmentally-derived intracochlear electrical stimulation, via a cochlear implant, initiated shortly after deafening, can prevent this loss. We investigated whether such stimulation initiated after an extended period of deafness can restore cochleotopy. In two groups of neonatally-deafened cats, a multi-channel intracochlear electrode array was implanted at 8 weeks of age. One group received only minimal stimulation, associated with brief recordings at 4-6-week intervals, over the following 6 months to check the efficacy of the implant. In the other group, this 6-month period was followed by 6 months of near-continuous intracochlear electrical stimulation from a modified clinical cochlear implant system. We recorded multi-unit clusters in the auditory cortex and used two different methods to define the region of interest in the putative AI. There was no evidence of cochleotopy in any of the minimally stimulated animals, confirming our earlier finding. In three of six chronically stimulated cats there was clear evidence of AI cochleotopy, and in a fourth cat in which the majority of penetrations were in the anterior auditory field there was clear evidence of cochleotopy in that field. The finding that chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation after an extended period of deafness is able to restore cochleotopy in some (but not all) cases has implications for the performance of patients implanted after an extended period of deafness.

  11. Functional Electrical Stimulation as a Safe and Effective Treatment for Equine Epaxial Muscle Spasms: Clinical Evaluations and Histochemical Morphometry of Mitochondria in Muscle Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ravara, Barbara; Gobbo, Valerio; Carraro, Ugo; Gelbmann, Lin; Pribyl, Jamie; Schils, Sheila

    2015-03-11

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been used extensively over several decades to reverse muscle atrophy during rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients. The benefits of the technology are being expanded into other areas, and FES has been recently utilized for injury rehabilitation and performance enhancement in horses. Six retired horses (age from 10 to 17 yrs) that had been previously used mainly for dressage riding were selected for this study. Clinical evaluation found epaxial muscle spasms in all horses with minimal to no pelvic extension when manually palpated. FES treatments were performed on the sacral/lumbar region 3 times per week for a period of 8 weeks, obtaining a total of 22 treatments per horse. The Modified Ashworth Scale for grading muscle spasms found a one grade improvement after approximately four FES treatments, indicating improved functional movement of the sacral/lumbar region, supporting the evidence by clinical palpations that a reduction in epaxial muscle spasms occurred. Skeletal muscle biopsies Pre and Post FES treatments were obtained from the longissimus lumborum muscle. Cryosections were stained with a Hemotoxylin-Eosin (H-E), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase reaction (NADH-TR). The eventual size change of the muscle fibers were evaluated by morphometry in the H-E and NADH-TR stained cryosections, while in the NADH-TR slides the histochemical density and distribution of mitochondria were also determined. The main results of the morphometric analyses were: 1) As expected for the type of FES treatment used in this study, only a couple of horses showed significant increases in mean muscle fiber size when Pre- vs Post-FES biopsies were compared; 2) In the older horses, there were sparse (or many in one horse) very atrophic and angulated muscle fibers in both Pre- and Post-FES samples, whose attributes and distribution suggests that they were denervated due to a distal neuropathy; 3) The hypothesis

  12. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  13. Quasi-periodic spatiotemporal filtering.

    PubMed

    Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282

  14. Permeability relation for periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A; Bergman, D J

    1998-01-01

    The permeability relation for periodic porous media is studied with respect to other petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time. All these quantities were computed for periodic structures of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic arrays of touching and overlapping spheres. The formation factors were calculated by using a method which is based on a Fourier-space representation of an integral equation for the electric potential in a two-component composite. The nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time for the case where surface-enchanced relaxation plays a dominant role is known to be V P/rho S (VP is the pore volume, S is the pore surface, is the surface relaxation strength) when rho is not too large. Previously calculated permeabilities for these structures from the literature were used for correlation studies with other petrophysical parameters. Various correlation schemes among these quantities, such as k = aTbFc, and k = aTb phi c, were investigated, where k is permeability, T is the NMR relaxation time, phi is the porosity, and F is the formation factor. PMID:9803908

