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Sample records for 8-week yoga program

  1. Increased heart rate variability but no effect on blood pressure from 8 weeks of hatha yoga – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga exercises are known to decrease stress and restore autonomic balance. Yet knowledge about the physiological effects of inversion postures is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inversion postures (head below the heart) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Twelve healthy women and men took part in an 8-week yoga program (60 min once a week). BP was measured with an automatic Omron mx3 oscillometric monitoring device and HRV with a Holter 24-hour ECG at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention. Results There was no significant effect of inversion postures on BP. Nine out of 12 participants showed a significant increase in HRV (p < 0.05) at night (2 hours) on pNN50% (12.7 ± 12.5 to 18.2 ± 13.3). There were no significant changes in other HRV measures such as NN50, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, LF normalized units (n.u.), HF n.u. and RMSSD. Conclusion Eight weeks of hatha yoga improved HRV significantly which suggests an increased vagal tone and reduced sympathetic activity. PMID:23398959

  2. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Yoga of Awareness program in the management of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Jones, Kim D; Bennett, Robert M; Wright, Cheryl L; Mist, Scott D

    2010-11-01

    A mounting body of literature recommends that treatment for fibromyalgia (FM) encompass medications, exercise and improvement of coping skills. However, there is a significant gap in determining an effective counterpart to pharmacotherapy that incorporates both exercise and coping. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive yoga intervention on FM symptoms and coping. A sample of 53 female FM patients were randomized to the 8-week Yoga of Awareness program (gentle poses, meditation, breathing exercises, yoga-based coping instructions, group discussions) or to wait-listed standard care. Data were analyzed by intention to treat. At post-treatment, women assigned to the yoga program showed significantly greater improvements on standardized measures of FM symptoms and functioning, including pain, fatigue, and mood, and in pain catastrophizing, acceptance, and other coping strategies. This pilot study provides promising support for the potential benefits of a yoga program for women with FM.

  3. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747. PMID:27563670

  4. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Qin, Liqiang; Luo, Li; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747. PMID:27563670

  5. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  6. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  7. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  8. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  9. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  10. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    PubMed Central

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students. PMID:20098584

  11. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  12. A Yoga and Compassion Meditation Program Reduces Stress in Familial Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Danucalov, M. A. D.; Kozasa, E. H.; Ribas, K. T.; Galduróz, J. C. F.; Garcia, M. C.; Verreschi, I. T. N.; Oliveira, K. C.; Romani de Oliveira, L.; Leite, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program—YCMP group) (n = 25) or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group) (n = 21). The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P < 0.05), anxiety (P < 0.000001), and depression (P < 0.00001) levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers. PMID:23690846

  13. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  14. Effects of an 8-week meditation program on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward religious/spiritual self-representations.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Campanella, Fabio; Eleopra, Roberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-11-01

    Explicit self-representations often conflict with implicit and intuitive self-representations, with such discrepancies being seen as a source of psychological tension. Most of previous research on the psychological effects of mindfulness-meditation has assessed people's self-attitudes at an explicit level, leaving unknown whether mindfulness-meditation promotes changes on implicit self-representations. Here, we assessed the changes in implicit and explicit self-related religious/spiritual (RS) representations in healthy participants following an 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation (MOM) program. Before and after meditation, participants were administered implicit (implicit association test) and explicit (self-reported questionnaires) RS measures. Relative to control condition, MOM led to increases of implicit RS in individuals whit low pre-existing implicit RS and to more widespread increases in explicit RS. On the assumption that MOM practice may enhance the clarity of one's transcendental thoughts and feelings, we argued that MOM allows people to transform their intuitive feelings of implicit RS as well as their explicit RS attitudes.

  15. Yoga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, David

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses teaching techniques that can be used for the three styles of meditation in yoga. Available from: National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales), 35 Queen Anne St., London W1M OBL England. (BP)

  16. Yoga

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... East). It means to "yoke," or unite, the mind, body, and spirit. Yoga includes physical exercise , but it's ...

  17. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry.

  18. Effects of an 8-Week Outdoor Brisk Walking Program on Fatigue in Hi-Tech Industry Employees: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Ming; Liao, Po-I; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Over 73% of hi-tech industry employees in Taiwan lack regular exercise. They are exposed to a highly variable and stressful work environment for extended periods of time, and may subsequently experience depression, detrimental to workers' physiological and mental health. In this cross-sectional survey, the authors explored the effect of an 8-week brisk walking program on the fatigue of employees in the hi-tech industry. The participants, from a hi-tech company in northern Taiwan, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; 41 subjects, Mage = 33.34 ± 6.40) or control group (CG; 45 subjects, Mage = 29.40 ± 3.60). Following the 8-week brisk walking program, the EG showed significantly lower scores for subjective fatigue, working motivation, attention, and overall fatigue. The authors confirmed that the 8-week outdoor brisk walking program significantly improved the level of fatigue among employees of the hi-tech industry. The finding serves as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provides awareness of workplace health promotion in the hi-tech industry. PMID:26194655

  19. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings.

  20. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

    PubMed Central

    Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. PMID:27660489

  1. Mental Fitness for Life: Assessing the Impact of an 8-Week Mental Fitness Program on Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Sandra A.; Thompson, Wendy J. A.; Rogers, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    A mental fitness program taught goal setting, critical thinking, creativity, positive attitudes, learning, memory, and self-expression to adults over 50 (n=22). Pre/posttests of depression and cognition revealed significant impacts on mental fitness, cognitive confidence, goal setting, optimism, creativity, flexibility, and memory. Not significant…

  2. Adherence to a Yoga Program in Older Women with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Savik, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Yoga is beneficial for osteoarthritis (OA) management in older adults; however, adherence to yoga practice is unknown. The purposes of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) yoga adherence during the intervention and follow-up periods; (2) the relationship between social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs and adherence; and (3) the impact of adherence on OA-related symptoms in 36 community-dwelling older women with knee OA. SCT was used as a framework to promote adherence to a yoga intervention program that included both group/homebased practices. Adherence to yoga was high during the intervention period but decreased over time. Although SCT was a useful framework for reducing attrition during the intervention, self-efficacy was the only construct that correlated with class attendance. Higher yoga adherence was correlated with improved symptoms, physical function, sleep quality, and quality of life. Yoga adherers were likely to be older, less educated, and had a lower body mass index than nonadherers.

  3. Qualitative evaluation of a high school yoga program: feasibility and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Lisa A; Noggle, Jessica J; Frey, Jessica L; Kudesia, Ravi S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2013-01-01

    This is the first published qualitative assessment of a yoga program applied in a high school setting. This qualitative interview study was nested in a randomized, controlled trial studying the effects of a yoga program offered in place of a semester of physical education classes at a rural public high school. Student interviews were conducted after taking part in a semester of the yoga program. A formal passive consent with information about the qualitative study was sent home to parents/guardians of all students in the parent study before the interviews. Most students enjoyed the yoga classes and felt benefits. Negative reports of yoga practice were associated with gender as most males sensed peer pressure against practicing yoga. Despite this finding, most students wanted to continue yoga and would continue if it were offered in school. Positive reports include a greater kinesthetic awareness, which some students associated with a greater respect for the body and improved self-image. Among students reporting psychological benefits, many cited stress reduction; many used yoga to manage negative emotions; and some propagated more optimism. Most thought yoga could reduce interest in the use of drugs and alcohol and increase social cohesion with family and peers. We found that a yoga program is feasible in this sample of 9th and 10th graders, especially after benefits are perceived. We also found evidence that yoga may lead to emergent positive benefits in health behaviors not directly prescribed by the program. These results suggest that school-based yoga programs may be appropriate for promoting healthy behaviors at a societal level by focusing on the prevention of negative patterns during the adolescent transition.

  4. Qualitative evaluation of a high school yoga program: feasibility and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Lisa A; Noggle, Jessica J; Frey, Jessica L; Kudesia, Ravi S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2013-01-01

    This is the first published qualitative assessment of a yoga program applied in a high school setting. This qualitative interview study was nested in a randomized, controlled trial studying the effects of a yoga program offered in place of a semester of physical education classes at a rural public high school. Student interviews were conducted after taking part in a semester of the yoga program. A formal passive consent with information about the qualitative study was sent home to parents/guardians of all students in the parent study before the interviews. Most students enjoyed the yoga classes and felt benefits. Negative reports of yoga practice were associated with gender as most males sensed peer pressure against practicing yoga. Despite this finding, most students wanted to continue yoga and would continue if it were offered in school. Positive reports include a greater kinesthetic awareness, which some students associated with a greater respect for the body and improved self-image. Among students reporting psychological benefits, many cited stress reduction; many used yoga to manage negative emotions; and some propagated more optimism. Most thought yoga could reduce interest in the use of drugs and alcohol and increase social cohesion with family and peers. We found that a yoga program is feasible in this sample of 9th and 10th graders, especially after benefits are perceived. We also found evidence that yoga may lead to emergent positive benefits in health behaviors not directly prescribed by the program. These results suggest that school-based yoga programs may be appropriate for promoting healthy behaviors at a societal level by focusing on the prevention of negative patterns during the adolescent transition. PMID:23643372

  5. “More than I Expected”: Perceived Benefits of Yoga Practice among Older Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gina K.; Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry K.; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted with participants from trials examining the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the perceived benefits of yoga in a population of older, predominantly overweight adults participating in a gentle 8-week yoga program. Design This study used a constructivist-interpretive approach to naturalistic inquiry. Setting A total of 42 participants completed the intervention and met the inclusion criteria for the current qualitative study. Intervention The 8-week Iyengar yoga program included two 90-minute yoga classes and five 30-minute home sessions per week. Participants completed weekly logs and an exit questionnaire at the end of the study. Main Outcome Measures Qualitative data from weekly logs and exit questionnaires were compiled and conventional content analysis performed with the use of ATLAS.ti to facilitate the process. Results Four broad themes emerged from content analysis: Practicing yoga improved overall physical function and capacity (for 83% of participants); practicing yoga reduced stress/anxiety and enhanced calmness (83% of participants); practicing yoga enriched the quality of sleep (21% of participants); and practicing yoga supported efforts toward dietary improvements (14% of participants). Conclusions These results suggest that yoga may have ancillary benefits in terms of improved physical function, enhanced mental/emotional state, enriched sleep quality, and improved lifestyle choices, and may be useful as a health promotion strategy in the prevention and management of chronic disease. PMID:23374201

  6. Beyond the body: insights from an Iyengar yoga program for women with disability after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roanne; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Kowalski, Kent; Spriggs, Paul; Hamoline, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Lymphedema, pain, and range of motion restrictions after breast cancer remain underexplored, and few interventions have been developed for these women. Together with a yoga instructor, our interdisciplinary research team developed a yoga program for women with lymphedema after breast cancer (n = 13). Qualitative interviews and participants' journals show that there were a number of benefits to the yoga program. Themes outlining these are (1) understanding arm morbidity; (2) becoming aware of posture; and (3) countering fatigue. More surprisingly, perhaps, the participants also described the ways in which yoga furthered their understandings of loss associated with disability, the fourth theme, and showed that yoga enhanced their experiences of embodiment, the final theme. Finally, we assert that our research demonstrates the potential for qualitative research connected to the evaluation of interventions and that it demonstrates the blurring of traditional boundaries between interventions and data collection. PMID:25314108

  7. Reflections on a Time-Limited Mother-Baby Yoga Program at the Wee Ones Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickholtz, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    This brief article discusses a yoga program offered to mothers and babies who were participating in a prison nursery. The author describes the goals and the sometimes unexpected effects of the program.

  8. School-based Yoga Programs in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students’ performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. Objective The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Design Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program’s scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. Setting The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Results Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students’ mental and physical health and behavior. Conclusions The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school

  9. Predictors of adherence to an Iyengar yoga program in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Speed-Andrews, Amy E; Stevinson, Clare; Belanger, Lisa J; Mirus, Judith J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2012-01-01

    Context: Despite the known health benefits of physical activity, participation rates in cancer survivor groups remain low. Researchers have attempted to identify alternative modes of nontraditional physical activities that may increase participation and adherence rates. This study investigated the determinants of yoga in breast cancer survivors. Aim: To examine predictors of Iyengar yoga adherence in breast cancer survivors using the theory of planned behaviour. Settings and Design: Classes were held either in Campus Recreation facilities or at the Behavioral Medicine Fitness Center at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. The study was an evaluation of an existing yoga program. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three post adjuvant therapy breast cancer survivors participating in a community-based, twice weekly, 12 week Iyengar yoga program were asked to complete baseline measures of the theory of planned behavior, demographic, medical, health/fitness, and psychosocial variables. Adherence was measured by objective attendance to the classes. Statistical Analysis: We analyzed univariate associations between predictors and yoga adherence with independent t-tests. Results: Adherence to the Iyengar yoga program was 63.9% and was predicted by stronger intention (P<0.001), greater self-efficacy (P=0.003), more positive instrumental attitude (Ps=0.025), higher disease stage (P=0.018), yoga experience in the past year, (P=0.044), diagnosis of a second cancer (P=0.008), lower fatigue (P=0.037), and greater happiness (P=0.023). Conclusions: Adherence to Iyengar yoga in breast cancer survivors was strongly related to motivational variables from the theory of planned behaviour. Researchers attempting to improve yoga adherence in breast cancer survivors may benefit from targeting the key constructs in the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:22346059

  10. Piloting yoga and assessing outcomes in a residential behavioural health unit.

    PubMed

    McIlvain, S J; Miller, B; Lawhead, B A; Barbosa-Leiker, C; Anderson, A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention. Yoga has been used as a mind-body practice for more than 2000 years; however, studies are limited regarding its effects on adolescents with mental illness on an inpatient unit. Yoga was added, twice weekly, to the program schedule. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores were measured over 8 weeks. Additional measures included daily numbers of quiet times, time outs, and point card scores. Twenty-two adolescents completed the study. The TEIQue-ASF assessment was able to detect changes in total scores over 8 weeks. Increased yoga participation was related to higher values of the TEIQue-ASF subdomain of sociability, increase in weekly point card totals, a decrease in behavioural time outs, and a decrease in combined behavioural interventions at various time points throughout the programme. This study was relevant because it was conducted on an adolescent inpatient unit. It provides support that yoga, as part of a residential programme, is a feasible intervention for adolescents with mental illness. Changes in the various measures cannot be directly linked to yoga because of lack of a comparison group. Additional studies with a larger sample, and randomization, are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of yoga and to determine if changes to the TEIQue-ASF can be attributed to yoga or other behavioural-based interventions. Little is known about how yoga will impact behavioural health outcomes for adolescents with mental illness in an inpatient setting. This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention to address emotional regulation. A single cohort study design was used. Yoga was added to the programme schedule twice weekly. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores and additional behavioural

  11. Piloting yoga and assessing outcomes in a residential behavioural health unit.

    PubMed

    McIlvain, S J; Miller, B; Lawhead, B A; Barbosa-Leiker, C; Anderson, A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention. Yoga has been used as a mind-body practice for more than 2000 years; however, studies are limited regarding its effects on adolescents with mental illness on an inpatient unit. Yoga was added, twice weekly, to the program schedule. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores were measured over 8 weeks. Additional measures included daily numbers of quiet times, time outs, and point card scores. Twenty-two adolescents completed the study. The TEIQue-ASF assessment was able to detect changes in total scores over 8 weeks. Increased yoga participation was related to higher values of the TEIQue-ASF subdomain of sociability, increase in weekly point card totals, a decrease in behavioural time outs, and a decrease in combined behavioural interventions at various time points throughout the programme. This study was relevant because it was conducted on an adolescent inpatient unit. It provides support that yoga, as part of a residential programme, is a feasible intervention for adolescents with mental illness. Changes in the various measures cannot be directly linked to yoga because of lack of a comparison group. Additional studies with a larger sample, and randomization, are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of yoga and to determine if changes to the TEIQue-ASF can be attributed to yoga or other behavioural-based interventions. Little is known about how yoga will impact behavioural health outcomes for adolescents with mental illness in an inpatient setting. This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention to address emotional regulation. A single cohort study design was used. Yoga was added to the programme schedule twice weekly. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores and additional behavioural

  12. Effect of a 16-Week Yoga Program on Blood Pressure in Healthy College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Debra; Reed, Justy; Buck, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 16-week yoga program on blood pressure (BP) in healthy college students. Twenty-five students (Mage = 28.24, SD = 10.64) participated in yoga class twice per week for 16 weeks. Thirty-one students (Mage = 28.77, SD = 7.23) attended a lecture (control condition) at approximately the same time…

  13. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  14. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    PubMed

    Qu, Su; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects. PMID:23613970

  15. Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Colleen K.

    2006-01-01

    A Yoga for Stress Management Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…

  16. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  17. Yoga for youth in pain: the UCLA pediatric pain program model.

    PubMed

    Evans, Subhadra; Moieni, Mona; Sternlieb, Beth; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2012-01-01

    Children, adolescents, and young adults do not typically feature in clinics, studies, and mainstream notions of chronic pain. Yet many young people experience debilitating pain for extended periods of time. Chronic pain in these formative years may be especially important to treat in order for young patients to maintain life tasks and to prevent protracted disability. The Pediatric Pain Program at the University of California, Los Angeles, is a multidisciplinary treatment program designed for young people with chronic pain and their families. We offer both conventional and complementary medicine to treat the whole individual. This article describes the work undertaken in the clinic and our newly developed Yoga for Youth Research Program. The clinical and research programs fill a critical need to provide service to youth with chronic pain and to scientifically study one of the more popular complementary treatments we offer, Iyengar yoga.

  18. Efficacy of short-term Yoga therapy program on quality of life in patients with psychosomatic ailments

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sumit; Ramya, C. S.; Shankar, Vinutha; Kutty, Karthiyanee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to study the effect of short-term Yoga therapy program on quality of life in patients suffering from psychosomatic ailments. Methods: Sample size and Study period: All the subjects coming to SVYASA AROGYADHAMA in month of July 2011 for Yoga therapy for various psychosomatic ailments and were free of any primary psychiatric illness and volunteering to participate were enrolled in the study after taking informed consent. Their physical condition was healthy enough to practice Yoga as judged clinically. All subjects (n = 94) who were enrolled in the study underwent Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy, which included Asanas, Pranayamas, meditation, Kriyas and lectures on practice of Yoga and derived special techniques in their respective sections. The quality of life was assessed by SF-12 questionnaire and thereby calculating Physical and Mental Composite Scores (PCS and MCS) before and after 1 week of Yoga therapy. Data thus obtained was analyzed using paired t-test. Results: A significant improvement (P < 0.001) was seen in the study group in both PCS (from mean ± SD of 37.50 ± 9.58 to 43.7 ± 8.73) and MCS (from 45.87 ± 9.57 to 53.35 ± 7.9.) with minor variations in patients of various departments. Conclusion: A short-term Yoga therapy program leads to a remarkable improvement in the quality of life of the subjects and can contribute favorably in the management of psychosomatic disorders. PMID:25657461

  19. Effect of a comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle modification program on lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Ray, Rooma Basu; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; Bijlani, Ramesh Lal

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the process of aging as well as a variety of chronic degenerative diseases. There are indications that psychological stress increases oxidative stress whereas relaxation decreases it. We have measured the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood as an indicator of oxidative stress at the beginning and at the end of a comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle modification program (YLMP). The data was collected from 104 subjects (59 male, 45 female), 19-71 years of age (mean +/- SD, 41.2 +/- 14.6 years). The YLMP consisted of a nine-day educational out-patient course on the theory and practice of yoga and included, besides a daily one-hour practice of physical postures (asanas) and breathing exercises (pranayama), lecture and films on yoga, stress management and nutrition, practice of meditation and shavasana (a relaxation technique), and individual counseling. Venous blood samples were collected on the first and last day of the course. The serum concentration of TBARS decreased significantly from 1.72 +/- 0.72 nmoles/ml on day 1 to 1.57 +/- 0.72 nmoles/ml on day 10 (P<0.05). The study suggests that a brief low cost lifestyle intervention based on yoga reduces oxidative stress.

  20. Multimodal behavior program for ADHD incorporating yoga and implemented by high school volunteers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Motiwala, Ashok; Vardhan, Jay; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost resource approach to ADHD therapy would be a practical approach to treating children in developing countries. Research has shown that ADHD is prevalent in all areas of the world, and yet treatment for children in more impoverished countries is still lacking. The approach taken was to combine yoga and meditation combined with multimodal behavioral therapy program for children ageing 6 to 11. The program was kept low cost by using trained high school volunteers and integrating the program within the public school. After 6 weeks of the program, 90.5% of children showed improvement as measured by their performance impairment score, a measurement of academic performance. Parent and Teacher evaluations of behavior also found improvement as 25 of the 64 children (39.1%) improved into the normal range as measured by the Vanderbilt questionnaire. Moreover, children could successfully learn both yoga and meditation from high school students irrespective of their age, ADHD type, or initial performance impairment. The results demonstrate efficacy of a multimodal behavioral program incorporating yoga and meditation. The use of high school volunteers from schools in the area demonstrates an effective low-cost and universally applicable approach. PMID:22389788

  1. A Social Media-Based Mindful Yoga Program for Pregnant Women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Lee, Chia-Wen; Tsao, Chien-Ming; Hsing, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Social media, a communication tool, is increasingly used to facilitate the engagement of experts (such as a health provider) and other participants in a wide range of programs. However, social media requires study to elucidate its applications under women health-related conditions. This work develops a social media-based mindful yoga program for pregnant women, and delivers media content by ways of Facebook platform and DVD. The results of pilot testing revealed users' preference of using Facebook platform. Developing experience and uses' responses can provide valuable information for further implement socialmedia based interventions. PMID:27332280

  2. A Social Media-Based Mindful Yoga Program for Pregnant Women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Lee, Chia-Wen; Tsao, Chien-Ming; Hsing, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Social media, a communication tool, is increasingly used to facilitate the engagement of experts (such as a health provider) and other participants in a wide range of programs. However, social media requires study to elucidate its applications under women health-related conditions. This work develops a social media-based mindful yoga program for pregnant women, and delivers media content by ways of Facebook platform and DVD. The results of pilot testing revealed users' preference of using Facebook platform. Developing experience and uses' responses can provide valuable information for further implement socialmedia based interventions.

  3. Yoga as a Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Julia; McNamara, Sharon; Genatossio, Alan; Breuner, Cora; Weber, Tracy; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Yoga has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with asthma but has not been investigated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: This was a prospective pilot study to evaluate the safety of a standardized yoga program among CF patients aged 12 to 25 years. Participants engaged in a 50-minute yoga session twice weekly for 8 weeks conducted by a certified yoga instructor using a standardized program designed to be safe for health-compromised individuals. Yoga sessions were individual to avoid transmission of infections. Primary outcome was safety and tolerability. Secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life instrument (CFQ-R), lung function, Ease of Breathing Score (measure of exercise tolerance), and weight. Results: Eleven participants were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Adherence was very good; the mean (SD) number of sessions completed was 14.2 (1.3) out of 16 sessions. Eight patients reported 25 adverse events. The most common was cough, reported in 7. Two events were possibly related to study procedures: calf pain and headache. There were no significant changes in dyspnea or pain scales. The mean (SD) CFQ-R respiratory domain score increased from screening to end of study: 67.9 (11.4) to 82.1 (9.9), P=.04. There were no significant changes in the other outcome measures. Conclusions: In this pilot study, a standardized 8-week yoga program was safe and well tolerated among adolescent and young adult CF patients with mild to moderate lung disease. This study may be helpful to yoga instructors who are interested in working with CF patients. Larger controlled trials are warranted to determine further benefits. PMID:26665020

  4. Evaluation of a residential Kundalini yoga lifestyle pilot program for addiction in India.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Khalsa, Gurucharan S; Khalsa, Hargopal K; Khalsa, Mukta K

    2008-01-01

    Previously reported substance abuse interventions incorporating meditation and spiritual approaches are believed to provide their benefit through modulation of both psychological and pyschosocial factors. A 90-day residential group pilot treatment program for substance abuse that incorporated a comprehensive array of yoga, meditation, spiritual and mind-body techniques was conducted in Amritsar, India. Subjects showed improvements on a number of psychological self-report questionnaires including the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale and the Quality of Recovery Index. Application of comprehensive spiritual lifestyle interventions may prove effective in treating substance abuse, particularly in populations receptive to such approaches.

  5. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  6. Vivekananda Yoga Program for Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer and their Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Milbury, Kathrin; Mallaiah, Smitha; Lopez, Gabriel; Liao, Zhongxing; Yang, Chunyi; Carmack, Cindy; Chaoul, Alejandro; Spelman, Amy; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although yoga practice may improve quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients, feasibility in patients with lung cancer is largely unknown. Moreover, previous research has excluded patients’ family caregivers. Because caregivers are vulnerable to caregiver burden, a dyadic approach targeting QOL in both patient and caregiver may be particularly beneficial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of a couple-based Vivekananda Yoga (VKC) intervention in lung cancer patients and caregivers. Vivekananda Yoga may be suitable for a dyadic approach and address the multifaceted needs (e.g., emotional, physical, spiritual, and social) common among families coping with lung cancer. METHOD In this single-arm feasibility trial, patients with lung cancer undergoing radiotherapy and their caregivers participated in a 15-session VKC program focused on the interconnectedness of the dyad. The program consisted of four main components: 1) joint loosening with breath synchronization; 2) postures (asanas) and a deep relaxation technique; 3) breath energization (pranayama) with sound resonance; and 4) meditation. We assessed pre/post-intervention levels of fatigue (BFI), sleep disturbances (PSQI), psychological distress (BSI), overall mental and physical QOL (SF-36), spirituality (FACT-Sp) and relational closeness. We also tracked feasibility data, and participants completed program evaluations. RESULTS We approached 28 eligible dyads of which 15 (53%) consented and 9 (60%) completed the intervention. No adverse events were reported. Patients (mean age: 73 years, 63% female, all stage III) and caregivers (mean age: 62 years, 38% female, 63% spouses) completed a mean of 10 sessions (range: 4–14) and 95.5% of them rated the program as very useful. Paired t-tests revealed a significant increase in patients’ mental health (d=.84, P=.04) and a significant decrease in caregivers’ sleep disturbances (d=1.44, P=.02). Although not statistically

  7. Influence of Yoga-Based Personality Development Program on Psychomotor Performance and Self-efficacy in School Children.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhusudan; Deepeshwar, Singh; Subramanya, Pailoor; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and efficacy are important components of scholastic performance in school children. While attempts are being made to introduce new methods to improve academic performance either as part of curricular or extracurricular activities in schools, the success rates are minimal. Hence, this study assessed the effect of yoga-based intervention on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Two hundred ten school children with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years (mean age ± SD; 13.7 ± 0.8 years) satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the 10-day yogä program. An equal number of age-matched participants (n = 210; mean ± SD; 13.1 ± 0.8 years) were selected for the control group. Participants were assessed for attention and performance at the beginning and end of 10 days using trail making task (TMT) A and B, and self-efficacy questionnaire. The yoga group showed higher self-efficacy and improved performance after 10 days of yoga intervention. The performance in TMT-A and -B of the yoga group showed a significantly higher number of attempts with a reduction in time taken to complete the task and a number of wrong attempts compared with control group. Results suggest that yoga practice enhances self-efficacy and processing speed with fine motor coordination, visual-motor integration, visual perception, planning ability, and cognitive performance. PMID:27379220

  8. Influence of Yoga-Based Personality Development Program on Psychomotor Performance and Self-efficacy in School Children.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhusudan; Deepeshwar, Singh; Subramanya, Pailoor; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and efficacy are important components of scholastic performance in school children. While attempts are being made to introduce new methods to improve academic performance either as part of curricular or extracurricular activities in schools, the success rates are minimal. Hence, this study assessed the effect of yoga-based intervention on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Two hundred ten school children with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years (mean age ± SD; 13.7 ± 0.8 years) satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the 10-day yogä program. An equal number of age-matched participants (n = 210; mean ± SD; 13.1 ± 0.8 years) were selected for the control group. Participants were assessed for attention and performance at the beginning and end of 10 days using trail making task (TMT) A and B, and self-efficacy questionnaire. The yoga group showed higher self-efficacy and improved performance after 10 days of yoga intervention. The performance in TMT-A and -B of the yoga group showed a significantly higher number of attempts with a reduction in time taken to complete the task and a number of wrong attempts compared with control group. Results suggest that yoga practice enhances self-efficacy and processing speed with fine motor coordination, visual-motor integration, visual perception, planning ability, and cognitive performance.

  9. Influence of Yoga-Based Personality Development Program on Psychomotor Performance and Self-efficacy in School Children

    PubMed Central

    Das, Madhusudan; Deepeshwar, Singh; Subramanya, Pailoor; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and efficacy are important components of scholastic performance in school children. While attempts are being made to introduce new methods to improve academic performance either as part of curricular or extracurricular activities in schools, the success rates are minimal. Hence, this study assessed the effect of yoga-based intervention on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Two hundred ten school children with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years (mean age ± SD; 13.7 ± 0.8 years) satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the 10-day yogä program. An equal number of age-matched participants (n = 210; mean ± SD; 13.1 ± 0.8 years) were selected for the control group. Participants were assessed for attention and performance at the beginning and end of 10 days using trail making task (TMT) A and B, and self-efficacy questionnaire. The yoga group showed higher self-efficacy and improved performance after 10 days of yoga intervention. The performance in TMT-A and -B of the yoga group showed a significantly higher number of attempts with a reduction in time taken to complete the task and a number of wrong attempts compared with control group. Results suggest that yoga practice enhances self-efficacy and processing speed with fine motor coordination, visual–motor integration, visual perception, planning ability, and cognitive performance. PMID:27379220

  10. Affect and mindfulness as predictors of change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms, and quality of life in a community-based yoga program for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Michael J; Carlson, Linda E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Paskevich, David M; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the psychological determinants by which benefits are accrued via yoga practice in cancer-related clinical settings. Using a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach, associations between affect, mindfulness, and patient-reported mental health outcomes, including mood disturbance, stress symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQL), were examined in an existing seven-week yoga program for cancer survivors. Participants (N = 66) were assessed before and after the yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Decreases in mood disturbance and stress symptoms and improvements in HRQL were observed upon program completion. Improvements in mood disturbance and stress symptoms were maintained at the three- and six-month follow-ups. HRQL exhibited further improvement at the three-month follow-up, which was maintained at the six-month follow-up. Improvements in measures of well-being were predicted by initial positive yoga beliefs and concurrently assessed affective and mindfulness predictor variables. Previous yoga experience, affect, mindfulness, and HRQL were related to yoga practice maintenance over the course of the study. PMID:23762132

  11. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: outcomes of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic work-related stress is an independent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if an office worksite-based hatha yoga program could improve physiological stress, evaluated via heart rate variability (HRV), and associated health-related outcomes in a cohort of office workers. Methods Thirty-seven adults employed in university-based office positions were randomized upon the completion of baseline testing to an experimental or control group. The experimental group completed a 10-week yoga program prescribed three sessions per week during lunch hour (50 min per session). An experienced instructor led the sessions, which emphasized asanas (postures) and vinyasa (exercises). The primary outcome was the high frequency (HF) power component of HRV. Secondary outcomes included additional HRV parameters, musculoskeletal fitness (i.e. push-up, side-bridge, and sit & reach tests) and psychological indices (i.e. state and trait anxiety, quality of life and job satisfaction). Results All measures of HRV failed to change in the experimental group versus the control group, except that the experimental group significantly increased LF:HF (p = 0.04) and reduced pNN50 (p = 0.04) versus control, contrary to our hypotheses. Flexibility, evaluated via sit & reach test increased in the experimental group versus the control group (p < 0.001). No other adaptations were noted. Post hoc analysis comparing participants who completed ≥70% of yoga sessions (n = 11) to control (n = 19) yielded the same findings, except that the high adherers also reduced state anxiety (p = 0.02) and RMSSD (p = 0.05), and tended to improve the push-up test (p = 0.07) versus control. Conclusions A 10-week hatha yoga intervention delivered at the office worksite during lunch hour did not improve HF power or other HRV parameters

  12. Yoga for Self-Care and Burnout Prevention Among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina K; Rollins, Kari; Walker, Danielle; Wong, Lily; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2015-10-01

    The promotion of self-care and the prevention of burnout among nurses is a public health priority. Evidence supports the efficacy of yoga to improve physical and mental health outcomes, but few studies have examined the influence of yoga on nurse-specific outcomes. The purpose of this pilot-level randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of yoga to improve self-care and reduce burnout among nurses. Compared with controls (n = 20), yoga participants (n = 20) reported significantly higher self-care as well as less emotional exhaustion and depersonalization upon completion of an 8-week yoga intervention. Although the control group demonstrated no change throughout the course of the study, the yoga group showed a significant improvement in scores from pre- to post-intervention for self-care (p < .001), mindfulness (p = .028), emotional exhaustion (p = .008), and depersonalization (p = .007) outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26419795

  13. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  14. Implicit measure for yoga research: Yoga implicit association test

    PubMed Central

    Ilavarasu, Judu V; Rajesh, Sasidharan K; Hankey, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Context: The implicit association test (IAT), a new tool for yoga research is presented. Implicit measures could be used in those situations where (1) The construct is difficult to self-report, (2) there is a threat of social desirability. Clinically, we can assess cognitive dissonance by evaluating incongruence between implicit and explicit measures. Explicit preferences are self-reported. Implicit preferences are what we inherently believe, often without our conscious awareness. Aims: The primary objective of this study is to provide a bird's eye view of the field, implicit cognition, with emphasis on the IAT and the secondary objective is to illustrate through an example of our study to develop an implicit tool to assess implicit preference toward yoga. Settings and Design: A total of 5 independent samples of total 69 students undergoing short and long-term yoga courses in a Yoga University were assessed for their implicit and explicit preferences towards yoga. Materials and Methods: The yoga-IAT (Y-IAT), explicit self-rating scale was administered through computers using the Inquisit program by Millisecond Software. Experimental and scoring materials are provided. Results: A moderate preference toward yoga was detected, with a lower implicit-explicit congruence, reflecting possible confound of social desirability in the self-report of preference toward yoga. Conclusions: Implicit measures may be used in the yoga field to assess constructs, which are difficult to self-report or may have social desirability threat. Y-IAT may be used to evaluate implicit preference toward yoga. PMID:25035621

  15. Effectiveness of a School-Based Yoga Program on Adolescent Mental Health, Stress Coping Strategies, and Attitudes toward Violence: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…

  16. The effects of 8-week balance training or weight training

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Roberto, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of participating in an 8-week physical training (ie: balance or weight training) on psychosocial outcomes for independently living healthy older adults. Eighteen older adults (65 years old or older) voluntarily participated for this study. Participants were randomly and evenly distributed in 3 different groups such as balance, weight, or control group; 6 participants each. Fear of falling and social activity levels were statistically tested by evaluating questionnaires validated in previous studies. Psychological factors improved in all groups after 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Social interaction level did not improve in any of the three groups, although all participants exhibited improvements in being physically independent (P < 0.05). Results suggested that being physically active as well as being socially active could result in being less fearful of falls, more confident of leaving residency, being more independent, and being more active. PMID:21394234

  17. Yoga for rehabilitation: an overview.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Naveen, K V

    1997-04-01

    The use of yoga for rehabilitation has diverse applications. Yoga practice benefited mentally handicapped subjects by improving their mental ability, also the motor co-ordination and social skills. Physically handicapped subjects had a restoration of some degree of functional ability after practicing yoga. Visually impaired children children showed a significant decrease in their abnormal anxiety levels when they practiced yoga for three weeks, while a program of physical activity had no such effect. Socially disadvantaged adults (prisoners in a jail) and children in a remand home showed significant improvement in sleep, appetite and general well being, as well as a decrease in physiological arousal. The practice of meditation was reported to decrease the degree of substance (marijuana) abuse, by strengthening the mental resolve and decreasing the anxiety. Another important area is the application of yoga (and indeed, lifestyle change), in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Finally, the possible role of yoga in improving the mental state and general well being of HIV positive persons and patients with AIDS, is being explored.

  18. Yoga: a therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nirmala N; Shankar, Kamala

    2004-11-01

    Yoga, practiced widely in the East, is now popular in the West as part of a healthy lifestyle. This article brings a medical perspective to the practice of yoga. Selected yoga postures that are believed to benefit certain medical conditions are highlighted. In addition, the philosophy, general guidelines, and medical benefits of yoga practice are described.

  19. Differences between Men and Women Enrolling in Smoking Cessation Programs Using Yoga as a Complementary Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Herpreet; Jennings, Ernestine; Fava, Joseph L; Sillice, Marie A; Becker, Bruce M; Hartman, Sheri J; Bock, Beth C

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of men and women, respectively, participating in two randomized controlled pilot studies whose primary aims were to test the feasibility of yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Participants were aged 18-65, generally healthy and were daily smokers. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests examined gender differences in smoking rate, potential treatment mediators, and covariates (e.g., smoking history, health status, weight concerns, mood, and prior withdrawal symptoms). A total of 55 women and 38 men participated in the study. Differences between men and women at enrollment included: women reported significantly greater withdrawal (p<0.005), anxiety (p=0.032), and depression (p=0.027) symptoms than men. More women than men (91% vs. 66%) reported having been told by their doctor to quit smoking (p=0.003), had an existing smoking-related illness (33% vs. 13%; p=0.032), and reported smoking for weight control (15% vs. 0%; p=0.014). Results showed good feasibility for recruiting both men and women into a study using yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Results also indicate that interventions may need to be tailored to meet different needs (e.g., addressing co-morbid depression) between men and women.

  20. Differences between Men and Women Enrolling in Smoking Cessation Programs Using Yoga as a Complementary Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Herpreet; Jennings, Ernestine; Fava, Joseph L; Sillice, Marie A; Becker, Bruce M; Hartman, Sheri J; Bock, Beth C

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of men and women, respectively, participating in two randomized controlled pilot studies whose primary aims were to test the feasibility of yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Participants were aged 18-65, generally healthy and were daily smokers. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests examined gender differences in smoking rate, potential treatment mediators, and covariates (e.g., smoking history, health status, weight concerns, mood, and prior withdrawal symptoms). A total of 55 women and 38 men participated in the study. Differences between men and women at enrollment included: women reported significantly greater withdrawal (p<0.005), anxiety (p=0.032), and depression (p=0.027) symptoms than men. More women than men (91% vs. 66%) reported having been told by their doctor to quit smoking (p=0.003), had an existing smoking-related illness (33% vs. 13%; p=0.032), and reported smoking for weight control (15% vs. 0%; p=0.014). Results showed good feasibility for recruiting both men and women into a study using yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Results also indicate that interventions may need to be tailored to meet different needs (e.g., addressing co-morbid depression) between men and women. PMID:27683623

  1. Bisecting and behavior: lateral inattention predicts 8-week academic performance.

    PubMed

    Drake, Roger A

    2002-10-01

    Converging evidence supports a left hemisphere role in defensive repression and sensation seeking. This led to the hypothesis that students with a relatively active left hemisphere would perform poorly during 8 weeks of a college class. The measure of relative hemispheric activation was the visual line-bisecting task given early in the course. The hypothesis was supported. Previous evidence that activation asymmetry is stable over time was supported because the single measurement of line bisecting was a longitudinal predictor of multiple behaviors. A temporal pattern of increasing correlation between the bisecting and performance measures favors a feedback repression model. Alternative explanations based on sensation seeking, subject-matter repression, and cooperation were considered but not eliminated.

  2. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    People with knee osteoarthritis may benefit from exercise prescriptions that minimize knee loads in the frontal plane. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a novel 12-week strengthening program designed to minimize exposure to the knee adduction moment (KAM) could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during gait. The tertiary objective was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of this yoga program. In particular, we compared the peak KAM during gait with that during yoga postures at baseline. We also compared lower limb normalized mean electromyography (EMG) amplitudes during yoga postures between baseline and follow-up. Primary measures included self-reported pain and physical function (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) and knee strength (extensor and flexor torques). Secondary measures included mobility (six-minute walk, 30-second chair stand, stair climbing), fitness (submaximal cycle ergometer test), and clinical gait analysis using motion capture synchronized with electromyography and force measurement. Also, KAM and normalized mean EMG amplitudes were collected during yoga postures. Forty-five women over age 50 with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, consistent with the American College of Rheumatology criteria, enrolled in our 12-week (3 sessions per week) program. Data from 38 were analyzed (six drop-outs; one lost to co-intervention). Participants experienced reduced pain (mean improvement 10.1–20.1 normalized to 100; p<0.001), increased knee extensor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.004), and increased flexor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.001) at follow-up compared to baseline. Participants improved mobility on the six-minute walk (mean improvement 37.7 m; p<0.001) and 30-second chair stand (mean improvement 1.3; p = 0.006) at

  3. "Overeating is not about the food": women describe their experience of a yoga treatment program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    McIver, Shane; McGartland, Michael; O'Halloran, Paul

    2009-09-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods study, data from 20 personal journals were analyzed to examine the experience of a 12-week yoga treatment program for binge eating among a sample of 25 women who were obese. Qualitative analysis revealed a positive shift experienced by the women during the program, summarized by a general structural description: disconnection versus connection. Women's comments suggested that the program appeared to encourage a healthy reconnection to food, as well as the development of physical self-empowerment, through cultivating present-moment awareness. Specifically, women perceived an overall reduction in the quantity of food they consumed, decreased eating speed, and an improvement in food choices throughout the program. The women also reported feeling more connected to and positive about their physical well-being. These evolving outcomes were summarized through two major themes: the way their physicality changed, and the way their food consumption changed over time. Findings provide insights relevant to therapeutic processes that might occur within eating disorder interventions that draw on meditation-based approaches.

  4. Yoga: intuition, preventive medicine, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Collins, C

    1998-01-01

    Mind-body fitness programs use a combination of muscular activity and mindful focus on awareness of the self, breath, and energy to promote health. The ancient discipline of yoga includes physical postures and breathing and meditation techniques. Scientific evidence exists about the physiologic effects of yoga. Mind-body fitness programs may offer therapeutic effects different from those offered by traditional body fitness programs.

  5. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P < 0.05) but not in young lean subjects. We concluded that a short-term Bikram yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults. PMID:24138995

  6. Yoga for health

    MedlinePlus

    ... mind. It uses physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation to improve overall health. Yoga was developed as ... yoga that may include breathing exercises, chanting, and meditation. Iyengar -- a style that places great attention to ...