  15. Analysis of Hemodynamics and Aneurysm Occlusion after Flow Diverting Treatment in Rabbit Models

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, Juan R.; Mut, Fernando; Raschi, Marcelo; Hodis, Simona; Ding, Yong-Hong; Erickson, Bradley J.; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic conditions created immediately after flow diversion and subsequent occlusion of experimental aneurysms in rabbits. Methods The hemodynamic environment before and after flow diversion treatment of elastase induced aneurysms in 20 rabbits was modeled using image-based computational fluid dynamics. Local aneurysm occlusion was quantified using a voxelization technique on 3D images acquired 8 weeks after treatment. Global and local voxel-by-voxel hemodynamic variables were used to statistically compare aneurysm regions that later thrombosed to regions that remained patent. Results Six aneurysms remained patent at 8 weeks while 14 were completely or nearly completely occluded. Patent aneurysms had statistically larger neck sizes (p=0.0015) and smaller mean transit times (p=0.02). The velocity, vorticity and shear rate were about 2.8 times (p<0.0001) larger in patent regions, i.e. had larger “flow activity”, than regions that progressed to occlusion. Statistical models based on local hemodynamic variables were capable of predicting local occlusion with good precision (84% accuracy), especially away from the neck (92–94%). Predictions near the neck were poorer (73% accuracy). Conclusion These results suggests that the dominant healing mechanism of occlusion within the aneurysm dome are related to slow flow induced thrombosis while near the neck other processes could be at play simultaneously. PMID:24729467

  16. Analysis of Hemodynamics and Aneurysm Occlusion after Flow Diverting Treatment in Rabbit Models

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, Juan R.; Mut, Fernando; Raschi, Marcelo; Hodis, Simona; Ding, Yong-Hong; Erickson, Bradley J.; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic conditions created immediately after flow diversion and subsequent occlusion of experimental aneurysms in rabbits. Methods The hemodynamic environment before and after flow diversion treatment of elastase induced aneurysms in 20 rabbits was modeled using image-based computational fluid dynamics. Local aneurysm occlusion was quantified using a voxelization technique on 3D images acquired 8 weeks after treatment. Global and local voxel-by-voxel hemodynamic variables were used to statistically compare aneurysm regions that later thrombosed to regions that remained patent. Results Six aneurysms remained patent at 8 weeks while 14 were completely or nearly completely occluded. Patent aneurysms had statistically larger neck sizes (p=0.0015) and smaller mean transit times (p=0.02). The velocity, vorticity and shear rate were about 2.8 times (p<0.0001) larger in patent regions, i.e. had larger “flow activity”, than regions that progressed to occlusion. Statistical models based on local hemodynamic variables were capable of predicting local occlusion with good precision (84% accuracy), especially away from the neck (92–94%). Predictions near the neck were poorer (73% accuracy). Conclusion These results suggests that the dominant healing mechanism of occlusion within the aneurysm dome are related to slow flow induced thrombosis while near the neck other processes could be at play simultaneously. PMID:24722302

  17. Preventing dyslipidemia by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rats and hamsters after chronic high fat diet treatment.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Shih, Mei-Fen

    2005-05-13

    The effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on serum lipid profiles, after concomitant long-term treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) in rats and hamsters was studied. Wistar rats and Syrian hamsters were fed with or without various concentrations of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained high-fat diet (CHFD) for 2, 4 and 8 weeks prior to assay of serum lipids. Fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol as well as HDL cholesterol levels in high-fat diet treated rats and hamster were determined. Results showed that triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in HFD treated rats and hamsters were increased from the normal rodent diet (NRD) treated controls after 2, 4, and 8-week treatments. However, the presence of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in high-fat diets significantly decreased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol with comparison to HFD group in rats and hamsters. The total cholesterol/HDL ratios, an indication of occurrence of coronary heart disease, were decreased in all CHFD treated grouped rats and hamsters which suggests administration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa could lower the occurring risk of heart diseases. In conclusion, Chlorella pyrenoidosa has the ability to prevent dyslipidemia in chronic high-fat fed animals and could be potential in use to prevent intestinal absorption of redundant lipid from our daily intake and subsequently to prevent hyperlipidemia as well as atherosclerosis. PMID:15850594

  18. Spinal epidural abscess: the importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, A; Laing, R; Smith, C; Kaar, G; Smith, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To remind clinicians of the dangers of delayed diagnosis and the importance of early treatment of spinal epidural abscess.
METHODS—A review of the literature on spinal epidural abscess and a comparison of the published literature with local experience.
RESULTS—Imaging with MRI or CT enables early diagnosis of spinal epidural abcess and optimal therapy is surgical evacuation combined with 6-12 weeks (median 8 weeks) of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinical features are fever, pain, and focal neurological signs and may be associated with preceding and pre-existing bone or joint disease. The commonest aetiological organism is S aureus.
CONCLUSION—Early diagnosis and appropriate early antimicrobial chemotherapy with surgery is associated with an excellent prognosis.