  7. Yoga for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Gary; Renshaw, Kathleen

    1978-01-01

    Hatha yoga is presented as a series of simple strategies to reduce tension, relieve stress, produce calmness and promote better interpersonal relationships. Background about yoga, a sample lesson, and suggestions for counselors are included. (BP)

  8. Yoga for Montessorians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Olynda

    2014-01-01

    When the author tells someone who does not do yoga that she is a yoga teacher, she often hears that they could not possibly do yoga. The most common reasons they give for this are: "I am really not flexible! I really don't like stretching!" and "Oh, but I wouldn't be any good at yoga!" Smith explains that, contrary to…

  9. Yoga for Exceptional Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Yoga can help make life easier for parents. The author started practicing with a Hatha Yoga teacher once a week at the local church community center. The breath (Pranayama) leads to self-discovery, Yoga poses (asanas) lead to quieting of the mind and self-connection. That was seven years ago, and since then,…

  10. Lifestyle Modification in Blood Pressure Study II (LIMBS): Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a 24 week structured yoga program versus lifestyle modification on blood pressure reduction

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Debbie L.; Bowler, Annie; Fisher, Stephen A.; Norris, Angela; Newberg, Andrew; Rao, Hengyi; Bhavsar, Rupal; Detre, John A.; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public health issue affecting 68 million adults in the United States. Lifestyle modifications including complementary therapies such as the movement based mind body practice of yoga have become increasingly popular in the United States and have been considered as a potential alternative to medication in blood pressure reduction. We completed a pilot study in 2009 which showed meaningful decreases in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure readings after a 12 week period of yoga participation. Based on data from our pilot study we are now completing The Lifestyle Modification and Blood Pressure Study (LIMBS II) which is a phase 2 randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effects of yoga therapy and enhanced lifestyle modification on lowering blood pressure in pre-hypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, LIMBS II aims to compare the effects on blood pressure reduction in subjects randomized for 24 weeks to one of the three following groups: yoga therapy versus blood pressure education program (sodium restriction and walking program) versus a combination program that involves components of both groups. LIMBS II will also examine the impact that changes in blood pressure have on cerebral blood flow. If successful the LIMBS study will determine if yoga therapy combined with enhanced lifestyle modification will result in clinically meaningful decreases in blood pressure and thus can be implemented as an alternative to drug therapy for patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. PMID:23721984

  11. Yoga for dermatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Jalalat, Sheila

    2015-04-01

    As both a dermatology resident and yoga instructor, I find the potential correlation between the 2 disciplines to be interesting and a growing topic of attention in the media today. With the rising trend of practicing yoga, which encompasses physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation or mindfulness, it is inevitable that patients will inquire about the benefits of yoga in managing dermatologic problems. In this column, I will discuss the dermatologic manifestations of stress as well as the known health benefits of yoga as described in the literature so that residents may offer an objective opinion about yoga in response to patient inquiries. PMID:25942035

  12. Interest in yoga among fibromyalgia patients: an international internet survey.

    PubMed

    Firestone, Kari A; Carson, James W; Mist, Scott D; Carson, Kimberly M; Jones, Kim D

    2014-01-01

    Studies in circumscribed clinical settings have reported the adoption of yoga by many fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, it is unclear from existing studies which types of yoga practices FM patients are typically engaging in and the extent to which they experience yoga as helpful or not. The purpose of this study was to survey FM patients in many different regions to inquire about their engagement in various yoga practices, the perceived benefits, and the obstacles to further practice. A 13-question Internet survey of persons self-identified as FM patients was conducted among subscribers to 2 electronic newsletters on the topic of FM. Respondents (N = 2543) replied from all 50 U.S. states and also from Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom, and from more than two dozen other countries. On average, respondents were 57 years of age and 96% were female, with an average time since diagnosis of 13 years. Of these respondents, 79.8% had considered trying yoga and 57.8% had attended 1 yoga class. The respondents' classes typically focused almost exclusively on yoga poses, with minimal training in meditation, breathing techniques, or other practices. The most commonly cited benefits were reduced stiffness, relaxation, and better balance. The most frequently cited obstacles were concerns about the poses being too physically demanding and fear that the poses would cause too much pain. These findings confirm strong interest in yoga across a geographically diverse range of FM patients. However, concerns about yoga-induced pain and yoga poses being too difficult are common reasons that FM patients do not engage in yoga exercises. This study supports the need for yoga programs tailored for FM patients to include modification of poses to minimize aggravating movements and substantive training in meditation and other yoga-based coping methods to minimize pain-related fear. PMID:25858658

  13. Incorporating Yoga Therapy into Primary Care: The Casey Health Institute.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alyson; Williams, Laurie; Pappas-Sandonas, Mary; Touchton-Leonard, Katharine; Fogel, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of health conditions, and yoga is a popular CAM modality. Over the past few decades, yoga has become incorporated into hundreds of healthcare facilities, most commonly in large university medical centers. While research has shown yoga to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving outcomes in chronic health conditions, most patients seek yoga therapy on their own, as few primary care practitioners have incorporated yoga therapy into their practices. The purpose of this article is to describe the efforts of the Casey Health Institute to incorporate yoga therapy into their primary care integrative medicine center. At Casey Health, a full-time Clinical Yoga Specialist works alongside the physicians, nurses, and CAM providers in delivering care to a wide variety of patients. The majority of referrals to yoga therapy have been for pain-related musculoskeletal conditions, as well as hypertension, headaches, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Most patients attend weekly 60-minute individual sessions, and the Clinical Yoga Specialist stays in touch with the patient between appointments via telephone and email. T h e Clinical Yoga Specialist has become an integral part of Casey Health, participating in collaborative medical appointments in which two CAM practitioners provide simultaneous treatments to a patient. She also participates in the clinic's ongoing weight loss program. The Clinical Yoga Specialist spends one morning each week "floating" in the clinic, when she is on-call to the practitioners to assist in treatment and/or to introduce a yoga therapy experience to the patients. These brief interventions introduce the patients to the therapeutic benefits of yoga, while simultaneously demonstrating yoga's effectiveness to the healthcare providers. Casey Health has developed a unique teacher training program whose faculty includes senior Iyengar yoga teachers as well as physicians

  14. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  15. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

  16. Yoga research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy.

  17. Yoga ameliorates performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Shorter, Stephanie M; Cope, Stephen; Wyshak, Grace; Sklar, Elyse

    2009-12-01

    Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n = 15). Both yoga groups attended three Kripalu Yoga or meditation classes each week. The yoga lifestyle group also experienced weekly group practice and discussion sessions as part of their more immersive treatment. All participants completed baseline and end-program self-report questionnaires that evaluated music performance anxiety, mood, PRMDs, perceived stress, and sleep quality; many participants later completed a 1-year followup assessment using the same questionnaires. Both yoga groups showed a trend towards less music performance anxiety and significantly less general anxiety/tension, depression, and anger at end-program relative to controls, but showed no changes in PRMDs, stress, or sleep. Similar results in the two yoga groups, despite psychosocial differences in their interventions, suggest that the yoga and meditation techniques themselves may have mediated the improvements. Our results suggest that yoga and meditation techniques can reduce performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians.

  18. Yoga Enhances Positive Psychological States in Young Adult Musicians.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; Ahmed, Khalique; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2016-06-01

    Although yoga has been shown to be a viable technique for improving the performance of the mind and body, little attention has been directed to studying the relationship between yoga and the psychological states of flow and mindfulness. Musicians enrolled in a 2-month fellowship program in 2005, 2006 and 2007 were invited to participate in a yoga and meditation program. Fellows not participating in the yoga program were recruited separately as controls. All participants completed baseline and end-program questionnaires evaluating dispositional flow, mindfulness, confusion, and music performance anxiety. Compared to controls, yoga participants reported significant decreases in confusion and increases in dispositional flow. Yoga participants in the 2006 sample also reported significant increases in the mindfulness subscale of awareness. Correlational analyses revealed that increases in participants' dispositional flow and mindfulness were associated with decreases in confusion and music performance anxiety. This study demonstrates the commonalities between positive psychology and yoga, both of which are focused on enhancing human performance and promoting beneficial psychological states. The results suggest that yoga and meditation may enhance the states of flow and mindful awareness, and reduce confusion. PMID:26721471

  19. The Wisdom of the Bodymind: Reflections on Yoga and Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carol S.

    2000-01-01

    Yoga creates a union of the body, mind, and spirit, and develops in the participant a conscious awareness of self. Noting that adventure education programs give participants the opportunity to come to a greater awareness of self, an experiential educator started combining yoga with adventure activities. Several anecdotes illustrate the mind/body…

  20. Yoga in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shilpa; Shyken, Jaye

    2016-09-01

    Yoga is a mind-body practice that encompasses a system of postures (asana), deep breathing (pranayama), and meditation. Over 36 million Americans practice yoga of which the majority are reproductive-aged women. Literature to support this practice is limited, albeit on the rise. A prenatal yoga practice has been shown to benefit women who suffer from anxiety, depression, stress, low back pain, and sleep disturbances. A small number of studies have been performed in high-risk pregnancies that also demonstrate an improvement in outcomes. The safety of performing yoga for the first time in pregnancy and fetal tolerance has been demonstrated. PMID:27152528

  1. Yoga and menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Vaze, Nirmala; Joshi, Sulabha

    2010-07-01

    With increased life expectancy, today, women spend one-third of their life after menopause. Thus more attention is needed towards peri- and post-menopausal symptoms. Estrogen replacement therapy is the most effective treatment, however, it has its own limitations. The present need is to explore new options for the management of menopausal symptoms. Yogic life style is a way of living which aims to improve the body, mind and day to day life of individuals. The most commonly performed Yoga practices are postures (asana), controlled breathing (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). Yoga has been utilized as a therapeutic tool to achieve positive health and control and cure diseases. The exact mechanism as to how Yoga helps in various disease states is not known. There could be neuro-hormonal pathways with a selective effect in each pathological situation. There have been multiple studies that have combined the many aspects of Yoga into a general Yoga session in order to investigate its effects on menopausal symptoms. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy can improve hot flushes and night sweats. There is increasing evidence suggesting that even the short-term practice of Yoga can decrease both psychological and physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conclude that our age old therapy, Yoga, is fairly effective in managing menopausal symptoms.

  2. Yoga for Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummers, Nanette

    2004-01-01

    Improved focus and involvement in one's physical education class are just a few of the many benefits that yoga can provide to students. Yoga, the art of bringing together the body and mind for improved strength, flexibility, and self-esteem, can also help decrease stress levels, improve academic performance, and self-confidence in school children.…

  3. An integrated approach of yoga therapy for bronchial asthma: a 3-54-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, R

    1986-01-01

    After an initial integrated yoga training program of 2 to 4 weeks, 570 bronchial asthmatics were followed up for 3 to 54 months. The training consisted of yoga practices--yogasanas, Pranayama, meditation, and kriyas--and theory of yoga. Results show highly significant improvement in most of the specific parameters. The regular practitioners showed the greatest improvement. Peak expiratory flow rate (PFR) values showed significant movement of patients toward normalcy after yoga, and 72, 69, and 66% of the patients have stopped or reduced parenteral, oral, and cortisone medication, respectively. These results establish the long-term efficacy of the integrated approach of yoga therapy in the management of bronchial asthma.

  4. Development of an Individualized Yoga Intervention to Address Fatigue in Hospitalized Children Undergoing Intensive Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Diorio, Caroline; Celis Ekstrand, Amanda; Hesser, Tanya; O'Sullivan, Cathy; Lee, Michelle; Schechter, Tal; Sung, Lillian

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Fatigue is an important problem in children receiving intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Exercise may be an effective intervention for fatigue. Individualized yoga represents an ideal intervention because it can be tailored according to an individual child's needs. Little is known about how to structure a standardized yoga program for intensivelytreated children. Therefore, this study describes the development of a yoga program and an approach to monitoring sessions suitable for hospitalized children receiving intensive chemotherapy or HSCT. Methods The yoga program was designed to increase mobility in hospitalized children and to provide children with relaxation techniques that could be used independently in a variety of environments. The program was founded on 4 key tenets: safety, adaptability, environmental flexibility, and appeal to children. We also developed quality and consistency assurance procedures. Results A menu format with a fixed structure was selected for the yoga program. Each yoga session contained up to 6 sections: breathing exercises, warmup exercises, yoga poses, balancing poses, cool-down poses, and final relaxation. Yoga instructors selected specific yoga poses for each session from a predetermined list organized by intensity level (low, moderate, or high). Monitoring procedures were developed using videotaping and multirater adjudication. Conclusion We created a standardized yoga program and an approach to monitoring that are now ready for incorporation in clinical trials. Future work should include the adaptation of the program to different pediatric populations and clinical settings. PMID:27146130

  5. Osteopathy and (hatha) yoga.

    PubMed

    Liem, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Differences and points of contact between osteopathy and yoga as regards their history and practical application are outlined. Both seek to promote healing. Yoga seeks the attainment of consciousness; osteopathy aims for providing support to health. One fundamental difference is the personal involvement of the individual in yoga. Teacher and student alike are challenged to re-examine the attitudes of mind they have adopted toward their lives. Osteopathy generally involves a relatively passive patient while the osteopath is active in providing treatment. Practical examples are used to highlight points of contact between yoga and osteopathy. The text includes a discussion of the importance of physicality and a description of ways of using it in healing processes. Furthermore, processes of attaining consciousness are outlined. Possible reductionist misconceptions in yoga and osteopathy are also pointed out. Fundamental attitudes and focus that complement each other are presented, taking the concept of stillness as a particular example.

  6. Yoga research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy. PMID:27502816

  7. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  8. Iyengar Yoga Increases Cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous Modulation Among Healthy Yoga Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Ahmed A.; Ortak, Jasmin; Richardt, Gert; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Relaxation techniques are established in managing of cardiac patients during rehabilitation aiming to reduce future adverse cardiac events. It has been hypothesized that relaxation-training programs may significantly improve cardiac autonomic nervous tone. However, this has not been proven for all available relaxation techniques. We tested this assumption by investigating cardiac vagal modulation during yoga.We examined 11 healthy yoga practitioners (7 women and 4 men, mean age: 43 ± 11; range: 26–58 years). Each individual was subjected to training units of 90 min once a week over five successive weeks. During two sessions, they practiced a yoga program developed for cardiac patients by B.K.S. Iyengar. On three sessions, they practiced a placebo program of relaxation. On each training day they underwent ambulatory 24 h Holter monitoring. The group of yoga practitioners was compared to a matched group of healthy individuals not practicing any relaxation techniques. Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were determined hourly by a blinded observer. Mean RR interval (interval between two R-waves of the ECG) was significantly higher during the time of yoga intervention compared to placebo and to control (P < 0.001 for both). The increase in HRV parameters was significantly higher during yoga exercise than during placebo and control especially for the parameters associated with vagal tone, i.e. mean standard deviation of NN (Normal Beat to Normal Beat of the ECG) intervals for all 5-min intervals (SDNNi, P < 0.001 for both) and root mean square successive difference (rMSSD, P < 0.01 for both). In conclusion, relaxation by yoga training is associated with a significant increase of cardiac vagal modulation. Since this method is easy to apply with no side effects, it could be a suitable intervention in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID:18227919

  9. Yoga in school settings: a research review.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany

    2016-06-01

    Research on the efficacy of yoga for improving mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health characteristics in school settings is a recent but growing field of inquiry. This systematic review of research on school-based yoga interventions published in peer-reviewed journals offers a bibliometric analysis that identified 47 publications. The studies from these publications have been conducted primarily in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 15) since 2005, with the majority of studies (n = 41) conducted from 2010 onward. About half of the publications were of studies at elementary schools; most (85%) were conducted within the school curriculum, and most (62%) also implemented a formal school-based yoga program. There was a high degree of variability in yoga intervention characteristics, including overall duration, and the number and duration of sessions. Most of these published research trials are preliminary in nature, with numerous study design limitations, including limited sample sizes (median = 74; range = 20-660) and relatively weak research designs (57% randomized controlled trials, 19% uncontrolled trials), as would be expected in an infant research field. Nevertheless, these publications suggest that yoga in the school setting is a viable and potentially efficacious strategy for improving child and adolescent health and therefore worthy of continued research. PMID:26919395

  10. A multicomponent yoga-based, breath intervention program as an adjunctive treatment in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Martin A; Vermani, Monica; Gerbarg, Patricia L; Brown, Richard P; Iorio, Christina; Davis, Michele; Cameron, Catherine; Tsirgielis, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) course in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) outpatients, who after eight weeks of an appropriate dose of traditional therapy had not yet achieved remission. Subjects: The adult participants (18-65 years) were outpatients with a primary diagnosis of GAD with or without comorbidities on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants had a minimum of eight weeks standard treatment with an appropriate dose of a standard prescription anxiolytic, a clinician global impression-severity (CGI-S) score of 5-7, a Hamilton anxiety scale (HAM-A) total score ≥20 including a score of >2 on the anxious mood and tension items. Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients were enrolled in an open-label trial of the SKY course as an adjunct to standard treatment of GAD at the START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, a tertiary care mood and anxiety disorder clinic in Toronto. The SKY course was administered over five days (22 h total). Subjects were encouraged to practice the yoga breathing techniques at home for 20 min per day after the course and were offered group practice sessions for 2 h once a week led by certified yoga instructors. The primary outcome measure was the mean change from pre-treatment on the HAM-A scale. Psychological measures were obtained at baseline and four weeks after completing the intervention. Results: Thirty-one patients completed the program (mean age 42.6 ± 13.3 years). Among completers, significant reductions occurred in the pre- and post-intervention mean HAM-A total score (t=4.59; P<0.01) and psychic subscale (t=5.00; P≤0.01). The response rate was 73% and the remission rate 41% as measured on the HAM-A. Conclusion: The results of this small pilot trial suggest that the SKY course represents a potentially valuable adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy in patients with GAD or treatment-resistant GAD, and warrants

  11. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention.

  12. Energy balance and physical demands during an 8-week arduous military training course.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Victoria L; Horner, Fleur E; Wilkinson, David M; Rayson, Mark P; Wright, Antony; Izard, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed soldier's physical demands and energy balance during the Section Commanders' Battles Course (SCBC). Forty male soldiers were monitored during the 8-week tactics phase of the SCBC. Energy expenditure was measured using the doubly labeled water method. Cardiovascular strain (heart rate) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometer) were also monitored. Average sized portions of meals were weighed, with all recipes and meals entered into a dietary analysis program to calculate the calorie content. Energy expenditure averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 2 to 3 and 21.3 ± 2.0 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 6 to 7. Soldiers lost 5.1 ± 2.6 kg body mass and body fat percent decreased from 23 ± 4% to 19 ± 5%. This average weight loss equates to an estimated energy deficit of 2.69 MJ · d(-1). The Army provided an estimated 14.0 ± 2.2 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 2 to 3 and 15.7 ± 2.2 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 6 to 7. Although this provision adheres to the minimum requirement of 13.8 MJ · d(-1) set by Army regulations, soldiers were in a theoretical 5.6 MJ · d(-1) energy deficit. The physical demands of SCBC were high, and soldiers were in energy deficit resulting in loss in body mass; primarily attributed to a loss in fat mass. PMID:24690967

  13. Yoga therapy in an individual with spinal cord injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Gabriele; Proper, Dacia; Cool, Sandtana; Fink, Sarah; Schock, Samantha; Mayack, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    No known research addresses the effects of yoga in those with spinal cord injury (SCI), yet yoga has the potential to improve many impairments commonly associated with SCI. This case report documents the outcomes of a yoga program in an individual with an SCI. The participant was a 59-year-old male who sustained an incomplete C3-C6 SCI. He practiced Hatha yoga for 60-min sessions, twice per week for 12 weeks and despite neurological injury, was able to complete a yoga program with modifications. Improvements were noted in balance; endurance; flexibility; posture; muscle strength of the hip extensors, hip abductors and knee extensors; and in performance of functional goals. No changes were noted in gait velocity, satisfaction in performance of goals or in overall quality of life. The participant was able to practice yoga even though he used an assistive device to walk.

  14. Place of nutrition in yoga.

    PubMed

    Desai, B P

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  15. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  16. Managing osteoarthritis: comparisons of chair yoga, Reiki, and education (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; McCaffrey, Ruth; Dunn, Dorothy; Goodman, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether chair yoga and Reiki affect pain, depressive mood, and physical function compared with an educational program for older adults with osteoarthritis. Findings showed significant relationships only between physical function and chair yoga. In focus group interviews, participants expressed feelings of improved health and well-being after the yoga intervention. The major limitation of this study was the small sample size. PMID:22015342

  17. Yoga clinical research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2011-02-01

    In this paper recent research is reviewed on the effects of yoga poses on psychological conditions including anxiety and depression, on pain syndromes, cardiovascular, autoimmune and immune conditions and on pregnancy. Further, the physiological effects of yoga including decreased heartrate and blood pressure and the physical effects including weight loss and increased muscle strength are reviewed. Finally, potential underlying mechanisms are proposed including the stimulation of pressure receptors leading to enhanced vagal activity and reduced cortisol. The reduction in cortisol, in turn, may contribute to positive effects such as enhanced immune function and a lower prematurity rate.

  18. Effects of yoga on arm volume among women with breast cancer related lymphedema: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mary Insana; Donahoe-Fillmore, Betsy; Leach, Laura; O'Malley, Colleen; Paeplow, Cheryl; Prescott, Tess; Merriman, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Lymphedema affects 3-58% of survivors of breast cancer and can result in upper extremity impairments. Exercise can be beneficial in managing lymphedema. Yoga practice has been minimally studied for its effects on breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of yoga on arm volume, quality of life (QOL), self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength in women with BCRL. Six women with BCRL participated in modified Hatha yoga 3×/week for 8 weeks. Compression sleeves were worn during yoga sessions. Arm volume, QOL, self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, half-way, and at the conclusion of yoga practice. Arm volume significantly decreased from baseline (2423.3 ml ± 597.2) to final measures (2370.8 ml ± 577.2) (p = .02). No significant changes in QOL (p = .12), self-reported arm function (p = .34), or hand grip strength (p = .26) were found. Yoga may be beneficial in the management of lymphedema.

  19. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  20. Memory training plus yoga for older adults.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Vance, David E; Wayde, Ernest; Ford, Katy; Ross, Jeremiah

    2015-06-01

    Previous tests of the SeniorWISE intervention with community-residing older adults that were designed to improve affect and cognitive performance were successful and positively affected these outcomes. In this study, we tested whether adding yoga to the intervention would affect the outcomes. Using a quasiexperimental pre-post design, we delivered 12 hours of SeniorWISE memory training that included a 30-minute yoga component before each training session. The intervention was based on the four components of self-efficacy theory: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiologic arousal. We recruited 133 older adults between the ages of 53 and 96 years from four retirement communities in Central Texas. Individuals were screened and tested and then attended training sessions two times a week over 4 weeks. A septuagenarian licensed psychologist taught the memory training, and a certified yoga instructor taught yoga. Eighty-three participants completed at least 9 hours (75%) of the training and completed the posttest. Those individuals who completed made significant gains in memory performance, instrumental activities of daily living, and memory self-efficacy and had fewer depressive symptoms. Thirteen individuals advanced from poor to normal memory performance, and seven improved from impaired to poor memory performance; thus, 20 individuals improved enough to advance to a higher functioning memory group. The findings from this study of a memory training intervention plus yoga training show that the benefits of multifactorial interventions had additive benefits. The combined treatments offer a unique model for brain health programs and the promotion of nonpharmacological treatment with the goals of maintaining healthy brain function and boosting brain plasticity.

  1. Memory training plus yoga for older adults.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Vance, David E; Wayde, Ernest; Ford, Katy; Ross, Jeremiah

    2015-06-01

    Previous tests of the SeniorWISE intervention with community-residing older adults that were designed to improve affect and cognitive performance were successful and positively affected these outcomes. In this study, we tested whether adding yoga to the intervention would affect the outcomes. Using a quasiexperimental pre-post design, we delivered 12 hours of SeniorWISE memory training that included a 30-minute yoga component before each training session. The intervention was based on the four components of self-efficacy theory: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiologic arousal. We recruited 133 older adults between the ages of 53 and 96 years from four retirement communities in Central Texas. Individuals were screened and tested and then attended training sessions two times a week over 4 weeks. A septuagenarian licensed psychologist taught the memory training, and a certified yoga instructor taught yoga. Eighty-three participants completed at least 9 hours (75%) of the training and completed the posttest. Those individuals who completed made significant gains in memory performance, instrumental activities of daily living, and memory self-efficacy and had fewer depressive symptoms. Thirteen individuals advanced from poor to normal memory performance, and seven improved from impaired to poor memory performance; thus, 20 individuals improved enough to advance to a higher functioning memory group. The findings from this study of a memory training intervention plus yoga training show that the benefits of multifactorial interventions had additive benefits. The combined treatments offer a unique model for brain health programs and the promotion of nonpharmacological treatment with the goals of maintaining healthy brain function and boosting brain plasticity. PMID:25943999

  2. Yoga in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    Classroom management has always been a challenge for most teachers. But what if student concentration could be augmented with several calming breaths and a chance to stretch desk-cramped young bodies? That is the question a growing number of schools are exploring by introducing yoga classes and practices into their buildings. And a limited--but…

  3. Effects of Isha Hatha Yoga on Core Stability and Standing Balance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sendhil; Prasad, Shyam; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Muthukumaraswamy, Karunambigai; Ganesan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Context • Isha Hatha yoga is a form of yoga practice that practitioners claim can improve health. Gaining a scientific understanding of its effects on health is a crucial step in claiming health benefits. Objective • The study intended to investigate the effects of Isha Hatha yoga on core stability and standing balance in healthy volunteers. Design • The research team designed a quasiexperimental study. Setting • The setting was at Isha Yoga Center at Isha Foundation in Coimbatore, India. Participants • Participants were individuals registered for a residential program providing training in Isha Hatha yoga at the Isha Yoga Center. Intervention • The training consisted of 21 d of training in Isha Hatha yoga, including Upa yoga, Surya Kriya, Angamardhana, Bhuta Suddhi, and asanas. Outcome Measures • The single-leg stork test and the plank test were conducted before and after the training. Results • Significant increases occurred in the standing-stork test scores on the right (P = .014) and left (P = .033) sides and in the plank test scores (P < .001). Conclusions • The current study concluded that healthy volunteers who underwent 21 d of training in Isha Hatha yoga showed significant improvements in core strength and balance. PMID:27250211

  4. Use of Formative Research to Develop a Yoga Curriculum for High-Risk Youth: Implementation Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Fishbein, Diana; Lavery, Bud; Johnson, Michelle; Markovits, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the use of formative research to adapt, develop, and pretest a mindful yoga curriculum for high-risk youth attending a nontraditional high school. The formative work was conducted in the first year of a larger project to test the efficacy of a mindful yoga program through a randomized controlled trial. The…

  5. Yoga and Mindfulness: Clinical Aspects of an Ancient Mind/Body Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Paul; Lush, Elizabeth; Jablonski, Megan; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Yoga and other complementary healthcare interventions for both clinical and non-clinical populations has increased substantially in recent years. In this context, we describe the implementation of Hatha Yoga in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program of Kabat-Zinn and colleagues. This is embedded in a more general…

  6. Can 8-weeks of Training Affect Active Drag in Young Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Daniel A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Figueiredo, Catarina; Reis, Victor M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8-weeks of training on active drag in young swimmers of both genders. Eight girls and twelve boys’ belonging to the same swimming team and with regular competitive participation in national and regional events for the previous two seasons participated in this study. Active drag measurements were conducted in two different evaluation moments: at the beginning of the season and after 8 weeks of training (6.0 ± 0.15 training units per week, 21.00 ± 3.23 km per week and 3.50 ± 0.23 km per training unit). The maximal swimming velocity at the distance of 13 m, active drag and drag coefficient were measured on both trials by the method of small perturbations with the help of an additional hydrodynamic body. After 8 weeks of training, mean active drag (drag force and drag coefficient) decreased in girls and boys, although no significant differences were found between the two trials. It seems that 8 weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming technique. Key points The velocity perturbation method seems to be a good, simple and reliable approach to assess active drag in young swimmers. Eight weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming hydrodynamics. There were no differences between boys and girls concerning active drag. A possible explanation may be related to the similar values of body mass and height in boys and girls found in this study. Specific training sets concerning technique correction and improvement in young swimmers might be a main aim during training planning. PMID:24149388

  7. Are There Benefits from Teaching Yoga at Schools? A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials of Yoga-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Vorkapic, C.; Feitoza, J. M.; Marchioro, M.; Simões, J.; Kozasa, E.; Telles, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Yoga is a holistic system of varied mind-body practices that can be used to improve mental and physical health and it has been utilized in a variety of contexts and situations. Educators and schools are looking to include yoga as a cost-effective, evidence-based component of urgently needed wellness programs for their students. Objectives. The primary goal of this study was to systematically examine the available literature for yoga interventions exclusively in school settings, exploring the evidence of yoga-based interventions on academic, cognitive, and psychosocial benefits. Methods. An extensive search was conducted for studies published between 1980 and October 31, 2014 (PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ISI, and the Cochrane Library). Effect size analysis, through standardized mean difference and Hedges'g, allowed for the comparison between experimental conditions. Results and Conclusions. Nine randomized control trials met criteria for inclusion in this review. Effect size was found for mood indicators, tension and anxiety in the POMS scale, self-esteem, and memory when the yoga groups were compared to control. Future research requires greater standardization and suitability of yoga interventions for children. PMID:26491461

  8. Are There Benefits from Teaching Yoga at Schools? A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials of Yoga-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vorkapic, C; Feitoza, J M; Marchioro, M; Simões, J; Kozasa, E; Telles, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Yoga is a holistic system of varied mind-body practices that can be used to improve mental and physical health and it has been utilized in a variety of contexts and situations. Educators and schools are looking to include yoga as a cost-effective, evidence-based component of urgently needed wellness programs for their students. Objectives. The primary goal of this study was to systematically examine the available literature for yoga interventions exclusively in school settings, exploring the evidence of yoga-based interventions on academic, cognitive, and psychosocial benefits. Methods. An extensive search was conducted for studies published between 1980 and October 31, 2014 (PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ISI, and the Cochrane Library). Effect size analysis, through standardized mean difference and Hedges'g, allowed for the comparison between experimental conditions. Results and Conclusions. Nine randomized control trials met criteria for inclusion in this review. Effect size was found for mood indicators, tension and anxiety in the POMS scale, self-esteem, and memory when the yoga groups were compared to control. Future research requires greater standardization and suitability of yoga interventions for children. PMID:26491461

  9. Effect of Sahaj Yoga on neuro-cognitive functions in patients suffering from major depression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Das, S; Mondal, S; Goswami, U; Gandhi, A

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive functions are impaired in Major Depression. Studies on the effects of Yoga on cognitive functions have shown improvement in memory, vigilance and anxiety levels. 30 patients suffering from Major depression (age 18 to 45 years) were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1: (10 males and 5 Females) Patients who practised Sahaj Yoga meditation and also received conventional anti-depressant medication. Group 2: (9 males and 6 Females) Patients who only received conventional antidepressant medication. Group 1 patients were administered Sahaj Yoga practice for 8 weeks. Neuro-cognitive test battery consisting of Letter cancellation test (LCT), Trail making test 'A' (TTA), Trail making test 'B' (TTB), Ruff figural fluency test (RFFT), Forward digit span (FDS) & Reverse digit span test (RDS) was used to assess following cognitive domains: Attention span, visuo-motor speed, short-term memory, working memory and executive functions. After 8 weeks, both Group 1 and Group 2 subjects showed significant improvement in LCT, TTA & TTB but improvement in LCT was more marked in Group 1 subjects. Also, there was significant improvement in RDS scores in only Group 1 subjects (P < 0.05). The results thereby, demonstrate that Sahaj Yoga practice in addition to the improvement in various other cognitive domains seen with conventional anti-depressants, can lead to additional improvement in executive functions like manipulation of information in the verbal working memory and added improvement in attention span and visuo-motor speed of the depressives.

  10. Incorporating Yoga into College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in the United States, and college counselors should be familiar with this practice due to its popularity among college students. This article provides a brief overview of yoga and research on its benefits for mental health concerns often experienced by college students. Additionally, it addresses methods of…

  11. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  12. Effect of preservation method on spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) fecal microbiota over 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hale, Vanessa L; Tan, Chia L; Knight, Rob; Amato, Katherine R

    2015-06-01

    Studies of the gut microbiome have become increasingly common with recent technological advances. Gut microbes play an important role in human and animal health, and gut microbiome analysis holds great potential for evaluating health in wildlife, as microbiota can be assessed from non-invasively collected fecal samples. However, many common fecal preservation protocols (e.g. freezing at -80 °C) are not suitable for field conditions, or have not been tested for long-term (greater than 2 weeks) storage. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples from captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Columbian Park Zoo (Lafayette, IN, USA). The samples were pooled, homogenized, and preserved for up to 8 weeks prior to DNA extraction and sequencing. Preservation methods included: freezing at -20 °C, freezing at -80 °C, immersion in 100% ethanol, application to FTA cards, and immersion in RNAlater. At 0 (fresh), 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks from fecal collection, DNA was extracted and microbial DNA was amplified and sequenced. DNA concentration, purity, microbial diversity, and microbial composition were compared across all methods and time points. DNA concentration and purity did not correlate with microbial diversity or composition. Microbial composition of frozen and ethanol samples were most similar to fresh samples. FTA card and RNAlater-preserved samples had the least similar microbial composition and abundance compared to fresh samples. Microbial composition and diversity were relatively stable over time within each preservation method. Based on these results, if freezers are not available, we recommend preserving fecal samples in ethanol (for up to 8weeks) prior to microbial extraction and analysis.

  13. The Effects of a Hatha Yoga Intervention on Facets of Distress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Johnna; Hopkins, Lindsey; Powers, Mark; Baird, Scarlett O.; Smits, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with low distress tolerance (DT) experience negative emotion as particularly threatening and are highly motivated to reduce or avoid such affective experiences. Consequently, these individuals have difficulty regulating emotions and tend to engage in maladaptive strategies, such as overeating, as a means to reduce or avoid distress. Hatha yoga encourages one to implement present-centered awareness and non-reaction in the face of physical and psychological discomfort and, thus, emerges as a potential strategy for increasing DT. To test whether a hatha yoga intervention can enhance DT, a transdiagnostic risk and maintenance factor, this study randomly assigned females high in emotional eating in response to stress (N = 52) either to an 8-week, twice-weekly hatha (Bikram) yoga intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Self-reported DT and emotional eating were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and 1-week post-treatment. Consistent with prediction, participants in the yoga condition reported greater increases in DT over the course of the intervention relative to waitlist participants (Cohen’s d = .82). Also consistent with prediction, the reduction in emotional eating was greater for the yoga condition than the waitlist condition (Cohen’s d = .92). Importantly, reductions distress absorption, a specific sub-facet of DT, accounted for 15% of the variance in emotional eating, a hallmark behavior of eating pathology and risk factor for obesity. PMID:25952547

  14. The Effects of a Hatha Yoga Intervention on Facets of Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Medina, Johnna; Hopkins, Lindsey; Powers, Mark; Baird, Scarlett O; Smits, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with low distress tolerance (DT) experience negative emotion as particularly threatening and are highly motivated to reduce or avoid such affective experiences. Consequently, these individuals have difficulty regulating emotions and tend to engage in maladaptive strategies, such as overeating, as a means to reduce or avoid distress. Hatha yoga encourages one to implement present-centered awareness and non-reaction in the face of physical and psychological discomfort and, thus, emerges as a potential strategy for increasing DT. To test whether a hatha yoga intervention can enhance DT, a transdiagnostic risk and maintenance factor, this study randomly assigned females high in emotional eating in response to stress (N = 52) either to an 8-week, twice-weekly hatha (Bikram) yoga intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Self-reported DT and emotional eating were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and 1-week post-treatment. Consistent with prediction, participants in the yoga condition reported greater increases in DT over the course of the intervention relative to waitlist participants (Cohen's d = .82). Also consistent with prediction, the reduction in emotional eating was greater for the yoga condition than the waitlist condition (Cohen's d = .92). Importantly, reductions distress absorption, a specific sub-facet of DT, accounted for 15% of the variance in emotional eating, a hallmark behavior of eating pathology and risk factor for obesity.

  15. Yoga for Children and Adolescents After Completing Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hooke, Mary C; Gilchrist, Laura; Foster, Laurie; Langevin, Mary; Lee, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer may experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, and balance impairment. Yoga is a complementary therapy that improves fatigue, sleep, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors. Using a one group, repeated measures design, we evaluated the feasibility of a yoga program and assessed if cancer survivor participants ages 10 to 17 years (n = 13) had significantly less fatigue and anxiety, and better balance and sleep, after a 6-week yoga intervention compared with a 6-week pre-intervention wait period. Study recruitment was challenging with a 32% enrollment rate; yoga attendance was 90%. None of the scores for anxiety, fatigue, sleep, and balance had significant changes during the wait period. After the 6-week yoga program, children (n = 7) had a significant decrease in anxiety score (P = .04) while adolescent scores (n = 7) showed a decreasing trend (P = .10). Scores for fatigue, sleep, and balance remained stable post-intervention. Fatigue and balance scores were below norms for health children/adolescents while sleep and anxiety scores were similar to healthy peers.

  16. Urinary tract infections in febrile infants younger than 8 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Crain, E F; Gershel, J C

    1990-09-01

    In this prospective study of 442 infants younger than 8 weeks of age who attended a pediatric emergency department with temperature greater than or equal to 100.6 degrees F (38.1 degrees C), urinary tract infections (UTIs) were found in 33 patients (7.5%), 2 of whom were bacteremic. Clinical and laboratory data were not helpful for identifying UTIs. Of the 33 patients with UTIs, 32 had urinalyses recorded; 16 were suggestive of a UTI (more than five white blood cells per high-power field or any bacteria present). Of the 16 infants with apparently normal urinalysis results, three had an emergency department diagnosis suggesting an alternative bacterial focus of infection. If the physician had decided on the basis of apparently normal urinalysis results to forgo obtaining a urine culture, more than half of the UTIs would have been missed. Bag-collected specimens were significantly more likely to yield indeterminate urine culture results than either catheter or suprapubic specimens. In addition, uncircumcised males were significantly more likely to have a UTI than circumcised boys. These results suggest that a suprapubic or catheter-obtained urine specimen for culture is a necessary part of the evaluation of all febrile infants younger than 8 weeks of age, regardless of the urinalysis findings or another focus of presumed bacterial infection.

  17. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed. PMID:27086476

  18. Effect of a yoga practice session and a yoga theory session on state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Gaur, Vaishali; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2009-12-01

    Yoga techniques practiced for varying durations have been shown to reduce state anxiety. In this study, there were 300 naive-to-yoga persons of both sexes who were attending a yoga therapy center in north India for stress relief as day visitors and were not residing at the center. They were assigned to two groups, yoga practice and yoga theory, and their state anxiety was assessed before and after a 2-hr. yoga session. A significant reduction in scores on state anxiety was found in the yoga practice group (14.7% decrease), as well as in the yoga theory group (3.4% decrease). The difference in scores following the sessions was statistically significant. Hence, yoga practice as well as learning about theoretical aspects of yoga appear to reduce state anxiety, with a greater reduction following yoga practice.

  19. Can yoga practices benefit health by improving organism regulation? Evidence from electrodermal measures of acupuncture meridians

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhawna; Hankey, Alex; Nagilla, Niharika; Meenakshy, Kaniyamparambil Baburajan; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To document and explain Yoga's effects on acupuncture meridian energies. To understand mechanisms behind Yoga's efficacy by testing links between yoga and traditional Chinese medicine. Materials and Methods: The study compared two groups of yoga practitioners: Novice and experienced. Novices consisted of 33 volunteers from a Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) yoga instructor training module and the experienced practitioners were 20 resident SVYASA students. The intervention was 3 weeks of a yoga training program, new for the novices, but the lifestyle of the experienced group, who were therefore assessed only once. Novices were assessed on day 2 and 23 of their program at SVYASA's Yoga Medicine Hospital, making their data a pre-post, self-as-control, prospective study. Main outcome measures were mean acumeridian energy levels assessed by AcuGraph3 measures of electrodermal resistance at acupoints; additionally, gender differences, standard deviations (SDs) of all measures, and comparison of post and experienced group data. Results: Averaged energy levels significantly improved in all 24 meridians (maximum P = 0.032, 4-P < 0.01, and 19-P < 0.001). Females improved more than males (P < 0.05), both ending at similar levels to experienced practitioners, whose SDs were lower than novices on 19/24 meridians (mean F = 3.715, P = 0.0022), and 4/5 average variables. Conclusions: AcuGraph3 electrodermal measures contain substantial information, P << 0.00001. Yoga-lifestyle practice can increase and balance acumeridian energies; long-term practice decreases group SD's. These three suggest reasons why yoga practice impacts health: One, increased prana levels are important; two and three, improved physiological regulation is the key. Further studies relating traditional Indian and Chinese medical systems are needed. PMID:25035605

  20. Yoga for control of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yardi, N

    2001-01-01

    Yoga is an age-old traditional Indian psycho-philosophical-cultural method of leading one's life, that alleviates stress, induces relaxation and provides multiple health benefits to the person following its system. It is a method of controlling the mind through the union of an individual's dormant energy with the universal energy. Commonly practiced yoga methods are 'Pranayama' (controlled deep breathing), 'Asanas' (physical postures) and 'Dhyana' (meditation) admixed in varying proportions with differing philosophic ideas. A review of yoga in relation to epilepsy encompasses not only seizure control but also many factors dealing with overall quality-of-life issues (QOL). This paper reviews articles related to yoga and epilepsy, seizures, EEG, autonomic changes, neuro-psychology, limbic system, arousal, sleep, brain plasticity, motor performance, brain imaging studies, and rehabilitation. There is a dearth of randomized, blinded, controlled studies related to yoga and seizure control. A multi-centre, cross-cultural, preferably blinded (difficult for yoga), well-randomized controlled trial, especially using a single yogic technique in a homogeneous population such as Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is justified to find out how yoga affects seizure control and QOL of the person with epilepsy.

  1. Proteomic changes at 8 weeks after infection are associated with chronic liver pathology in experimental schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Bhagyashree; Jordan, T William; Secor, W Evan; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2012-03-16

    Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection can present as a moderate or severe disease, termed intestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, respectively. Similarly, either moderate splenomegaly or hypersplenomegaly syndrome develops in CBA/J mice by 20weeks of infection and is similar to intestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis respectively. Using this mouse model and two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis, the liver proteomic signatures of uninfected mice and mice infected for 6, 8, 12, or 20weeks were compared, and significant protein spots identified using mass spectrometry. We found the greatest number of changes at 12weeks suggesting that this period represents the peak time of change. Pathway analysis identified specific proteins and pathways that correlated to the pathological changes indicative of severe disease, and these pathways were involved as early as 8weeks after infection. These findings provide insight into the development of severe liver pathology in schistosomiasis and may aid in developing biomarkers for hepatosplenic schistosomiasis.

  2. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  3. A yoga intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students.

    PubMed

    Stern, Judith R S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-09-01

    Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrolled in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research.

  4. [Relation between yoga and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Sauermann, G

    1980-01-01

    Western psychotherapy and Yoga overlap insofar as both systems are based upon religious and mythological facts, and--on the level of psychotherapeutical praxis--on the technics of hypnosis, auto- and heterosuggestions and/or meditation. It is 50 years ago that the west considered the psychotherapeutical effects of theayoga-systems, first of all of Hatha- Yoga. Even today a theoretical foundation by means of proper comparison of the two structures is missing. In present-day India Yoga fulfills psychohygienical functions without being a psychotherapy in our sense. There are various techniques of magic in use, which replace the experimental psychological-psychotherapeutical methods in the West. The acceptance of meditation could only be successful if the metaphysical and sociocultural context would be integrated at the same time. The traditional function of Yoga guarantees its continuity even in the modern industrialized society of India. Neither the theoretical nor the pratical fundaments allow a direct transfer at present.

  5. Yoga Improves Academic Performance in Urban High School Students Compared to Physical Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Yoga programs within schools have become more widespread but research regarding the potential effect on academic achievement remains limited. This study cluster-randomized 112 students within a single New York City public high school to participate in either school-based yoga or physical education (PE) for an entire academic year. The primary…

  6. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. PMID:22306535

  7. Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, P M

    2001-03-01

    The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga, and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for connecting to others in healing relationships.

  8. Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, P M

    2001-03-01

    The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga, and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for connecting to others in healing relationships. PMID:11342401

  9. Perceived Benefits of Yoga among Urban School Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Donna; Hagins, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a yoga intervention program for urban middle and high school youth in New York City public and charter schools. Six focus groups were conducted with students who participated in a year-long yoga program to determine their perceptions of mental and physical benefits as well as barriers and challenges. Results show that students perceived the benefits of yoga as increased self-regulation, mindfulness, self-esteem, physical conditioning, academic performance, and stress reduction. Barriers and challenges for a yoga practice include lack of time and space. The extent to which the benefits experienced are interrelated to one another is discussed. Suggestions for future research and school-based programming are also offered. PMID:26884797

  10. Perceived Benefits of Yoga among Urban School Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donna; Hagins, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a yoga intervention program for urban middle and high school youth in New York City public and charter schools. Six focus groups were conducted with students who participated in a year-long yoga program to determine their perceptions of mental and physical benefits as well as barriers and challenges. Results show that students perceived the benefits of yoga as increased self-regulation, mindfulness, self-esteem, physical conditioning, academic performance, and stress reduction. Barriers and challenges for a yoga practice include lack of time and space. The extent to which the benefits experienced are interrelated to one another is discussed. Suggestions for future research and school-based programming are also offered.

  11. Perceived Benefits of Yoga among Urban School Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donna; Hagins, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a yoga intervention program for urban middle and high school youth in New York City public and charter schools. Six focus groups were conducted with students who participated in a year-long yoga program to determine their perceptions of mental and physical benefits as well as barriers and challenges. Results show that students perceived the benefits of yoga as increased self-regulation, mindfulness, self-esteem, physical conditioning, academic performance, and stress reduction. Barriers and challenges for a yoga practice include lack of time and space. The extent to which the benefits experienced are interrelated to one another is discussed. Suggestions for future research and school-based programming are also offered. PMID:26884797

  12. Feasibility and Safety of Intra-Dialysis Yoga and Education in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Rothman, Russell L.; Sohl, Stephanie J.; Wertenbaker, Dolphi; Wheeler, Amy; Bossart, Chase; Balasire, Oluwaseyi; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis are much more sedentary than healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of a 12-week intra-dialysis yoga intervention versus a kidney education intervention on the promotion of physical activity. Design and Methods We randomized participants by dialysis shift to either 12-week intra-dialysis yoga or an educational intervention. Intra-dialysis yoga was provided by yoga teachers to participants while receiving hemodialysis. Participants receiving the 12-week educational intervention received a modification of a previously developed comprehensive educational program for patients with kidney disease (“Kidney School”). The primary outcome for this study was feasibility based on recruitment and adherence to the interventions, and safety of intra-dialysis yoga. Secondary outcomes were to determine the feasibility of administering questionnaires at baseline and 12-weeks including the Kidney Disease-Related Quality of Life-36. Results Among 56 eligible patients approached for the study, 55% (n=31) were interested and consented to participation with 18 assigned to intra-dialysis yoga and 13 to the educational program. A total of 5 participants withdrew from the pilot study, all from the intra-dialysis yoga group. Two of these participants reported no further interest in participation. Three withdrawn participants switched dialysis times and therefore could no longer receive intra-dialysis yoga. As a result, 72% (13 of 18) and 100% (13 of 13) of participants completed 12-week intra-dialysis yoga and educational programs, respectively. There were no adverse events related to intra-dialysis yoga. Intervention participants practiced yoga a median of 21 sessions (70% participation frequency), with 60% of participants practicing at least 2 times a week. Participants in the educational program completed a median of 30 sessions (83% participation frequency

  13. Self-care and yoga-academic-practice collaboration for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina

    2013-12-01

    High rates of stress and burnout among nurses and other health care providers justify the exploration of innovative interventions designed to reduce stress and promote self-care among this population. A growing body of evidence supports the physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga and suggests the potential for yoga to support self-care and reduce stress among health care providers. This article describes the formation of an academic-practice collaboration to use yoga as a model for occupational health and wellness among nurses employed at a tax-supported urban health system. In addition, recommendations for program sustainability over time are discussed. PMID:24328918

  14. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  15. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  16. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  17. The Effects of Yoga on Pain, Mobility, and Quality of Life in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically assess the effects of yoga on pain, mobility, and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Pubmed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and other sources were searched systematically in this study. Two reviewers identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. Downs and Black's Quality Index were used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Results. A total of 9 articles (6 studies) involving 372 patients with knee osteoarthritis met the inclusion criteria. The most common yoga protocol is 40~90 minutes/session, lasting for at least 8 weeks. The effect of yoga on pain relief and function improvement could be seen after two-week intervention. Conclusion. This systematic review showed that yoga might have positive effects in relieving pain and mobility on patients with KOA, but the effects on quality of life (QOL) are unclear. Besides, more outcome measure related to mental health of yoga effects on people with KOA should be conducted. PMID:27777597

  18. Yoga breathing, meditation, and longevity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P; Gerbarg, Patricia L

    2009-08-01

    Yoga breathing is an important part of health and spiritual practices in Indo-Tibetan traditions. Considered fundamental for the development of physical well-being, meditation, awareness, and enlightenment, it is both a form of meditation in itself and a preparation for deep meditation. Yoga breathing (pranayama) can rapidly bring the mind to the present moment and reduce stress. In this paper, we review data indicating how breath work can affect longevity mechanisms in some ways that overlap with meditation and in other ways that are different from, but that synergistically enhance, the effects of meditation. We also provide clinical evidence for the use of yoga breathing in the treatment of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and for victims of mass disasters. By inducing stress resilience, breath work enables us to rapidly and compassionately relieve many forms of suffering.

  19. Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre) and an increase in anxiety in the control group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre). Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285 PMID:20193089

  20. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  1. An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

    2014-09-01

    Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.

  2. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Internet-Based, African Dance-Modified Yoga Program for African-American Women with or at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candace C; Taylor, Ann Gill; Anderson, Joel G; Jones, Randy A; Whaley, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) women are the segment of the population that experiences the highest mortality from metabolic syndrome (MetS). Yoga decreases risk of MetS, yet there have been no yoga studies of AA women with or at risk for MetS. The purpose of this 4-week study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally tailored, Internet-based intervention, yogic dance (YD), using digital videos in a sample of AA women (ages 35-64) at risk for or with MetS. The investigators examined the rates of accrual, attrition, and reasons for attrition; the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver the intervention; the acceptability of the intervention as structured; and any other benefits and/or limitations of YD. The study used a single-group, mixed-methods design underpinned by social constructivist theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model. Twenty-four women provided consent to enroll in the study. After completing in-person semi-structured interviews and Internet-based measures, including the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, and the modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire, consented participants engaged in 4-weeks of the yogic dance intervention via daily video-based instructions located on the study Web site. After the intervention, four women participated in focus groups to voice their perceptions of barriers to and benefits from YD and the acceptability of using the YD intervention. The investigators analyzed focus group data using content/thematic analysis and validated themes with baseline semi-structured interviews. The majority of the women (79%) found YD acceptable. Themes that emerged from the descriptive data include: (1) Culture is an important aspect of yogic dance; and (2) Increased social support would enhance yogic dance participation. The integrated results from this feasibility study will inform research exploring the complex correlates that influence health behaviors in AA women. PMID:25593785

  3. Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

  4. Development of the beliefs about yoga scale.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Stephanie J; Schnur, Julie B; Daly, Leslie; Suslov, Kathryn; Montgomery, Guy H

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs about yoga may influence participation in yoga and outcomes of yoga interventions. There is currently no scale appropriate for assessing these beliefs in the general U.S. population. This study took the first steps in developing and validating a Beliefs About Yoga Scale (BAYS) to assess beliefs about yoga that may influence people's engagement in yoga interventions. Items were generated based on previously published research about perceptions of yoga and reviewed by experts within the psychology and yoga communities. 426 adult participants were recruited from an urban medical center to respond to these items. The mean age was 40.7 (SD=13.5) years. Participants completed the BAYS and seven additional indicators of criterion-related validity. The BAYS demonstrated internal consistency (11 items; α=0.76) and three factors emerged: expected health benefits, expected discomfort, and expected social norms. The factor structure was confirmed: x2 (41, n=213)=72.06, p<.001; RMSEA=06, p=.23. Criterion-related validity was supported by positive associations of the BAYS with past experiences and future intentions related to yoga. This initial analysis of the BAYS demonstrated that it is an adequately reliable and valid measure of beliefs about yoga with a three-factor structure. However, the scale may need to be modified based on the population to which it is applied.

  5. Influences of a yoga intervention on the postural skills of the Italian short track speed skating team

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Jean-François; Blais-Coutu, Sébastien; Gouadec, Kenan; Bédard, Éric; Fait, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for a short track speed skating season, eight men and seven women were given yoga sessions during an 8-week high volume training cycle. The sessions were planned according to the postural aspects specific to short track speed skating technical requirements. Three specific goals were selected for the intervention: 1) to observe whether the practice of yoga as postural training could improve the efficiency and the athlete’s repertoire along the muscular synergies solicited in the short track speed skating specific technique; 2) to enhance and diversify the motor time-on-task of athletes without changing the prescription of other training stimulus; and 3) to lower the risk of injury during periods with high volumes of training. Methods A total of 36 sessions of yoga were given. Three postural tests were administered before and after the intervention with 14 angles analyzed. Non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare angles’ variations. Results The 36 yoga sessions totalized 986 minutes of motor time-on-task, registering a proportion of 30% of the global motor time-on-task of the training cycle. Improvements were found in eleven of the 14 angles measured when comparing pre- and post-postural tests (P-value from 0.01 to 0.005). During the 8 weeks, excepting traumatic injuries due to short track speed skating accidents, no skaters suffered injuries linked to the high volume of training. Following the intervention, coaches noticed, following their on-ice feedbacks, an adjustment in the efficiency of the skating technique, in particular regarding hip dissociation. Conclusion These results suggest that yoga could be inserted into out-of-season training cycles, even in a high volume training cycle. Planned with the decision training tools, it allows athletes to diversify their motor time-on-task by integrating a new functional range of generic movements with the solicitation of neuromuscular synergies related to the specificity of their

  6. Implementing Yoga Therapy Adapted for Older Veterans Who Are Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    King, Katherine; Gosian, Jeffrey; Doherty, Kelly; Chapman, Jnani; Walsh, Christina; Azar, Jill Pokaski; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Moye, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This goal of this paper is to describe the reach, application, and effectiveness of an 8-week yoga therapy protocol with older cancer survivors within a Veterans Health Administration setting. Methods To document the reach of this intervention, recruitment efforts, attendance, and practice rates were tracked. To explore the application of the protocol to this population, physical therapy pre-assessment and observations by the yoga therapist were recorded to ascertain necessary pose modifications. Effectiveness was measured through pre- and post-course structured interviews, tracking self-reported symptoms of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, and pain. Results Regarding reach, 15% of eligible veterans (n = 14) enrolled, participated in 3–16 classes (M±SD = 11.64±3.39), and practiced at home for 0–56 days (M±SD = 26.36±17.87). Participants were primarily Caucasian (n = 13), male (n = 13), ranged in age from 55 to 78 years (M±SD = 65.64±5.15), and had multiple medical problems. During application, substantial individualized modifications to the yoga therapy protocol were necessary. Effectiveness of the intervention was mixed. During post-course interviews, participants reported a variety of qualitative benefits. Notably, the majority of participants reported that breathing and relaxation techniques were the most useful to learn. Group comparisons of mean pre- and post-course scores on standardized measures showed no significant differences. Conclusions A minority of older veterans express an interest in yoga, but those who do have high rates of class attendance and home practice. Careful physical pre-assessment and attentive therapists are required to undertake the adaptations required by participants with multiple comorbidities. The effectiveness of yoga in this setting requires additional study. PMID:25810693

  7. The Yoga of Critical Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a comparative self-reflection on two seemingly disparate teaching practices: hatha yoga and critical social theories of education. As some have already discovered, the two enacted fields share many core principles and practices; deal with strikingly similar content; and are primarily self-reflective. As an…

  8. Yoga and sexual functioning: a review.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Mehak, Lisa; Kit, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient practice with Eastern roots that involves both physical postures (asanas) and breathing techniques (pranayamas). There is also a cognitive component focusing on meditation and concentration, which aids in achieving the goal of union between the self and the spiritual. Although numerous empirical studies have found a beneficial effect of yoga on different aspects of physical and psychological functioning, claims of yoga's beneficial effects on sexuality derive from a rich but nonempirical literature. The goal of this article is to review the philosophy and forms of yoga, to review the nonempirical and (limited) empirical literatures linking yoga with enhanced sexuality, and to propose some future research avenues focusinging on yoga as a treatment for sexual complaints.

  9. Iyengar Yoga for Adolescents and Young Adults With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Seidman, Laura C.; Sternlieb, Beth; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Tsao, Jennie C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, disabling condition that greatly compromises patient functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-week twice per week Iyengar yoga (IY) program on IBS symptoms in adolescents and young adults (YA) with IBS compared with a usual-care waitlist control group. Methods Assessments of symptoms, global improvement, pain, health-related quality of life, psychological distress, functional disability, fatigue, and sleep were collected pre- and posttreatment. Weekly ratings of pain, IBS symptoms, and global improvement were also recorded until 2-month follow-up. A total of 51 participants completed the intervention (yoga = 29; usual-care waitlist = 22). Results Baseline attrition was 24%. On average, the yoga group attended 75% of classes. Analyses were divided by age group. Relative to controls, adolescents (14–17 years) assigned to yoga reported significantly improved physical functioning, whereas YA (18–26 years) assigned to yoga reported significantly improved IBS symptoms, global improvement, disability, psychological distress, sleep quality, and fatigue. Although abdominal pain intensity was statistically unchanged, 44% of adolescents and 46% of YA reported a minimally clinically significant reduction in pain following yoga, and one-third of YA reported clinically significant levels of global symptom improvement. Analysis of the uncontrolled effects and maintenance of treatment effects for adolescents revealed global improvement immediately post-yoga that was not maintained at follow-up. For YA, global improvement, worst pain, constipation, and nausea were significantly improved postyoga, but only global improvement, worst pain, and nausea maintained at the 2-month follow-up. Conclusions The findings suggest that a brief IY intervention is a feasible and safe adjunctive treatment for young people with IBS, leading to benefits in a number of IBS-specific and general functioning domains for

  10. Impact of a 10 minute Seated Yoga Practice in the Management of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi S; Ames, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought to prospectively evaluate the impact of a 10 minute seated yoga program added to standard comprehensive diabetes care on glucose control and cardiovascular health in the severely ill, medically complex diabetic population. Method A total of 10 patients with type 2 diabetes, ages 49-77, with duration of diabetes >10 years and haemoglobin A1C >9% (75 mmol/mol) were included in the study. Patients randomized to a yoga intervention were taught a 10 minute seated yoga practice, were given an explanatory DVD and a fold-out pocket guide to encourage adherence at home, and were instructed to incorporate the practice as often as they could. The patients in the control arm were provided information and hand outs on the available yoga classes on campus. Results At 3 month clinical follow up, the mean decrease in fasting capillary blood glucose (CBG) was 45% among yoga participants (−5.2 ± 4.1 mmol/L). Heart rate (HR) dropped by 18% and Diastolic blood pressure (BP) dropped by 29% in the intervention arm, (−12.4 ± 6.69 and −26 ± 12.05 mmHg, respectively). There were no statistically significant changes in the haemoglobin A1C, systolic blood pressure, weight, or body mass index in either group. Conclusion Our small pilot study reinforces the current medical evidence supporting the use of yoga, combined with standard care, to improve health outcomes in diabetes.

  11. Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

  12. Recruitment and initial interest of men in yoga for smoking cessation: QuitStrong, a randomized control pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Jennings, Ernestine G; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M; Bock, Beth C

    2015-06-01

    Innovative treatments like yoga for men's smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men's SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18-65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±13.7) who smoked on average 18.6 cigarettes/day (±8.3). Wellness (75.8 %) versus yoga (56 %) men attended more SC classes, p < 0.01. Sixty percent attended ≥1 yoga class. Men reported greater satisfaction with in-house versus community yoga classes. Wellness appears to be the preferred intervention; results indicated that it may be more feasible and showed increased attendance at smoking classes. To be fully feasible, yoga + SC may need to be a unified program offering all classes tailored for men and in the same location. PMID:26029280

  13. Ashtanga-Based Yoga Therapy Increases the Sensory Contribution to Postural Stability in Visually-Impaired Persons at Risk for Falls as Measured by the Wii Balance Board: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haaz Moonaz, Steffany; Bittner, Ava K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Persons with visual impairment (VI) are at greater risk for falls due to irreparable damage to visual sensory input contributing to balance. Targeted training may significantly improve postural stability by strengthening the remaining sensory systems. Here, we evaluate the Ashtanga-based Yoga Therapy (AYT) program as a multi-sensory behavioral intervention to develop postural stability in VI. Design A randomized, waitlist-controlled, single-blind clinical trial Methods The trial was conducted between October 2012 and December 2013. Twenty-one legally blind participants were randomized to an 8-week AYT program (n = 11, mean (SD) age = 55(17)) or waitlist control (n=10, mean (SD) age = 55(10)). AYT subjects convened for one group session at a local yoga studio with an instructor and two individual home-based practice sessions per week for a total of 8 weeks. Subjects completed outcome measures at baseline and post-8 weeks of AYT. The primary outcome, absolute Center of Pressure (COP), was derived from the Wii Balance Board (WBB), a standalone posturography device, in 4 sensory conditions: firm surface, eyes open (EO); firm surface, eyes closed (EC); foam surface, EO; and foam surface, EC. Stabilization Indices (SI) were computed from COP measures to determine the relative visual (SIfirm, SIfoam), somatosensory (SIEO, SIEC) and vestibular (SIV, i.e., FoamEC vs. FirmEO) contributions to balance. This study was not powered to detect between group differences, so significance of pre-post changes was assessed by paired samples t-tests within each group. Results Groups were equivalent at baseline (all p > 0.05). In the AYT group, absolute COP significantly increased in the FoamEO (t(8) = -3.66, p = 0.01) and FoamEC (t(8) = -3.90, p = 0.01) conditions. Relative somatosensory SIEO (t(8) = -2.42, p = 0.04) and SIEC (t(8) = -3.96, p = 0.01), and vestibular SIV (t(8) = -2.47, p = 0.04) contributions to balance increased significantly. As expected, no significant

  14. Yoga as Therapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Case Report of Therapeutic Yoga for Adrenomyeloneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Charlene Marie; Moonaz, Steffany Haaz

    2014-01-01

    Yoga is a promising therapeutic modality for neurodegenerative diseases. This case study presents a therapeutic yoga protocol for adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and its effect on a patient’s quality of life (QOL), agility, balance, and peripheral dexterity. A 61-y-old man diagnosed with AMN who was experiencing (1) peripheral neuropathy in his legs and feet, (2) lower-back pain (LBP), and (3) osteoarthritis received 60-min weekly therapeutic yoga sessions for a 10-mo period. Yoga therapy included hatha yoga asanas (poses) and pranayama (breathing exercises). Hatha yoga asanas were aligned with 7 Berg Balance Scale (BBS) indicators to measure improvement in balance and range of motion. The 10-mo course of therapeutic yoga resulted in improved LBP; improved flexion of the patient’s hips, knees, and ankles; improved propulsion phase of walking; and improvement in the patient’s ability to stand and balance without an assistive device. The effect of yoga therapy on the patient in this case study aligns with current QOL improvements noted in current research on yoga therapy for neurological disorders. The described concepts and methods of employing therapeutic yoga provide insights for clinicians into a modality that is low risk and low cost and that can support individuals with other neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), fibromyalgia (FM), and diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Further study is warranted to help determine the safety and efficacy of yoga therapy for these conditions. PMID:26770098

  15. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  16. Impact of Yoga Nidra on psychological general wellbeing in patients with menstrual irregularities: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Khushbu; Tiwari, SC; Singh, Uma; Agrawal, GG; Ghildiyal, Archana; Srivastava, Neena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Yogic relaxation therapy (Yoga Nidra) has been effectively prescribed in conjunction with other medical and yogic procedures in the management of severe psychosomatic diseases, including cancer, bronchial asthma, colitis, peptic ulcer and menstrual irregularities. Aim of the study: To assess the impact of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C.S.M. Medical University (erstwhile KGMU), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 150 female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 1) group of 75 subjects (with yogic intervention) and 2) a control group of 75 subjects (without yogic intervention). Assessment of psychological general wellbeing (tool) was used for all the subjects Assessment of psychological general well being (tool) was used for all the subjects (Cases and controls). This assessment was done twice first time in the beginning (baseline) and then after six months. Results: Anxiety decreased significantly (P<0.003) and depression decreased significantly (P<0.01) in the Yoga group. Positive wellbeing and general health improved significantly (P<0.02), and vitality improved significantly (P<0.01) after six months of Yoga therapy (Yoga Nidra) in the Yoga group compared with the control group. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that patients with menstrual irregularities having psychological problems improved significantly in the areas of their wellbeing, anxiety and depression by learning and applying a program based on Yogic intervention (Yoga Nidra). PMID:21654971

  17. A protocol and pilot study for managing fibromyalgia with yoga and meditation.

    PubMed

    Hennard, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread pain, sleep disturbance, stiffness, fatigue, headache, and mood disorders. Recent research has resulted in an improved understanding of fibromyalgia and its possible causes. This article highlights some of the current research, discusses a strategy for using yoga and meditation as a therapy for fibromyalgia sufferers, and presents the results of a preliminary 8-week study using yoga and meditation to help manage fibromyalgia symptoms. The study of 11 participants found significant improvement in the overall health status of the participants and in symptoms of stiffness, anxiety, and depression. Significant improvements were also seen in the reported number of days "felt good" and number of days "missed work" because of fibromyalgia. Nonsignificant improvements were seen in measures of pain, fatigue, and how one felt in the morning. Effect sizes were medium to large for most tested areas. This study supports the benefits of yoga and meditation for individuals with fibromyalgia and encourages further research to explore their use as standard therapies for fibromyalgia.

  18. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  19. “A Feeling of Connectedness”: Perspectives on a Gentle Yoga Intervention for Women with Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Taylor, Ann Gill; Steeves, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and debilitating health conditions in women in the United States and worldwide. Many women with MDD seek out complementary therapies for their depressive symptoms, either as an adjunct or alternative to the usual care. The purpose of this study is to understand the experiences of women with a yoga intervention in relation to their depression. The findings from this interpretive phenomenological study are derived from interviews with and daily logs by 12 women with MDD who took part in an 8-week gentle yoga intervention as part of a larger parent randomized, controlled trial. Results show that the women’s experience of depression involved stress, ruminations, and isolation. In addition, their experience of yoga was that it served as a self-care technique for the stress and ruminative aspects of depression and that it served as a relational technique facilitating connectedness and shared experiences in a safe environment. Future long-term research is warranted to evaluate these concepts as potential mechanisms for the effects of yoga for depression. PMID:23805925

  20. Clinical hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Shitika; Gopinath, Jini K.

    2013-01-01

    The trance states in yoga and hypnosis are associated with similar phenomena like relaxation, disinclination to talk, unreality, misrepresentation, alterations in perception, increased concentration, suspension of normal reality testing, and the temporary nature of the phenomena. While some researchers consider yoga to be a form of hypnosis, others note that there are many similarities between the trance in yoga and the hypnotic trance. The present study aimed to find similarities between the trance states of hypnosis and Patanjali's yoga sutras. The trance states were compared with the understanding of the phenomena of trance, and the therapeutic techniques and benefits of both. An understanding of the concept of trance in Patanjali's yoga sutras was gained through a thematic analysis of the book Four Chapters on Freedom by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. This led to an understanding of the concept of trance in the yoga sutras. The obtained concepts were compared to the concepts of trance in hypnosis (obtained through the literature on hypnosis) to investigate whether or not there exist similarities. The findings of the study show that there are similarities between the trance in hypnosis and the trance in Patanjali's yoga sutras in the induction and deepening of the trance states in hypnosis and that of Samadhi, the phenomena present in hypnosis and the kinds of siddhis that are obtained through Samadhi, and the therapeutic techniques and the therapeutic process in Patanjali's yoga sutra and hypnosis. PMID:23858248

  1. Clinical hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Shitika; Gopinath, Jini K

    2013-01-01

    The trance states in yoga and hypnosis are associated with similar phenomena like relaxation, disinclination to talk, unreality, misrepresentation, alterations in perception, increased concentration, suspension of normal reality testing, and the temporary nature of the phenomena. While some researchers consider yoga to be a form of hypnosis, others note that there are many similarities between the trance in yoga and the hypnotic trance. The present study aimed to find similarities between the trance states of hypnosis and Patanjali's yoga sutras. The trance states were compared with the understanding of the phenomena of trance, and the therapeutic techniques and benefits of both. An understanding of the concept of trance in Patanjali's yoga sutras was gained through a thematic analysis of the book Four Chapters on Freedom by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. This led to an understanding of the concept of trance in the yoga sutras. The obtained concepts were compared to the concepts of trance in hypnosis (obtained through the literature on hypnosis) to investigate whether or not there exist similarities. The findings of the study show that there are similarities between the trance in hypnosis and the trance in Patanjali's yoga sutras in the induction and deepening of the trance states in hypnosis and that of Samadhi, the phenomena present in hypnosis and the kinds of siddhis that are obtained through Samadhi, and the therapeutic techniques and the therapeutic process in Patanjali's yoga sutra and hypnosis. PMID:23858248

  2. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  3. Yoga for women with metastatic breast cancer: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Porter, Laura S; Keefe, Francis J; Shaw, Heather; Miller, Julie M

    2007-03-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains a terminal illness for which major treatment advances are slow to appear, and hence it is crucial that effective palliative interventions be developed to reduce the cancer-related symptoms of women with this condition during the remaining years of their lives. This pilot/feasibility study examined a novel, yoga-based palliative intervention, the Yoga of Awareness Program, in a sample of women with MBC. The eight-week protocol included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, meditation, didactic presentations, and group interchange. Outcome was assessed using daily measures of pain, fatigue, distress, invigoration, acceptance, and relaxation during two preintervention weeks and the final two weeks of the intervention. Thirteen women completed the intervention (mean age=59; mean time since diagnosis=7 years; two African American, 11 Caucasian). During the study, four participants had cancer recurrences, and the physical condition of several others deteriorated noticeably. Despite low statistical power, pre-to-post multilevel outcomes analyses showed significant increases in invigoration and acceptance. Lagged analyses of length of home yoga practice (controlling for individual mean practice time and outcome levels on the lagged days) showed that on the day after a day during which women practiced more, they experienced significantly lower levels of pain and fatigue, and higher levels of invigoration, acceptance, and relaxation. These findings support the need for further investigation of the effects of the Yoga of Awareness Program in women with MBC.

  4. Efficacy of a Satyananda Yoga Intervention for Reintegrating Adults Diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Natalia; Maquet, Yvonne Gómez; Vélez, Diana María Agudelo; López, Maria Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ex-combatants from illegal armed groups in Colombia has been estimated at 37.4%. This high prevalence indicates a need to explore alternative and adjunctive therapies in the treatment of PTSD. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a protocol based on Satyananda Yoga® in PTSD-diagnosed reintegrating adults in Colombia. One hundred reintegrating adults (n = 50 for each of the yoga and control arms) from Bogota and Medellin participated in this study. Yoga participants engaged in a Satyananda Yoga intervention for 16 weeks while the control group continued the regular demobilization program. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy. Outcomes were assessed before entry and after the treatment. T-tests revealed a treatment effect of d = 1.15 for the yoga group and a between-groups effect size of d = .73. The difference in improvement in PCL-C scores between both groups was 18.91% (p < 0.05). The highest percentage of improvement was observed in the re-experiencing symptom cluster (23.71%; p < 0.05), with a treatment effect of d = 1.40 for the yoga group and a between-groups effect size of d = 1.15. The data suggest that Satyananda Yoga methodology is an effective therapy for reintegrating adults diagnosed with PTSD. Further research is needed in order to evaluate prolonged effects of this alternative therapy.

  5. Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension?: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Nkechi Rose

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present a evidence-based integrative research review that validates yoga therapy as an effective complementary treatment in the management of high blood pressure (BP). The article also uses the theoretical framework of Dr Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome. Yoga researchers demonstrate that yoga works because it modulates the physiological system of the body, specifically its effect on the heart rate. This review is significant because yoga presents an effective method of treating hypertension that is nonpharmacologic and therefore there are no adverse effects and there are other valuable health benefits. Research suggests that stress is a contributing factor to high BP; hence, the use of the general adaptation syndrome and the most important attribute of yoga, that is, it is a physical and mental exercise program, that is in sync with the philosophy of holistic nursing care where one treats the whole individual and not just the disease. The review was conducted with a search of computerized databases such as OVID, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition, PsychINFO, as well as reliable Web sites such as the cdc.gov, among others. An integrative review search was conducted, and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. They include a combination of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and pilot studies. Yoga therapy is a multifunctional exercise modality with numerous benefits. Not only does yoga reduce high BP but it has also been demonstrated to effectively reduce blood glucose level, cholesterol level, and body weight, major problems affecting the American society. The completed integrative review provides guidelines for nursing implementation as a complementary treatment of high BP. PMID:22517349

  6. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  7. Four weeks of mobility after 8 weeks of immobility fails to restore normal motion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Guy; Zhou, Jian; Uhthoff, Hans K; Laneuville, Odette

    2008-05-01

    Prolonged immobilization reduces passive range of motion of joints creating joint contractures. Whether and to what extent these iatrogenic contractures can be reduced is unknown. We raised three questions using an animal model: What degree of contracture remains at the end of a defined remobilization period? Do contractures in sham-operated and immobilized joints differ? What is the contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee extension? We immobilized one knee of 11 adult male rats in flexion to induce a joint contracture; 10 control animals underwent a sham operation. After 8 weeks, the internal fixation device was removed, and the animals were allowed to resume unrestricted activity for 4 weeks at the end of which the knee range of motion was measured with standardized torques. The mean flexion contracture was higher in the immobilized group (51.9 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees ) than in the sham-operated group (18.9 degrees +/- 2.1 degrees ). Eighty-eight percent of the contractures remained in the immobilized group after dividing skin and muscle, suggesting an important contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee mobility. Based on our preliminary study the range of motion of rat knees immobilized for 8 weeks remained substantially reduced after a 4-week period of unassisted remobilization.

  8. Yoga school of thought and psychiatry: Therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Rao, Naren P; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-01-01

    Yoga is a traditional life-style practice used for spiritual reasons. However, the physical components like the asanas and pranayaamas have demonstrated physiological and therapeutic effects. There is evidence for Yoga as being a potent antidepressant that matches with drugs. In depressive disorder, yoga 'corrects' an underlying cognitive physiology. In schizophrenia patients, yoga has benefits as an add-on intervention in pharmacologically stabilized subjects. The effects are particularly notable on negative symptoms. Yoga also helps to correct social cognition. Yoga can be introduced early in the treatment of psychosis with some benefits. Elevation of oxytocin may be a mechanism of yoga effects in schizophrenia. Certain components of yoga have demonstrated neurobiological effects similar to those of vagal stimulation, indicating this (indirect or autogenous vagal stimulation) as a possible mechanism of its action. It is time, psychiatrists exploited the benefits if yoga for a comprehensive care in their patients. PMID:23858245

  9. Effects of yoga exercises for headaches: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of yoga exercises in the management of headaches. [Subjects and Methods] A search was conducted of six electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of yogic intervention on headaches published in any language before January 2015. Quality assessment was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. [Results] One potential trial was identified and included in this review. The quality critical appraisal indicated a moderate risk of bias. The available data could only be included as a narrative description. Headache intensity and frequency, anxiety and depression scores, and symptomatic medication use were significantly lower in the yoga group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] There is evidence from one RCT that yoga exercises may be beneficial for headaches. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of RCTs. Therefore, further rigorous methodological and high quality RCTs are required to investigate the hypothesis that yoga exercises alleviate headaches, and to confirm and further comprehend the effects of standardized yoga programs on headaches. PMID:26311986

  10. Yoga, meditation, and imagery: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, M A

    1998-12-01

    Hatha yoga and meditation as adjunctive therapies for promoting and maintaining wellness offer an excellent example of the mind-body connection at work. Hatha yoga creates balance, physically and emotionally, by using postures, or asanas, combined with breathing techniques, or pranayama. Meditation and guided imagery not only support the physical and emotional work being done by the postures and breathing, they open the door to self-actualization to create the perfect union of the mind, body, and spirit. This report discusses the definitions of hatha yoga, meditation, and imagery and their clinical applications. Three case studies from private practice are presented.

  11. SOME THOUGHTS ON NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthi, B.

    1981-01-01

    Yoga presents the culmination of efforts made by mankind till now control mind and behaviour. It is living science, practiced in an elementary fashion by many in India. While a few perhaps are there who have attained mastery of this science. The background of the derivation and concept of yoga in India is presented followed by a simple exposition of yogic practices and some possible neurophysiologic explanations. Research in yoga will be rewarding as it gives means of exploring and enlarging the functions of the human brain. PMID:22556457

  12. Evaluation of Siddha Samadhi Yoga for anxiety and depression symptoms: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Rueda, Adriana Dourado; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; De Ornellas, Felipe Leite Moraes; Leite, José Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Siddha Samadhi Yoga is a program in which meditation is associated with pranayama (breathing exercises). 22 volunteers with anxiety complaints (M age = 42.8 yr., SD = 10.3) were assigned to two groups: 14 attended the yoga group, and 8 attended a waiting-list or control group. They were evaluated before the intervention and 1 month after it on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, Tension Feelings Self-evaluation Scales, and the Well-being Self-evaluation Scales. A significant reduction in scores on anxiety, depression, and tension was found in yoga group, as well as an increase in well-being in comparison with the control group.

  13. A pilot study of a yoga and meditation intervention for dementia caregiver stress.

    PubMed

    Waelde, Lynn C; Thompson, Larry; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2004-06-01

    Twelve older female dementia patient family caregivers (eight Latinas and four Caucasians) participated in a six-session manualized yoga-meditation program (called Inner Resources) designed to help caregivers cope with stress. Pre/post comparisons revealed statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety and improvements in perceived self-efficacy. Average minutes of weekly yoga-meditation practice were significantly associated with improvements in depression. The majority of caregivers found the intervention useful and reported subjective improvements in physical and emotional functioning. These findings suggest that Inner Resources may be a feasible and effective intervention for family caregivers and may improve affect, coping, physical well-being, and stress management.

  14. Areas of fat loss in overweight young females following an 8-week period of energy intake reduction.

    PubMed

    Jones, P R; Edwards, D A

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the main areas of fat loss after an 8-week period of energy intake reduction, the distribution of body fat was assessed on 14 females (BMI 27.3+/-0.83 kgm(-2)) (mean +/- SEM), aged 18-22 years. Total body fat was determined by hydrostatic weighing and subcutaneous fat mass and distribution were assessed using ultrasound and waist-hip circumference ratios prior to, and following, an 8-week period during which subjects attempted to reduce their energy intake by about 4.2 MJ day(-1). Subjects lost an average of 2.99+/-0.34 kg (p < 0.001), with greater loss (p < 0.001) of internal fat (1.5+/-0.2 kg) than of subcutaneous fat (0.7+/-0.1). Subjects reduced their waist-hip ratio from 0.771+/-0.01 to 0.762+/-0.01 (p < 0.01), their waist circumference from 807+/-24 to 790+/-23 mm (p < 0.001) and their hip circumference from 1047+/-29 to 1037+/-29 mm (p < 0.001). Those with an android distribution of fat (n = 5) lost more weight than those with gynoid distribution (n = 9) (3.80+/-0.38 kg vs 2.54+/-0.14 kg, p < 0.05); they also showed a greater decrease in waist circumference (27+/-5 vs 14+/-4 mm, p < 0.05) and a greater loss from internal fat stores (2.1+/-0.3 kg vs 1.1+/-0.2 kg, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that individuals are prone to lose internal fat during a short period of reduced energy intake. As the visceral fat store is the largest internal fat depot in the body, this suggests that individuals are indeed losing fat that could predispose to upper body obesity.

  15. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  16. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  17. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  18. Effect of daily short bouts of trampoline exercise during 8 weeks on the pulmonary function and the maximal oxygen uptake of children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stanghelle, J K; Hjeltnes, N; Bangstad, H J; Michalsen, H

    1988-02-01

    Six girls and two boys with cystic fibrosis (CF) 10-13.5 years of age (mean 11.5 years) participated in a prescribed exercise program on a mini-trampoline, maximum 109 min/week, during 8 weeks. The training consisted of three short bouts of trampoline exercise. The CF children were divided into two groups. The first group was a control as the other group exercised on the trampoline and vice versa. Three patients in each group completed the study. Pulmonary and exercise tests were performed before and after the exercise/control periods. The pulmonary tests (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) showed minor changes during the exercise period, but a slight increase in FVC (P less than 0.05) during the total time of the study was found. The two patients with more advanced lung disease improved their spirometric results during the training period. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) improved from 45 to 49 ml/kg/min (P less than 0.025) during the exercise period. Trampoline exercise programs are suggested to supply other types of training to avoid monotony in the training for CF patients. PMID:3360541

  19. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized laboratory task (water load task

  20. A brief qualitative survey on the utilization of Yoga research resources by Yoga teachers

    PubMed Central

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Yoga has become popular worldwide with increasing research done on its therapeutic potential. However, it remains to be determined whether such findings actually percolate down into teaching and practice of Yoga teachers/therapists. Materials and Methods: The aim of this survey was to document awareness of Yoga research findings in the Yoga community and find out how these were utilized. It was undertaken with a select group of 34 international Yoga teachers and therapists utilizing email and social media between August and December 2015. Majority of responders had well-established reputation in Yoga and were from diverse lineages with 30 of them having more than 5 years of experience in the field. A set of eight questions were sent to them related to essentiality of Yoga research, how they updated themselves on research findings and whether such studies influenced their teaching and practice. Responses were compiled and appropriate statistics determined for quantitative aspects while feedback, comments and suggestions were noted in detail. Results and Discussion: About 89% agreed that it was essential to be up-to-date on Yoga research but only 70% updated themselves regularly with average papers read fully per year being <10. Most accessed information through general news reports, emails from contacts, and articles on internet sites whereas only 7% were through PubMed. About 60% felt these studies helped them in general teaching whereas 20% said that such studies had not really influenced it in any way. Conclusion: This survey provides a basic picture of a general lack of awareness of Yoga research amongst practicing Yoga teachers and therapists. Though a majority agree research is important, few seriously update themselves on this through scientific channels. With regard to future studies, most wanted “proof” that could be used to convince potential clients and felt that more qualitative methods should be applied. PMID:27104038

  1. Enriching Group Counseling through Integrating Yoga Concepts and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybak, Christopher; Deuskar, Megha

    2010-01-01

    Integrating practices from yoga with group counseling offers many creative paths of therapeutic learning. While yoga emphasizes the increased sense of connection with the self, group counseling emphasizes the increased sense of authenticity in relationship with oneself and with others. Common aims of both yoga and counseling are liberation from…

  2. Add Yoga to Your Singing Warm-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Ivana Pinho

    2006-01-01

    Yoga has much to contribute to singing. The main physical disciplines of yoga are strength, flexibility, alignment, body awareness through breath control, and concentration. These basics also constitute the core of good singing. With instruction incorporated into the regular warm-up, one can introduce beginning yoga ideas into choir practice. Yoga…

  3. Repeated Warm Water Immersion Induces Similar Cerebrovascular Adaptations to 8 Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Exercise Training in Females.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T G; Cable, N T; Miller, G D; Sprung, V S; Low, D A; Jones, H

    2016-09-01

    Exercise training has the potential to enhance cerebrovascular function. Warm water immersion has recently been shown to enhance vascular function including the cerebrovascular response to heating. We suggest that passive heating can be used alternatively to exercise. Our aim was to compare the effects of exercise with warm-water immersion training on cerebrovascular and thermoregulatory function. 18 females (25±5 y) performed 8 weeks of cycling (70% HRmax) or warm water immersion (42°C) for 30 min 3 times per week. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peak cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) were measured prior to and following both interventions. A passive heat stress was employed to obtain temperature thresholds (Tb) and sensitivities for sweat rate (SR) and cutaneous vasodilation (CVC). Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured throughout. FMD and VO2peak improved following both interventions (p<0.05). MCAv and cerebrovascular conductance were higher at rest and during passive heating (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively) following both interventions. SR occurred at a lower Tb following both interventions and SR sensitivity also increased, with a larger increase at the chest (p<0.001) following water immersion. CVC occurred at a lower Tb (p<0.001) following both interventions. Warm water immersion elicits similar cerebrovascular, conduit, and thermoregulatory adaptations compared to a period of moderate-intensity exercise training. PMID:27286178

  4. Changes in cerebral blood flow and anxiety associated with an 8-week mindfulness programme in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniel A; Kash, Kathryn M; Kunkel, Elisabeth J S; Brainard, George; Wintering, Nancy; Moss, Aleezé S; Rao, Hengyi; Zhu, Senhua; Newberg, Andrew B

    2012-12-01

    This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with the Mindfulness-based Art Therapy (MBAT) programme and correlate such changes to stress and anxiety in women with breast cancer. Eighteen breast cancer patients were randomized to the MBAT or education control group. The patients received the diagnosis of breast cancer between 6 months and 3 years prior to enrollment and were not in active treatment. The age of participants ranged from 52 to 77 years. A voxel-based analysis was performed to assess differences at rest, during meditation and during a stress task. The anxiety sub-scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised was compared with changes in resting CBF before and after the programmes. Subjects in the MBAT arm demonstrated significant increases in CBF at rest and during meditation in multiple limbic regions, including the left insula, right amygdala, right hippocampus and bilateral caudate. Patients in the MBAT programme also had a significant correlation between increased CBF in the left caudate and decreased anxiety scores. In the MBAT group, responses to a stressful cue resulted in reduced activation of the posterior cingulate. The results demonstrate that the MBAT programme was associated with significant changes in CBF, which correlated with decreased anxiety over an 8-week period.