 PMID:9703173

  19. [Attention deficit syndrome in adults: clinical, psychophysiological features and treatment].

    PubMed

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Iakovenko, E A; Nikishena, I S; Anisimova, T I

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of examination of 34 patients, aged from 18 to 30 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (ICD-10 item F90.0). The study has shown that inattentive type of ADHD is noted in 50%, combined type in 38.3% and hyperactivity/impulsivity type in 11.7% of patients. Adult patients with ADHD also have a high level of anxiety and asthenic disorders. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adaptol in dosage 1500 mg daily during 8 weeks in the treatment of this group of patients. The high efficacy (improvement in 64,7% of cases) and safety of adaptol confirmed by the data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies.

  20. Interferon treatment of NZB mice: accelerated progression of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Heremans, H; Billiau, A; Colombatti, A; Hilgers, J; de Somer, P

    1978-01-01

    The effect of long-term administration of interferon in New Zealand Black and New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 hybrid mice was studied. Treatment with moderate doses of interferon (10(4) units, five times weekly for 8 weeks) did not depress murine leukemia virus gp69/71 levels in serum and spleen, nor p30 levels in the spleen. Interferon given at 10(5.1) units (three times weekly for 37 weeks) caused an increased incidence of anti-erythrocyte antibodies in New Zealand Black mice. Finally, the hybrid mice given interferon at 10(6.0) units (three times weekly for 33 weeks) had increased renal immune complex deposits and increased incidences of proteinuria and anemia. Images PMID:213392

  1. Can we well assess the relative efficacy and tolerability of a new drug versus others at the time of marketing authorization using mixed treatment comparisons? A detailed illustration with escitalopram

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Brignone, Mélanie; Painchault, Caroline; Rive, Benoit; Toumi, Mondher; François, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the variation of relative efficacy and tolerability of an antidepressant versus others based on both pre-marketing (registration studies) and post-marketing studies versus pre-marketing studies only in patients with major depressive disorder. Methods The relative efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants was assessed by mixed treatment comparisons (MTCs) using data acquired over two time periods: before registration of the reference drug escitalopram (1989–2002) and up to 5 years later (1989–2007). Ranking probability outputs were presented for efficacy, using change from baseline to 8 weeks on Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score, and tolerability, using withdrawals due to adverse events. Results The relative efficacy and tolerability of some selected antidepressants, including escitalopram, varied considerably over the two time periods. The improved relative efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram over time, compared with citalopram, was demonstrated by greater separation of ranking probability curves for efficacy and tolerability. In 2002, escitalopram ranked low with 13.9% and 5.1% probability of being in the top four antidepressants’ relative efficacy and tolerability, respectively. In 2007, ranking probabilities for relative efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram increased to 52.5% and 82.1%, respectively. Conclusions Time of marketing authorization may not be the most appropriate time to evaluate the relative efficacy and tolerability of a new antidepressant based on MTC approach due to the asymmetry of information between new and older compounds. However, the first evaluation of relative effect of a new drug for health technology assessment recommendations is commonly done at this time. Re-evaluation of a drug several years after its launch is likely to provide a more accurate indication of its relative efficacy and tolerability. PMID:27123184

  2. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  3. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  4. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  5. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  6. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics?].