  5. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Stephen; Cohen, Marc; Stevens, Philip; Jackson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately) were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women). Asana (postures) and vinyasa (sequences of postures) represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques), meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits to the

  6. Frequency of yoga practice predicts health: results of a national survey of yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background. Yoga shows promise as a therapeutic intervention, but relationships between yoga practice and health are underexplored. Purpose. To examine the relationship between yoga practice and health (subjective well-being, diet, BMI, smoking, alcohol/caffeine consumption, sleep, fatigue, social support, mindfulness, and physical activity). Methods. Cross-sectional, anonymous internet surveys distributed to 4307 randomly selected from 18,160 individuals at 15 US Iyengar yoga studios; 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Results. Mean age 51.7 (± 11.7) years; 84.2% female. Frequency of home practice favorably predicted (P < .001): mindfulness, subjective well-being, BMI, fruit and vegetable consumption, vegetarian status, sleep, and fatigue. Each component of yoga practice (different categories of physical poses, breath work, meditation, philosophy study) predicted at least 1 health outcome (P < .05). Conclusions. Home practice of yoga predicted health better than years of practice or class frequency. Different physical poses and yoga techniques may have unique health benefits. PMID:22927885

  7. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  8. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, E.J.; Nelson, E.J.; Davey, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days.

  9. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  10. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  11. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  12. Yoga therapy for anxiety: a case report.

    PubMed

    Williams-Orlando, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Yoga therapy is a mind-body intervention that can be an important solution in the treatment of anxiety. Yoga therapy alleviates the hyperarousal of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypervigilance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that occurs in anxiety. Yoga therapy activates the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system, replacing SNS overdrive, or the flight-or-fight response, with the relaxation response and balancing the nervous system. Yoga therapy increases positive coping skills and builds self-esteem without harmful side effects. The results of this case study have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of yoga therapy in the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder (PD) in an adolescent female. Treatment consisted of 4 wks of individual sessions (60-min session/wk) and 6 wks of group sessions (90-min session/wk) with daily home practice. The results of the case study are significant because growing numbers of youth in the United States are presenting with anxiety and seeking nonpharmacological options.

  13. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-12-01

    There is good evidence for cognitive and physiological arousal in chronic insomnia. Accordingly, clinical trial studies of insomnia treatments aimed at reducing arousal, including relaxation and meditation, have reported positive results. Yoga is a multicomponent practice that is also known to be effective in reducing arousal, although it has not been well evaluated as a treatment for insomnia. In this preliminary study, a simple daily yoga treatment was evaluated in a chronic insomnia population consisting of sleep-onset and/or sleep-maintenance insomnia and primary or secondary insomnia. Participants maintained sleep-wake diaries during a pretreatment 2-week baseline and a subsequent 8-week intervention, in which they practiced the treatment on their own following a single in-person training session with subsequent brief in-person and telephone follow-ups. Sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), total wake time (TWT), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and sleep quality measures were derived from sleep-wake diary entries and were averaged in 2-week intervals. For 20 participants completing the protocol, statistically significant improvements were observed in SE, TST, TWT, SOL, and WASO at end-treatment as compared with pretreatment values.

  14. The effect of YOCAS©® yoga for musculoskeletal symptoms among breast cancer survivors on hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Peppone, Luke J; Janelsins, Michelle C; Kamen, Charles; Mohile, Supriya G; Sprod, Lisa K; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kirshner, Jeffrey J; Gaur, Rakesh; Ruzich, Janet; Esparaz, Benjamin T; Mustian, Karen M

    2015-04-01

    Up to 50% of breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitor therapy report musculoskeletal symptoms such as joint and muscle pain, significantly impacting treatment adherence and discontinuation rates. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a nationwide, multi-site, phase II/III randomized, controlled, clinical trial examining the efficacy of yoga for improving musculoskeletal symptoms among breast cancer survivors currently receiving hormone therapy (aromatase inhibitors [AI] or tamoxifen [TAM]). Breast cancer survivors currently receiving AI (N = 95) or TAM (N = 72) with no participation in yoga during the previous 3 months were randomized into 2 arms: (1) standard care monitoring and (2) standard care plus the 4-week yoga intervention (2x/week; 75 min/session) and included in this analysis. The yoga intervention utilized the UR Yoga for Cancer Survivors (YOCAS©(®)) program consisting of breathing exercises, 18 gentle Hatha and restorative yoga postures, and meditation. Musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, AI users reported higher levels of general pain, muscle aches, and total physical discomfort than TAM users (all P ≤ 0.05). Among all breast cancer survivors on hormonal therapy, participants in the yoga group demonstrated greater reductions in musculoskeletal symptoms such as general pain, muscle aches and total physical discomfort from pre- to post-intervention than the control group (all P ≤ 0.05). The severity of musculoskeletal symptoms was higher for AI users compared to TAM users. Among breast cancer survivors on hormone therapy, the brief community-based YOCAS©® intervention significantly reduced general pain, muscle aches, and physical discomfort.

  15. The effect of YOCAS©® yoga for musculoskeletal symptoms among breast cancer survivors on hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Peppone, Luke J; Janelsins, Michelle C; Kamen, Charles; Mohile, Supriya G; Sprod, Lisa K; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kirshner, Jeffrey J; Gaur, Rakesh; Ruzich, Janet; Esparaz, Benjamin T; Mustian, Karen M

    2015-04-01

    Up to 50% of breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitor therapy report musculoskeletal symptoms such as joint and muscle pain, significantly impacting treatment adherence and discontinuation rates. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a nationwide, multi-site, phase II/III randomized, controlled, clinical trial examining the efficacy of yoga for improving musculoskeletal symptoms among breast cancer survivors currently receiving hormone therapy (aromatase inhibitors [AI] or tamoxifen [TAM]). Breast cancer survivors currently receiving AI (N = 95) or TAM (N = 72) with no participation in yoga during the previous 3 months were randomized into 2 arms: (1) standard care monitoring and (2) standard care plus the 4-week yoga intervention (2x/week; 75 min/session) and included in this analysis. The yoga intervention utilized the UR Yoga for Cancer Survivors (YOCAS©(®)) program consisting of breathing exercises, 18 gentle Hatha and restorative yoga postures, and meditation. Musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, AI users reported higher levels of general pain, muscle aches, and total physical discomfort than TAM users (all P ≤ 0.05). Among all breast cancer survivors on hormonal therapy, participants in the yoga group demonstrated greater reductions in musculoskeletal symptoms such as general pain, muscle aches and total physical discomfort from pre- to post-intervention than the control group (all P ≤ 0.05). The severity of musculoskeletal symptoms was higher for AI users compared to TAM users. Among breast cancer survivors on hormone therapy, the brief community-based YOCAS©® intervention significantly reduced general pain, muscle aches, and physical discomfort. PMID:25814054

  16. Yoga protocol for treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Narahari, SR; Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Thernoe, Liselotte; Bose, Kuthaje S; Ryan, Terence J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vaqas and Ryan (2003) advocated yoga and breathing exercises for lymphedema. Narahari et al. (2007) developed an integrative medicine protocol for lower-limb lymphedema using yoga. Studies have hypothesized that yoga plays a similar role as that of central manual lymph drainage of Foldi's technique. This study explains how we have used yoga and breathing as a self-care intervention for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods: The study outcome was to create a yoga protocol for BCRL. Selection of yoga was based on the actions of muscles on joints, anatomical areas associated with different groups of lymph nodes, stretching of skin, and method of breathing in each yoga. The protocol was piloted in eight BCRL patients, observed its difficulties by interacting with patients. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane library to identify the yoga protocols for BCRL. Results: Twenty yoga and 5 breathing exercises were adopted. They have slow, methodical joint movements which helped patients to tolerate pain. Breathing was long and diaphragmatic. Flexion of joints was coordinated with exhalation and extension with inhalation. Alternate yoga was introduced to facilitate patients to perform complex movements. Yoga's joint movements, initial positions, and mode of breathing were compared to two other protocols. The volume reduced from 2.4 to 1.2 L in eight patients after continuous practice of yoga and compression at home for 3 months. There was improvement in the range of movement and intensity of pain. Discussion: Yoga exercises were selected on the basis of their role in chest expansion, maximizing range of movements: flexion of large muscles, maximum stretch of skin, and thus part-by-part lymph drainage from center and periphery. This protocol addressed functional, volume, and movement issues of BCRL and was found to be superior to other BCRL yoga protocols. However, this protocol needs to be tested in centers routinely managing BCRL

  17. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  18. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1985-10-19

    Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a control group of 53 patients with asthma matched for age, sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drugs. There was a significantly greater improvement in the group who practised yoga in the weekly number of attacks of asthma, scores for drug treatment, and peak flow rate. This study shows the efficacy of yoga in the long term management of bronchial asthma, but the physiological basis for this beneficial effect needs to be examined in more detail.

  19. Role of yoga in stress management.

    PubMed

    Parshad, O

    2004-06-01

    The state of the mind and that of the body are intimately related. If the mind is relaxed, the muscles in the body will also be relaxed. Stress produces a state of physical and mental tension. Yoga, developed thousands of years ago, is recognized as a form of mind-body medicine. In yoga, physical postures and breathing exercises improve muscle strength, flexibility, blood circulation and oxygen uptake as well as hormone function. In addition, the relaxation induced by meditation helps to stabilize the autonomic nervous system with a tendency towards parasympathetic dominance. Physiological benefits which follow, help yoga practitioners become more resilient to stressful conditions and reduce a variety of important risk factors for various diseases, especially cardio-respiratory diseases.

  20. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  1. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  2. A randomized controlled study on assessment of health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following yoga training

    PubMed Central

    Ranjita, Rajashree; Badhai, Sumati; Hankey, Alex; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2016-01-01

    Context: Psychological comorbidities are prevalent in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contribute to the severity of the disease reducing their health status. Yoga has been shown to alleviate depression and anxiety associated with other chronic diseases but in COPD not been fully investigated. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the role of yoga on health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with COPD. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized trial with two study arms (yoga and control), which enrolled 81 coal miners, ranging from 36 to 60 years with stage II and III stable COPD. Both groups were either on conventional treatment or combination of conventional care with yoga program for 12 weeks. Results: Data were collected through standardized questionnaires; COPD Assessment Test, Beck Depression Inventory and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory at the beginning and the end of the intervention. The yoga group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvements on all scales within the group, all significantly different (P < 0.001) from changes observed in the controls. No significant prepost changes were observed in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Yoga program led to greater improvement in physical and mental health status than did conventional care. Yoga seems to be a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for patients with COPD. There is a need to conduct more comprehensive, high-quality, evidence-based studies to shed light on the current understanding of the efficacy of yoga in these chronic conditions and identify unanswered questions. PMID:27512321

  3. Exploring different types of Hatha yoga for patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Sunita

    2014-10-01

    Yoga has been practiced for more than 5,000 years and is based on the collective experiences of yoga practitioners over time. Western countries and sophisticated medical facilities use this practice as a complementary therapy with standard medical treatments. Yoga has been shown to improve quality of life. Several types of yoga potentially can benefit people with cancer, including Hatha yoga. The type of recommended Hatha yoga is dependent on the physical conditions and fitness level of patients. This article explores the impact of different types of Hatha yoga on various cancer-related symptoms in patients with cancer. The article also provides guidelines for healthcare personnel-particularly nurses-to help choose the right kind of Hatha yoga that suits their patients' needs and interests. Additional information is provided on measures and instructions that are essential for healthcare providers to know before recommending any yoga type to their patients. Evidence of the feasibility and potential efficacy of yoga for patients with cancer is provided.

  4. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  5. The Essential Properties of Yoga Questionnaire: Development and Methods.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Erik J; Maiya, Meghan; Elwy, A Rani; Riley, Kristen E; Sarkin, Andrew J; Eisen, Susan V; Braun, Tosca; Gutierrez, Ian; Kidane, Luwam; Park, Crystal L

    2015-01-01

    Yoga interventions have considerable heterogeneity, are multi-dimensional, and may impact health in different ways. However, most research reports regarding the effects of yoga on health and wellbeing do not adequately describe the components of the yoga interventions being used. Thus, drawing comparisons across studies or understanding the relative effects of specific aspects of a yoga intervention are rarely possible. To address this problem, we created the Essential Properties of Yoga Questionnaire (EPYQ) Project, an NCCAM-funded set of studies to develop a translational tool for yoga researchers. Here we describe the methods and developmental processes used in the EPYQ Project in detail. The project consists of four main phases. Phase I was designed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the relevant aspects of yoga by conducting a comprehensive systematic literature review and conducting focus groups with stakeholders including a wide variety of yoga teachers and students. In Phase II, a pool of potential questionnaire items was developed for the prototypic questionnaire using information from Phase I. Cognitive interviews were conducted with the preliminary EPYQ items to assess the perceived clarity, meaning, and importance of each item. In Phase III, the prototypic questionnaire was administered to two large samples of yoga students and instructors. Military personnel and veterans who practiced or taught yoga (n = 329) were recruited to participate. Factor analysis and item response theory were used to identify factors and select the final questionnaire items. Phase IV is ongoing and will collect reliability and validity data on the final instrument. Results are expected to be available in 2016. The EPYQ will provide an objective tool for describing the amount of various components of yoga interventions, eventually allowing researchers to link specific yoga components to health benefits, and facilitating the design of yoga interventions for specific health

  6. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    PubMed Central

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001), and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05) was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001), as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01) were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05), and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001) in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength

  7. Elements of yogic practice: Perceptions of students in healthcare programs

    PubMed Central

    Brems, Christiane; Colgan, Dharmakaya; Freeman, Heather; Freitas, Jillian; Justice, Lauren; Shean, Margaret; Sulenes, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Background: The practice of yoga has a long history as an integrated lifestyle science. Those who have practiced yoga in its full form (including all eight traditional aspects) find that it touches almost every aspect of their inter- and intra-personal lives. Despite this rich history, the West has adopted limited aspects of yoga practice. When understood narrowly as a physical fitness practice, healthful benefits of yoga may be lost, possibly promoting body-consciousness and injury instead. Aim: To understand whether students in healthcare programs view yoga from a physical fitness versus holistic perspective, we explored perceptions of what constitute yoga's essential practices. Methods: We assessed endorsement of the eight limbs of yoga via the acceptability of yoga survey. The sample (n = 498) was recruited from programs in 10 healthcare professions at a Northwestern university. Participants were categorized as nonyogis, contemplators, yogis, and superyogis. Results: Across all groups, findings confirmed a narrow definition of yoga as portrayed in popular media and gym-based yoga classes. Breathing and posture practices were the most commonly endorsed practices, even among the sample's most seasoned yoga practitioners. Ethical practices and daily commitments of introspection, disciplined practice, or living with purity were least commonly associated with yoga despite their foundational nature in yoga philosophy. Concentration and meditation practices were only moderately endorsed as essential practices. Super-yogis endorsed a wider variety of limbs than nonyogis, contemplators, and yogis. Conclusions: We offer a rationale for these findings along with recommendations that may help augment the definition of yoga and hence maximize its benefits. PMID:27512319

  8. Yoga and Ethics in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Jodi P.

    2005-01-01

    In the past three years, the author has taught yoga classes to students at the Pioneer Valley Performing Arts Charter Public School, in addition to her job as Dance Director. This school already is an open environment; the students are generally interested in the arts and the Pioneer Valley in Massachusetts is known for its…

  9. Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

    Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering.

  10. Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering.

  11. Exercise and yoga during pregnancy: a survey.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shilpa; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective of this survey was to ascertain the opinions, practices and knowledge about exercise, including yoga, during pregnancy; the secondary objective to compare the responses among women with body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2) versus ≥30 kg/m(2). Survey consisted of 20 multiple choice questions assessing demographics and exercise practices, and five questions testing their knowledge about it during pregnancy (ACOG Committee Opinion # 267). Of the 500 surveys distributed, 84% (422) responses were analyzed. While 86% of women responded that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, 83% felt it was beneficial to start prior to pregnancy, and walking was considered the most beneficial (62%). The majority (64%) of respondents were currently exercising during pregnancy and 51% exercised 2-3 times/week. Among the five questions testing knowledge about prenatal exercise, majority (range 60 to 92%) were aware of ACOG recommendations. About half had a BMI ≥30. Knowledge about benefits of exercise during pregnancy did not differ significantly between obese and non-obese. Yoga was tried significantly more among non-obese, 65% believed it is beneficial, and 40% had attempted yoga before pregnancy. In our population, the majority believes that exercise, including yoga, is beneficial and they are active.

  12. Exercise and yoga during pregnancy: a survey.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shilpa; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective of this survey was to ascertain the opinions, practices and knowledge about exercise, including yoga, during pregnancy; the secondary objective to compare the responses among women with body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2) versus ≥30 kg/m(2). Survey consisted of 20 multiple choice questions assessing demographics and exercise practices, and five questions testing their knowledge about it during pregnancy (ACOG Committee Opinion # 267). Of the 500 surveys distributed, 84% (422) responses were analyzed. While 86% of women responded that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, 83% felt it was beneficial to start prior to pregnancy, and walking was considered the most beneficial (62%). The majority (64%) of respondents were currently exercising during pregnancy and 51% exercised 2-3 times/week. Among the five questions testing knowledge about prenatal exercise, majority (range 60 to 92%) were aware of ACOG recommendations. About half had a BMI ≥30. Knowledge about benefits of exercise during pregnancy did not differ significantly between obese and non-obese. Yoga was tried significantly more among non-obese, 65% believed it is beneficial, and 40% had attempted yoga before pregnancy. In our population, the majority believes that exercise, including yoga, is beneficial and they are active. PMID:24824103

  13. Yoga Research and Spirituality: A Case Study Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Kimberly R.; Andrade, Regina; Moonaz, Steffany Haaz; Muhammad, Charlene; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that yoga can be beneficial as an aspect of self-care for people with arthritis. However, yoga may be less acceptable to those from different cultures, socioeconomic backgrounds, and racial/ethnic identities. While implementing a feasibility/acceptability pilot study of yoga as self-care in minority communities, the subject of spirituality surfaced. This commentary shares the experience of the researchers and yoga teachers collaborating on the study and the larger conversation that ensued following the withdrawal of one of the study participants. It is an attempt to start a relevant and needed dialogue around yoga research as an integrative health modality, and why the underlying body-mind-spirit approach to yoga may some-times serve as a barrier to participation for diverse populations suffering from arthritis. PMID:26667286

  14. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  15. Self-regulation evaluation of therapeutic yoga and walking for patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Leila; Naliboff, Bruce D; Shapiro, David

    2016-01-01

    With limited efficacy of medications for symptom relief, non-medication treatments may play an important role in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two self-regulation strategies for symptom relief and mood management in IBS patients. Thirty-five adult participants meeting ROME III criteria for IBS were enrolled, 27 of the 35 participants (77%) completed treatment and pre- and post-treatment visits (89% women, 11% men; M (SD) age = 36 (13)), and 20 of the 27 (74%) completed a 6-month follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to 16 biweekly group sessions of Iyengar yoga or a walking program. Results indicated a significant group by time interaction on negative affect with the walking treatment showing improvement from pre- to post-treatment when compared to yoga (p < .05). There was no significant group by time effect on IBS severity. Exploratory analyses of secondary outcomes examined change separately for each treatment condition. From pre- to post-treatment, yoga showed significant decreases in IBS severity measures (p < .05), visceral sensitivity (p < .05), and severity of somatic symptoms (p < .05). Walking showed significant decreases in overall GI symptoms (p < .05), negative affect (p < .05), and state anxiety (p < .05). At 6-month follow-up, overall GI symptoms for walking continued to significantly decline, while for yoga, GI symptoms rebounded toward baseline levels (p < .05). When asked about self-regulated home practice at 6 months, significantly more participants in walking than in yoga practiced at least weekly (p < .05). In sum, results suggest that yoga and walking as movement-based self-regulatory behavioral treatments have some differential effects but are both beneficial for IBS patients, though maintenance of a self-regulated walking program may be more feasible and therefore more effective long term.

  16. Current status of yoga in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area. PMID:27067548

  17. Who practices yoga? A systematic review of demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors associated with yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Braun, Tosca; Siegel, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in the US and around the world, yet because most yoga research is conducted as clinical trials or experiments, little is known about the characteristics and correlates of people who independently choose to practice yoga. We conducted a systematic review of this issue, identifying 55 studies and categorizing correlates of yoga practice into sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics, and mental and physical well-being. Yoga use is greatest among women and those with higher socioeconomic status and appears favorably related to psychosocial factors such as coping and mindfulness. Yoga practice often relates to better subjective health and health behaviors but also with more distress and physical impairment. However, evidence is sparse and methodological limitations preclude drawing causal inferences. Nationally representative studies have minimally assessed yoga while studies with strong assessment of yoga practice (e.g., type, dose) are generally conducted with convenience samples. Almost all studies reviewed are cross-sectional and few control for potential confounding variables. We provide recommendations for future research to better understand the correlates of yoga practice.

  18. The influence of tai chi and yoga on balance and falls in a residential care setting: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; Van Der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David

    2014-07-23

    Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a 3-arm RCT with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14 week modified tai chi or yoga program is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.

  19. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions

  20. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  1. Failure of dietary alpha-difluoromethylornithine to inhibit gastric carcinogenesis in rats after 8 weeks of treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tanakamaru, Z; Nishikawa, A; Furukawa, F; Imazawa, T; Lee, I S; Kasahara, K; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, M

    1997-11-25

    The modifying effects of alpha-difluoromethylomithine (DFMO) on glandular stomach carcinogenesis after initiation with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and sodium chloride were investigated in male outbred Wistar rats. Animals were simultaneously given MNNG solution (100 ppm) as their drinking water and diet supplemented with 10% sodium chloride for 8 weeks, and administered DFMO (dietary levels of 2000 ppm or 500 ppm) and tap water for the following 70 weeks. The DFMO treatment did not show any tendency to inhibit the development of gastric adenocarcinomas. The incidences and multiplicities of atypical hyperplasias in the glandular stomachs were also comparable in all groups of rats given MNNG/sodium chloride. Neither gastric carcinomas nor atypical hyperplasias were observed without the carcinogen treatment. Thus, DFMO did not exert any inhibitory effects when given during the post-initiation phase of two-stage glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats initiated with MNNG and sodium chloride for 8 weeks.

  2. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow) Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Hung; Chang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n = 16) or acupuncture (n = 19) was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients' symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016. PMID:27143983

  3. Autonomic Functions In Raja-yoga Meditators.

    PubMed

    Bharshankar, Jyotsana R; Mandape, Archana D; Phatak, Mrunal S; Bharshankar, Rajay N

    2015-01-01

    Stress, an inevitable and constant feature throughout the lifetime, induces autonomic dysfunctions, for which meditation is considered to be an antidote. So the case control study was planned including 50 Raja-yoga meditators practicing meditation for 5 years and 50 age matched non-meditators. Autonomic function tests were performed and results were compared using the Student-t test. Mean values of resting HR, SBP and DBP were less in meditators. Galvanic Skin Response in meditators was significantly more (p < 0.001). Mean increase BP response to Hand Grip Test and Cold Pressor Test was significantly less in meditators than non-meditators (p < 0.001). Standing: Lying ratio, Valsalva ratio, Inspiration: Expiration ratio and 30:15 ratios were significantly increased in meditators than non-meditators. From the results, there was shifting of the autonomic balance to parasympathetic side in Raja-yoga meditators, which suggests its utility to combat the ill effects of stress. PMID:27530006

  4. Effect of a six month yoga exercise intervention on fitness outcomes for breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Daniel C.; Darby, Nydia; Gonzalez, Krystle; Boggess, Terri; Morris, Ruth M.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2016-01-01

    Yoga-based exercise has proven to be beneficial for practitioners, including cancer survivors. This study reports on the improvements in physical fitness for 20 breast cancer survivors who participated in a six-month yoga-based (YE) exercise program. Results are compared to a comprehensive exercise (CE) program group and a comparison (C) exercise group who chose their own exercises. “Pre” and “post” fitness assessments included measures of anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength and flexibility. Descriptive statistics, effect size (d), dependent sample ‘t’ tests for all outcome measures were calculated for the YE group. Significant improvements included: decreased % body fat (−3.00%, d = −0.44, p < 0.001); increased sit to stand leg strength repetitions (2.05, d = 0.48, p = 0.003); forward reach (3.59 cm, d = 0.61, p = 0.01); and right arm sagittal range of motion (6.50°, d = 0.92, p= 0.05). To compare YE outcomes with the other two groups, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. YE participants significantly outperformed C participants on “forward reach” (3.59 cm gained versus −2.44 cm lost), (p = 0.009) and outperformed CE participants (3.59 cm gained versus 1.35 cm gained), but not statistically significant. Our results support yoga-based exercise modified for breast cancer survivors as safe and effective. PMID:26395825

  5. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2. PMID:26788520

  6. Effect of a six-month yoga exercise intervention on fitness outcomes for breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Daniel C; Darby, Nydia; Gonzalez, Krystle; Boggess, Terri; Morris, Ruth M; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-01-01

    Yoga-based exercise has proven to be beneficial for practitioners, including cancer survivors. This study reports on the improvements in physical fitness for 20 breast cancer survivors who participated in a six-month yoga-based exercise program (YE). Results are compared to a comprehensive exercise (CE) program group and a comparison (C) exercise group who chose their own exercises. "Pre" and "post" fitness assessments included measures of anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength and flexibility. Descriptive statistics, effect size (d), dependent sample 't' tests for all outcome measures were calculated for the YE group. Significant improvements included: decreased % body fat (-3.00%, d = -0.44, p < 0.001); increased sit to stand leg strength repetitions (2.05, d = 0.48, p = 0.003); forward reach (3.59 cm, d = 0.61, p = 0.01); and right arm sagittal range of motion (6.50°, d = 0.92, p = 0.05). To compare YE outcomes with the other two groups, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. YE participants significantly outperformed C participants on "forward reach" (3.59 cm gained versus -2.44 cm lost), (p = 0.009) and outperformed CE participants (3.59 cm gained versus 1.35 cm gained), but not statistically significant. Our results support yoga-based exercise modified for breast cancer survivors as safe and effective. PMID:26395825

  7. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2.

  8. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2. PMID:26788520

  9. Yoga as an Intervention for Children with Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Heather L.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2005-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three grade level groups with a comparison group was employed to investigate the effectiveness of yoga for improving time on task with 10 elementary school children who evidenced attention problems. A yoga videotape, published by Gaiam, was used that required the children to follow an adult instructor and three…

  10. Dogs, Cats, and Kids: Integrating Yoga into Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Lisa; Clemente, Fran

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the benefits of integrating yoga into elementary physical education classes. Taught as warm-up exercises or as an entire class, yoga offers children of any age and physical ability the opportunity to experience success in physical activity. Children need to experience joy while participating in physical activity in order to…

  11. Yoga May Mitigate Decreases in High School Grades.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; van Over, Max; Noggle Taylor, Jessica J; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an exploratory examination of the effects of a 12-week school-based yoga intervention on changes in grade point average (GPA) in 9th and 10th grade students. Participants included 95 high school students who had registered for physical education (PE) in spring 2010. PE class sections were group randomized to receive either a yoga intervention or a PE-as-usual control condition. The yoga intervention took place during the entire third quarter and half of the fourth quarter of the school year, and quarterly GPA was collected via school records at the end of the school year. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and quarter suggesting that GPA differed between the yoga and control groups over time. Post hoc tests revealed that while both groups exhibited a general decline in GPA over the school year, the control group exhibited a significantly greater decline in GPA from quarter 1 to quarter 3 than the yoga group. Both groups showed equivalent declines in GPA in quarter 4 after the yoga intervention had ended. The results suggest that yoga may have a protective effect on academic performance by preventing declines in GPA; however these preventive effects may not persist once yoga practice is discontinued. PMID:26347787

  12. Yoga May Mitigate Decreases in High School Grades

    PubMed Central

    Butzer, Bethany; van Over, Max; Noggle Taylor, Jessica J.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an exploratory examination of the effects of a 12-week school-based yoga intervention on changes in grade point average (GPA) in 9th and 10th grade students. Participants included 95 high school students who had registered for physical education (PE) in spring 2010. PE class sections were group randomized to receive either a yoga intervention or a PE-as-usual control condition. The yoga intervention took place during the entire third quarter and half of the fourth quarter of the school year, and quarterly GPA was collected via school records at the end of the school year. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and quarter suggesting that GPA differed between the yoga and control groups over time. Post hoc tests revealed that while both groups exhibited a general decline in GPA over the school year, the control group exhibited a significantly greater decline in GPA from quarter 1 to quarter 3 than the yoga group. Both groups showed equivalent declines in GPA in quarter 4 after the yoga intervention had ended. The results suggest that yoga may have a protective effect on academic performance by preventing declines in GPA; however these preventive effects may not persist once yoga practice is discontinued. PMID:26347787

  13. Yoga in Public School Improves Adolescent Mood and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class…

  14. Therapeutic Yoga: Symptom Management for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kim A; MacDonald, Megan

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, affecting over 2.3 million people worldwide. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the age of disease onset is typically between 20 and 40 years, with a higher incidence in women. Individuals with MS experience a wide range of symptoms, including declining physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms (e.g., fatigue, imbalance, spasticity, chronic pain, cognitive impairment, bladder and bowel dysfunction, visual and speech impairments, depression, sensory disturbance, and mobility impairment). To date, both the cause of and cure for MS remain unknown. In recent years, more individuals with MS have been pursuing alternative methods of treatment to manage symptoms of the disease, including mind-body therapies such as yoga, meditation, breathing, and relaxation techniques. It has been suggested that the practice of yoga may be a safe and effective way of managing symptoms of MS. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the most relevant literature on exercise and mind-body modalities to treat MS symptoms and, more specifically, the benefits and potential role of yoga as an alternative treatment of symptom management for individuals with MS. The article also discusses future directions for research. PMID:26270955

  15. Yoga: Potential Benefits for Persons Who Stutter.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Yoga has been demonstrated to modulate autonomic nervous system activity, decreasing anxiety and stress, and improving quality of life. This preliminary study sought to examine the use of yogic techniques on persons who stutter given the interaction between physiological arousal/anxiety and stuttering that current multifactorial models of stuttering propose. Four participants (M = 52 yr, SD = 10; 2 female, 2 male), recruited from local stuttering support groups in the greater Philadelphia community volunteered to participate. Stuttering severity, anxiety, and experiences regarding stuttering and communication were measured at baseline, post intervention, and at 4 months follow-up. The participants attended group yoga sessions and engaged in home practice. Descriptive results revealed that participants showed improvements across outcome measures, with the most improvement related to anxiety. Participants also reported improvements in their perceptions about communication as per qualitative analysis of responses to the open-ended questionnaires. The results suggest the potential benefits of yoga for persons who stutter and warrants further study using an experimental design. PMID:27420315

  16. Progressive increase in critical flicker fusion frequency following yoga training.

    PubMed

    Vani, P R; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R; Telles, S

    1997-01-01

    The critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) is the frequency at which a flickering stimulus is perceived to be steady, with higher values suggesting greater perceptual accuracy. The CFF was measured in two age-matched groups of healthy male volunteers whose ages ranged from 25 to 39 years, with 18 subjects in each group. After baseline assessments one group (yoga group) received yoga training, while the other group (control group) carried on with their routine activities. Yoga practices included asanas, pranayamas, kriyas, meditation, devotional sessions and lectures on the theory of yoga. After 10 days neither group showed a change in CFF. However, at 20 and at 30 days the yoga group showed significant increases in CFF by 11.1% and 14.9%, respectively (two factor ANOVA, Tukey multiple comparison test). The control group showed no change at the day 20 and day 30 followup.

  17. [Preventive and curative value of yoga in cardiometabolic diseases].

    PubMed

    Apor, Péter

    2016-02-28

    Yoga and other body-mind techniques enjoy an increasing popularity in many fields of health maintaining practices, in prevention of some illnesses and in curative medicine in spite of our incomplete knowledge about its applicability and effects. There are large differences among the various yoga-schools and the heterogeneity of indications etc. In this article a bucket of recent information is offered for the inquirers on the potential advantages of yoga (diet, mind-exercises, asanas, pranayamas) for decreasing cardio-metabolic risk factors, stabilizing mental health, and its addictive use in curative medicine. Few adverse side-effects may occur only in the case of misapplication. Its advantages are low costs, availability for broad population, and very few contraindications. Disadvantages include differences in the ability of yoga instructors and in yoga practices.

  18. [Preventive and curative value of yoga in cardiometabolic diseases].

    PubMed

    Apor, Péter

    2016-02-28

    Yoga and other body-mind techniques enjoy an increasing popularity in many fields of health maintaining practices, in prevention of some illnesses and in curative medicine in spite of our incomplete knowledge about its applicability and effects. There are large differences among the various yoga-schools and the heterogeneity of indications etc. In this article a bucket of recent information is offered for the inquirers on the potential advantages of yoga (diet, mind-exercises, asanas, pranayamas) for decreasing cardio-metabolic risk factors, stabilizing mental health, and its addictive use in curative medicine. Few adverse side-effects may occur only in the case of misapplication. Its advantages are low costs, availability for broad population, and very few contraindications. Disadvantages include differences in the ability of yoga instructors and in yoga practices. PMID:26895799

  19. Yoga: As an adjunct therapy to trim down the Ayurvedic drug requirement in non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rohit; Amin, Hetal; Prajapati, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of a large number of drugs showing anti-hyperglycemic activities, none of them have been successful in complete management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Yoga and Ayurveda are the two schools of thought in India, which have a history of curing diseases since thousands of years. Yogic techniques and Ayurvedic herbs have proven their anti-diabetic potential without inducing untoward effects. The present study combines Ayurvedic medication with Yoga techniques as a new approach toward healing DM. Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Yoga therapy in the management of non insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM) and to decrease the oral drug dose requirement of guḍūcī ghana Tablet. Materials and Methods: Thirty known NIDDM patients of both genders, who were on guḍūcī ghana (solidified aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.) tablets from past 2 months as Ayurvedic remedy for DM were selected. Along with guḍūcī ghana administration, the subjects were instructed to follow Yogic procedures including Āsanas, prāṇāyāma, and śuddhi kriyās. The study was conducted for 8 weeks, wherein fasting blood sugar (FBS) and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) levels along with relief in sign and symptoms were assessed at every 2 weeks intervals, and according to relief in sign and symptoms, tapering of drug dosage was carried out. The obtained data were analyzed statistically by applying paired t-test. Results and Conclusion: The results obtained were promising as the relief in diabetic symptomatology was highly significant in terms of P value. 80.83% reduction in dose of guḍūcī ghana tablets and 7.85% and 8.78% fall in FBS and PPBS levels, respectively, after the complete course of treatment. The obtained P value showed highly significant results. PMID:25593403

  20. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G.; Knehans, Allen W.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS). Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP) and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b) markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005) decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002) group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%). No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this study

  1. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in generalized anxiety disorder: results of an 8-week, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula; Yan, Mingjin; Sheehan, David V

    2012-12-01

    Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant, with anxiolytic properties observed in preclinical studies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 5mg vs placebo in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Adults with a primary diagnosis of GAD (HAM-A total score ≥20 and MADRS score ≤16) received vortioxetine 5mg or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in HAM-A total scores from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo. Key secondary measurements were HAD anxiety subscore, CGI-I, SDS total score, HAM-A response rates, HAM-A total score for subjects whose baseline HAM-A total score was ≥25, and SF-36 social functioning subscore. HAM-A remission rates were also measured. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. In total, 301 subjects (mean age, 45.2 years; 31% male) were randomized (1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5mg (n=150) or placebo (n=151). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction from baseline in HAM-A total score for the vortioxetine group (-14.30) compared with placebo recipients (-10.49) (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed for all key secondary outcomes favoring vortioxetine treatment (vs placebo), using a mixed model for repeated measurements (MMRM) analysis. Active treatment resulted in a significantly higher rate of remission. Vortioxetine was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related AEs were nausea, headache, dizziness, and dry mouth. In sum, vortioxetine was safe and effective in treating adults with GAD in this multinational population. PMID:22898365

  2. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  3. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure.

  4. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    PubMed

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body.

  5. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    PubMed

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. PMID:27434106

  6. The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Amber W; Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann W

    2012-03-01

    Stress and anxiety have been implicated as contributors to many chronic diseases and to decreased quality of life, even with pharmacologic treatment. Efforts are underway to find non-pharmacologic therapies to relieve stress and anxiety, and yoga is one option for which results are promising. The focus of this review is on the results of human trials assessing the role of yoga in improving the signs and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Of 35 trials addressing the effects of yoga on anxiety and stress, 25 noted a significant decrease in stress and/or anxiety symptoms when a yoga regimen was implemented; however, many of the studies were also hindered by limitations, such as small study populations, lack of randomization, and lack of a control group. Fourteen of the 35 studies reported biochemical and physiological markers of stress and anxiety, but yielded inconsistent support of yoga for relief of stress and anxiety. Evaluation of the current primary literature is suggestive of benefits of yoga in relieving stress and anxiety, but further investigation into this relationship using large, well-defined populations, adequate controls, randomization and long duration should be explored before recommending yoga as a treatment option. PMID:22502620

  7. The therapeutic value of yoga in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shri K.; Singh, Parampreet; Bunch, Steven J.; Zhang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ancient mind and body healing methods of yoga recently sparked fervor in the scientific community as an alternative and complementary means of therapy. Since the World Health Organization officially began promoting yoga in developing countries in 1978, yoga has been cited for its therapeutic potential and has been widely recognized in Western culture. However, as an increasing number of people practice yoga for remedial purposes, researchers raise two important questions: 1) Is yoga a valid complementary management and rehabilitation treatment modality? 2) What conditions show promise of treatment with this intervention?. Objective: This review article uses comprehensive scientific, evidence-based studies to analyze the efficacy of various basic and applied aspects of yoga in disease prevention and health promotion. It specifically intends to expose the effects of yoga in neurological disorders, particularly epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, peripheral nervous system disease, and fibromyalgia. Materials and Methods: Information was gathered from various resources including PubMed, Ovid, MD-Consult, USC, and U.C.L.A. libraries. Studies were selected and reviewed on the basis of sample size, control, randomization, double-blinding, and statistical analysis of results. Results: The pratice of yoga and meditation demonstrates statistically encouraging physiological and psychological improvements in the aforementioned neurological disorders. However, there were certain flaws and inadequacies in the study designs employed to evaluate the same. A critical analysis of these studies is presented. Conclusions: With the aim to focus attention on this widespread yet largely unexamined treatment modality, this paper seeks to provide direction and support for further research necessary to validate yoga as an integrative, alternative, and complementary therapy. PMID:23349587

  8. Efficacy of Yoga for Vasomotor Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carpenter, Janet S.; Learman, Lee A.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Hunt, Julie R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of yoga in alleviating VMS frequency and bother. Methods Three by two factorial design, randomized, controlled. Eligible women were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and were simultaneously randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 fatty acid (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Yoga intervention was twelve, weekly, 90-minute yoga classes with daily home practice. Primary outcomes were VMS frequency and bother assessed by daily diaries at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index) at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Among 249 randomized women, 237 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.4/day (95% CI 6.6, 8.1) in the yoga group and 8.0/day (95% CI 7.3, 8.7) in the usual activity group. Intent-to-treat analyses included all participants with response data (n=237). There was no difference between intervention groups in change in VMS frequency from baseline to 6 and 12 weeks (mean difference (yoga – usual activity) from baseline −0.3 (95% CI −1.1, 0.5) at 6 weeks and −0.3 (95% CI −1.2, 0.6) at 12 weeks (p=0.119 across both time points). Results were similar for VMS bother. At week 12, yoga was associated with an improvement in insomnia symptoms (mean difference [yoga-usual activity] in change –Insomnia Severity Index, 1.3 [95% CI −2.5, −0.1][p=0.007]). Conclusion Among healthy women, 12 weeks of yoga class plus home practice compared with usual activity did not improve VMS frequency or bother, but reduced insomnia symptoms. PMID:24045673

  9. Science of the mind: ancient yoga texts and modern studies.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal

    2013-03-01

    The practice of yoga is gaining in popularity with a wide range of practices. Recent research and descriptions from the ancient texts are often concurrent with regard to the effects of the practice, taking into account expected differences between modern scientific terms and those used in the original texts. Voluntarily regulated yoga breathing practices form a bridge between physical and mental changes. The voluntarily regulated yoga breathing has distinct effects on metabolism, the autonomic nervous system, higher brain functions, and mental state. The effects of meditation on the nervous system and mental state are even clearer. PMID:23538080

  10. The role of yoga: breathing, meditation and optimal fetal positioning.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Sarah; Evans, Elinor

    2014-05-01

    Yoga is considered a good form of exercise in pregnancy (NHS Choices recommend exercise such as yoga, amongst others) to help women keep fit during their pregnancy and prepare for the birth. But apart from the physical postures, yoga has plenty to offer. The breathing and meditation techniques keep pregnant mothers healthy and relaxed, and provide the mental focus to aid childbirth. In this article we look at yogic breathing and meditation techniques for midwives to recommend to expectant mothers, and some postures that specifically help to encourage an optimal fetal position. PMID:24873115

  11. Yoga: an adjunct to infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Hari Kaur

    2003-10-01

    Yoga and meditation can help women experiencing the challenges of infertility. The practice of meditation and relaxation can help increase the clarity of the mind, maintain healthy body chemistry, and give patients the patience to undergo the rigors of infertility treatments. When one understands and can attain physical relaxation, one tends to feel better about the body itself, and begins to treat the body with more respect. This understanding can lead to healthier lifestyle habits as well as increased sensitivity regarding symptoms and body processes. This is beneficial to both doctor and patient as the patient can report with more clarity and sense cycles and physical issues more readily.