    PubMed

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period. PMID:27142442

  7. Slightly focused high-energy shockwave therapy: a potential adjuvant treatment for osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Hai-Ming; Li, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Ge-Jun; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Slightly focused high-energy shockwave (HESW) therapy is characterized by a wide focal area, a large therapy zone, easy positioning and less pain during treatment. The objective of this study was to perform for the first time an in vivo test of the slightly focused HESWs for osteoporotic fractures. Bilateral proximal tibial osteotomies were made in 30 ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats and secured with internal fixation. The osteotomy site in the left tibia was subsequently treated with slightly focused HESWs with the energy flux density of 0.26 mj/mm(2), shock repetition frequency of 1 Hz and 2000 shocks (OVX + HESW group). The contralateral right tibia was not treated and served as the control (OVX group). Roentgenographic examination 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after osteotomy showed that HESW treatment accelerated tibia fracture healing in osteoporotic rats. Histological examination 2, 4, and 8 weeks after HESW treatment showed a greater inflammatory reaction in the OVX + HESW group, with more mature collagen and trabeculae than in the OVX group. Micro computer tomography (Micro-CT) scanning after 4 and 8 weeks showed that bone volume (BV), bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), mean trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and mean trabecular number (Tb.N) were about 45.0% and 33.1%, 18.4% and 20.1%, 38.2% and 20.9%, 26.7% and 28.4%, respectively, higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05); and the mean trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was about 16.7% and 27.3% lower in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Four and eight weeks after HESW treatment, the maximum compressive callus endurance was about 72.3% and 25.5%, respectively, higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). These results show that slightly focused HESW therapy has a beneficial effect on osteoporotic tibial fracture healing. Slightly focused HESWs could increase callus endurance, induce bone formation, and improve trabecular bone microarchitecture and biomechanical

  8. AB212. Clinical study on the treatment of lifelong premature ejaculation with Paroxetine hydrochloride and tamsulosin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Chao; Li, Bo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are quite a few researches about SSRIs and alpha-receptor blockers on the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), but few researches focus on the combination use of them. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of combine and alone use of paroxetine hydrochloride and tamsulosin on the treatment of lifelong PE. Methods 352 cases of men with 18–65 years of age, a history of lifelong PE and an intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) <120 sec were included in this study. The patients were randomized divided into three groups. Group A were treated by paroxetine hydrochloride 20 mg/d for 8 weeks; group B were treated by tamsulosin 0.2 mg/d for 8 weeks; group C were treated by paroxetine hydrochloride and tamsulosin at the same dosage as above for 8 weeks. The effects were evaluated by the mean change and folds increase in geometric mean IELT and the mean change in all four measures of the premature ejaculation profile (PEP), the adverse events (AEs) and vital sign measurements were recorded at each visit. All the data were statistically analyzed. Results The reliable data from 322 patients were achieved. The geometric mean IELT in group A was significantly increased from 1.15 to 8.13 min after treatment (P<0.001); the geometric mean IELT in group B was significantly increased from 1.26 to 2.78 min after treatment (P<0.01); the geometric mean IELT in group C was significantly increased from 1.18 to 9.52 min after treatment (P<0.001). The increased folds of geometric mean IELT in group C (8.07 folds) was significantly higher than that in group B (2.21 folds) and group A (7.07 folds) (P<0.001). The mean PEP scores that include measures of perceived control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, ejaculation-related personal distress, and ejaculation-related interpersonal difficulty were significantly improved in all groups after treatment (P<0.001). The mean PEP scores in group C have more significant improvements than

  9. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  10. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Boz, Adil; Duman, Ozgur; Aydin, Funda; Haspolat, Senay

    2008-12-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with Shapiro syndrome without corpus callosum agenesis. A 4-year-old-girl was admitted to the hospital with complaints of sweating, cooling, and drowsiness that continued during the last week of her admission. Attacks occurred almost daily, and lasted for about 1 hour. All laboratory findings, as well as Holter and echocardiography results, were normal. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intact corpus callosum, and electroencephalography obtained during an attack revealed normal findings. However, technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission computed tomography indicated increased perfusion in the right thalamus, basal ganglia, and inferior frontal areas during a hypothermic period. Although oxcarbazepine reduced the frequency of attacks, they were not halted completely. The patient responded better to carbamazepine. PMID:19027594

  11. The olfactory conditioning in the early postnatal period stimulated neural stem/progenitor cells in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of rats.

    PubMed

    So, K; Moriya, T; Nishitani, S; Takahashi, H; Shinohara, K

    2008-01-01

    The olfactory memory acquired during the early postnatal period is known to be maintained for a long period, however, its neural mechanism remains to be clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of olfactory conditioning during the early postnatal period on neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of rats. Using the bromodeoxyuridine-pulse chase method, we found that the olfactory conditioning, which was a paired presentation of citral odor (conditioned stimulus) and foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) in rat pups on postnatal day 11, stimulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in the anterior subventricular zone (aSVZ), but not in the olfactory bulb, at 24 h after the conditioning. However, the number of newborn cells in the olfactory bulb was increased at 2 weeks, but not 8 weeks, after such conditioning. Neither the exposure of a citral odor alone nor foot shock alone affected the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in the aSVZ at 24 h after and the number of newborn cells in the olfactory bulb at 2 weeks after. The majority of newborn cells in the olfactory bulb of either the conditioned rats or the unconditioned rats expressed the neural marker NeuN, thus indicating that the olfactory conditioning stimulated neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. These results suggest that olfactory conditioning during the early postnatal period temporally stimulates neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of rats.