  12. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes.

  13. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of certoparin for anticoagulation during maintenance hemodialysis – the membrane study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate anticoagulation is prerequisite for effective hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. We aimed providing first data on the efficacy and safety of the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin in this setting. Methods Multicenter, open-label, 8-week trial. Patients received a single dose of 3,000 IU certoparin i.v. with additional titration steps of 600 IU and/or continuous infusion if necessary. Results 120 patients were screened, 109 enrolled (median age 71; range 26–90 years) and 106 available for efficacy analyses. The percentage of unsatisfactory dialysis results at 8 weeks due to clotting or bleeding, was 1.9% (n = 2/106; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–6.65%); no major bleeding. 1.9% had moderate/severe clotting in the lines/bubble catcher and 2.8% in the dialyser at week 8. 15.7 ± 14.3% of the dialysis filters’ visual surface area was showing redness. In subgroups of patients receiving median doses of 3000 ± 0, 3000 (2400–6000) and 4200 (3000–6600) IU, plasma aXa levels at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were 0.24 [95%CI 0.21–0.27], 0.33 [0.27–0.40] and 0.38 [0.33–0.45] aXa IU/ml at 2 h. C48h was 0.01 [0.01–0.02] aXa IU at all visits. At baseline and 4 weeks AUC0-48h was 2.66 [2.19–3.24] and 3.66 [3.00–4.45] aXa IU*h/ml. In 3.0% of dialyses (n = 83/2724) prolonged fistula compression times were documented. Eight patients (7.34%) had at least one episode of minor bleeding. 4) 85.3% of patients had any adverse event, 9.2% were serious without suspected drug relation; and in 32 patients a drug-relation was suspected. Conclusions Certoparin appears effective and safe for anticoagulation in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:22742742

  14. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. PMID:26239913

  15. Claiming peaceful embodiment through yoga in the aftermath of trauma.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of practicing yoga and its role within processes of healing for adult women with complex trauma histories. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological method, data were analyzed from interviews with 39 women. Results showed that the core meaning of participants' experience of healing through yoga is claiming peaceful embodiment. This is an ongoing process occurring on a continuum whereby women experienced improved connections with and sense of ownership and control over their bodies, emotions and thoughts, and a greater sense of well-being, calmness, and wholeness in their bodies and minds. A number of interconnected essential themes related to this core meaning were also identified, illuminating processes that supported claiming peaceful embodiment and capabilities that were enabled by being more peacefully embodied. Additional themes were identified highlighting factors that facilitated or impeded participants' engagement with yoga and their experiences of healing through yoga. PMID:26573451

  16. Yoga cAMP in ayurvedgrams of chhattisgarh.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Raghavendra; Jain, Nilesh

    2012-04-01

    The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG) conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised. PMID:22707860

  17. Claiming peaceful embodiment through yoga in the aftermath of trauma.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of practicing yoga and its role within processes of healing for adult women with complex trauma histories. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological method, data were analyzed from interviews with 39 women. Results showed that the core meaning of participants' experience of healing through yoga is claiming peaceful embodiment. This is an ongoing process occurring on a continuum whereby women experienced improved connections with and sense of ownership and control over their bodies, emotions and thoughts, and a greater sense of well-being, calmness, and wholeness in their bodies and minds. A number of interconnected essential themes related to this core meaning were also identified, illuminating processes that supported claiming peaceful embodiment and capabilities that were enabled by being more peacefully embodied. Additional themes were identified highlighting factors that facilitated or impeded participants' engagement with yoga and their experiences of healing through yoga.

  18. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  19. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  20. Comparing the Efficacy of 8 Weeks Treatment of Cipram® and its Generic Citalopram in Patients With Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khoonsari, Hasan; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Kargar, Mona; Moin, Mahdiyeh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Torkamandi, Hassan; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) suffer both anxiety and depression. Antidepressants, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are among agents of choice for treating this condition. Objectives: This study compared the efficacy of Cipram® with its generic, citalopram. Patients and Methods: Forty adult outpatients (between 18 to 55 years of age) with a diagnosis of MADD who met the trial criteria, entered this double-blind, randomized study. Subjects were assigned to receive either generic citalopram or Cipram® for 8 weeks. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) were utilized to assess depression and anxiety at baseline, weeks 4 and 8 of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 14.0. Results: Twenty patients received citalopram (mean dosages of 22 mg/day during the first 4 weeks and 33 mg/day during weeks 4 to 8) and 20 received Cipram® (mean dosages of 22 mg/day during the first 4 weeks and 29 mg/day during weeks 4 to 8). Both treatments were noted to be effective in improving the symptoms of MADD at weeks 4 and 8. The mean differences of HAM-D and HAM-A between Citalopram and Cipram® groups were significantly different at the end of week 4 (HAM-D: P = 0.038, HAM-A: P = 0.025), but not at the end of week 8 (HAM-D: P = 0.239, HAM-A: P = 0.204). Both medications were tolerated well by the patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that the efficacy of citalopram is similar to that of Cipram® in the treatment of MADD after 8 weeks. Meanwhile, Cipram® may reduce depression and anxiety quicker than its generic, citalopram. PMID:26288644

  1. Evaluating Emotional Well-Being after a Short-Term Traditional Yoga Practice Approach in Yoga Practitioners with an Existing Western-Type Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of a traditional yoga practice approach (morning daily practice, TY) compared to that of a Western yoga practice approach (once-twice weekly, evening practice, WY) on determinants of emotional well-being. To that end, in a pre/posttest between-subject design, measures of positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), mindfulness, perceived stress, and arousal states were taken in 24 healthy participants (20 women; mean age: 30.5, SD = 8.1 years) with an already existing WY practice, who either maintained WY or underwent a 2-week, five-times-per-week morning practice (TY). While WY participants maintained baseline values for all measures taken, TY participants showed significant beneficial changes for PA, NA, and mindfulness and a trend for improved ability to cope with stress at the completion of the intervention. Furthermore, TY participants displayed decreased subjective energy and energetic arousal. Altogether, findings indicate that the 2-week TY is beneficial over WY for improving perceived emotional well-being. The present findings (1) undermine and inspire a careful consideration and utilization of yoga practice approach to elicit the best benefits for emotional well-being and (2) support yoga as an evidence-based practice among healthy yoga practitioners. PMID:27123033

  2. Evaluating Emotional Well-Being after a Short-Term Traditional Yoga Practice Approach in Yoga Practitioners with an Existing Western-Type Yoga Practice.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Maxi; Cantell, Marja H; Steiner, Ronald; Sanchez, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of a traditional yoga practice approach (morning daily practice, TY) compared to that of a Western yoga practice approach (once-twice weekly, evening practice, WY) on determinants of emotional well-being. To that end, in a pre/posttest between-subject design, measures of positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), mindfulness, perceived stress, and arousal states were taken in 24 healthy participants (20 women; mean age: 30.5, SD = 8.1 years) with an already existing WY practice, who either maintained WY or underwent a 2-week, five-times-per-week morning practice (TY). While WY participants maintained baseline values for all measures taken, TY participants showed significant beneficial changes for PA, NA, and mindfulness and a trend for improved ability to cope with stress at the completion of the intervention. Furthermore, TY participants displayed decreased subjective energy and energetic arousal. Altogether, findings indicate that the 2-week TY is beneficial over WY for improving perceived emotional well-being. The present findings (1) undermine and inspire a careful consideration and utilization of yoga practice approach to elicit the best benefits for emotional well-being and (2) support yoga as an evidence-based practice among healthy yoga practitioners. PMID:27123033

  3. YOGA AND THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ATTENTIONAL LOAD AND EMOTION INTERFERENCE.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Carolina B; Dalpiaz, Natalia R; Rossi, Nalu T; De Oliveira, Alcyr A

    2015-08-01

    This study compared 45 yoga practitioners (M age = 29.7 yr., SD = 6.4) and 45 matched controls (M age = 29.3 yr., SD = 6.2) on the performance of a behavioral task that assessed negative emotion interference during a high- and a low-attentional demand condition, as well as on state and trait anxiety scores. Outcomes were also compared between beginner and advanced practitioners. For the behavioral task, the final sample comprised 36 yoga and 38 control participants. The yoga group presented lower emotion interference in the high attentional condition, compared to the low attentional condition; rated emotional images as less unpleasant, compared to controls; and reported lower state and trait anxiety scores relative to controls. Also, emotion interference in the low attentional condition was lower among advanced practitioners and state anxiety was lower among practitioners attending more than two weekly yoga classes. The results suggested that yoga may help improve self-regulatory skills and lower anxiety. The psychological mechanisms underlying the relationship between yoga and emotion regulation should be further investigated in longitudinal studies.

  4. 78 FR 52997 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Yoga: the Art of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Yoga: the Art of Transformation... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Yoga: the Art of Transformation,''...

  5. Moving beyond health to flourishing: the effects of yoga teacher training.

    PubMed

    Conboy, L A; Wilson, A; Braun, T

    2010-01-01

    Research in the medical and psychological fields has primarily followed a "disease-focused" approach to health. Although there is growing research on the components and outcomes of well-being, very few studies have focused on traditional practices that can be used as interventions to encourage human flourishing. The current study was developed to address this research gap. We suggest one effective method of increasing psychological well-being, the practice of yoga, an age-old practice that has been said to produce physical and psychological health. In this observational study, we examined associations with participation in a 4-week yoga teacher training resident program. Measurement instruments were chosen to capture changes in psychosocial health and human flourishing. Measurements were taken before the start of the program, immediately after the program, and 3 months postprogram. As expected, in this healthy population, the human flourishing scales showed more change than the psychosocial health scales. For example, in this healthy sample, there were no significant changes in perceived social support, quality of life, or self-efficacy from baseline to the 3-month follow-up. However, optimism, a positive psychology research measure, improved from baseline to follow-up. The mindfulness subscales of observation, awareness, and nonreactivity all improved following the training, suggesting that one benefit of yoga practice is a more refined ability to attend to one's inner experience. This study adds to the growing literature focusing on interventions that move beyond relieving pathology to those that produce optimal functioning and human thriving. PMID:20454759

  6. Yoga as an intervention in the treatment of eating disorders: does it help?

    PubMed

    Douglass, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the uses of yoga as an experiential adjunct to other forms of therapy in the treatment of eating disorders in residential and outpatient settings. Supported by other treatment modalities, yoga can be an effective method for increasing self-awareness, reflection and the ability to self-soothe. Like other interventions, yoga has potential misuses. These misuses are uncovered with suggestions made as to how therapists can support the practice of yoga in residential and outpatient settings.

  7. The effect of Sit 'n' Fit Chair Yoga among community-dwelling older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; McCaffrey, Ruth; Newman, David; Cheung, Corjena; Hagen, Dyana

    2014-01-01

    The study measured effects of Sit 'N' Fit Chair Yoga on pain and physical and psychological functioning. A quasi-experimental research design included a yoga intervention group and an attention control group. There was greater improvement in depression and life satisfaction in the yoga group than in the control group. PMID:24919095

  8. Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Anupama; Cohen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a proxy for health and fitness and indicator of autonomic regulation and therefore, appears well placed to assess the changes occurring with mind.-body practices that facilitate autonomic balance. While many studies suggest that yoga influences HRV, such studies have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to systematically review all published papers that report on yoga practices and HRV. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted and all studies that reported a measure of HRV associated with any yoga practice were included. Studies were categorized by the study design and type of yoga practice. A total of 59 studies were reviewed involving a total of 2358 participants. Most studies were performed in India on relatively small numbers of healthy male yoga practitioners during a single laboratory session. Of the reviewed studies, 15 were randomized controlled trials with 6 having a Jadad score of 3. The reviewed studies suggest that yoga can affect cardiac autonomic regulation with increased HRV and vagal dominance during yoga practices. Regular yoga practitioners were also found to have increased vagal tone at rest compared to non-yoga practitioners. It is premature to draw any firm conclusions about yoga and HRV as most studies were of poor quality, with small sample sizes and insufficient reporting of study design and statistical methods. Rigorous studies with detailed reporting of yoga practices and any corresponding changes in respiration are required to determine the effect of yoga on HRV. PMID:27512317

  9. Effect of Yoga on migraine: A comprehensive study using clinical profile and cardiac autonomic functions

    PubMed Central

    Kisan, Ravikiran; Sujan, MU; Adoor, Meghana; Rao, Raghavendra; Nalini, A; Kutty, Bindu M; Chindanda Murthy, BT; Raju, TR; Sathyaprabha, TN

    2014-01-01

    Context and Aims: Migraine is an episodic disabling headache requiring long-term management. Migraine management through Yoga therapy would reduce the medication cost with positive health benefits. Yoga has shown to improve the quality of life, reduce the episode of headache and medication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Yoga as an adjuvant therapy in migraine patients by assessing clinical outcome and autonomic functions tests. Subjects and Methods: Migraine patients were randomly given either conventional care (n = 30) or Yoga with conventional care (n = 30). Yoga group received Yoga practice session for 5 days a week for 6 weeks along with conventional care. Clinical assessment (frequency, intensity of headache and headache impact) and autonomic function test were done at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results: Yoga with conventional care and convention care groups showed significant improvement in clinical variables, but it was better with Yoga therapy. Improvement in the vagal tone along with reduced sympathetic activity was observed in patients with migraine receiving Yoga as adjuvant therapy. Conclusions: Intervention showed significant clinical improvement in both groups. Headache frequency and intensity were reduced more in Yoga with conventional care than the conventional care group alone. Furthermore, Yoga therapy enhanced the vagal tone and decreased the sympathetic drive, hence improving the cardiac autonomic balance. Thus, Yoga therapy can be effectively incorporated as an adjuvant therapy in migraine patients. PMID:25035622

  10. Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anupama; Cohen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a proxy for health and fitness and indicator of autonomic regulation and therefore, appears well placed to assess the changes occurring with mind.-body practices that facilitate autonomic balance. While many studies suggest that yoga influences HRV, such studies have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to systematically review all published papers that report on yoga practices and HRV. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted and all studies that reported a measure of HRV associated with any yoga practice were included. Studies were categorized by the study design and type of yoga practice. A total of 59 studies were reviewed involving a total of 2358 participants. Most studies were performed in India on relatively small numbers of healthy male yoga practitioners during a single laboratory session. Of the reviewed studies, 15 were randomized controlled trials with 6 having a Jadad score of 3. The reviewed studies suggest that yoga can affect cardiac autonomic regulation with increased HRV and vagal dominance during yoga practices. Regular yoga practitioners were also found to have increased vagal tone at rest compared to non-yoga practitioners. It is premature to draw any firm conclusions about yoga and HRV as most studies were of poor quality, with small sample sizes and insufficient reporting of study design and statistical methods. Rigorous studies with detailed reporting of yoga practices and any corresponding changes in respiration are required to determine the effect of yoga on HRV. PMID:27512317

  11. Tolerability, Safety, and Benefits of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autism: 21-Month Follow-up After 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Hollway, Jill A.; McCracken, James; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Scahill, Lawrence; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hellings, Jessica; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Grados, Marco; Shah, Bhavik; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Risperidone has demonstrated efficacy for acute (8 week) and intermediate length (6 month) management of severe irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with autism. Less is known about the long-term effects of risperidone exposure in this population. We examined the tolerability, safety, and therapeutic benefit of risperidone exposure over a 1–2 year follow-up period. Methods: In a naturalistic study, 84 children and adolescents 5–17 years of age (from an original sample of 101) were assessed an average of 21.4 months after initial entry into a placebo-controlled 8 week trial of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism and severe irritability. They were assessed at baseline and at follow-up on safety and tolerability measures (blood, urinalysis, electrocardiogram [ECG], medical history, vital signs, neurological symptoms, other adverse events), developmental measures (adaptive behavior, intelligence quotient [IQ]), and standardized rating instruments. Treatment over the follow-up period, after completion of protocol participation, was uncontrolled. Statistical analyses assessed outcome over time with or without prolonged risperidone therapy. Results: Two-thirds of the 84 subjects continued to receive risperidone (mean 2.47 mg/day, S.D. 1.29 mg). At follow-up, risperidone was associated with more enuresis, more excessive appetite, and more weight gain, but not more adverse neurological effects. No clinically significant events were noted on blood counts, chemistries, urinalysis, ECG, or interim medical history. Regardless of drug condition at follow-up, there was considerable improvement in maladaptive behavior compared with baseline, including core symptoms associated with autism. Height and weight gains were elevated with risperidone. Social skills on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) improved with risperidone. Parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) Irritability subscale scores were reduced in

  12. Potential self-regulatory mechanisms of yoga for psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Noggle, Jessica J.; Park, Crystal L.; Vago, David R.; Wilson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga’s potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory). From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders. PMID:25368562

  13. Tumor Volume Decrease at 8 weeks is Associated with Longer Survival in EGFR-mutant Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients treated with EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Mizuki; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Cardarella, Stephanie; Jackman, David M.; Rabin, Michael S.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Jänne, Pasi A.; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The study investigated if tumor volume changes at 8 weeks of therapy are associated with outcomes in advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients and methods In 56 advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations treated with first-line erlotinib or gefitinib, tumor volumes of dominant lung lesions were measured on baseline and follow-up CT and were analyzed for association with survival. Results Among 56 eligible patients, the median tumor volume was 17.8 cm3 (range: 1.3-172.7 cm3) on the baseline scans. 49 patients had follow-up CT at approximately 8 weeks; the median tumor volume at 8 weeks was 7.1 cm3 (range: 0.4-62.3 cm3), with the median proportional volume change of -59% (range: -90% to +91%) from baseline. The proportional volume change at 8 weeks was associated with survival (p=0.02). Using the cut-off value of 38% volume decrease (75th percentile) at 8 weeks, patients with volume decrease >38% (n=37) had a median overall survival of 43.5 months compared to 16.3 months among those with volume decrease ≤38% (n=12) (p=0.01). The median progression-free survival for patients with >38% volume decrease was 12.6 months, compared to 5.5 months for those with ≤38% volume decrease (p=0.2). Conclusions The proportional volume change at 8 weeks is associated with overall survival in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients treated with first-line EGFR-TKIs. The observation of the study, if confirmed in larger study cohorts, indicates that tumor volume analysis at 8 weeks may provide an early marker for survival, and contribute to therapeutic decision making by identifying patients who may benefit from additional anti-cancer therapy after 8 weeks of EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:23787800

  14. The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke.

  15. Clinical evaluation of the depigmenting effect of Glechoma Hederacea extract by topical treatment for 8 weeks on UV-induced pigmentation in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae Hyoun; Kang, Won Hyung; Lee, Jung Ok; Cho, Youn Ki; Park, Sang Kyu; Lee, Sang Keun; Cho, Han Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    UV is a major environmental factor inducing and worsening the symptoms of hyperpigmentation disorders such as freckles, melasma and solar lentigines. During UV-induced skin inflammatory reactions, pro-inflammatory mediators initiate the production of various paracrine melanogenic factors (α-MSH, SCF, ET-1, bFGF and NO) in keratinocytes. These paracrine factors activate melanin synthase in melanocytes through the paracrine network between melanocytes and keratinocytes. Glechoma hederacea (GH) is a herbal plant used in oriental medicine to treat inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory effects, through inhibition of NO synthesis (NOS) as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, have been reported. However, there has not yet been any report of a depigmenting effect. In this study of placebo-controlled, 8 week topical treatment with a 1% GH extract lotion on UV-induced pigmented spots in female Asian subjects, significant effects of anti-inflammation and depigmenting were proven. The depigmenting effect of GH seems to be related to inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and melanogenic paracrine factors from keratinocytes, rather than to direct inhibition of melanogenic activities in melanocytes.

  16. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. PMID:26720411

  17. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering.

  18. Effects of 8 weeks of military training on lower extremity and lower back clinical findings of young Iranian male recruits: A prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Amir Momeni; Yousefi, Elham; Moayednia, Amir; Tahririan, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this prospective case series we have assessed the clinical effects of 8 weeks military training on the lower extremity of the recruits. Materials and Methods: Military recruits who met the eligibility criteria and gave informed consent were entered into the study. They were asked to fill out a self-reporting pain and functionality questionnaire before and after their training. They were also examined by a physician before and after their military training. The questionnaire and examination were concentrated on three blocs: lower back, knee, and foot. Results: Three-hundred and seventy-three study subjects were evaluated. The study showed that there is a significant difference in reporting lower back pain after the training compared to the rate of complaints prior to the training (P < 0.001), knee pain, and foot pain also increased significantly (P < 0.1 and P < 0.0001, respectively) The difference was most prominent in foot complaints. Physical examination also showed significant increase in lower extremity findings following the training (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study shows that there is a need for a new approach to military training of male recruits in Iran in order to minimize the adverse health effects. PMID:24600600

  19. Response of BAX, Bcl-2 Proteins, and SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA Expression to 8-Week Treadmill Running in the Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Hui; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Yan-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise training on Bax and Bcl-2 protein content and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aging rats. Eight 18 months old male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 5 days weekly for 8 weeks on a treadmill, and eight sedentary rats served as controls. Gastrocnemius muscles were dissected 2 days after the last training session. The mRNA content of PGC-1α, caspase-3, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2, and SIRT1 was estimated by RT-PCR with GAPDH used as an internal control. The protein expression of BAX and Bcl-2 was assessed by Western immunoblot. After training, significant (p < 0.05) increases were noted for the gastrocnemius muscle weights, the gastrocnemius mass/body mass ratio, the bcl-2/BAX ratio, the Bcl-2 protein and the SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, SOD2 mRNA content in the trained gastrocnemius, relative to the control samples. No difference was found in the BAX protein between control and trained muscles, whereas the caspase-3 mRNA content decreased by 50 %, in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained animals. Exercise training may inhibit age-induced myonuclear apoptosis by stimulating SIRT1/PGC-1α mRNA expression, thereby preventing sarcopenia in aging rat. PMID:27526155

  20. Effect of integrated Yoga module on positive and negative emotions in Home Guards in Bengaluru: A wait list randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Amaranath, B; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Deshpande, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Background: The beneficial aspect of positive emotions on the process of learning and the harmful affect of negative emotions on coping with stress and health are well-documented through studies. The Home Guards (HGs) are working in a very stressful situation during election, managing traffic and other crowded places. It is quite essential in present day circumstances that they have to manage their emotions and cope up with different stressful situations. Objective: To study the efficacy of integrated Yoga module (IYM) on emotions (positive and negative affect [PA and NA]) of HGs. Methods: A total of 148 HGs both males and females who qualified the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly divided into Yoga group (YG) and control groups (CG). The YG had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for 1 h daily, 6 days a week for 8 weeks along with their regular routine work whereas CG performing their routine work. Positive affect negative affect scale (PANAS) was assessed before and after 8 weeks using a modified version of PANAS. Results: PA in YG had significantly increased (P < 0.05) whereas it had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in CG. Other positive effect in YG had significantly increased (P < 0.001), whereas it had decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in CG. NA in YG had significantly decreased (P < 0.001), whereas it had significantly increased (P < 0.001) in CG. Other NA in YG had significantly decreased (P < 0.001), whereas it had significantly increased (P < 0.01) in CG. Conclusions: The results suggested that IYM can be useful for HGs to improve the PA and to decrease NA score. Moreover, IYM is cost-effective and helps HGs for coping up with emotions in stressful situations. PMID:26865769

  1. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Context: Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. Aim: This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. Methods: The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. Results: A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings. PMID:27512318

  2. Yoga therapy for breast cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2013-11-01

    We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention. PMID:24199978

  3. Mediators of yoga and stretching for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Karen J; Wellman, Robert D; Cook, Andrea J; Cherkin, Daniel C; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms. PMID:23690832

  4. A heuristic model linking yoga philosophy and self-reflection to examine underlying mechanisms of add-on yoga treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rao, Naren; Menon, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of yoga as add-on treatment for schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanism by which yoga improves the symptoms of schizophrenia is not completely understood. Yoga improves self-reflection in healthy individuals, and self-reflection abnormalities are typically seen in schizophrenia. However, whether yoga treatment improves impairments in self-reflection typically seen in patients with schizophrenia is not examined. This paper discusses the potential mechanism of yoga in the treatment of schizophrenia and proposes a testable hypothesis for further empirical studies. It is proposed that self-reflection abnormalities in schizophrenia improve with yoga and the neurobiological changes associated with this can be examined using empirical behavioural measures and neuroimaging measures such as magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27310309

  5. A heuristic model linking yoga philosophy and self-reflection to examine underlying mechanisms of add-on yoga treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rao, Naren; Menon, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of yoga as add-on treatment for schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanism by which yoga improves the symptoms of schizophrenia is not completely understood. Yoga improves self-reflection in healthy individuals, and self-reflection abnormalities are typically seen in schizophrenia. However, whether yoga treatment improves impairments in self-reflection typically seen in patients with schizophrenia is not examined. This paper discusses the potential mechanism of yoga in the treatment of schizophrenia and proposes a testable hypothesis for further empirical studies. It is proposed that self-reflection abnormalities in schizophrenia improve with yoga and the neurobiological changes associated with this can be examined using empirical behavioural measures and neuroimaging measures such as magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Modulation of cardiac autonomic balance with adjuvant yoga therapy in patients with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sathyaprabha, T N; Satishchandra, P; Pradhan, C; Sinha, S; Kaveri, B; Thennarasu, K; Murthy, B T C; Raju, T R

    2008-02-01

    The practice of yoga regulates body physiology through control of posture, breathing, and meditation. Effects of yoga on autonomic functions of patients with refractory epilepsy, as quantified by standardized autonomic function tests (AFTs), were determined. The yoga group (n=18) received supervised training in yoga, and the exercise group (n=16) practiced simple routine exercises. AFTs were repeated after 10 weeks of daily sessions. Data were compared with those of healthy volunteers (n=142). The yoga group showed significant improvement in parasympathetic parameters and a decrease in seizure frequency scores. There was no improvement in blood pressure parameters in either group. Two patients in the yoga group achieved normal autonomic functions at the end of 10 weeks of therapy, whereas there were no changes in the exercise group. The data suggest that yoga may have a role as an adjuvant therapy in the management of autonomic dysfunction in patients with refractory epilepsy.

  7. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:26689218

  8. Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. Methods/Design A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion) at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE) within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. Conclusions This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help focus future, more in

  9. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  10. An open-label, rater-blinded, 8-week trial of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder with atypical features.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-J; Lee, B C; Seok, J-H; Jeon, H J; Paik, J-W; Kim, W; Kwak, K-P; Han, C; Lee, K-U; Pae, C-U

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness and tolerability of -bupropion hydrochloride extended release (XL) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with atypical features (AF).51 patients were prescribed bupropion XL for 8 weeks (6 visits: screening, baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8). The primary efficacy measure was a change of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD) from baseline to endpoint. Secondary efficacy measures included the SIGH-SAD atypical symptoms subscale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Epworth Sleepiness Questionnaire (ESQ). Response or remission was defined as ≥50% reduction or ≤7 in SIGH-SAD total scores, respectively, at end of treatment.The HAM-D-29 total score reduced by 55.3% from baseline (27.3±6.5) to end of treatment (12.2±6.3) (p<0.001). Atypical symptom subscale scores also reduced by 54.5% from baseline (9.2±3.0) to end of treatment (4.2±2.8) (p<0.001). At the end of treatment, 24.4% (n=10) and 51.2% (n=21) subjects were classified as remitters and responders, respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (13.7%), dry mouth (11.8%), dizziness (9.8%), and dyspepsia (9.8%).Our preliminary study indicates that bupropion XL may be beneficial in the treatment of MDD with atypical features. Adequately powered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to determine our results.

  11. The effects of a mid-winter 8-week course of sub-sunburn sunbed exposures on tanning, vitamin D status and colds.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, Frank R; Pavel, Stan

    2012-12-01

    Like UV irradiation, which generates vitamin D(3) in the skin, the hormonally active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), boosts innate immunity against viruses and bacteria. Epidemiologic studies have found high vitamin D levels to be associated with lower risk of infections of the upper respiratory tract (colds). We have therefore performed an intervention study in 105 young adults (ages 18-30 years; 91% female) over a mid-winter 8-week period (January-March 2010). The participants were randomised to 3 groups: (A) subjected to 3 times a week sub-sunburn sunbed exposure (n = 35), (B) daily vitamin D supplementation, @ 1000 IU (n = 37), and (C) a control group without any intervention (n = 33). The mean serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dropped from 62 to 55 nmol l(-1) in group C, while these levels rose from 62 to 109 and from 58 to 93 nmol l(-1) in groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.001). The skin on the chest darkened significantly in group A (mean difference in lightness, L*, equalled -5.7, p < 0.001), correlating significantly, but weakly, with increases in 25(OH)D (3.3 nmol l(-1) per unit drop in L*, R(2) = 0.17, p = 0.014). The percentage of self-reported colds with proper signs and symptoms was only slightly and not significantly reduced in groups A and B in comparison to group C: 57 and 51 versus 67%, respectively. Hence, the sub-sunburn sunbed treatment was effective in tanning and increasing the 25(OH)D serum level, more so than 1000 IU per day, but had no appreciable effect on colds.

  12. Effect of 8 Weeks of Overfeeding on Ectopic Fat Deposition and Insulin Sensitivity: Testing the “Adipose Tissue Expandability” Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Tam, Charmaine S.; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Xie, Wenting; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Bajpeyi, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The presence of large subcutaneous adipocytes in obesity has been proposed to be linked with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the “adipose tissue expandability” hypothesis, which holds that large adipocytes have a limited capacity for expansion, forcing lipids to be stored in nonadipose ectopic depots (skeletal muscle, liver), where they interfere with insulin signaling. This hypothesis has, however, been largely formulated by cross-sectional findings and to date has not been prospectively demonstrated in the development of insulin resistance in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-nine men (26.8 ± 5.4 years old; BMI 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were fed 40% more than their baseline requirement for 8 weeks. Before and after overfeeding, insulin sensitivity was determined using a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were measured by 1H-MRS and abdominal fat by MRI. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were collected to measure adipocyte size and markers of tissue inflammation. RESULTS Subjects gained 7.6 ± 2.1 kg (55% fat) and insulin sensitivity decreased 18% (P < 0.001) after overfeeding. IHL increased 46% from 1.5% to 2.2% (P = 0.002); however, IMCL did not change. There was no association between adipocyte size and ectopic lipid accumulation. Despite similar weight gain, subjects with smaller fat cells at baseline had a greater decrease in insulin sensitivity, which was linked with upregulated skeletal muscle tissue inflammation. CONCLUSIONS In experimental substantial weight gain, the presence of larger adipocytes did not promote ectopic lipid accumulation. In contrast, smaller fat cells were associated with a worsened metabolic response to overfeeding. PMID:25011943

  13. Mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction: experience with a bilingual inner-city program.

    PubMed

    Roth, B; Creaser, T

    1997-03-01

    This article describes a bilingual mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program in an inner-city setting. Mindfulness meditation is defined, and the practices of breathing meditation, eating meditation, walking meditation, and mindful yoga are described. Data analysis examined compliance, medical and psychologic symptom reduction, and changes in self-esteem, of English- and Spanish-speaking patients who completed the 8-week Stress Reduction and Relaxation Program at the Community Health Center in Meriden, Conn. Statistically significant decreases in medical and psychologic symptoms and improvement in self-esteem were found. Many program completers reported dramatic changes in attitudes, beliefs, habits, and behaviors. Despite the limitations of the research design, these findings suggest that a mindfulness meditation course can be an effective health care intervention when utilized by English- and Spanish-speaking patients in an inner-city community health center. The article includes a discussion of factors to be considered when establishing a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program in a health care setting.

  14. Changed pattern of regional glucose metabolism during yoga meditative relaxation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, H; Lele, V R; Kuwert, T; Langen, K J; Rota Kops, E; Feinendegen, L E

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlc) are able to delineate cerebral metabolic responses to external or mental stimulation. In order to examine possible changes of brain metabolism due to Yoga meditation PET scans were performed in 8 members of a Yoga meditation group during the normal control state (C) and Yoga meditative relaxation (YMR). Whereas there were intraindividual changes of the total CMRGlc, the alterations were not significant for intergroup comparison; specific focal changes or changes in the interhemispheric differences in metabolism were also not seen; however the ratios of frontal vs. occipital rCMRGlc were significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) during YMR. These altered ratios were caused by a slight increase of frontal rCMRGlc and a more pronounced reduction in primary and secondary visual centers. These data indicate a holistic behavior of the brain metabolism during the time of altered state of consciousness during YMR.

  15. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2013-05-01

    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people. PMID:23789249

  16. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health.

    PubMed

    Zope, Sameer A; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  17. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    PubMed Central

    Zope, Sameer A.; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  18. Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Radhika; Tailor, Anisha; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has shown the vast mental and physical health benefits associated with yoga. Yoga practice can be divided into subcategories that include posture-holding exercise (asana), breathing (pranayama, Kriya), and meditation (Sahaj) practice. Studies measuring mental health outcomes have shown decreases in anxiety, and increases in cognitive performance after yoga interventions. Similar studies have also shown cognitive advantages amongst yoga practitioners versus non-practitioners. The mental health and cognitive benefits of yoga are evident, but the physiological and structural changes in the brain that lead to this remain a topic that lacks consensus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine and review existing literature on the effects of yoga on brain waves and structural changes and activation. After a narrowed search through a set of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles were used in this review. It was concluded that breathing, meditation, and posture-based yoga increased overall brain wave activity. Increases in graygray matter along with increases in amygdala and frontal cortex activation were evident after a yoga intervention. Yoga practice may be an effective adjunctive treatment for a clinical and healthy aging population. Further research can examine the effects of specific branches of yoga on a designated clinical population.

  19. Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Radhika; Tailor, Anisha; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has shown the vast mental and physical health benefits associated with yoga. Yoga practice can be divided into subcategories that include posture-holding exercise (asana), breathing (pranayama, Kriya), and meditation (Sahaj) practice. Studies measuring mental health outcomes have shown decreases in anxiety, and increases in cognitive performance after yoga interventions. Similar studies have also shown cognitive advantages amongst yoga practitioners versus non-practitioners. The mental health and cognitive benefits of yoga are evident, but the physiological and structural changes in the brain that lead to this remain a topic that lacks consensus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine and review existing literature on the effects of yoga on brain waves and structural changes and activation. After a narrowed search through a set of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles were used in this review. It was concluded that breathing, meditation, and posture-based yoga increased overall brain wave activity. Increases in graygray matter along with increases in amygdala and frontal cortex activation were evident after a yoga intervention. Yoga practice may be an effective adjunctive treatment for a clinical and healthy aging population. Further research can examine the effects of specific branches of yoga on a designated clinical population. PMID:25824030

  20. Yoga experience as a predictor of psychological wellness in women over 45 years

    PubMed Central

    Moliver, N; Mika, EM; Chartrand, MS; Haussmann, RE; Khalsa, SBS

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although high levels of subjective well-being (SWB) are common in old age, a subset of older individuals is disproportionately vulnerable to negative affect. Yoga has been shown to have many short-term benefits, but researchers have not determined whether a long-term or frequent yoga practice increasingly protects older women from low levels of psychological well-being. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which psychological attitudes, transcendence, mental mastery, and subjective vitality in a sample of female yoga practitioners over 45 years varied according to the length and frequency of yoga practice. Materials and Methods: We administered online surveys to a non-probability sample of 211 female yoga practitioners 45 to 80. We used weighted least squares regression analyses to evaluate the relationship of extent of yoga experience to the outcome variables after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. Results: Participants had practiced yoga for as long as 50 years and for up to 28 h per week. There were significant positive relationships between yoga experience and all outcome variables. These significant relationships remained after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. When we computed yoga experience in terms of total calendar years, without accounting for hours of practice, significant relationships did not remain. Transcendence of the ordinary was the most strongly associated with current yoga practice frequency, and positive psychological attitudes were the most strongly associated with total lifetime hours of practice. Conclusions: Among a non-probability sample of female yoga practitioners between 45 and 80 years, increased yoga experience predicted increased levels of psychological well-being. Results showed a dose-response effect, with yoga experience exercising an increasingly protective effect against low levels of SWB and vitality. PMID:23440029

  1. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ratna; Gupta, Nidhi; Bijlani, R L

    2008-01-01

    Yoga is assuming importance in improving mental health and quality of life in the treatment of a number of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The present study was a prospective controlled study to explore the short-term impact of a comprehensive but brief lifestyle intervention, based on yoga, on subjective well being levels in normal and diseased subjects. Normal healthy individuals and subjects having hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus or a variety of other illnesses were included in the study. The outcome measures were 'subjective well being inventory' (SUBI) scores, taken on the first and last day of the course. The inventory consists of questions related to one's feelings and attitude about various areas of life, such as happiness, achievement and interpersonal relationship. There was significant improvement in the subjective well being scores of the 77 subjects within a period of 10 days as compared to controls. These observations suggest that a short lifestyle modification and stress management educational program leads to remarkable improvement in the subjective well being scores of the subjects and can therefore make an appreciable contribution to primary prevention as well as management of lifestyle diseases. PMID:19130855

  2. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ratna; Gupta, Nidhi; Bijlani, R L

    2008-01-01

    Yoga is assuming importance in improving mental health and quality of life in the treatment of a number of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The present study was a prospective controlled study to explore the short-term impact of a comprehensive but brief lifestyle intervention, based on yoga, on subjective well being levels in normal and diseased subjects. Normal healthy individuals and subjects having hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus or a variety of other illnesses were included in the study. The outcome measures were 'subjective well being inventory' (SUBI) scores, taken on the first and last day of the course. The inventory consists of questions related to one's feelings and attitude about various areas of life, such as happiness, achievement and interpersonal relationship. There was significant improvement in the subjective well being scores of the 77 subjects within a period of 10 days as compared to controls. These observations suggest that a short lifestyle modification and stress management educational program leads to remarkable improvement in the subjective well being scores of the subjects and can therefore make an appreciable contribution to primary prevention as well as management of lifestyle diseases.

  3. Decoding the integrated approach to yoga therapy: Qualitative evidence based conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Villacres, Maria Del Carmen; Jagannathan, Aarti; Nagarathna, R; Ramakrsihna, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define, decode, and append to the conceptual frame-work of the integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT). Materials and Methods: Four stakeholders who followed two in-patients with depression over a period of 2 weeks in the residential center Arogyadhama (of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandana Samsthana, Bangalore, India) were interviewed before the start of the IAYT treatment and prior to discharge of the patient. The patients were also interviewed pre and post and were observed once during their session. The data from the audio recordings from eight in-depth interviews were transcribed manually and qualitative analysis was conducted. Results: The conceptual frame-work of IAYT depicts that patient related factors (“co-operation of patient”, “patients awareness of his/her condition”), therapist related factors (“ability to guide”, “the assistance to the patients”, “explanation of the exercises”) and treatment related factors (“combination of psychiatric or Ayurvedic medication with yoga”, “counseling during the IAYT treatment”, duration of treatment), play an integrated role in reaching the “aim of IAYT” and experiencing “improvements and changes”. Conclusion: The IAYT is a holistic program and the ability of the patient to cooperate with and integrate the available factors (therapist related and treatment related) could enable best results. PMID:25035604

  4. Older Women, Exercise to Music, and Yoga: Senses of Pleasure?

    PubMed

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stuart, Sue

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the lived experience of older women participants in (a) a low-impact exercise to music (ETM) class and (b) a yoga class to uncover what is important for them in taking part in these classes. Researcher S is the instructor of the ETM group and draws upon individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. Researcher B is a member of the yoga class where she interviewed the women and undertook participant observations. Both authors are a similar age to the older women interviewees. Through a phenomenological interpretative approach, the paper examines the women's perceptions of their exercise class and yoga experiences, highlighting pleasurable experiences and features that contribute to this enjoyment. The paper considers relationships between pleasure, wellbeing, the senses, physical activity, and aging, drawing upon a variety of analyses. It pays attention to the contextual features of the ETM and yoga classes in making available and accessible pleasurable physical activity experiences for the women and draws, in part, on 'typologies' of pleasure to frame the debate around older women, physical activity, and senses of pleasure. Our research highlights the considerable wellbeing affects for women when physical activity provision takes account of context (the spatial, cultural, social, and sentient). PMID:26671899

  5. Yoga for PE: Engaging High School Students Physically and Mentally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The administration and community used to place little or no value on physical education and attendance, and attitudes toward our profession were stereotypical and disrespectful. Yet, at some level, there were people quietly longing for a change. This article describes how the author used her passion for yoga to win over her students and,…

  6. Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Reddy, S K; Nagendra, H R

    2000-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate a statement in ancient yoga texts that suggests that a combination of both "calming" and "stimulating" measures may be especially helpful in reaching a state of mental equilibrium. Two yoga practices, one combining "calming and stimulating" measures (cyclic meditation) and the other, a "calming" technique (shavasan), were compared. The oxygen consumption, breath rate, and breath volume of 40 male volunteers (group mean +/- SD, 27.0 +/- 5.7 years) were assessed before and after sessions of cyclic meditation (CM) and before and after sessions of shavasan (SH). The 2 sessions (CM, SH) were 1 day apart. Cyclic meditation includes the practice of yoga postures interspersed with periods of supine relaxation. During SH the subject lies in a supine position throughout the practice. There was a significant decrease in the amount of oxygen consumed and in breath rate and an increase in breath volume after both types of sessions (2-factor ANOVA, paired t test). However, the magnitude of change on all 3 measures was greater after CM: (1) Oxygen consumption decreased 32.1% after CM compared with 10.1% after SH; (2) breath rate decreased 18.0% after CM and 15.2% after SH; and (3) breath volume increased 28.8% after CM and 15.9% after SH. These results support the idea that a combination of yoga postures interspersed with relaxation reduces arousal more than relaxation alone does.

  7. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance. PMID:26850809

  8. Twelve-Minute Daily Yoga Regimen Reverses Osteoporotic Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Rosner, Bernard; Chang, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the effectiveness of selected yoga postures in raising bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Ten-year study of 741 Internet-recruited volunteers comparing preyoga BMD changes with postyoga BMD changes. Outcome Measures: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric scans. Optional radiographs of hips and spine and bone quality study (7 Tesla). Results: Bone mineral density improved in spine, hips, and femur of the 227 moderately and fully compliant patients. Monthly gain in BMD was significant in spine (0.0029 g/cm2, P = .005) and femur (0.00022 g/cm2, P = .053), but in 1 cohort, although mean gain in hip BMD was 50%, large individual differences raised the confidence interval and the gain was not significant for total hip (0.000357 g/cm2). No yoga-related serious injuries were imaged or reported. Bone quality appeared qualitatively improved in yoga practitioners. Conclusion: Yoga appears to raise BMD in the spine and the femur safely. PMID:27226695

  9. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Context: A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. Aims: To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Methods: Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Results: Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability. PMID:26865776

  10. Yoga from the Mat up: How Words Alight on Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlwain, Doris; Sutton, John

    2014-01-01

    Yoga is a unique form of expert movement that promotes an increasingly subtle interpenetration of thought and movement. The mindful nature of its practice, even at expert levels, challenges the idea that thought and mind are inevitably disruptive to absorbed coping. Building on parallel phenomenological and ethnographic studies of skilful…

  11. [Discussion around the use of yoga in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hacherez, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Many mind-body practices have recently been introduced into psychiatric care including yoga. An experiment in the field addresses the issue of the organisation and applications of this discipline, and envisages the possibility of extending the scope of indications. PMID:27615700

  12. A Yoga Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress: A Preliminary Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Jindani, Farah; Turner, Nigel; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-01-01

    Yoga may be effective in the reduction of PTSD symptomology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a Kundalini Yoga (KY) treatment on PTSD symptoms and overall wellbeing. To supplement the current field of inquiry, a pilot randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted comparing an 8-session KY intervention with a waitlist control group. 80 individuals with current PTSD symptoms participated. Both groups demonstrated changes in PTSD symptomology but yoga participants showed greater changes in measures of sleep, positive affect, perceived stress, anxiety, stress, and resilience. Between-groups effect sizes were small to moderate (0.09-0.25). KY may be an adjunctive or alternative intervention for PTSD. Findings indicate the need for further yoga research to better understand the mechanism of yoga in relation to mental and physical health, gender and ethnic comparisons, and short- and long-term yoga practice for psychiatric conditions. PMID:26366179

  13. Reflections on clinical applications of yoga in voice therapy with MTD.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carmelle

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the application of modified yoga techniques, as an adjunct to voice therapy, by a speech pathologist who is also a yoga teacher. Yoga practices, with effects that may be short-term, are not considered a substitute for comprehensive and integrated somatic retraining systems (such as the Alexander Technique or Feldenkrais ATM). However, when yoga is conducted emphasizing kinaesthetic and proprioceptive awareness, the client may achieve an 'awareness state' that facilitates the learning of vocal remediation techniques (for example, by more easily 'tuning in' to the subtle sensations of supralaryngeal deconstriction). Core yoga elements and clinical applications are identified. The potential benefits and considerations when using yoga as an adjunct to the treatment of muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) are explored.

  14. Health Impacts of Yoga and Pranayama: A State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of years ago yoga originated in India, and in present day and age, an alarming awareness was observed in health and natural remedies among people by yoga and pranayama which has been proven an effective method for improving health in addition to prevention and management of diseases. With increasing scientific research in yoga, its therapeutic aspects are also being explored. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improves autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, now-a-days, several reports suggested yoga is beneficial for physical health of cancer patients. Such global recognition of yoga also testifies to India's growing cultural influence. PMID:22891145

  15. Autonomic changes in Brahmakumaris Raja yoga meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Desiraju, T

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the changes in various autonomic and respiratory variables during the practice of Brahmakumaris Raja yoga meditation. This practice requires considerable commitment and involves concentrated thinking. 18 males in the age range of 20 to 52 years (mean 34.1 +/- 8.1), with 5-25 years experience in mediation (mean 10.1 +/- 6.2), participated in the study. Each subject was assessed in three test sessions which included a period of meditation, and also in three control (non-mediation) sessions, which included a period of random thinking. Group analysis showed that the heart rate during the meditation period was increased compared to the preceding baseline period, as well as compared to the value during the non-meditation period of control sessions. In contrast to the change in the heart rate, there was no significant change during meditation, for the group as a whole, in palmar GSR, finger plethysmogram amplitude, and respiratory rate. On an individual basis, changes which met the following criteria were noted: (1), changes which were greater during meditation (compared to its preceding baseline) than changes during post meditation or non-meditation periods (also compared to their preceding baseline); (2), Changes which occurred consistently during the three repeat sessions of a subject and (3), changes which exceeded arbitrarily-chosen cut-off points (described at length below). This individual level analysis revealed that changes in autonomic variables suggestive of both activation and relaxation occurred simultaneously in different subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system in a subject. Apart from this, there were differences in patterns of change among the subjects who practised the same meditation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Venkatesh; Narasipur, Omkar Subbaramajois; Kunnavil, Radhika; Srinivasamurthy, Nandagudi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To evaluate the effect of yoga practice and exercise challenge on Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and lipid profile. Materials and Methods Two hundred and eighteen subjects participated in the study. One hundred and nine volunteers (51 males and 58 females) in the age group of 20 to 60 years, who practiced yoga regularly for over five years for a period of one hour daily, performed a bout of moderate exercise and a bout of strenuous exercise as per Standardized Shuttle Walk test protocol. Anthropometrically matched, age matched and gender matched subjects, who did not practice yoga (non-yoga group) were chosen as controls (non-yoga, n=109). The non-yoga group also performed similar exercises. The blood samples of both the groups were collected before and after the exercises. TNF-α and IL-6 was analysed before and after the exercise by Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results Resting plasma TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in non-yoga group when compared to yoga group (p<0.05). There was an increase in TNF-α levels in both the groups in response to strenuous exercise. There was no gender difference in TNF-α and IL-6 levels before and after exercise in yoga and non-yoga groups. Conclusion Regular practice of yoga lowers basal TNF-α and IL-6 levels. It also reduces the extent of increase of TNF-α and IL-6 to a physical challenge of moderate exercise and strenuous exercise. There is no significant gender difference in the TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Regular practice of yoga can protect the individual against inflammatory diseases by favourably altering pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:26266115

  17. In search of yoga: Research trends in a western medical database

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy C

    2014-01-01

    Context: The promotion of yoga practice as a preventative and treatment therapy for health outcomes in the western hemisphere is increasing rapidly. As the commercial success of yoga burgeons in popular culture, it is important to investigate the trends of yoga as a therapeutic intervention in academic literature. The free-access search engine, PubMed is a preeminent resource to identify health-related research articles published for academics, health practitioners and others. Aims: To report the recent yoga-related publications in the western healthcare context with particular interest in the subject and type of yoga titles. Materials and Methods: A bibliometric analysis to describe the annual trends in publication on PubMed from January 1950 to December 2012. Results: The number of yoga-related titles included in the PubMed database is limited until a marked increase 2000 and steady surge since 2007. Bibliometric analysis indicates that more than 200 new titles are added per annum since 2011. Systematic reviews and yoga trials are increasing exponentially, indicating a potential increase in the quality of evidence. Titles including pain management, stress or anxiety, depression and cancer conditions are highly correlated with yoga and healthcare research. Conclusions: The prevalence of yoga research in western healthcare is increasing. The marked increase in volume indicates the need for more systematic analysis of the literature in terms of quality and results. PMID:25035601

  18. Yoga as a treatment for chronic low back pain: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Douglas G.; Holt, Jacquelyn A.; Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic low back pain (CLBP) affects millions of people worldwide, and appears to be increasing in prevalence. It is associated not only with pain, but also with increased disability, psychological symptoms, and reduced quality of life. There are various treatment options for CLBP, but no single therapy stands out as being the most effective. In the past 10 years, yoga interventions have been studied as a CLBP treatment approach. The objective of this paper is to review the current literature supporting the efficacy of yoga for CLBP. Methods A literature search through the beginning of 2015 was conducted in Pub Med for randomized control trials addressing treatment of CLBP with yoga. Results In this review we evaluate the use of yoga as a treatment for CLBP. Specifically we evaluate how yoga impacts physical functioning and disability, pain, and associated psychological symptoms. We also evaluate possible mediators of the effect of yoga and the safety of yoga. Discussion With few exceptions, previous studies and the recent randomized control trials (RCTs) indicate that yoga can reduce pain and disability, can be practiced safely, and is well received by participants. Some studies also indicate that yoga may improve psychological symptoms, but these effects are currently not as well established. PMID:27231715

  19. Adverse Events Associated with Yoga: A Systematic Review of Published Case Reports and Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Holger; Krucoff, Carol; Dobos, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopenia. Pranayama, hatha yoga, and Bikram yoga were the most common yoga practices; headstand, shoulder stand, lotus position, and forceful breathing were the most common yoga postures and breathing techniques cited. Twenty-seven adverse events (35.5%) affected the musculoskeletal system; 14 (18.4%) the nervous system; and 9 (11.8%) the eyes. Fifteen cases (19.7%) reached full recovery; 9 cases (11.3%) partial recovery; 1 case (1.3%) no recovery; and 1 case (1.3%) died. As any other physical or mental practice, yoga should be practiced carefully under the guidance of a qualified instructor. Beginners should avoid extreme practices such as headstand, lotus position and forceful breathing. Individuals with medical preconditions should work with their physician and yoga teacher to appropriately adapt postures; patients with glaucoma should avoid inversions and patients with compromised bone should avoid forceful yoga practices. PMID:24146758

  20. Do side-effects/injuries from yoga practice result in discontinued use? Results of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E

    2014-01-01

    Context: Yoga-related injuries are of increasing concern as the use of yoga continues to rise. Aims: The aim of the following study is to examine whether a national sample of yoga practitioners would report discontinued use of yoga due to injury from the practice, assess what injuries resulted in discontinued use, determine what injuries were most common and identify injuries requiring medical attention. Methods: Secondary data analysis of a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States (n = 23,393). Results: Less than 1% of individuals who had ever practiced yoga (n = 2230) reported an injury from yoga that led to discontinued use. Of those reporting injury, less than one-third (n = 4) reported seeking medical attention. The most common side-effect was back pain. Approximately, half of those reporting back pain sought medical attention. Conclusions: Injury due to yoga is an infrequent barrier to continued practice and severe injury due to yoga is rare. PMID:25035627

  1. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner. PMID:25471318

  2. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner.

  3. Yoga for the Special Child: A Therapeutic Approach for Infants and Children with Down Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumar, Sonia

    This guide by a yoga instructor and mother of a child with Down Syndrome is intended to provide specific instructions on the use of yoga with infants and young children having Down Syndrome, cerebral palsy, or learning disabilities. Part 1 contains narratives on the use of yoga including the story of Roberta, the author's daughter, and other case…

  4. Yoga meets positive psychology: examining the integration of hedonic (gratitude) and eudaimonic (meaning) wellbeing in relation to the extent of yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Ivtzan, Itai; Papantoniou, Angeliki

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the existence of a relationship between the extent of yoga practice and two dimensions of psychological wellbeing: meaning in life and gratitude. Both of the variables are positive psychology constructs; there is theoretical affinity and empirical evidence that they are related to overall psychological wellbeing. One hundred and twenty four participants aged 18 years and above, with yoga experience ranging from none to over six years, responded to a number of scales. The extent of yoga practice was measured by the number of years during which individuals practiced yoga at least two times a week. Participants responded to the following scales: MLQ (Meaning in Life Questionnaire) and GQ-6 (Gratitude Questionnaire). This study hypothesised that the number of years practicing yoga would be positively correlated to the score obtained on the aforementioned scales. Positive correlations were identified between the extent of yoga practice and meaning in life and gratitude. Important implications regarding the contribution of yoga to both hedonic and Eudaimonic happiness are discussed.

  5. The Islamic prayer (Salah/Namaaz) and yoga togetherness in mental health.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Shabbir Ahmed; Prakash, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Religion and its practices have been duly implicated in treating not only problems related to medical health, rather, intervening and preventing such problems as well. In the present article, the authors have reviewed significance of the Islamic prayers (Salah/Namaaz) in healthcare in general and mental health in particular. The nature, procedures, practices and the benefits of Salah have been comprehensively described and discussed. In addition, an attempt to combine yoga and its practices with Salah has been made for intervening and preventing the problems of mental health as an expeditious tool. In upshot, the clinicians in the field of mental health care have been suggested to incorporate these two viewpoints in their intervention program, at least, for the Muslim patients for a more desirable outcome. PMID:23858258

  6. Effects of an 8-Month Yoga Intervention on Arterial Compliance and Muscle Strength In Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that Yoga exercise has a positive effect on reducing blood pressure and heart rate. However, no randomized controlled studies to date have investigated its effects on arterial compliance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-month Yoga intervention on arterial compliance and muscle strength in normal premenopausal women 35-50 years of age. Thirty-four women were randomly assigned either to a Yoga exercise group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months. Each Yoga session consisted of 15 minutes of warm-up exercises, 35 minutes of Ashtanga Yoga postures and 10 minutes of cool-down with relaxation; and the session intensity was progressively increased during the 8 months. Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Arterial compliance (pulse contour analysis) and muscle strength (1 Repetition Maximum) were assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Arterial compliance of the large and small arteries was not affected by the 8 month Yoga training (p > 0.05). Also, there were no significant (p > 0.05) group, time, or group × time interaction effects for cardiovascular variables. YE group significantly (p < 0.01) improved leg press muscle strength compared to CON (11.4% vs. -6.5%). Eight months of Ashtanga Yoga training was beneficial for improving leg press strength, but not arterial compliance in premenopausal women. Key pointsThe 8 month Yoga training did not affect arterial compliance of the large and small arteries.None of the cardiovascular variables were changed by the Yoga intervention.Isotonic muscle strength was not altered by the Yoga intervention, with the exception of leg press. PMID:24149206

  7. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  8. Yoga as a method of symptom management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachael; Larimore, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated process in which the body's immune system damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). The onset of this disorder typically occurs in young adults, and it is more common among women. Currently, there is no cure and the long-term disease progression makes symptomatic management critical for maintaining quality of life. Several pharmacotherapeutic agents are approved for treatment, but many patients seek complementary and alternative interventions. Reviews have been conducted regarding broad topics such as mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with MS and the impact of yoga on a range of neurological disorders. The objective of the present review is to examine the potential benefits of yoga for individuals with MS and address its use in managing symptoms including pain, mental health, fatigue, spasticity, balance, bladder control, and sexual function. PMID:25983675

  9. Yoga as a method of symptom management in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Rachael; Larimore, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated process in which the body's immune system damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). The onset of this disorder typically occurs in young adults, and it is more common among women. Currently, there is no cure and the long-term disease progression makes symptomatic management critical for maintaining quality of life. Several pharmacotherapeutic agents are approved for treatment, but many patients seek complementary and alternative interventions. Reviews have been conducted regarding broad topics such as mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with MS and the impact of yoga on a range of neurological disorders. The objective of the present review is to examine the potential benefits of yoga for individuals with MS and address its use in managing symptoms including pain, mental health, fatigue, spasticity, balance, bladder control, and sexual function. PMID:25983675

  10. [Recent medical research on yoga and states of concentration].

    PubMed

    Lerner, M

    1975-03-01

    Traditional oriental thinking attracts the growing scientific interest of occidental practitioners. Dr. Pierre Etévenon, head of the Department of Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacology at the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), held several conversations and scientific exchanges with the author, and kindly provided copies of some of his works. They are at the basis of the present paper. M. A. Descamps (Paris) found that asanas--yoga postures-- are generators of dynamic action when there is an extension of the spinal column, whilst they lead to quiet states when there is a flexion of it. Claeys and Gones (Belgium) proved that overall global relaxation, as well as differential relaxation were far more effective and deep when obtained by yogis than those attempted by University students majoring in Physical Education. Lonsdorfer and Nussbaum (France) studied several parameters concerning hatha-yoga and concluded that it provides a regular functioning of the main bodily functions fostering thus a psycho-physical balance. Wallace and Benson (U.S.A.) proved that transcendental meditation increases aerobic metabolism, counteracting anaerobic metabolism which is related to mental distress. Etévenon (Paris) investigated neurophysiological effects of yoga in connection to ancient Indian concepts (Upanishads) on sleeping, meditation and degree of consciousness. Dr. Etévenon has studied the phylogenetic evolution of waking-sleeping cycles, focusing on phylogenetic and ontongenetic appearances of REM cycles (activated sleep). A correlation has been made with EEG studies during states of concentration (yoga, transcendental meditation, Zen). These states have been found to be specific brain activities, and different from deep sleep, in spite of certain similarities in the EEG. Several hypothesis are set forth to explain brain activities underlying sites of concentration. The possibilities of developing a conscious mastering of dreams are also under research, and

  11. A narrative review of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Surbhi; Greeson, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    This paper reviews the philosophical origins, current scientific evidence, and clinical promise of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction. Historically, there are eight elements of yoga that, together, comprise ethical principles and practices for living a meaningful, purposeful, moral and self-disciplined life. Traditional yoga practices, including postures and meditation, direct attention toward one's health, while acknowledging the spiritual aspects of one's nature. Mindfulness derives from ancient Buddhist philosophy, and mindfulness meditation practices, such as gentle Hatha yoga and mindful breathing, are increasingly integrated into secular health care settings. Current theoretical models suggest that the skills, insights, and self-awareness learned through yoga and mindfulness practice can target multiple psychological, neural, physiological, and behavioral processes implicated in addiction and relapse. A small but growing number of well-designed clinical trials and experimental laboratory studies on smoking, alcohol dependence, and illicit substance use support the clinical effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of action underlying mindfulness-based interventions for treating addiction. Because very few studies have been conducted on the specific role of yoga in treating or preventing addiction, we propose a conceptual model to inform future studies on outcomes and possible mechanisms. Additional research is also needed to better understand what types of yoga and mindfulness-based interventions work best for what types of addiction, what types of patients, and under what conditions. Overall, current findings increasingly support yoga and mindfulness as promising complementary therapies for treating and preventing addictive behaviors.

  12. Designing and validation of a yoga-based intervention for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Shubha; Varambally, Shivarama; Karmani, Sneha; Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Some yoga-based practices have been found to be useful for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors could not find a validated yoga therapy module available for OCD. This study attempted to formulate a generic yoga-based intervention module for OCD. A yoga module was designed based on traditional and contemporary yoga literature. The module was sent to 10 yoga experts for content validation. The experts rated the usefulness of the practices on a scale of 1-5 (5 = extremely useful). The final version of the module was pilot-tested on patients with OCD (n = 17) for both feasibility and effect on symptoms. Eighty-eight per cent (22 out of 25) of the items in the initial module were retained, with modifications in the module as suggested by the experts along with patients' inputs and authors' experience. The module was found to be feasible and showed an improvement in symptoms of OCD on total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score (p = 0.001). A generic yoga therapy module for OCD was validated by experts in the field and found feasible to practice in patients. A decrease in the symptom scores was also found following yoga practice of 2 weeks. Further clinical validation is warranted to confirm efficacy. PMID:27117898

  13. Integrating Yoga with Psychotherapy: A Complementary Treatment for Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forfylow, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the empirical research on yoga as an effective, complementary, clinical intervention for anxiety and depression based on an examination of studies published from 2003 to 2010. There is a discussion of study findings and research limitations and suggestions for researchers and future research. Yoga appears to be an effective…

  14. The Relationship of Yoga, Body Awareness, and Body Responsiveness to Self-Objectification and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubenmier, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    Study 1 tested whether yoga practice is associated with greater awareness of and responsiveness to bodily sensations, lower self-objectification, greater body satisfaction, and fewer disordered eating attitudes. Three samples of women (43 yoga, 45 aerobic, and 51 nonyoga/nonaerobic practitioners) completed questionnaire measures. As predicted,…

  15. Decrease in serum cortisol during yoga exercise is correlated with alpha wave activation.

    PubMed

    Kamei, T; Toriumi, Y; Kimura, H; Ohno, S; Kumano, H; Kimura, K

    2000-06-01

    We examined changes in brain waves and blood levels of serum cortisol during yoga exercise in 7 yoga instructors and found that alpha waves increased and serum cortisol decreased. These two measures were negatively correlated (r = -.83). Comparison with a control group of nonpractitioners is desirable.

  16. Benefits, Barriers, and Cues to Action of Yoga Practice: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.; Permuth-Levine, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action of yoga practice among adults. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with persons who had never practiced yoga, practitioners of one year or less, and practitioners for more than one year. The Health Belief Model was the theoretical foundation of inquiry. Results: All…

  17. A narrative review of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Surbhi; Greeson, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    This paper reviews the philosophical origins, current scientific evidence, and clinical promise of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction. Historically, there are eight elements of yoga that, together, comprise ethical principles and practices for living a meaningful, purposeful, moral and self-disciplined life. Traditional yoga practices, including postures and meditation, direct attention toward one's health, while acknowledging the spiritual aspects of one's nature. Mindfulness derives from ancient Buddhist philosophy, and mindfulness meditation practices, such as gentle Hatha yoga and mindful breathing, are increasingly integrated into secular health care settings. Current theoretical models suggest that the skills, insights, and self-awareness learned through yoga and mindfulness practice can target multiple psychological, neural, physiological, and behavioral processes implicated in addiction and relapse. A small but growing number of well-designed clinical trials and experimental laboratory studies on smoking, alcohol dependence, and illicit substance use support the clinical effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of action underlying mindfulness-based interventions for treating addiction. Because very few studies have been conducted on the specific role of yoga in treating or preventing addiction, we propose a conceptual model to inform future studies on outcomes and possible mechanisms. Additional research is also needed to better understand what types of yoga and mindfulness-based interventions work best for what types of addiction, what types of patients, and under what conditions. Overall, current findings increasingly support yoga and mindfulness as promising complementary therapies for treating and preventing addictive behaviors. PMID:23642957

  18. Systematic Review of Yoga for Pregnant Women: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Kathryn; Weinrib, Aliza; Katz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Yoga is used for a variety of immunological, neuromuscular, psychological, and pain conditions. Recent studies indicate that it may be effective in improving pregnancy, labour, and birth outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the existing literature on yoga for pregnancy. Methods. Six databases were searched using the terms “yoga AND pregnancy” and “yoga AND [post-natal OR post-partum]”. Trials were considered if they were controlled and evaluated a yoga intervention. All studies were evaluated for methodological quality according to the Jadad scale and the Delphi List. Results. Six trials were identified: three were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and three were controlled trials (CTs). The methodological quality and reporting ranged from 0–5 on the Jadad scale and from 3–6 on the Delphi List. Findings from the RCT studies indicate that yoga may produce improvements in stress levels, quality of life, aspects of interpersonal relating, autonomic nervous system functioning, and labour parameters such as comfort, pain, and duration. Conclusions. The findings suggest that yoga is well indicated for pregnant women and leads to improvements on a variety of pregnancy, labour, and birth outcomes. However, RCTs are needed to provide more information regarding the utility of yoga interventions for pregnancy. PMID:22927881

  19. Yoga for College Students: An Empowering Form of Movement and Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villate, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is a historic method for exercising, as well as cultivating a mind-body connection. For busy college students, it may be an effective way to slow down. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of participating in a semiweekly yoga class at a university on college students' lives. Evidence of impact was measured through students'…

  20. Effect of Yoga Exercise on Premenstrual Symptoms among Female Employees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Yoga classes designed for women with premenstrual syndrome are available, but their efficacy is unclear. We investigated the effects of 12 weeks’ yoga exercise (yoga intervention) on premenstrual symptoms in menstruating females in Taiwan. Sixty-four subjects completed the yoga intervention, and before and after the intervention filled out a structured self-report questionnaire about their demographics, personal lifestyle, menstrual status, baseline menstrual pain scores, premenstrual symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Of 64 subjects, 90.6% reported experiencing menstrual pain during menstruation. After the yoga intervention, subjects reported decreased use of analgesics during menstruation (p = 0.0290) and decreased moderate or severe effects of menstrual pain on work (p = 0.0011). The yoga exercise intervention was associated with the improvement of the scale of physical function (p = 0.0340) and bodily pain (p = 0.0087) of the SF-36, and significantly decreased abdominal swelling (p = 0.0011), breast tenderness (p = 0.0348), abdominal cramps (p = 0.0016), and cold sweats (p = 0.0143). Menstrual pain mitigation after yoga exercise correlated with improvement in six scales of the SF-36 (physical function, bodily pain, general health perception, vitality/energy, social function, mental health). Employers can educate female employees about the benefits of regular exercise such as yoga, which may decrease premenstrual distress and improve female employee health. PMID:27438845

  1. A Narrative Review of Yoga and Mindfulness as Complementary Therapies for Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Surbhi; Greeson, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews the philosophical origins, current scientific evidence, and clinical promise of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction. Historically, there are eight elements of yoga that, together, comprise ethical principles & practices for living a meaningful, purposeful, moral and self-disciplined life. Traditional yoga practices, including postures and meditation, direct attention towards one’s health, while acknowledging the spiritual aspects of one’s nature. Mindfulness derives from ancient Buddhist philosophy, and mindfulness meditation practices, such as gentle Hatha yoga and mindful breathing, are increasingly integrated into secular health care settings. Current theoretical models suggest that the skills, insights, and self-awareness learned through yoga and mindfulness practice can target multiple psychological, neural, physiological, and behavioral processes implicated in addiction and relapse. A small but growing number of well-designed clinical trials and experimental laboratory studies on smoking, alcohol dependence, and illicit substance use support the clinical effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of action underlying mindfulness-based interventions for treating addiction. Because very few studies have been conducted on the specific role of yoga in treating or preventing addiction, we propose a conceptual model to inform future studies on outcomes and possible mechanisms. Additional research is also needed to better understand what types of yoga and mindfulness-based interventions work best for what types of addiction, what types of patients, and under what conditions. Overall, current findings increasingly support yoga and mindfulness as promising complementary therapies for treating and preventing addictive behaviors. PMID:23642957

  2. The Effects of Bikram Yoga on Health: Critical Review and Clinical Trial Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Zoe L.; Cheema, Birinder S.; Pumpa, Kate L.; Smith, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Bikram yoga is a style of hatha yoga involving a standarized series of asanas performed to an instructional dialogue in a heated environment (40.6°C, 40% humidity). Several studies evaluating the effect of Bikram yoga on health-related outcomes have been published over the past decade. However, to date, there are no comprehensive reviews of this research and there remains a lack of large-scale, robustly-designed randomised controlled trials (RCT) of Bikram yoga training. The purpose of this review is to contextualise and summarise trials that have evaluated the effects of Bikram yoga on health and to provide recommendations for future research. According to published literature, Bikram yoga has been shown to improve lower body strength, lower and upper body range of motion, and balance in healthy adults. Non-RCTs report that Bikram yoga may, in some populations, improve glucose tolerance, bone mineral density, blood lipid profile, arterial stiffness, mindfulness, and perceived stress. There is vast potential for further, improved research into the effects of Bikram yoga, particularly in unhealthy populations, to better understand intervention-related adaptations and their influence on the progression of chronic disease. Future research should adhere to CONSORT guidelines for better design and reporting to improve research quality in this field. PMID:26504475

  3. Body, Mind, Spirit: Twelve Juicy Stories of Transformation from Yoga Practice in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this inquiry is to explore university students' stories of transformation from the practice of integral yoga in an undergraduate course exploring human biology, health, and spirituality. The stories of participants give evidence for successful educational performance when yoga and meditation are combined with academic learning…

  4. Yoga for Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy; McDonald, Melanie; Thorne, Sally; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    An increase in patient-led uptake of complementary therapies in adult cancer has led to a need for more rigorous study of such interventions and their outcomes. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a yoga intervention in men and women receiving conventional treatment for a cancer diagnosis. Prospective, mixed methods feasibility trial allocated participants to receive one of three yoga interventions over a four-week study period. Data collection was completed through online survey of QOL-CA/CS and customized surveys. Fifteen participants were included (11 female) undergoing treatment for breast, prostate, colorectal, brain, and blood and lung cancer. Two participants dropped out and complete qualitative and quantitative data sets were collected from 12 participants and four yoga instructors. Other outcome measures included implementation costs patient-reported preferences for yoga intervention and changes in QOL-CA/CS. Three types of yoga intervention were safely administered in adult cancer. Mixed methods, cost-efficiency, QOL-CA/CS, and evidence-based design of yoga intervention have been used to establish feasibility and patient-preferences for yoga delivery in adult caner. Results suggest that, with some methodological improvements, a large-scale randomized controlled trial is warranted to test the efficacy of yoga for male and female cancer patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02309112. PMID:26170884

  5. Effect of Yoga Exercise on Premenstrual Symptoms among Female Employees in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Yoga classes designed for women with premenstrual syndrome are available, but their efficacy is unclear. We investigated the effects of 12 weeks' yoga exercise (yoga intervention) on premenstrual symptoms in menstruating females in Taiwan. Sixty-four subjects completed the yoga intervention, and before and after the intervention filled out a structured self-report questionnaire about their demographics, personal lifestyle, menstrual status, baseline menstrual pain scores, premenstrual symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Of 64 subjects, 90.6% reported experiencing menstrual pain during menstruation. After the yoga intervention, subjects reported decreased use of analgesics during menstruation (p = 0.0290) and decreased moderate or severe effects of menstrual pain on work (p = 0.0011). The yoga exercise intervention was associated with the improvement of the scale of physical function (p = 0.0340) and bodily pain (p = 0.0087) of the SF-36, and significantly decreased abdominal swelling (p = 0.0011), breast tenderness (p = 0.0348), abdominal cramps (p = 0.0016), and cold sweats (p = 0.0143). Menstrual pain mitigation after yoga exercise correlated with improvement in six scales of the SF-36 (physical function, bodily pain, general health perception, vitality/energy, social function, mental health). Employers can educate female employees about the benefits of regular exercise such as yoga, which may decrease premenstrual distress and improve female employee health. PMID:27438845

  6. Importance of Manas Tattva: A searchlight in Yoga Darshana.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hetal D; Sharma, Rohit; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Since time immemorial 'Manas' has been the subject of curiosity for scholars, scientists and philosophers. The reason behind this curiosity is its importance in the development of mankind. Human being is superior to other creatures in the series of development. This supremacy of man remains in his quality to work after thinking, which is the function of 'Manas'. No other animal is capable to think logically. This is the only reason which leads the mankind to the crest of development in every aspect. To highlight the concept of Manas in Yoga Darshana, information extracted from Yoga literatures and Ayurvedic Samhitas. In Indian culture mind has been described from various angles. Vedic, Philosophical and Ayurvedic literatures have a vast and exclusive description of Manas. Philosophers either Astika or Nastika have described Manas Siddhanta vividly. Though many kinds of difference of opinions are there, Yoga Darshana accept the importance of mind in the process of perception and even for the birth of any individual. PMID:26664229

  7. Impact of yoga way of life on organizational performance

    PubMed Central

    Adhia, Hasmukh; Nagendra, HR; Mahadevan, B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organizational performance can be attributed to a number of factors. However, there are certain organizational factors, the presence or absence of which can determine the success or failure of the organization. There are different ways in which organizations try to improve their performance by working on such factors. In the research presented in this article, an attempt is made to find out whether adoption of the Yoga Way of Life by managers can have a positive impact on such organizational performance indicators. Aims: To measure effect of yoga way of life on five different indicators through an empirical study. Materials and Methods: The five indicators are job satisfaction, job involvement, goal orientation, affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Statistics Analysis: Pre- and post-data was measured using self-reported questionnaire. Independent T-test (Paired) and Pearson’s correlation test were conducted using SPSS. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study show that Yoga has a significant positive impact on four out of five of these indicators. Only job involvement does not show significant improvement. The construct used for measuring job involvement had a Chronbach alpha of 0.613, which is an indicator of moderate reliability, which could be the main reason for not getting positive result. PMID:21170231

  8. Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Antonacci, Diana J; Bloch, Richard M

    2010-04-15

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing. Several studies of exercise and yoga have demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness superior to no-activity controls and comparable with established depression and anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, sertraline, imipramine). High-energy exercise (i.e., weekly expenditure of at least 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at least three to five times per week) reduce symptoms of depression more than less frequent or lower-energy exercise. Mindful meditation and exercise have positive effects as adjunctive treatments for depressive disorders, although some studies show multiple methodological weaknesses. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have also shown positive effects, but there are far less data on the effects of exercise on anxiety than for exercise on depression. Tai chi, qigong, and meditation have not shown effectiveness as alternative treatments for depression and anxiety.

  9. Effect of yoga on pulmonary function tests of hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Swami, Gaurav; Singh, Savita; Singh, K P; Gupta, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to see any effect on respiratory functions in hypothyroid patients after pranayama (yoga). The subjects for the study were 20 hypothyroid females, 39.70 +/- 8.27 years of mean age referred from medicine department of UCMS & G.T.B. Hospital. Spiro metric recordings were taken with hypair (version-1.28). Baseline (first) recordings were taken when patient came for the first time. Patients came to yoga lab in physiology department for 21 days continuously where they were trained by the yoga instructors and then told to do pranayama at home and called at regular intervals after 7 days to see the compliance. The breathing exercises were done for 45 minutes everyday. After 6 months of pranayama second recording was taken and compared with the baseline. There were significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and Inspiratory Capacity(IC). Thus Pranayama and meditation has beneficial effect on pulmonary functions of hypothyroid patients along with conventional treatment.

  10. Importance of Manas Tattva: A searchlight in Yoga Darshana

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Hetal D.; Sharma, Rohit; Vyas, Hitesh A.; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Since time immemorial ‘Manas’ has been the subject of curiosity for scholars, scientists and philosophers. The reason behind this curiosity is its importance in the development of mankind. Human being is superior to other creatures in the series of development. This supremacy of man remains in his quality to work after thinking, which is the function of ‘Manas’. No other animal is capable to think logically. This is the only reason which leads the mankind to the crest of development in every aspect. To highlight the concept of Manas in Yoga Darshana, information extracted from Yoga literatures and Ayurvedic Samhitas. In Indian culture mind has been described from various angles. Vedic, Philosophical and Ayurvedic literatures have a vast and exclusive description of Manas. Philosophers either Astika or Nastika have described Manas Siddhanta vividly. Though many kinds of difference of opinions are there, Yoga Darshana accept the importance of mind in the process of perception and even for the birth of any individual. PMID:26664229

  11. Efficacy of naturopathy and yoga in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y Chitharanjan; Kadam, Avinash; Jagannathan, Aarti; Babina, N; Rao, Raghavendra; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the efficacy of a one month in-patient naturopathy and yoga programme for patients with asthma. Retrospective data of 159 bronchial asthma patients, undergoing the naturopathy and yoga programme, was analyzed for Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume at the end of 1 second, Maximum Voluntary Ventilation and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate on admission, 11th day, on discharge and once in three months for three years. The paired sample t test results showed significant increase in the Forced Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume from the date of admission up to 6th month (P < 0.0035) post Bonferroni correction. Maximum Voluntary Ventilation significantly increased from admission till the date of discharge (P < 0.0035) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate significantly increased from admission till the 36th month of follow-up (P < 0.0035), post Bonferroni correction. This validated the beneficial effect of combining naturopathy and yoga for the management of bronchial asthma.

  12. The physiological correlates of Kundalini Yoga meditation: a study of a yoga master.

    PubMed

    Arambula, P; Peper, E; Kawakami, M; Gibney, K H

    2001-06-01

    This study explores the physiological correlates of a highly practiced Kundalini Yoga meditator. Thoracic and abdominal breathing patterns, heart rate (HR), occipital parietal electroencephalograph (EEG), skin conductance level (SCL), and blood volume pulse (BVP) were monitored during prebaseline, meditation, and postbaseline periods. Visual analyses of the data showed a decrease in respiration rate during the meditation from a mean of 11 breaths/min for the pre- and 13 breaths/min for the postbaseline to a mean of 5 breaths/min during the meditation, with a predominance of abdominal/diaphragmatic breathing. There was also more alpha EEG activity during the meditation (M = 1.71 microV) compared to the pre- (M = .47 microV) and postbaseline (M = .78 microV) periods, and an increase in theta EEG activity immediately following the meditation (M = .62 microV) compared to the pre-baseline and meditative periods (each with M = .26 microV). These findings suggest that a shift in breathing patterns may contribute to the development of alpha EEG, and those patterns need to be investigated further.

  13. Effect of Integrated Yoga Module on Selected Psychological Variables among Women with Anxiety Problem.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, S; Jaiganesh, K; Duraisamy

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of yogic practices has proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases. Forty-five women with anxiety selected by a random sampling method were divided into three groups. Experimental group I was subjected to asanas, relaxation and pranayama while Experimental group II was subjected to an integrated yoga module. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety was measured by Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Selected yoga and asanas decreased anxiety and frustration scores but treatment with an integrated yoga module resulted in significant reduction of anxiety and frustration. To conclude, the practice of asanas and yoga decreased anxiety in women, and yoga as an integrated module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects.

  14. Effect of Sahaja yoga practice on stress management in patients of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, U; Gupta, H L; Singh, S H; Selvamurthy, W; Rai, U C

    1995-04-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of Sahaja yoga meditation in stress management in patients of epilepsy. The study was carried out on 32 patients of epilepsy who were rendomly divided into 3 groups: group I subjects practised Sahaja yoga meditation for 6 months, group II subjects practised postural exercises mimicking Sahaja yoga and group III served as the epileptic control group. Galvanic skin resistance (GSR), blood lactate and urinary vinyl mandelic acid (U-VMA) were recorded at 0, 3 and 6 months. There were significant changes at 3 & 6 months as compared to 0 month values in GSR, blood lactate and U-VMA levels in group I subjects, but not in group II and group III subjects. The results indicate that reduction in stress following Sahaja yoga practice may be responsible for clinical improvement which had been earlier reported in patients who practised Sahaja yoga.

  15. Tai Chi/ Yoga Effects on Anxiety, Heartrate, EEG and Math Computations

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of tai chi/yoga. Design 38 adults participated in a 20-minute tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short tai chi form and 10 minutes of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. Main outcome measures The pre- and post- tai chi/ yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Results Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. Conclusions The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the tai chi/yoga class. PMID:20920810

  16. Yoga attitudes in chronic low back pain: Roles of catastrophizing and fear of movement.

    PubMed

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic low back pain is a significant public health problem and, although underused, yoga may be an effective complementary treatment. The current study examined associations of pain catastrophizing and fear of movement with attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain. Participants completed three quantitative questionnaires assessing specific constructs: beliefs about yoga, fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing. A semi-structured in-person interview was then conducted to obtain specific pain-related information. Hierarchical regression and mediational analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with the fear-avoidance model of chronic pain, catastrophizing and fear of movement were negatively associated with yoga attitudes. Specifically, fear of movement was a mediator between catastrophizing and attitudes toward yoga. Individuals with higher levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement may be less likely to consider a pain treatment involving physical movement.

  17. Effect of Integrated Yoga Module on Selected Psychological Variables among Women with Anxiety Problem.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, S; Jaiganesh, K; Duraisamy

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of yogic practices has proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases. Forty-five women with anxiety selected by a random sampling method were divided into three groups. Experimental group I was subjected to asanas, relaxation and pranayama while Experimental group II was subjected to an integrated yoga module. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety was measured by Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Selected yoga and asanas decreased anxiety and frustration scores but treatment with an integrated yoga module resulted in significant reduction of anxiety and frustration. To conclude, the practice of asanas and yoga decreased anxiety in women, and yoga as an integrated module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects. PMID:25303199

  18. Association of Leukocyte Telomere Length with Oxidative Stress in Yoga Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Keerthi, Gorantla Shravya; Kumar, Chintala Kiran; Reddy, Natham Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Yoga is a mind-body modulation technique that has been shown to have beneficial effects on various diseases related to various systems in the body. However, the molecular basis of mechanism of action is not clear. Hence, this study was designed to study the leukocyte telomere biology and its relation with homocysteine and oxidative stress in yoga practitioners. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving Yoga practitioners aged 30–40 y with minimum of two years yoga practice (Yoga group) and age, gender and body mass index matched sedentary healthy general population with no medical problems (Control group). Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), fasting plasma homocysteine was measured by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography assay and the oxidative stress was assessed with total antioxidant status (TAOS), malondialdehyde (MDA) measured by calorimetry. Results: The LTL was shorter in control group than in yoga group (p<0.001). The TAOS was more in yoga group when compared to control group (p=0.008), MDA and homocysteine was high in control group when compared to Yoga group (p<0.001). Further, the LTL was positively correlated with TAOS (r=0.841, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with MDA (r=-0.931, p<0.001) and Homocysteine (r=-0.756, p<0.001). Conclusion: The LTL is well-preserved in people who practice Yoga regularly with lower systemic oxidative stress compared to those who have a relatively sedentary lifestyle despite lack of any medical disorders. The habitual yoga practice seems to inhibit replicative cellular senescence. PMID:25954614

  19. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  20. Serum cortisol and BDNF in patients with major depression-effect of yoga.