  12. Effects of oral testosterone treatment on myocardial perfusion and vascular function in men with low plasma testosterone and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Webb, Carolyn M; Elkington, Andrew G; Kraidly, Mustafa M; Keenan, Niall; Pennell, Dudley J; Collins, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Intracoronary testosterone infusions induce coronary vasodilatation and increase coronary blood flow. Longer term testosterone supplementation favorably affected signs of myocardial ischemia in men with low plasma testosterone and coronary heart disease. However, the effects on myocardial perfusion are unknown. Effects of longer term testosterone treatment on myocardial perfusion and vascular function were investigated in men with CHD and low plasma testosterone. Twenty-two men (mean age 57 +/- 9 [SD] years) were randomly assigned to oral testosterone undecanoate (TU; 80 mg twice daily) or placebo in a crossover study design. After each 8-week period, subjects underwent at rest and adenosine-stress first-pass myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance, pulse-wave analysis, and endothelial function measurements using radial artery tonometry, blood sampling, anthropomorphic measurements, and quality-of-life assessment. Although no difference was found in global myocardial perfusion after TU compared with placebo, myocardium supplied by unobstructed coronary arteries showed increased perfusion (1.83 +/- 0.9 vs 1.52 +/- 0.65; p = 0.037). TU decreased basal radial and aortic augmentation indexes (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively), indicating decreased arterial stiffness, but there was no effect on endothelial function. TU significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased hip circumference, but had no effect on hemostatic factors, quality of life, and angina symptoms. In conclusion, oral TU had selective and modest enhancing effects on perfusion in myocardium supplied by unobstructed coronary arteries, in line with previous intracoronary findings. The TU-related decrease in basal arterial stiffness may partly explain previously shown effects of exogenous testosterone on signs of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. PMID:18308009

  13. Effectiveness of an interdisciplinary pain management program for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Rapkin, A J; Naliboff, B D; Afifi, S; Ferrer-Brechner, T

    1990-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain has rarely been discussed in the pain management literature, although it is extremely common in general gynecological practice and often refractory to traditional medical and surgical therapy. A chronic pelvic pain program was developed to offer an alternative treatment approach for women for whom standard gynecological procedures were inappropriate or unsuccessful. Sixteen subjects completed the full 6-8 week interdisciplinary program, which included both somatic and behavioral therapies. Compared to a waiting list control the results showed a dramatic decrease in reported levels of pain following treatment. Anxiety and depression also decreased and psychosocial functioning improved, including return to work, increased social activities, and improved sexual activity. The outcome suggests that the interdisciplinary pain management approach is effective for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:2352765

  14. Effects of pesticide seed treatments on Rhizobium japonicum and its symbiotic relationship with soybean.

    PubMed

    Tu, C M

    1977-08-01

    Seventeen Rhizobium japonicum cultures isolated from soybean nodules induced formation of nodules on taproots of soybean plants. All isolates reduced acetylene to ethylene to different extents in vitro. Paper disc assay indicated that two insecticides, lindane (gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate), and a fungicide, thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulphide) individually or in combination caused significant inhibition of the growth of R. japonicum No. 16. The effects of insecticide-fungicide seed treatments on the nitrogenase activity of soybean plants in nitrogen-fixing capacity, weights of leaves, stems, and nodules were determined. Thiram, singly or in combination with lindane and/or chlorpyrifos, significantly delayed growth of the plants and affected the activity of nitrogenase in the fixation of nitrogen 3 weeks after treatments. No drastic effect of any of the pesticide treatments on soybean plant growth was observed after 8 weeks.