    PubMed

    Naveen, G H; Varambally, Shivarama; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rao, Mukund; Christopher, Rita; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Depression is associated with low serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of serum cortisol. Yoga practices have been associated with antidepressant effects, increase in serum BDNF, and reduction in serum cortisol. This study examined the association between serum BDNF and cortisol levels in drug-naïve patients with depression treated with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both. Fifty-four drug-naïve consenting adult outpatients with Major Depression (32 males) received antidepressants only (n = 16), yoga therapy only (n = 19), or yoga with antidepressants (n = 19). Serum BDNF andcortisol levels were obtained before and after 3 months using a sandwich ELISA method. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis. The groups were comparable at baseline on most parameters. Significant improvement in depression scores and serum BDNF levels, and reduction in serum cortisol in the yoga groups, have been described in previous reports. A significant negative correlation was observed between change in BDNF (pre-post) and cortisol (pre-post) levels in the yoga-only group (r = -0.59, p = 0.008). In conclusion, yoga may facilitate neuroplasticity through stress reduction in depressed patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and delineate the pathways for these effects. PMID:27174729

  1. Clinical study of yoga techniques in university students with asthma: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, P K; Kesavalu, L N; Murthy, K C; Duvall, K; Hall, M J; Baker, S; Nagarathna, S

    1998-01-01

    Adult asthmatics, ranging from 19 to 52 years from an asthma and allergy clinic in a university setting volunteered to participate in the study. The 17 students were randomly divided into yoga (9 subjects) and nonyoga control (8 subjects) groups. The yoga group was taught a set of breathing and relaxation techniques including breath slowing exercises (pranayama), physical postures (yogasanas), and meditation. Yoga techniques were taught at the university health center, three times a week for 16 weeks. All the subjects in both groups maintained daily symptom and medication diaries, collected A.M. and P.M. peak flow readings, and completed weekly questionnaires. Spirometry was performed on each subject every week. Analysis of the data showed that the subjects in the yoga group reported a significant degree of relaxation, positive attitude, and better yoga exercise tolerance. There was also a tendency toward lesser usage of beta adrenergic inhalers. The pulmonary functions did not vary significantly between yoga and control groups. Yoga techniques seem beneficial as an adjunct to the medical management of asthma.

  2. The Safety of Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Holger; Ward, Lesley; Saper, Robert; Fishbein, Daniel; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy

    2015-08-15

    As yoga has gained popularity as a therapeutic intervention, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. Thus, this review aimed to systematically assess and meta-analyze the frequency of adverse events in randomized controlled trials of yoga. MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and IndMED were screened through February 2014. Of 301 identified randomized controlled trials of yoga, 94 (1975-2014; total of 8,430 participants) reported on adverse events. Life-threatening, disabling adverse events or those requiring intensive treatment were defined as serious and all other events as nonserious. No differences in the frequency of intervention-related, nonserious, or serious adverse events and of dropouts due to adverse events were found when comparing yoga with usual care or exercise. Compared with psychological or educational interventions (e.g., health education), more intervention-related adverse events (odds ratio = 4.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 17.67; P = 0.05) and more nonserious adverse events (odds ratio = 7.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.91, 27.92; P < 0.01) occurred in the yoga group; serious adverse events and dropouts due to adverse events were comparable between groups. Findings from this review indicate that yoga appears as safe as usual care and exercise. The adequate reporting of safety data in future randomized trials of yoga is crucial to conclusively judge its safety.

  3. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nagendra, H.; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. Methods. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. Results. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α + θ) increased, executive load index (δ + θ)/α decreased, and the ratio (δ + θ)/(α + β) decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity. PMID:25759746

  4. Efficacy of Yoga therapy for the management of psychopathology of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Paikkatt, Babu; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Jahan, Masroor; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature and scientific data regarding the efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia, however, studies on Yoga therapy is scanty. Yoga is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind and emotion, and for enlightening the mind and upliftment of the total personality. Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Yoga therapy as an adjunctive therapy and to see its effects on psychopathology on the patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia. Settings and Design: Pre- and post-test design with the control group. Materials and Methods: It is a study using purposive sampling technique by which 30 chronic schizophrenic patients were selected and 15 patients were randomly assigned to Yoga therapy along with pharmacotherapy (experimental group), and 15 were assigned pharmacotherapy alone (control group) after the baseline assessment using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The Yoga group attended Yoga therapy everyday for about 1½ h including motivational and feedback session. Results: At the end of 1 month postassessment was done, and schizophrenic patients, who received the yogic intervention showed better rating than those in pharmacotherapy alone on PANSS variables. Conclusion: Yoga could be a right choice for improving psychopathology resulting in better quality of life along with other pharmacological management and psychosocial interventions. PMID:26816423

  5. Neuroprotective effects of yoga practice: age-, experience-, and frequency-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Villemure, Chantal; Čeko, Marta; Cotton, Valerie A; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Yoga combines postures, breathing, and meditation. Despite reported health benefits, yoga's effects on the brain have received little study. We used magnetic resonance imaging to compare age-related gray matter (GM) decline in yogis and controls. We also examined the effect of increasing yoga experience and weekly practice on GM volume and assessed which aspects of weekly practice contributed most to brain size. Controls displayed the well documented age-related global brain GM decline while yogis did not, suggesting that yoga contributes to protect the brain against age-related decline. Years of yoga experience correlated mostly with GM volume differences in the left hemisphere (insula, frontal operculum, and orbitofrontal cortex) suggesting that yoga tunes the brain toward a parasympatically driven mode and positive states. The number of hours of weekly practice correlated with GM volume in the primary somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobule (S1/SPL), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus, and primary visual cortex (V1). Commonality analyses indicated that the combination of postures and meditation contributed the most to the size of the hippocampus, precuneus/PCC, and S1/SPL while the combination of meditation and breathing exercises contributed the most to V1 volume. Yoga's potential neuroprotective effects may provide a neural basis for some of its beneficial effects. PMID:26029093

  6. Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention: A Bibliometric Analysis of Published Research Studies from 1967 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Slutsky, Jeremiah; Singh, Nilkamal; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A comprehensive bibliometric analysis was conducted on publications for yoga therapy research in clinical populations. Methods: Major electronic databases were searched for articles in all languages published between 1967 and 2013. Databases included PubMed, PsychInfo, MEDLINE, IndMed, Indian Citation Index, Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region, Web of Knowledge, Embase, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Nonindexed journals were searched manually. Key search words included yoga, yoga therapy, pranayama, asana. All studies met the definition of a clinical trial. All styles of yoga were included. The authors extracted the data. Results: A total of 486 articles met the inclusion criteria and were published in 217 different peer-reviewed journals from 29 different countries on 28,080 study participants. The primary result observed is the three-fold increase in number of publications seen in the last 10 years, inclusive of all study designs. Overall, 45% of the studies published were randomized controlled trials, 18% were controlled studies, and 37% were uncontrolled studies. Most publications originated from India (n=258), followed by the United States (n=122) and Canada (n=13). The top three disorders addressed by yoga interventions were mental health, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. Conclusion: A surge in publications on yoga to mitigate disease-related symptoms in clinical populations has occurred despite challenges facing the field of yoga research, which include standardization and limitations in funding, time, and resources. The population at large has observed a parallel surge in the use of yoga outside of clinical practice. The use of yoga as a complementary therapy in clinical practice may lead to health benefits beyond traditional treatment alone; however, to effect changes in health care policy, more high-quality, evidence-based research is needed. PMID:26196166

  7. Effect of Yoga on Pain, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Serotonin in Premenopausal Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moseon

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P < 0.001), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P < 0.01). Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P < 0.01), whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P = 0.05). Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P < 0.01) in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain. PMID:25120574

  8. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck.

    PubMed

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, Ps

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with "myofascial trigger points" (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention.

  9. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, PS

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with “myofascial trigger points” (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention. PMID:25035608

  10. [Physical exercise and yoga in prevention and treatment of addictive diseases].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of addictive diseases should be complex and systematic and it should include training of social skills, decision-making skills, family intervention, etc. Similarly, effective treatment is usually long-term, systematic and complex. Physical exercise and yoga can be useful components of comprehensive prevention and treatment programmes. On the other hand, competitive professional sport rather increases the number of risk factors for substance-related problems. Practical experience with the use of yoga in substance dependent patients and pathological gambles are mentioned. One of the advantages of yoga is the integration of physical exercise and relaxation.

  11. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-02-01

    Ninety-two prenatally depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to a tai chi/yoga or a waitlist control group at an average of 22 weeks gestation. The tai chi/yoga group participated in a 20-min group session per week for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment period the tai chi/yoga group had lower summary depression (CES-D) scores, as well as lower negative affect and somatic/vegetative symptoms subscale scores on the CES-D, lower anxiety (STAI) scores and lower sleep disturbances scores.

  12. Yoga intervention and functional pain syndromes: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Roshan; Yadav, Suresh; Desai, Geetha

    2016-06-01

    The definition of functional pain syndromes is varied across literature. No effort has been made to see all functional pain disorder groups under broad nomenclature which would exclude conditions for which pathophysiology is strongly known. Since these disorders are commonly treated with alternative treatment modalities and impose significant burden on health utilization, an effort to look into studies on yoga-based interventions on 'functional pain syndromes' (FPS) was made. This study defined FPS as 'Chronic relapsing remitting pain conditions, the origin of which is difficult to trace with no definite physical pathology on clinical suspicion or available laboratory measures and are valid based on subjective pain reporting, associated distress and socio-occupational dysfunction'. Chronic headache, neck pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, pelvic pain, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and somatoform pain disorders were included for this review. The review found four meta-analyses on the selected topic both indicating modest efficacy and benefit of yoga in these disorders. Future efforts should be directed to do a large meta-analysis of functional pain syndromes. PMID:27291934

  13. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sarika; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree

    2008-07-01

    Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.

  14. Plasticity of motor control systems demonstrated by yoga training.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Hanumanthaiah, B H; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1994-04-01

    The static motor performance was tested in two groups with 20 subjects in each (age range 17 to 22 years, and 5 females in each group). Tests were carried out at the beginning and end of a 10 day period. The test required being able to insert and hold a metal stylus within holes of varying sizes for 15 sec. Accidental contacts between the stylus and the sides of the holes, were registered on a counter as errors. During the 10 days one group (the yoga group) practised asanas (physical postures), pranayama (voluntary regulation of breathing), meditation, devotional sessions, and tratakas (visual focussing exercises). The control group followed their usual routine. At the end of 10 days the yoga group showed a significant reduction in number of errors (Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test), while the control group did not change. Our earlier study showed a similar improvement in children (9-13 years). It was interesting to note the same degree of plasticity in motor control systems in young adults. The implications for rehabilitation programmes have been discussed.

  15. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  16. Voluntary heart rate reduction following yoga using different strategies

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, BR; Telles, S; Manjunath, NK; Deepak, KK; Naveen, KV; Subramanya, P

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: One month of yoga training has been shown to reduce the pulse rate voluntarily without using external cues. Hence, the present study was designed to understand the strategies used by yoga practitioners and autonomic changes associated with voluntary heart rate reduction. Materials and Methods: Fifty volunteers (group mean age ± S.D., 25.4 ± 4.8 years; 25 males) were assessed in two trials on separate days. Each trial was for 12 minutes, with a ‘pre’ state and ‘during’ state of 6 minutes each. For both trials the ‘pre’ state was relaxation with eyes closed. In the ‘during’ state of Trial I, subjects were asked to voluntarily reduce their heart rate using a strategy of their choice. From their responses to specific questions it was determined that 22 out of 50 persons used breath regulation as a strategy. Hence, in the ‘during’ state of Trial II, subjects were asked to voluntarily reduce their heart rate by breath regulation. Results: In the first trial, the heart rate was reduced by an average of 19.6 beats per minute and in the second trial (with breath regulation exclusively) an average decrease of 22.2 beats per minute was achieved. Conclusions: Hence, the strategy used did not markedly alter the outcome. PMID:23440267

  17. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  18. Perceptions of Yoga Therapy Embedded in Two Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals: Agency Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Miller, Kristine K.; Dickes, Lori A.; Schmid, Arlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Inpatient medical rehabilitation has maintained a typical medical-model focus and structure for many years. However, as integrative therapies, such as yoga therapy, emerge as treatments which can enhance the physical and mental health of its participants, it is important to determine if they can be easily implemented into the traditional rehabilitation structure and milieu. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of key agency personnel on the feasibility and utility of yoga therapy implemented in inpatient rehabilitation. This study reports the results of focus groups and an individual interview with key stakeholders (administrators and rehabilitation therapists) from two rehabilitation hospitals following the implementation of yoga therapy. Results focused on several key themes: feasibility from the therapist and administrator perspectives, challenges to implementation, and utility and benefit. Overall, the implementation and integration of yoga therapy were positive; however, some programmatic and policy and organizational considerations remain. Implications for practice and future research are provided. PMID:26491457

  19. Yoga as an alternative intervention for promoting a healthy lifestyle among college students.

    PubMed

    Berent, Georgine R; Zeck, Jeanne-Marie; Leischner, Julia A; Berent, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse continues to plague U.S. college campuses. The literature is replete with information from various disciplines on how to identify and intervene in this public health dilemma impacting college students. Identifications, treatments, and interventions are often based on Western medicine, but there is a growing movement and evidence supporting the effectiveness, value, and usefulness of Eastern therapies to combat this problem. Yoga is one Eastern intervention that has proven beneficial for promoting quality of life and wellness relationship to several acute and chronic illnesses. As a result of advocating for the inclusion of yoga in traditional college settings, two college campuses in Central Illinois introduced yoga courses for students, faculty, and staff. The courses are reviewed, and the positive results reported by students are shared. The information and evidence of yoga's benefits collected in this study warrant consideration by college campuses to initiate this practice enhancing primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in their populations.

  20. Perceptions of Yoga Therapy Embedded in Two Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals: Agency Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Miller, Kristine K; Dickes, Lori A; Schmid, Arlene A

    2015-01-01

    Inpatient medical rehabilitation has maintained a typical medical-model focus and structure for many years. However, as integrative therapies, such as yoga therapy, emerge as treatments which can enhance the physical and mental health of its participants, it is important to determine if they can be easily implemented into the traditional rehabilitation structure and milieu. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of key agency personnel on the feasibility and utility of yoga therapy implemented in inpatient rehabilitation. This study reports the results of focus groups and an individual interview with key stakeholders (administrators and rehabilitation therapists) from two rehabilitation hospitals following the implementation of yoga therapy. Results focused on several key themes: feasibility from the therapist and administrator perspectives, challenges to implementation, and utility and benefit. Overall, the implementation and integration of yoga therapy were positive; however, some programmatic and policy and organizational considerations remain. Implications for practice and future research are provided. PMID:26491457

  1. Iyengar Yoga for Motherhood: Teaching Transformation in a Nonformal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at ways in which pregnant women adopt the practices of Iyengar yoga, its value as a mode of transformative learning within a nonformal learning space, and the culture of body maintenance that drives practitioners.

  2. Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley

    2004-07-01

    The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test-retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no change. The results suggest that yoga practice, including physical postures, yoga breathing, meditation and guided relaxation improved delayed recall of spatial information.

  3. Yoga for Health Care in Korea: A Protocol for Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiae; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Ju Ah; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of yoga therapy using an evidence-based approach and investigates the relationship between yoga and the meridian energies based on all available clinical studies in Korea. Sixteen electronic databases will be searched from the inception of the study until January 2016. All clinical evidences that evaluate any type of yoga and any type of control in individuals with any type of condition will be eligible. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for nonrandomized studies. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility and the risk of bias, and then they will extract the data. With its extensive, unbiased search of the Korean literature from various databases without any language restrictions, this systematic review will be useful for both practitioners in the field of yoga research as well as for patients. PMID:27555227

  4. Yoga as an alternative intervention for promoting a healthy lifestyle among college students.

    PubMed

    Berent, Georgine R; Zeck, Jeanne-Marie; Leischner, Julia A; Berent, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse continues to plague U.S. college campuses. The literature is replete with information from various disciplines on how to identify and intervene in this public health dilemma impacting college students. Identifications, treatments, and interventions are often based on Western medicine, but there is a growing movement and evidence supporting the effectiveness, value, and usefulness of Eastern therapies to combat this problem. Yoga is one Eastern intervention that has proven beneficial for promoting quality of life and wellness relationship to several acute and chronic illnesses. As a result of advocating for the inclusion of yoga in traditional college settings, two college campuses in Central Illinois introduced yoga courses for students, faculty, and staff. The courses are reviewed, and the positive results reported by students are shared. The information and evidence of yoga's benefits collected in this study warrant consideration by college campuses to initiate this practice enhancing primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in their populations. PMID:25514685

  5. Establishing key components of yoga interventions for musculoskeletal conditions: a Delphi survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests yoga is a safe and effective intervention for the management of physical and psychosocial symptoms associated with musculoskeletal conditions. However, heterogeneity in the components and reporting of clinical yoga trials impedes both the generalization of study results and the replication of study protocols. The aim of this Delphi survey was to address these issues of heterogeneity, by developing a list of recommendations of key components for the design and reporting of yoga interventions for musculoskeletal conditions. Methods Recognised experts involved in the design, conduct, and teaching of yoga for musculoskeletal conditions were identified from a systematic review, and invited to contribute to the Delphi survey. Forty-one of the 58 experts contacted, representing six countries, agreed to participate. A three-round Delphi was conducted via electronic surveys. Round 1 presented an open-ended question, allowing panellists to individually identify components they considered key to the design and reporting of yoga interventions for musculoskeletal conditions. Thematic analysis of Round 1 identified items for quantitative rating in Round 2; items not reaching consensus were forwarded to Round 3 for re-rating. Results Thirty-six panellists (36/41; 88%) completed the three rounds of the Delphi survey. Panellists provided 348 comments to the Round 1 question. These comments were reduced to 49 items, grouped under five themes, for rating in subsequent rounds. A priori group consensus of ≥80% was reached on 28 items related to five themes concerning defining the yoga intervention, types of yoga practices to include in an intervention, delivery of the yoga protocol, domains of outcome measures, and reporting of yoga interventions for musculoskeletal conditions. Additionally, a priori consensus of ≥50% was reached on five items relating to minimum values for intervention parameters. Conclusions Expert consensus has provided a non

  6. Characteristics of women who practice yoga in different locations during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Holger; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Hall, Helen; Adams, Jon; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Yoga practice during pregnancy is gaining increasing popularity. This study examined the characteristics of pregnant women who practiced yoga in regard to the different locations (at home, in yoga classes, or both). Design The study sample was drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), a national longitudinal study of women to investigate multiple factors affecting health and well-being of women over a 20-year period. Setting Postal survey. Participants Women born between 1973 and 1978, who were randomly selected from the national Medicare database and identified as being pregnant or having recently given birth (n=2316). Outcome measures Relationships between yoga use (attending yoga classes and/or practising yoga at home) and women's characteristics (demographic measures, pregnancy-related health concerns, health service utilisation, attitudes to complementary and alternative medicine). Results Practising yoga both at home and in classes was associated with perceiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as preventative (odds ratio (OR)=1.62); perceiving CAM as affording health control (OR=1.50); experiencing sadness (OR=1.72); preparing for labour (OR=2.31); birthing in a birth centre (OR=7.97); and experiencing less vomiting (OR=0.38). Practising at home only was associated with perceiving CAM as affording health control (OR=1.76); perceiving CAM as promoting a holistic health approach (OR=1.65); and birthing in a birth centre (OR=3.54). Practising in classes only was associated with experiencing stress (OR=1.97); and birthing in a birth centre (OR=4.85) (all p<0.05). Conclusions The findings suggest that the location in which a woman practices yoga is associated with attitudinal, health-related and birth environmental factors. PMID:26297372

  7. Yoga Therapy Research: A Whole-Systems Perspective on Comparative Effectiveness and Patient-Centered Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Jennifer G

    2015-01-01

    For the yoga research community to capitalize on its current momentum, it is critical to consider certain developments in research theory and innovative methodologies. The concept of model validity must be incorporated in yoga therapy research so that explanatory constructs employed and outcome measures chosen reflect the principles of traditional yogic science. Focusing on effectiveness research will ensure maximum generalizability of study results and reflect real-world therapy delivery settings, thereby increasing the relevance of outcomes. Whole systems of healing require research methodologies that address complex relationships between multi-target therapies with multiple potential treatment results. Complex, dynamic systems theory provides the theoretical and methodological innovations necessary to design studies, choose outcomes, and analyze data in a way that can account for charting complex, cyclical, therapeutic trajectories across time. Emphasizing patient-centered outcomes is aligned with the patent-oriented and tailored natured of yoga therapy delivery. Increasing the quality and quantity of comparative effectiveness research to analyze the harms and benefits of contrasting therapies can provide an infrastructure for designing studies that can have significant practical impact. The creation of practice-based research networks within the yoga research community will incentivize links between mainstream clinical researchers and yoga therapy delivery settings, ultimately developing collaborative networks. Yoga therapy centers can facilitate patient recruitment for studies and inform standards for yoga researchers. Collaborative efforts between the yoga and ayurvedic research communities will streamline efforts, solidify expertise, cross-pollinate theoretical and methodological innovation, and consolidate efforts to secure research funding and increase publication and dissemination of study findings. PMID:26667283

  8. Effectiveness of yoga for hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagins, Marshall; States, Rebecca; Selfe, Terry; Innes, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and meta-analyze the effectiveness of yoga for reducing blood pressure in adults with hypertension and to assess the modifying influences of type and length of yoga intervention and type of comparison group. Methods. Academic Search Premier, AltHealthWatch, BIOSIS/Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Natural Standard, and Web of Science databases were screened for controlled studies from 1966 to March 2013. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Results. All 17 studies included in the review had unclear or high risk of bias. Yoga had a modest but significant effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-4.17 [-6.35, -1.99], P = 0.0002) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-3.62 [-4.92, -1.60], P = 0.0001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated significant reductions in blood pressure for (1) interventions incorporating 3 basic elements of yoga practice (postures, meditation, and breathing) (SBP: -8.17 mmHg [-12.45, -3.89]; DBP: -6.14 mmHg [-9.39, -2.89]) but not for more limited yoga interventions; (2) yoga compared to no treatment (SBP: -7.96 mmHg [-10.65, -5.27]) but not for exercise. Conclusion. Yoga can be preliminarily recommended as an effective intervention for reducing blood pressure. Additional rigorous controlled trials are warranted to further investigate the potential benefits of yoga. PMID:23781266

  9. Effect of Regular Yoga Practice on Respiratory Regulation and Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Eveline; Beltrami, Fernando G; Boutellier, Urs; Spengler, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    Yoga alters spontaneous respiratory regulation and reduces hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses. Since a lower ventilatory response is associated with an improved endurance capacity during whole-body exercise, we tested whether yogic subjects (YOGA) show an increased endurance capacity compared to matched non-yogic individuals (CON) with similar physical activity levels. Resting ventilation, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, passive leg movement and exercise, as well as endurance performance were assessed. YOGA (n = 9), compared to CONTROL (n = 6), had a higher tidal volume at rest (0.7±0.2 vs. 0.5±0.1 l, p = 0.034) and a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (33±15 vs. 47±15 l·min(-1), p = 0.048). A YOGA subgroup (n = 6) with maximal performance similar to CONTROL showed a blunted ventilatory response to passive cycling (11±2 vs. 14±2 l·min(-1), p = 0.039) and a tendency towards lower exercise ventilation (33±2 vs. 36±3 l·min(-1), p = 0.094) while cycling endurance (YOGA: 17.3±3.3; CON: 19.6±8.5 min, p = 0.276) did not differ. Thus, yoga practice was not associated with improved exercise capacity nor with significant changes in exercise ventilation despite a significantly different respiratory regulation at rest and in response to hypercapnia and passive leg movement.

  10. Effect of Regular Yoga Practice on Respiratory Regulation and Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Eveline; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Boutellier, Urs; Spengler, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Yoga alters spontaneous respiratory regulation and reduces hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses. Since a lower ventilatory response is associated with an improved endurance capacity during whole-body exercise, we tested whether yogic subjects (YOGA) show an increased endurance capacity compared to matched non-yogic individuals (CON) with similar physical activity levels. Resting ventilation, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, passive leg movement and exercise, as well as endurance performance were assessed. YOGA (n = 9), compared to CONTROL (n = 6), had a higher tidal volume at rest (0.7±0.2 vs. 0.5±0.1 l, p = 0.034) and a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (33±15 vs. 47±15 l·min-1, p = 0.048). A YOGA subgroup (n = 6) with maximal performance similar to CONTROL showed a blunted ventilatory response to passive cycling (11±2 vs. 14±2 l·min-1, p = 0.039) and a tendency towards lower exercise ventilation (33±2 vs. 36±3 l·min-1, p = 0.094) while cycling endurance (YOGA: 17.3±3.3; CON: 19.6±8.5 min, p = 0.276) did not differ. Thus, yoga practice was not associated with improved exercise capacity nor with significant changes in exercise ventilation despite a significantly different respiratory regulation at rest and in response to hypercapnia and passive leg movement. PMID:27055287

  11. Yoga-based intervention in patients with somatoform disorders: an open label trial.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Roshan; Desai, Geetha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Somatoform disorders are common mental disorders associated with impaired functioning and increased utilization of health resources. Yoga-based interventions have been used successfully for anxiety, depression, and chronic pain conditions. However, literature on the use of yoga in treatment of somatoform disorders is minimal. The current study assessed the effect of a specific yoga-based intervention in patients with somatoform disorders. Consenting patients meeting ICD-10 criteria for somatoform disorders were offered a specific yoga module (1 h per day) as a treatment. Assessments including Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and others were carried out at baseline and after 2, 6, and 12 weeks. Sixty-four subjects were included in the study and 34 completed 12 weeks follow-up. Significant improvement was noted in pain severity from baseline to 12 weeks after regular yoga sessions. The mean VAS score dropped from 7.24 to 2.88. Worst and average pain score in the last 24 h on BPI dropped from 7.71 to 3.26 and from 6.12 to 2.0,7 respectively. Results of the study suggest that yoga-based intervention can be one of the non-pharmacological treatment options in somatoform disorders. These preliminary findings need replication in larger controlled studies. PMID:27286363

  12. Effects of yoga on mental and physical health: a short summary of reviews.

    PubMed

    Büssing, Arndt; Michalsen, Andreas; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Telles, Shirley; Sherman, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the current evidence on the effects of yoga interventions on various components of mental and physical health, by focussing on the evidence described in review articles. Collectively, these reviews suggest a number of areas where yoga may well be beneficial, but more research is required for virtually all of them to firmly establish such benefits. The heterogeneity among interventions and conditions studied has hampered the use of meta-analysis as an appropriate tool for summarizing the current literature. Nevertheless, there are some meta-analyses which indicate beneficial effects of yoga interventions, and there are several randomized clinical trials (RCT's) of relatively high quality indicating beneficial effects of yoga for pain-associated disability and mental health. Yoga may well be effective as a supportive adjunct to mitigate some medical conditions, but not yet a proven stand-alone, curative treatment. Larger-scale and more rigorous research with higher methodological quality and adequate control interventions is highly encouraged because yoga may have potential to be implemented as a beneficial supportive/adjunct treatment that is relatively cost-effective, may be practiced at least in part as a self-care behavioral treatment, provides a life-long behavioural skill, enhances self-efficacy and self-confidence and is often associated with additional positive side effects. PMID:23008738

  13. Yoga & cancer interventions: a review of the clinical significance of patient reported outcomes for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Mackenzie, Michael J; Sohl, Stephanie J; Jesse, Michelle T; Zahavich, Ashley N Ross; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2012-01-01

    Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004-2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies. PMID:23125870

  14. Efficacy of yoga in pregnant women with abnormal Doppler study of umbilical and uterine arteries.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Shamanthakamani; Nagarathna, R; Gunasheela, Sulochana; Nagendra, H R

    2005-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on the outcome of complicated pregnancy, 121 women attending antenatal clinic at Gunasheela Surgical and Maternity Hospital (GSMH) in Bangalore, India, were enrolled between 18-20 weeks of pregnancy in a prospective, matched, observational study. Sixty-eight women were in the yoga group and 53 women in the control group. Women were matched for age, gravida and Doppler velocimetry scores of umbilical and uterine arteries. Yoga practices including physical postures, breathing and meditation were practised by the yoga group, one hour daily, from the date of entry into the study until delivery. The control group walked half an hour twice a day during the study period. Compliance in both the groups was ensured. In babies the birth-weight is significantly higher (P < 0.018) in the Yoga group (2.78 +/- 0.52 kg), compared to the control group (2.55 +/- 0.52 kg). Occurrence of complications of pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, pre-term delivery) shows lower trends in yoga group.

  15. Yoga & Cancer Interventions: A Review of the Clinical Significance of Patient Reported Outcomes for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Culos-Reed, S. Nicole; Mackenzie, Michael J.; Sohl, Stephanie J.; Jesse, Michelle T.; Zahavich, Ashley N. Ross; Danhauer, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004–2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies. PMID:23125870

  16. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Umesh C.; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed. PMID:27212813

  17. Effect of Regular Yoga Practice on Respiratory Regulation and Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Eveline; Beltrami, Fernando G; Boutellier, Urs; Spengler, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    Yoga alters spontaneous respiratory regulation and reduces hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses. Since a lower ventilatory response is associated with an improved endurance capacity during whole-body exercise, we tested whether yogic subjects (YOGA) show an increased endurance capacity compared to matched non-yogic individuals (CON) with similar physical activity levels. Resting ventilation, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, passive leg movement and exercise, as well as endurance performance were assessed. YOGA (n = 9), compared to CONTROL (n = 6), had a higher tidal volume at rest (0.7±0.2 vs. 0.5±0.1 l, p = 0.034) and a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (33±15 vs. 47±15 l·min(-1), p = 0.048). A YOGA subgroup (n = 6) with maximal performance similar to CONTROL showed a blunted ventilatory response to passive cycling (11±2 vs. 14±2 l·min(-1), p = 0.039) and a tendency towards lower exercise ventilation (33±2 vs. 36±3 l·min(-1), p = 0.094) while cycling endurance (YOGA: 17.3±3.3; CON: 19.6±8.5 min, p = 0.276) did not differ. Thus, yoga practice was not associated with improved exercise capacity nor with significant changes in exercise ventilation despite a significantly different respiratory regulation at rest and in response to hypercapnia and passive leg movement. PMID:27055287

  18. Changes in Neural Connectivity and Memory Following a Yoga Intervention for Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris A.; Acevedo, Bianca; Yang, Hongyu; Siddarth, Prabha; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Ercoli, Linda; Leaver, Amber M.; Cyr, Natalie St.; Narr, Katherine; Baune, Bernhard T.; Khalsa, Dharma S.; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has explored the effect of yoga on cognitive decline and resting-state functional connectivity. Objectives: This study explored the relationship between performance on memory tests and resting-state functional connectivity before and after a yoga intervention versus active control for subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants ( ≥ 55 y) with MCI were randomized to receive a yoga intervention or active “gold-standard” control (i.e., memory enhancement training (MET)) for 12 weeks. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map correlations between brain networks and memory performance changes over time. Default mode networks (DMN), language and superior parietal networks were chosen as networks of interest to analyze the association with changes in verbal and visuospatial memory performance. Results: Fourteen yoga and 11 MET participants completed the study. The yoga group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression and visuospatial memory. We observed improved verbal memory performance correlated with increased connectivity between the DMN and frontal medial cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex. Improved verbal memory performance positively correlated with increased connectivity between the language processing network and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Improved visuospatial memory performance correlated inversely with connectivity between the superior parietal network and the medial parietal cortex. Conclusion:Yoga may be as effective as MET in improving functional connectivity in relation to verbal memory performance. These findings should be confirmed in larger prospective studies. PMID:27060939

  19. Yoga and Emotion Regulation in High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Daly, Leslie A; Haden, Sara C; Hagins, Marshall; Papouchis, Nicholas; Ramirez, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    Middle adolescents (15-17 years old) are prone to increased risk taking and emotional instability. Emotion dysregulation contributes to a variety of psychosocial difficulties in this population. A discipline such as yoga offered during school may increase emotion regulation, but research in this area is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of a yoga intervention on the emotion regulation of high school students as compared to physical education (PE). In addition, the potential mediating effects of mindful attention, self-compassion, and body awareness on the relationship between yoga and emotion regulation were examined. High school students were randomized to participate in a 16-week yoga intervention (n = 19) or regular PE (n = 18). Pre-post data analyses revealed that emotion regulation increased significantly in the yoga group as compared to the PE group (F (1,32) = 7.50, p = .01, and eta(2) = .19). No significant relationship was discovered between the changes in emotion regulation and the proposed mediating variables. Preliminary results suggest that yoga increases emotion regulation capacities of middle adolescents and provides benefits beyond that of PE alone. PMID:26356561

  20. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Umesh C; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H R

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed. PMID:27212813

  1. Yoga for Children and Young People's Mental Health and Well-Being: Research Review and Reflections on the Mental Health Potentials of Yoga.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingunn; Nayar, Usha S

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses yoga as a potential tool for children to deal with stress and regulate themselves. Yoga provides training of mind and body to bring emotional balance. We argue that children and young people need such tools to listen inward to their bodies, feelings, and ideas. Yoga may assist them in developing in sound ways, to strengthen themselves, and be contributing social beings. First, we address how children and young people in today's world face numerous expectations and constant stimulation through the Internet and other media and communication technologies. One reason why children experience stress and mental health challenges is that globalization exposes the youth all over the world to various new demands, standards, and options. There is also increased pressure to succeed in school, partly due to increased competition but also a diverse range of options available for young people in contemporary times than in the past. Our argument also partially rests on the fact that modern society offers plenty of distractions and unwelcome attractions, especially linked to new media technologies. The dominant presence of multimedia devices and the time spent on them by children are clear indicators of the shift in lifestyles and priorities of our new generation. While these media technologies are valuable resources in children and young people's lives for communication, learning, and entertainment, they also result in constant competition for youngster's attention. A main concept in our article is that yoga may help children and young people cope with stress and thus, contribute positively to balance in life, well-being, and mental health. We present research literature suggesting that yoga improves children's physical and mental well-being. Similarly, yoga in schools helps students improve resilience, mood, and self-regulation skills pertaining to emotions and stress. PMID:24765080

  2. Yoga for Children and Young People’s Mental Health and Well-Being: Research Review and Reflections on the Mental Health Potentials of Yoga

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ingunn; Nayar, Usha S.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses yoga as a potential tool for children to deal with stress and regulate themselves. Yoga provides training of mind and body to bring emotional balance. We argue that children and young people need such tools to listen inward to their bodies, feelings, and ideas. Yoga may assist them in developing in sound ways, to strengthen themselves, and be contributing social beings. First, we address how children and young people in today’s world face numerous expectations and constant stimulation through the Internet and other media and communication technologies. One reason why children experience stress and mental health challenges is that globalization exposes the youth all over the world to various new demands, standards, and options. There is also increased pressure to succeed in school, partly due to increased competition but also a diverse range of options available for young people in contemporary times than in the past. Our argument also partially rests on the fact that modern society offers plenty of distractions and unwelcome attractions, especially linked to new media technologies. The dominant presence of multimedia devices and the time spent on them by children are clear indicators of the shift in lifestyles and priorities of our new generation. While these media technologies are valuable resources in children and young people’s lives for communication, learning, and entertainment, they also result in constant competition for youngster’s attention. A main concept in our article is that yoga may help children and young people cope with stress and thus, contribute positively to balance in life, well-being, and mental health. We present research literature suggesting that yoga improves children’s physical and mental well-being. Similarly, yoga in schools helps students improve resilience, mood, and self-regulation skills pertaining to emotions and stress. PMID:24765080

  3. The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Raingruber, Bonnie; Robinson, Carol

    2007-10-01

    Given the current necessity of retaining qualified nurses, a self-care program consisting of Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation classes, and Reiki healing sessions was designed for a university-based hospital. The effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated using self-care journals and analyzed using a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Outcomes of the self-care classes described by nurses included: (a) noticing sensations of warmth, tingling, and pulsation which were relaxing, (b) becoming aware of an enhanced problem solving ability, and (c) noticing an increased ability to focus on patient needs. Hospitals willing to invest in self-care options for nurses can anticipate patient and work related benefits.

  4. Spectral Parameters of HRV In Yoga Practitioners, Athletes And Sedentary Males.

    PubMed

    Peter, Rosemary; Sood, Sushma; Dhawan, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle. The study was carried out in the departments of physiology at MAMC Agroha, Hisar and Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. The study group comprised of 1200 healthy male volunteers of 16 to 55 years of age. The study group was divided into four age groups: Group A of age 16 to 25 years; Group B of age 26 to 35 years; Group C of age 36 to 45 years and Group D of age 46 to 55 years. All age groups were further divided into three categories i.e athlete (runner), yoga (yoga practitioners) and sedentary in which individuals with sedentary life style were included. The basal recording of ECG in lead II was done for 5 minutes. The Polyrite-D ECG data was used for analysis of heart rate variability by frequency domain method. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. HF component in normalized unit was found significantly high in age group B and C in yoga practitioners and athletes as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D significantly high in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. Significantly decreased LF/HF ratio was found in age group B and C in yoga and athlete subjects as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. This indicates that

  5. Spectral Parameters of HRV In Yoga Practitioners, Athletes And Sedentary Males.

    PubMed

    Peter, Rosemary; Sood, Sushma; Dhawan, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle. The study was carried out in the departments of physiology at MAMC Agroha, Hisar and Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. The study group comprised of 1200 healthy male volunteers of 16 to 55 years of age. The study group was divided into four age groups: Group A of age 16 to 25 years; Group B of age 26 to 35 years; Group C of age 36 to 45 years and Group D of age 46 to 55 years. All age groups were further divided into three categories i.e athlete (runner), yoga (yoga practitioners) and sedentary in which individuals with sedentary life style were included. The basal recording of ECG in lead II was done for 5 minutes. The Polyrite-D ECG data was used for analysis of heart rate variability by frequency domain method. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. HF component in normalized unit was found significantly high in age group B and C in yoga practitioners and athletes as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D significantly high in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. Significantly decreased LF/HF ratio was found in age group B and C in yoga and athlete subjects as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. This indicates that

  6. Psychophysiological correlates of the practice of Tantric Yoga meditation.

    PubMed

    Corby, J C; Roth, W T; Zarcone, V P; Kopell, B S

    1978-05-01

    Autonomic and electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of Tantric Yoga meditation were studied in three groups of subjects as they progressed from normal consciousness into meditation. Groups differed in their level of meditation proficiency. Measures of skin resistance, heart rate, respiration, autonomic orienting responses, resting EEG, EEG alpha and theta frequencies, sleep-scored EEG, averaged evoked responses, and subjective experience were employed. Unlike most previously reported meditation studies, proficient meditators demonstrated increased autonomic activation during meditation while unexperienced meditators demonstrated autonomic relaxation. During meditation, proficient meditators demonstrated increased alpha and theta power, minimal evidence of EEG-defined sleep, and decreased autonomic orienting to external stimulation. An episode of sudden autonomic activation was observed that was characterized by the meditator as an approach to the Yogic ecstatic state of intense concentration. These findings challenge the current "relaxation" model of meditative states.

  7. Applying the Deployment Focused Treatment Development Model to School-Based Yoga for Elementary School Students: Steps One and Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bradley H.; Connington, Alison; McQuillin, Samuel; Crowder Bierman, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in yoga to enhance positive youth development, but many challenges to overcome before introducing yoga to schools. Weisz et al. [Weisz, J. R., Jensen, A. L., McLeod, B. D. (2004). "Development and dissemination of child and adolescent therapies: milestones, methods, and a new deployment-focussed model." In E.…

  8. Yoga Asanas as an Effective Form of Experiential Learning When Teaching Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Lower Limb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Danielle C.; Pang, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Physical movement as a conduit for experiential learning within the academic context of anatomy is a strategy currently used in university dance education. This same approach can be applied to other movement-based practices, for example, yoga. The primary purpose of this study was to pilot a novel teaching curriculum to yoga practitioners, based…

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ≥8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related. Conclusions In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342. PMID:24382338

  10. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  11. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  12. Effect of Sahaja yoga practice on seizure control & EEG changes in patients of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, U; Selvamurthy, W; Singh, S H; Gupta, H L; Thakur, L; Rai, U C

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on seizure control and electroencephalographic alterations was assessed in 32 patients of idiopathic epilepsy. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 10) practised Sahaja yoga for 6 months, Group II (n = 10) practised exercises mimicking Sahaja yoga for 6 months and Group III (n = 12) served as the epileptic control group. Group I subjects reported a 62 per cent decrease in seizure frequency at 3 months and a further decrease of 86 per cent at 6 months of intervention. Power spectral analysis of EEG showed a shift in frequency from 0-8 Hz towards 8-20 Hz. The ratios of EEG powers in delta (D), theta (T), alpha (A) and beta (B) bands i.e., A/D, A/D + T, A/T and A + B/D + T were increased. Per cent D power decreased and per cent A increased. No significant changes in any of the parameters were found in Groups II and III, indicating that Sahaja yoga practice brings about seizure reduction and EEG changes. Sahaja yoga could prove to be beneficial in the management of patients of epilepsy.