  15. Adjunctive aripiprazole in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Xu; Su, Yun-Ai; Bian, Qing-Tao; Wei, Li-He; Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Hong; Correll, Christoph; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect associated with several antipsychotics. The addition of partial dopamine receptor agonist aripiprazole may attenuate antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia effectively. However, the ideal dosing regimen for this purpose is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on prolactin levels and hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Stable subjects 18-45 years old with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia (i.e., >24 ng/ml for females and >20 ng/ml for males) were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of placebo (n=30) or oral aripiprazole 5mg/day (n=30), 10mg/day (n=29), or 20mg/day (n=30) added on to fixed dose risperidone treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks; clinical symptoms and side effects were assessed at baseline and week 8 using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Severity scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale and UKU Side Effects Rating Scale. Of 119 randomized patients, 107 (89.9%) completed the 8-week study. At study end, all three aripiprazole doses resulted in significantly lower prolactin levels (beginning at week 2), higher response rates (≥30% prolactin reduction) and higher prolactin normalization rates than placebo. Effects were significantly greater in the 10 and 20mg/day groups than the 5mg/day group. No significant changes were observed in any treatment groups regarding psychopathology and adverse effect ratings. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment was effective and safe for resolving risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia, producing significant and almost maximal improvements by week 2 without significant effects on psychopathology and side effects.

  16. Adjunctive aripiprazole in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Xu; Su, Yun-Ai; Bian, Qing-Tao; Wei, Li-He; Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Hong; Correll, Christoph; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect associated with several antipsychotics. The addition of partial dopamine receptor agonist aripiprazole may attenuate antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia effectively. However, the ideal dosing regimen for this purpose is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on prolactin levels and hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Stable subjects 18-45 years old with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia (i.e., >24 ng/ml for females and >20 ng/ml for males) were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of placebo (n=30) or oral aripiprazole 5mg/day (n=30), 10mg/day (n=29), or 20mg/day (n=30) added on to fixed dose risperidone treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks; clinical symptoms and side effects were assessed at baseline and week 8 using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Severity scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale and UKU Side Effects Rating Scale. Of 119 randomized patients, 107 (89.9%) completed the 8-week study. At study end, all three aripiprazole doses resulted in significantly lower prolactin levels (beginning at week 2), higher response rates (≥30% prolactin reduction) and higher prolactin normalization rates than placebo. Effects were significantly greater in the 10 and 20mg/day groups than the 5mg/day group. No significant changes were observed in any treatment groups regarding psychopathology and adverse effect ratings. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment was effective and safe for resolving risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia, producing significant and almost maximal improvements by week 2 without significant effects on psychopathology and side effects. PMID:25981348

  17. [Guidelines for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Cho, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, Jie Hyun; Kim, Na Young; Lee, Joon Seong; Bak, Young Tae

    2011-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. In the last decade, GERD has been increasing in Korea. Seventeen consensus statements for the treatment of GERD were developed using the modified Delphi approach. Acid suppression treatments, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histmine-2 receptor antagonists and antacids are effective in the control of GERD-related symptoms. Among them, PPIs are the most effective medication. Standard dose PPI is recommended as the initial treatment of erosive esophagitis (for 8 weeks) and non-erosive reflux disease (at least for 4 weeks). Long-term continuous PPI or on-demand therapy is required for the majority of GERD patients after the initial treatment. Anti-reflux surgery can be considered in well selected patients. Prokinetic agents and mucosal protective drugs have limited roles. Twice daily PPI therapy can be tried to control extra-esophageal symptoms of GERD. For symptomatic patients with Barrett's esophagus, long-term treatment with PPI is required. Further studies are strongly needed to develop better treatment strategies for Korean patients with GERD.

  18. Brain electrical activity changes in treatment refractory schizophrenics after olanzapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cerdán, Luis F; Guevara, Miguel A; Sanz, Araceli; Amezcua, Claudia; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify brain electrical activity changes generated by olanzapine (OLZ) in treatment refractory schizophrenics (TRS). 14 paranoid TRS (31.5+/-8.39 years old) were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of OLZ treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated by means of total BPRS and PANSS scores. Resting EEG was recorded in the pre (under typical neuroleptics) and post (under OLZ) sessions. A good response to OLZ was observed in 57% of TRS. A significant reduction in positive and negative symptoms scales of PANSS was found. Absolute power of theta1, theta2, alpha1 bands increased after treatment, while beta2 power showed a decrease. Intrahemispheric correlation increased between different zones of the frontal areas and between frontal and posterior areas, while interhemispheric correlation decreased in theta2. EEG changes were more evident in those patients who had a better response to OLZ. OLZ showed to be effective in TRS, improving psychiatric symptoms and increasing activity synchronization between different areas within each hemisphere that may indicate a functional reorganization, particularly in good responders.

  19. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...