  13. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  14. Clinical efficacy of Apamarga Kshara Yoga in the management of Shvitra (vitiligo)

    PubMed Central

    Jadav, Hasmukh R.; Galib, R.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vitiligo is a progressive, idiopathic, pigmentation disorder of the skin, characterized by hypopigmented patches. This condition is compared with Shvitra in Ayurveda. Many Ayurvedic drugs are beneficial in such cases and Apamarga Kshara Yoga is one among them. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Apamarga Kshara Yoga in Lepa and ointment forms in the management of Shvitra. Materials and Methods: Total 50 patients of Shvitra were randomly grouped into two. Patients registered in Group A (n = 25) were treated with Apamarga Kshara Yoga Lepa and Group B (n = 25) with Apamarga Kshara Yoga ointment for 2 months. Rasayana Churna (3g) along with Honey and Ghee was given twice daily internally in the both groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in the symptoms of Shvitra with treatment in both the groups. The difference in between the groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Both forms of Apamraga Kshara Yoga are effective in cases of Shvitra and can be good alternatives for contemporary medicines. PMID:27011717

  15. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week. PMID:26236679

  16. From 200 BC to 2015 AD: an integration of robotic surgery and Ayurveda/Yoga

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Geethakrishnan Gopalakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the traditional systems of medicine practiced all over the world, Ayurveda and Yoga has a documented history dating back to beyond 200 BC. Robotic and video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is an invention of the 21st century. We aim to quantify the effects of integration of Ayurveda and Yoga on patients undergoing minimally invasive robotic and VATS. Methods Four hundred and fifty-four patients undergoing VATS and robotic thoracic surgery were introduced to a pre and postoperative protocol of Yoga therapy, mediation and oil massages. Yoga exercises included Pranayam, Anulom Vilom, and Oil Massages included Urotarpan. Preoperative and postoperative respiratory functions were recorded. Patient satisfaction questionnaire were noted. Statistical comparison was made to control group undergoing minimally invasive thoracic surgery without integrative medicine. Only one patient refused to undergo Ayurveda therapy and was deleted from the group. Results Acceptability was high among all patients. Preoperative training led to implementation as early as 6 hours post surgery. Pulmonary function test showed significant improvement. All patients suggested an improvement in satisfaction score. Pain score were less in study patients. Quicker mobilization led to early discharge and drain removal. Chronic pain was prevented in patients having oil massages over the healed wound sites. Conclusions Integration of Ayurveda, Yoga and minimally invasive robotic and VATS is acceptable to Indian patients and gives better clinical results and higher patient satisfaction. PMID:26941975

  17. A comparative controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga and walking for overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Sharma, Sachin Kr.; Yadav, Arti; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Background Walking and yoga have been independently evaluated for weight control; however, there are very few studies comparing the 2 with randomization. Material/Methods The present study compared the effects of 90 minutes/day for 15 days of supervised yoga or supervised walking on: (i) related biochemistry, (ii) anthropometric variables, (iii) body composition, (iv) postural stability, and (v) bilateral hand grip strength in overweight and obese persons. Sixty-eight participants, of whom 5 were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) and 63 were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2; group mean age ±S.D., 36.4±11.2 years; 35 females), were randomized as 2 groups – (i) a yoga group and (ii) a walking group – given the same diet. Results All differences were pre-post changes within each group. Both groups showed a significant (p<0.05; repeated measures ANOVA, post-hoc analyses) decrease in: BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, lean mass, body water, and total cholesterol. The yoga group increased serum leptin (p<0.01) and decreased LDL cholesterol (p<0.05). The walking group decreased serum adiponectin (p<0.05) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Both yoga and walking improved anthropometric variables and serum lipid profile in overweight and obese persons. The possible implications are discussed. PMID:24878827

  18. Neuroprotective effects of yoga practice: age-, experience-, and frequency-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Villemure, Chantal; Čeko, Marta; Cotton, Valerie A.; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Yoga combines postures, breathing, and meditation. Despite reported health benefits, yoga’s effects on the brain have received little study. We used magnetic resonance imaging to compare age-related gray matter (GM) decline in yogis and controls. We also examined the effect of increasing yoga experience and weekly practice on GM volume and assessed which aspects of weekly practice contributed most to brain size. Controls displayed the well documented age-related global brain GM decline while yogis did not, suggesting that yoga contributes to protect the brain against age-related decline. Years of yoga experience correlated mostly with GM volume differences in the left hemisphere (insula, frontal operculum, and orbitofrontal cortex) suggesting that yoga tunes the brain toward a parasympatically driven mode and positive states. The number of hours of weekly practice correlated with GM volume in the primary somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobule (S1/SPL), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus, and primary visual cortex (V1). Commonality analyses indicated that the combination of postures and meditation contributed the most to the size of the hippocampus, precuneus/PCC, and S1/SPL while the combination of meditation and breathing exercises contributed the most to V1 volume. Yoga’s potential neuroprotective effects may provide a neural basis for some of its beneficial effects. PMID:26029093

  19. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  20. Effects of yoga on chronic neck pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of yoga in the management of chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga intervention on chronic neck pain. The trials were published in the English language between January 1966 and December 2015. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the quality of the trials. [Results] Three trials were identified and included in this review. A critical appraisal was performed on the trials, and the result indicated a high risk of bias. A narrative description was processed because of the small number of RCTs. Neck pain intensity and functional disability were significantly lower in the yoga groups than in the control groups. [Conclusion] Evidence from the 3 randomly controlled trials shows that yoga may be beneficial for chronic neck pain. The low-quality result of the critical appraisal and the small number of trials suggest that high-quality RCTs are required to examine further the effects of yoga intervention on chronic neck pain relief. PMID:27512290

  1. Effects of yoga on chronic neck pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of yoga in the management of chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga intervention on chronic neck pain. The trials were published in the English language between January 1966 and December 2015. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the quality of the trials. [Results] Three trials were identified and included in this review. A critical appraisal was performed on the trials, and the result indicated a high risk of bias. A narrative description was processed because of the small number of RCTs. Neck pain intensity and functional disability were significantly lower in the yoga groups than in the control groups. [Conclusion] Evidence from the 3 randomly controlled trials shows that yoga may be beneficial for chronic neck pain. The low-quality result of the critical appraisal and the small number of trials suggest that high-quality RCTs are required to examine further the effects of yoga intervention on chronic neck pain relief. PMID:27512290

  2. Barriers and facilitators to yoga use in a population of individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2014-11-01

    Yoga has been found to be efficacious in treating chronic low back pain, yet biomedical treatments are most commonly used for pain. Promoting yoga as part of integrative care would reduce exclusive reliance on high-cost, higher-risk biomedical treatments. Attitudes toward yoga play a role in consideration of it as a treatment. The current study examined attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain and compared these results to those found in a 2009 general population study. Participants completed a semi-structured interview where they responded to items about perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to trying yoga. Participant responses were analyzed qualitatively and several common themes emerged. Themes identified by participants indicated there is mixed information about yoga in the public domain and that clarification of what yoga is, how it can be beneficial, and what it requires one to do physically may help promote its use.

  3. The benefits of yoga for adults with type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence and call for a collaborative, integrated research initiative.

    PubMed

    de G R Hansen, Elizabeth; Innes, Kim E

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a global public health crisis. Research suggests that yoga holds promise for T2DM management. This article summarizes evidence regarding the efficacy of yoga for T2DM management and encourages the development of an integrated research agenda and a collaborative work group to test it. We present a brief overview of the global rise in T2DM and its consequences and costs, review the evidence regarding the potential benefits of yoga for T2DM management, outline limitations in the literature, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the effects of yoga on T2DM, and suggest how a collaborative, multinational effort by yoga therapist and research communities might contribute to research and inform clinical practice. Yoga protocols that serve T2DM patients and a research framework for creating an evidence base to support the use of yoga for T2DM management are clearly needed. PMID:24165527

  4. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  5. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated.

  6. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child.

  7. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777

  8. EEG paroxysmal gamma waves during Bhramari Pranayama: a yoga breathing technique.

    PubMed

    Vialatte, François B; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Prasad, Rajkishore; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Here we report that a specific form of yoga can generate controlled high-frequency gamma waves. For the first time, paroxysmal gamma waves (PGW) were observed in eight subjects practicing a yoga technique of breathing control called Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr). To obtain new insights into the nature of the EEG during BhPr, we analyzed EEG signals using time-frequency representations (TFR), independent component analysis (ICA), and EEG tomography (LORETA). We found that the PGW consists of high-frequency biphasic ripples. This unusual activity is discussed in relation to previous reports on yoga and meditation. It is concluded this EEG activity is most probably non-epileptic, and that applying the same methodology to other meditation recordings might yield an improved understanding of the neurocorrelates of meditation.

  9. Role of yoga and meditation in the context of dysfunctional self: a hypothetico-integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Kathrotia, Rajesh; Patil, Prashant M

    2014-01-01

    Aaron T. Beck describes habitual patterns of schemas (ie, organized patterns of thought or behavior) as vital elements of emotional and behavioral experience, whereas biased processing of information accompanies psychopathological states. In this article, the authors propose a hypothetico-integrative approach to understanding the role of yoga and meditation. This approach is based on the background of Beck's model of the psychopathology of the dysfunctional self. The authors have found that the practices common to most forms of yoga and meditation are (1) focusing of attention; (2) creating a state of relaxation; and (3) developing mindfulness through efferent attenuation, sensory attenuation, and nonanalytic attention. Biological studies of meditation and yoga have found a tendency toward use of the relaxation response, the involvement of the attentional networks, and, likely, the cingulatecortex, particularly in the process of bare attention (ie, awareness without thought). This highest level of nonjudgmental awareness may help in obtaining a better-adjusted resilient self.

  10. Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H; Dickerson, Bradford C; Gray, Jeremy R; Lazar, Sara W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation.

  11. Meditation has stronger relationships with mindfulness, kundalini, and mystical experiences than yoga or prayer.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2015-09-01

    Contemplative practices can have profound effects on mindfulness and on physical and sensory and mystical experiences. Individuals who self-reported meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices and their patterns of practice were compared for mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. The results suggest that the amount of practice but not the pattern and social conditions of practice influences mindfulness and possibly mystical experiences. Meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices all were found to be associated with enhancements of mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences, but meditation had particularly strong associations and may be the basis of the associations of yoga and prayer with these outcomes. The results further suggest that the primary association of contemplative practices is with the real time awareness and appreciation of sensory and perceptual experiences which may be the intermediary between disparate practices and mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences.

  12. Efficacy of naturopathy and yoga in bronchial asthma--a self controlled matched scientific study.

    PubMed

    Sathyaprabha, T N; Murthy, H; Murthy, B T

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is one of the common psychosomatic illness influenced by many factors. Bronchodilators give temporary relief and have side effects. The present study is aimed at finding the efficacy of a non-pharmacological approach of naturopathy and Yoga in bronchial asthma. A total no of 37 patients (19 men, 18 women) with mean age 35.06 yrs (men), 40.74 yrs (women) admitted to INYS, Bangalore, for the period of 21 days. The treatment included 1. Diet therapy 2. Nature cure treatment and 3. Yoga therapy. The various parameters including lung function test were measured on admission and once a week. Results showed the significant improvement in PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV/FEC %, MVV, ESR and absolute eosinophil count. The patients reported a feeling of well being, freshness and comfortable breathing. Naturopathy and yoga helps in inducing positive health, alleviating the symptoms of disease by acting at physical and mental levels.

  13. Effect of integral yoga on psychological and health variables and their correlations

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Sushil S; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Hankey, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Certain psychological and health variables are commonly measured in India. This study evaluates the effects of integral yoga practices on these variables and also the consistency of correlations observed between them. Materials and Methods: The study was a pre-post intervention study. The variables were measured at the beginning and the end of a one-month yoga course. There was no control group.The study was carried out at Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) University, in its rural campus south of Bangalore. Based on health criteria, 108 subjects were selected out of 198 volunteers to form the experimental yoga group. Ages ranged from 17 to 63 years. The yogasanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), relaxation techniques, meditation, chanting and lectures were the components of yoga intervention. The variables measured were sustained attention, emotional intelligence – EQ, general health – GHQ, guna personality – sattva, rajas and tamas. Results: Significant pre-post changes were found in all variables. Significant correlations were found between the following pairs: The two sustained attention variables; emotional intelligence and general health; GHQ and tamas; sattva and tamas; and rajas and tamas. Conclusion: The study shows that there were significant changes in all variables (P< 0.001) except in sattva. It also confirms that EQ and general health variables correlate significantly with each other and negatively with tamas. EQ and tamas form positive and negative predictors of health respectively. Sattva correlates positively with EQ suggesting that a sattvic personality indicates better self-control. This suggests that, by improving guna personality, long-term yoga practice may stabilize EQ. PMID:22022128

  14. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry KW; Lee, Edwin HM; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy LM; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia LW; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric YH

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  15. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong.

  16. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  17. A long hangover from party drugs: residual proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats 8 weeks after γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or their combination.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Kashem, Mohammed A; Matsumoto, Izuru; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2010-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are popular party drugs that are used for their euphoric and prosocial effects, and sometimes in combination. Both drugs increase markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and can cause lasting impairments in hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. To gain further information on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these effects, the current study examined residual changes in hippocampal protein expression measured 8 weeks after chronic administration of GHB (500mg/kg), MDMA (5mg/kg) or their combination (GHB/MDMA). The drugs were administered once a day for 10 days in an environment with an elevated ambient temperature of 28 degrees C. Results showed significant changes in protein expression, relative to controls, in all three groups: MDMA and GHB given alone caused residual changes in 8 and 5 proteins respectively, while the GHB/MDMA combination significantly changed 6 proteins. The altered proteins had roles in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, intracellular signalling and cytoskeletal function. The largest change (-4.3-fold) was seen in the MDMA group with the protein C-crk: a protein implicated in learning-related neuroplasticity. The second largest change (3.0-fold) was seen in the GHB group in Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a protein that protects against oxidative stress. Two cytoskeletal proteins (Tubulin Folding Cofactor B and Tropomyosin-alpha-3 chain) and one plasticity related protein (Neuronal Pentraxin-1 NP1) were similarly changed in both the MDMA and the GHB groups, while two intracellular signalling proteins (alpha-soluble NSF-attachment protein and subunits of the V-type proton ATPase) were changed in both the MDMA/GHB and the MDMA groups. These results provide some insight into the molecular pathways possibly underlying the lasting cognitive deficits arising from GHB and/or MDMA use.

  18. Preliminary Evidence That Yoga Practice Progressively Improves Mood and Decreases Stress in a Sample of UK Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brazil, Inti A.; Farias, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In the first randomized controlled trial of yoga on UK prisoners, we previously showed that yoga practice was associated with improved mental wellbeing and cognition. Here, we aimed to assess how class attendance, self-practice, and demographic factors were related to outcome amongst prisoners enrolled in the 10-week yoga intervention. Methods. The data of 55 participants (52 male, 3 female) who completed a 10-week yoga course were analysed. Changes in pre- and postyoga measures of affect, perceived stress, and psychological symptoms were entered into linear regression analyses with bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence intervals. Class attendance, self-practice, demographic variables, and baseline psychometric variables were included as regressors. Results. Participants who attended more yoga classes and those who engaged in frequent (5 times or more) self-practice reported significantly greater decreases in perceived stress. Decreases in negative affect were also significantly related to high frequency self-practice and greater class attendance at a near-significant level. Age was positively correlated with yoga class attendance, and higher levels of education were associated with greater decreases in negative affect. Conclusions. Our results suggest that there may be progressive beneficial effects of yoga within prison populations and point to subpopulations who may benefit the most from this practice. PMID:26294928

  19. Overview of Systematic Reviews: Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention for Adults with Acute and Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy C.; Ward, Alison; Roberts, Nia W.; Heneghan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Overview the quality, direction, and characteristics of yoga interventions for treatment of acute and chronic health conditions in adult populations. Methods. We searched for systematic reviews in 10 online databases, bibliographic references, and hand-searches in yoga-related journals. Included reviews satisfy Oxman criteria and specify yoga as a primary intervention in one or more randomized controlled trials for treatment in adults. The AMSTAR tool and GRADE approach evaluated the methodological quality of reviews and quality of evidence. Results. We identified 2202 titles, of which 41 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 26 systematic reviews satisfied inclusion criteria. Thirteen systematic reviews include quantitative data and six papers include meta-analysis. The quality of evidence is generally low. Sixteen different types of health conditions are included. Eleven reviews show tendency towards positive effects of yoga intervention, 15 reviews report unclear results, and no, reviews report adverse effects of yoga. Yoga appears most effective for reducing symptoms in anxiety, depression, and pain. Conclusion. Although the quality of systematic reviews is high, the quality of supporting evidence is low. Significant heterogeneity and variability in reporting interventions by type of yoga, settings, and population characteristics limit the generalizability of results. PMID:23762174

  20. Effects of yoga on utero-fetal-placental circulation in high-risk pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, Abbas; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Mhaskar, Rita; Mhaskar, Arun; Thomas, Annamma; Gunasheela, Sulochana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Impaired placentation and inadequate trophoblast invasion have been associated with the etiology of many pregnancy complications and have been correlated with the first trimester uterine artery resistance. Previous studies have shown the benefits of yoga in improving pregnancy outcomes and those of yogic visualization in revitalizing the human tissues. Methods. 59 high-risk pregnant women were randomized into yoga (n = 27) and control (n = 32) groups. The yoga group received standard care plus yoga sessions (1 hour/day, 3 times/week), from 12th to 28th week of gestation. The control group received standard care plus conventional antenatal exercises (walking). Measurements were assessed at 12th, 20th, and 28th weeks of gestation. Results. RM-ANOVA showed significantly higher values in the yoga group (28th week) for biparietal diameter (P = 0.001), head circumference (P = 0.002), femur length (P = 0.005), and estimated fetal weight (P = 0.019). The resistance index in the right uterine artery (P = 0.01), umbilical artery (P = 0.011), and fetal middle cerebral artery (P = 0.048) showed significantly lower impedance in the yoga group. Conclusion. The results of this first randomized study of yoga in high-risk pregnancy suggest that guided yogic practices and visualization can improve the intrauterine fetal growth and the utero-fetal-placental circulation. PMID:25688304

  1. A pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of yoga as an intervention for PTSD symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Karen S; Dick, Alexandra M; DiMartino, Dawn M; Smith, Brian N; Niles, Barbara; Koenen, Karestan C; Street, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 10% of women in the United States. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD exist, clients with PTSD report additional benefits of complementary and alternative approaches such as yoga. In particular, yoga may downregulate the stress response and positively impact PTSD and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. We conducted a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-session Kripalu-based yoga intervention with an assessment control group. Participants included 38 women with current full or subthreshold PTSD symptoms. During the intervention, yoga participants showed decreases in reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The assessment control group, however, showed decreases in reexperiencing and anxiety symptoms as well, which may be a result of the positive effect of self-monitoring on PTSD and associated symptoms. Between-groups effect sizes were small to moderate (0.08-0.31). Although more research is needed, yoga may be an effective adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Participants responded positively to the intervention, suggesting that it was tolerable for this sample. Findings underscore the need for future research investigating mechanisms by which yoga may impact mental health symptoms, gender comparisons, and the long-term effects of yoga practice. PMID:24668767

  2. Perspectives on Yoga Inputs in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a “relaxation response” in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  3. Perspectives on yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a "relaxation response" in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived.

  4. Building bridges for yoga therapy research: the Aetna, Inc. mind-body pilot study on chronic and high stress.

    PubMed

    Kusnick, Catherine; Kraftsow, Gary; Hilliker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Aetna, Inc., invited Gary Kraftsow and the American Viniyoga Institute (AVI) to contribute to a research study on modulating stress. This partnership represented the first formal recognition of the potential role of yoga therapy in modern healthcare by an insurance company. This project exemplified the power and value of a collaboration in which yoga therapists made the ancient yoga teachings relevant to healthcare research. We must under-stand our own ancient traditions, learn the language of Western medicine, and recognize opportunities to build bridges to medical disciplines, academic partners, insurers, funders, and policy makers. PMID:23070677

  5. A therapy to live by: public health, the self and nationalism in the practice of a north Indian yoga society.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1997-06-01

    In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and epistemological facticity of the self, I show how the discourse and practice of yoga is implicated in, and derived from, a complex search for self definition in terms of health; health which is conceived of as a public regimen that seeks to reconnect that which modernity has broken apart: mind and body.

  6. A Pre-Law Program Model for a Small Historically Black College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    The design and development of a pre-law program for a small historically black college are described. The model consists of six phases: community outreach/recruitment; an 8-week summer session at the first and second years of college; a second 8-week summer session at the end of the sophomore year; the junior and senior years; and followup. The…

  7. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of RBP-7000 Once-Monthly Risperidone for the Treatment of Acute Schizophrenia: An 8-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Azmi F; Henderson, David C; Fava, Maurizio; Fudala, Paul J; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Kouassi, Alex; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-04-01

    RBP-7000 is a sustained-release formulation of risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia, designed to be administered by once-monthly subcutaneous injection using the ATRIGEL delivery system. This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of RBP-7000 compared with placebo in subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Inpatients were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with subcutaneous 90 or 120 mg of RBP-7000 or placebo. Efficacy was evaluated using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of the change from baseline (the last nonmissing value before the first dose of RBP-7000 or placebo on day 1) to end of the study in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary efficacy measure) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity score (secondary efficacy measure). The least-squares means from the repeated-measures analysis for the change from baseline in the PANSS total scores for placebo was -9.219 (SE, 1.2162). RBP-7000 produced statistically and clinically significant differences in mean reductions from baseline in PANSS total scores (90-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -6.148 [-9.982 to -2.314], P = 0.0004; 120-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -7.237 [-11.045 to -3.429], P < 0.0001) and significantly improved Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores (90-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -0.350 [-0.557 to -0.143], P = 0.0002; 120-mg RBP-7000 compared with placebo, -0.396 [-0.602 to -0.190], P < 0.0001). Both RBP-7000 dosages were generally well tolerated. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events in RBP-7000 groups compared with placebo were somnolence, weight gain, and akathisia. The overall incidence of extrapyramidal syndrome-related effects was low and similar across groups. RBP-7000 may provide a new, long-acting alternative treatment for use in adults with acute schizophrenia.

  8. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool. PMID:26864127

  9. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  10. Bridging the schism of schizophrenia through yoga-Review of putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia patients experience a 'disconnect' at multiple levels-neuronal networks, mental processes, and interpersonal relationships. The resultant poor quality-of-life and functional disability are related to the persistent cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, which are rather resistant to conventional antipsychotic medications. Yoga has emerged as an important therapeutic intervention to improve quality-of-life in schizophrenia. Recent preliminary evidence suggests that effects of yoga on cognitive and negative symptoms may drive this benefit. This study attempts to integrate evidence from neuroscience-based research, which focuses on the neuroplasticity-harnessing effects of yoga to bridge the schizophrenia connectopathy. In an overarching model to study putative neurobiological mechanisms that drive therapeutic effects of yoga, it is proposed that (a) various styles of meditation may help in strengthening the lateral and medial prefrontal brain networks, thus improving neurocognition and mentalizing abilities, and (b) learning and performing co-ordinated physical postures with a teacher facilitates imitation and the process of being imitated, which can improve social cognition and empathy through reinforcement of the premotor and parietal mirror neuron system. Oxytocin may play a role in mediating these processes, leading to better social connectedness and social outcomes. Clinical and heuristic implications of this model are further discussed. PMID:27187680

  11. Graduated Guidance Delivered by Parents to Teach Yoga to Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Deborah J.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a parent-implemented intervention to teach yoga poses to 3 children with developmental delays. Graduated guidance, provided by the participants' mothers, was introduced in a multiple baseline design across the participants. With the introduction of intervention, imitation of the response chains increased over baseline…

  12. Managing Mental Health Disorders Resulting from Trauma through Yoga: A Review.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    There are many and varied types of trauma. The extent to which trauma influences the mental health of an individual depends on the nature of trauma, as well as on the individual's coping capabilities. Often trauma is followed by depression, anxiety, and PTSD. As the pharmacological remedies for these conditions often have undesirable side-effects, nonpharmacological remedies are thought of as a possible add-on treatment. Yoga is one such mind-body intervention. This paper covers eleven studies indexed in PubMed, in which mental health disorders resulting from trauma were managed through yoga including meditation. The aim was to evaluate the use of yoga in managing trauma-related depression, anxiety, PTSD and physiological stress following exposure to natural calamities, war, interpersonal violence, and incarceration in a correctional facility. An attempt has also been made to explore possible mechanisms underlying benefits seen. As most of these studies were not done on persons exposed to trauma that had practiced yoga, this is a definite area for further research. PMID:22778930

  13. Open Trial of Vinyasa Yoga for Persistently Depressed Individuals: Evidence of Feasibility and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Tremont, Geoffrey; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Gillette, Tom; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of Vinyasa yoga as an adjunctive treatment for depressed patients who were not responding adequately to antidepressant medication. The authors also planned to ask participants for qualitative feedback on their experience of the class and to assess change over time in depression…

  14. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes during yoga sessions: the effects of respiratory exercises and meditation practices.

    PubMed

    Danucalov, Marcello Arias Dias; Simões, Roberto Serafim; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Leite, José Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The novelty of this study was to investigate the changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic intensity brought about by the practice of pranayamas (breathing exercises of yoga) and meditation during the same hatha-yoga session. The technique applied was the one advocated by the hatha-yoga system. Nine yoga instructors-five females and four males, mean age of 44+/-11, 6, were subjected to analysis of the gases expired during three distinct periods of 30 min: rest, respiratory exercises and meditative practice. A metabolic open circuit computerized system was applied (VO2000, MedGraphics-USA). The oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and the carbon dioxide output (VCO(2)) were statistically different (P

  15. Quantitative evaluation of muscle relaxation induced by Kundalini yoga with the help of EMG integrator.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R; Kamat, A; Khanolkar, M; Kamat, S; Desai, S R; Dhume, R A

    1990-10-01

    The present work is aimed to quantify the degree of relaxation of muscle under the effects of Kundalini Yoga with the help of EMG integrator. The data collected from 8 individuals (4 males 4 females) on the degree of muscle relaxation at the end of meditation revealed a significantly decreased muscle activity amounting to 58% of the basal level in both the sexes.

  16. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  17. Effects of hatha yoga exercises on spine flexibility in women over 50 years old.

    PubMed

    Grabara, Małgorzata; Szopa, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to access the flexibility of the spine in women practicing yoga as a part of the "University for Health" project. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 56 women ranging in age between 50-79 and attending 90 minutes hatha yoga sessions once a week. The measurements were performed twice-at the beginning of the project and after its completion, i.e., after 20 weeks of classes. The range of spine mobility in three planes was measured using a Rippstein plurimeter. The range of motion in the sagittal and frontal planes was measured in a standing position with the feet hip-width apart. The torsional range of motion of the subjects was measured with the trunk bent at a right angle and the legs apart. The flexibility ranges of the spine and hamstrings were also measured by the toe-touch test in a standing position. [Results] This study showed that the applied yoga exercises increased spinal mobility and flexibility of the hamstring muscles regardless of age. [Conclusion] Yoga exercises should be recommended to the elderly to make their muscles more flexible and to increase the range of motion in the joints, which is particularly important for improving their life quality.

  18. A prospective study using Hatha Yoga for stress reduction among women waiting for IVF treatment.

    PubMed

    Oron, Galia; Allnutt, Erica; Lackman, Tasha; Sokal-Arnon, Tamar; Holzer, Hananel; Takefman, Janet

    2015-05-01

    Yoga has been found to be effective in treating anxiety and depression, reducing stress and improving the overall quality of life in the general population. Minimal research is available on the effect of stress-management programmes with IVF patients. Owing to the diversity of conditions treated, the poor quality of most studies, and the different assessment tools used to evaluate the psychological state, it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. Previous studies have used different mind-body interventions and general measures of stress without evaluation of specific stresses known to result from infertility and its treatment using standardized measures. In this single-centre study, 49 infertile women were recruited to participate in a 6-week Yoga class during 2013 while awaiting their IVF treatment. Study participants were asked to complete standardized questionnaires assessing fertility-related quality of life (FertiQoL), marital harmony (Dyadic Adjustment Scale [DAS]), state and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) before commencing and after completing the Yoga workshops. Anxiety, depression and fertility-specific quality of life showed improvement over time in association with participation in a 6-week Yoga programme in women awaiting their treatment with IVF.

  19. Stress Management: A Case Study of Professional Students on Impact of Meditation & Yoga on Stress Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, T. L. Narasimha; Ammani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Meditation is one of the Five Principles of Yoga. It is the practice by which there is constant observation of the mind. It requires you to focus your mind at one point and make your mind still in order to perceive the "self". Through the practice of Meditation, it will help achieve a greater sense of purpose and strength of will. It…

  20. Yoga Asanas for the Relief and Prevention of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleu, Steve

    This collection of yoga asanas (exercises) can help relieve the pain of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and help prevent CTS among people who work on computer terminals. For maximum benefit, the exercises should be practiced daily or on as regular a schedule as possible. They are not intended to replace surgery or a physician's prescribed care. They…

  1. Impact of 10-weeks of yoga practice on flexibility and balance of college athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polsgrove, M Jay; Eggleston, Brandon M; Lockyer, Roch J

    2016-01-01

    Background: With clearer evidence of its benefits, coaches, and athletes may better see that yoga has a role in optimizing performance. Aims: To determine the impact of yoga on male college athletes (N = 26). Methods: Over a 10-week period, a yoga group (YG) of athletes (n = 14) took part in biweekly yoga sessions; while a nonyoga group (NYG) of athletes (n = 12) took part in no additional yoga activity. Performance measures were obtained immediately before and after this period. Measurements of flexibility and balance, included: Sit-reach (SR), shoulder flexibility (SF), and stork stand (SS); dynamic measurements consisted of joint angles (JA) measured during the performance of three distinct yoga positions (downward dog [DD]; right foot lunge [RFL]; chair [C]). Results: Significant gains were observed in the YG for flexibility (SR, P = 0.01; SF, P = 0.03), and balance (SS, P = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the NYG for flexibility and balance. Significantly, greater JA were observed in the YG for: RFL (dorsiflexion, l-ankle; P = 0.04), DD (extension, r-knee, P = 0.04; r-hip; P = 0.01; flexion, r-shoulder; P = 0.01) and C (flexion, r-knee; P = 0.01). Significant JA differences were observed in the NYG for: DD (flexion, r-knee, P = 0.01: r-hip, P = 0.05; r-shoulder, P = 0.03) and C (flexion r-knee, P = 0.01; extension, r-shoulder; P = 0.05). A between group comparison revealed the significant differences for: RFL (l-ankle; P = 0.01), DD (r-knee, P = 0.01; r-hip; P = 0.01), and C (r-shoulder, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Results suggest that a regular yoga practice may increase the flexibility and balance as well as whole body measures of male college athletes and therefore, may enhance athletic performances that require these characteristics. PMID:26865768

  2. Yoga for Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Kuzdzal, Adrian; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and critically assess the effects of yoga on heart rate variability (HRV). Nine databases were searched from their inceptions to June 2014. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing yoga against any type of control intervention in healthy individuals or patients with any medical condition. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. Two reviewers performed the selection of studies, data extraction, and quality assessments independent of one another. Fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Only two of them were of acceptable methodological quality. Ten RCTs reported favourable effects of yoga on various domains of HRV, whereas nine of them failed to do so. One RCT did not report between-group comparisons. The meta-analysis (MA) of two trials did not show favourable effects of yoga compared to usual care on E:I ratio (n = 61, SMDs = 0.63; 95% CIs [-0.72 to 1.99], p = 0.36; heterogeneity: r(2) = 0.79, χ(2) = 5.48, df = 1, (p = 0.02); I(2) = 82%). The MA also failed to show statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the 30:15 ratio (n = 61, SMDs = 0.20; 95% CIs [-0.43 to 0.84], p = 0.53; heterogeneity: r(2) = 0.07, χ(2) = 1.45, df = 1, (p = 0.23); I(2) = 31%). The data from the remaining RCTs were too heterogeneous for pooling. These results provide no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of yoga in modulating HRV in patients or healthy subjects. Future investigations in this area should overcome the multiple methodological weaknesses of the previous research.

  3. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or

  4. OA01.01. Role of Shwetashankhapushpi (Clitoria ternatea) and clinical yoga techniques in the management of generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Prashant J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The burden of modern lifestyle leads to many mental disabilities like Generalized Anxiety Disorder. It is necessary to find safer and simple regimen for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Traditionally Swetashankhapushpi (Clitoria ternatea) is being used in Kerala to treat mental disorders including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Chittodvega). Relaxation Techniques of Yoga are one of the tools to treat Anxiety Disorder. Method: The present work was done to study efficacy of Swetashankhapushpi and Clinical Yoga Techniques on 30 patients of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. These patients were randomly divided into A, B and C groups, consisting 10 patients in each group. Patients of Group A were given Swetashankhapushpi root powder 2 gm orally b.i.d. with milk as anupan for 1 month. Patients of Group B were on Clinical Yoga Techniques for 1 month. And patients of Group C were given both Swetashankhapushpi and Clinical Yoga Techniques for the period of 1 month and results were assessed by using Hamilton's Anxiety Rating Scale. Result: Combination of both Swetashankhapushpi and Clinical Yoga Techniques showed highly significant relief (P<0.001) than single therapy, providing overall improvement in Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusion: Swetashankhapushpi (Clitoria ternatea) and Relaxation Techniques of Yoga in combination showed significant relief in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Chittodvega).

  5. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and Σ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  6. Intraocular Pressure Rise in Subjects with and without Glaucoma during Four Common Yoga Positions

    PubMed Central

    Jasien, Jessica V.; Jonas, Jost B.; de Moraes, C. Gustavo; Ritch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) in association with yoga exercises with a head-down position. Methods The single Center, prospective, observational study included 10 subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma and 10 normal individuals, who performed the yoga exercises of Adho Mukha Svanasana, Uttanasana, Halasana and Viparita Karani for two minutes each. IOP was measured by pneumatonometry at baseline and during and after the exercises. Results All yoga poses were associated with a significant (P<0.01) rise in IOP within one minute after assuming the yoga position. The highest IOP increase (P<0.01) was measured in the Adho Mukha Svanasana position (IOP increase from 17±3.2 mmHg to 28±3.8 mmHg in glaucoma patients; from 17±2.8 mmHg to 29±3.9 mmHg in normal individuals), followed by the Uttanasana position (17±3.9 mmHg to 27±3.4 mmHg (glaucoma patients) and from 18±2.5 mmHg to 26±3.6 mmHg normal individuals)), the Halasana position (18±2.8 mmHg to 24±3.5 mmHg (glaucoma patients); 18±2.7 mmHg to 22±3.4 mmHg (normal individuals)), and finally the Viparita Kirani position (17±4 mmHg to 21±3.6 mmHg (glaucoma patients); 17±2.8 to 21±2.4 mmHg (normal individuals)). IOP dropped back to baseline values within two minutes after returning to a sitting position. Overall, IOP rise was not significantly different between glaucoma and normal subjects (P = 0.813), all though glaucoma eyes tended to have measurements 2 mm Hg higher on average. Conclusions Yoga exercises with head-down positions were associated with a rapid rise in IOP in glaucoma and healthy eyes. IOP returned to baseline values within 2 minutes. Future studies are warranted addressing whether yoga exercise associated IOP changes are associated with similar changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure and whether they increase the risk of glaucoma progression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01915680 PMID:26698309

  7. Identifying and Serving the Young Gifted: A Program for Reaching Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorena

    1989-01-01

    A program was developed to increase teachers' and caregivers' understanding of the characteristics of young gifted children, and to provide an overview of brain development and function. The program used a variety of techniques, including yoga, guided visualization, creativity and flexible thinking skills, story writing, and kinesiology, to…

  8. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. Objectives The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. Methods 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle’s self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers’ rating of the children’s obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. Results There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p < 0.05). All the changes reported below are based on after-before comparisons, within each group. Both groups showed an increase in BMI, and number of sit-ups (p < 0.001). Balance worsened in the physical exercise group, while plate tapping improved in the yoga group (p < 0.001). In the Stroop task both groups showed improved color, word- and color-word naming (p < 0.01), while the physical exercise group showed higher interference scores. Total, general and

  9. A Randomized Trial Comparing Yoga, Stretching, and a Self-care Book for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Karen J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cook, Andrea J.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Delaney, Kristin; Deyo, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is a common problem lacking highly effective treatment options. Small trials suggest that yoga may have benefits for this condition. This trial was designed to determine whether yoga is more effective than conventional stretching exercises or a self-care book for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. Methods 228 adults with chronic low back pain were randomized to 12 weekly classes of yoga (n=92) or conventional stretching exercises (n=91) or a self-care book (n=45). Back-related functional status (modified Roland Disability Questionnaire, 23-point scale) and bothersomeness of pain (11-point numerical scale) at 12 weeks were the primary outcomes. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 26 weeks by interviewers unaware of treatment group. Results After adjustment for baseline values, 12-week outcomes for the yoga group were superior to those for the self-care group (mean difference for function = −2.5 [95% CI= −3.7 to −1.3; P<0.001]; mean difference for symptoms = −1.1 [95% CI= −1.7 to −0.4; P<0.001]). At 26 weeks, function for the yoga group remained superior (mean difference = −1.8 [95% CI= − 3.1 to −0.5; P<0.0001]). Yoga was not superior to conventional stretching exercises at any time point. Conclusions Yoga classes were more effective than a self-care book, but not stretching classes, in improving function and reducing symptoms due to chronic low back pain, with benefits lasting at least several months. PMID:22025101

  10. Long-term Vihangam Yoga meditation and scores on tests of attention.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Dubey, Indu; Abhishek, Priyadarshee; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Rastogi, Priyanka; Siddiqui, Shazia Veqar

    2010-06-01

    Although the literature indicates that meditation has beneficial effects on several aspects of human functioning, few studies have specifically investigated the effects of meditation on various domains of attention. This study was conducted to examine the differences in various domains of attention between long-term concentrative meditators versus matched controls. 15 practitioners of Vihangam Yoga (> 10 yr. experience) were enrolled in the study. Controls matched on age, sex, and years of education were recruited. Both groups were administered the Stroop, Trail-Making, and Digit Symbol Substitution tests as well as the Digit Forward and Digit Backward tests. The group of Vihangam Yogis had significantly better mean performance on all tests of attention. Long-term Vihangam Yoga meditation improves attention span, processing speed, attention alternation ability, and performance in interference tests.

  11. The Impact of Laughter Yoga on the Stress of Cancer Patients before Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Farifteh, Shadi; Mohammadi-Aria, Alireza; Kiamanesh, Alireza; Mofid, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer is usually accompanied by considerable stress for the sufferer, and the stress has destructive effects on Chemotherapy treatment process. Therefore, the current research deals with the effect of yoga laughter on the cancer patients’ stress before chemotherapy. Methods In this research, as the first step, 37 cancer sufferers , who had been hospitalized in Shohada Tajrish Hospital (Behnam Daneshpoor Charity Organization) and had the requirements necessary for being taken as research samples, were selected for data collection. The mentioned patients were classified randomly in experimental and control groups. Collected data were analyzed by the multi-variable covariance analysis test. Results The results show there is a meaningful difference in the stress average before and after interference in the test group (p<0.05). Conclusion Laughter yoga can decrease the stress in cancer sufferers before chemotherapy. PMID:25628838

  12. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N V; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P < .01) moderated the Group × Time effect on MCS, but not PCS. Women with high baseline depressive symptoms in YG reported marginally higher 3-month MCS than their counterparts in WL (P = .11). Women with high baseline sleep disturbances in YG reported higher 3-months MCS than their counterparts in WL (P < .01) and higher 6-month MCS than their counterparts in ST (P = .01). YG led to greater benefit finding than ST and WL across the follow-up (P = .01). Three-month benefit finding partially mediated the effect of YG on 6-month PCS. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health-related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health-related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience.

  13. Effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy on autonomic functions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vinutha, H. T.; Raghavendra, B. R.; Manjunath, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) had shown beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Autonomic dysfunction is one of the major complications of type 2 DM. Research studies have demonstrated that yoga can modulate autonomic functions. Hence, the current study was designed to assess the effect of IAYT on autonomic functions in type 2 diabetics. Materials and Methods: 15 patients of type 2 DM with ages ranging from 35 to 60 years were recruited for the study. They were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from 1-year to 15 years. Assessments were made on day 1 (before yoga) and day 7 (after 1-week of yoga practice). Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP) response to the isometric handgrip and heart rate response to deep breathing were assessed before and after 1-week of IAYT. Results: There was a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose from 154.67–130.27 mg/dL (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.029) following 1-week of IAYT. BP response to isometric hand grip improved significantly (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.01). There was no statistical significant change in HRV components and heart rate response to deep breathing test. However, there was a trend of increase in the low frequency power (41.07%), high frequency power (6.29%), total power (5.38%), and standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN) (6.29%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that, IAYT improved autonomic functions in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26425477

  14. Processing of proprioceptive and vestibular body signals and self-transcendence in Ashtanga yoga practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Francesca; David, Nicole; Aglioti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    In the rod and frame test (RFT), participants are asked to set a tilted visual linear marker (i.e., a rod), embedded in a square, to the subjective vertical, irrespective of the surrounding frame. People not influenced by the frame tilt are defined as field-independent, while people biased in their rod verticality perception are field-dependent. Performing RFT requires the integration of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals with the latter accounting for field-dependency. Studies indicate that motor experts in body-related, balance-improving disciplines tend to be field-independent, i.e., better at verticality perception, suggesting that proprioceptive and vestibular expertise acquired by such exercise may weaken the influence of irrelevant visual signals. What remains unknown is whether the effect of body-related expertise in weighting perceptual information might also be mediated by personality traits, in particular those indexing self-focusing abilities. To explore this issue, we tested field-dependency in a class of body experts, namely yoga practitioners and in non-expert participants. Moreover we explored any link between performance on RFT and self-transcendence (ST), a complex personality construct, which refers to tendency to experience spiritual feelings and ideas. As expected, yoga practitioners (i) were more accurate in assessing the rod's verticality on the RFT, and (ii) expressed significantly higher ST. Interestingly, the performance in these two tests was negatively correlated. More specifically, when asked to provide verticality judgments, highly self-transcendent yoga practitioners were significantly less influenced by a misleading visual context. Our results suggest that being highly self-transcendent may enable yoga practitioners to optimize verticality judgment tasks by relying more on internal (vestibular and proprioceptive) signals coming from their own body, rather than on exteroceptive, visual cues. PMID:25278866

  15. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G.; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D.; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N. V.; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy. Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P < .01) moderated the Group × Time effect on MCS, but not PCS. Women with high baseline depressive symptoms in YG reported marginally higher 3-month MCS than their counterparts in WL (P = .11). Women with high baseline sleep disturbances in YG reported higher 3-months MCS than their counterparts in WL (P < .01) and higher 6-month MCS than their counterparts in ST (P = .01). YG led to greater benefit finding than ST and WL across the follow-up (P = .01). Three-month benefit finding partially mediated the effect of YG on 6-month PCS. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health–related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health–related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. PMID:26867802

  16. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N V; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P < .01) moderated the Group × Time effect on MCS, but not PCS. Women with high baseline depressive symptoms in YG reported marginally higher 3-month MCS than their counterparts in WL (P = .11). Women with high baseline sleep disturbances in YG reported higher 3-months MCS than their counterparts in WL (P < .01) and higher 6-month MCS than their counterparts in ST (P = .01). YG led to greater benefit finding than ST and WL across the follow-up (P = .01). Three-month benefit finding partially mediated the effect of YG on 6-month PCS. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health-related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health-related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. PMID:26867802

  17. Menopausal Quality of Life: A RCT of Yoga, Exercise and Omega-3 Supplements

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D; GUTHRIE, Katherine A; NEWTON, Katherine M; ANDERSON, Garnet L; BOOTH-LAFORCE, Cathryn; CAAN, Bette; CARPENTER, Janet S; COHEN, Lee S; DUNN, Andrea L; ENSRUD, Kristine E; FREEMAN, Ellen W; HUNT, Julie R; JOFFE, Hadine; LARSON, Joseph C; LEARMAN, Lee A; ROTHENBERG, Robin; SEGUIN, Rebecca A; SHERMAN, Karen J; STERNFELD, Barbara S; LACROIX, Andrea Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine efficacy of three non-hormonal therapies for improving menopause-related quality of life (QOL) in women with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Methods 12-week 3×2 randomized, controlled, factorial design trial. Peri- and postmenopausal women, ages 40-62 years, were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and also randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Interventions: 1) weekly 90-minute yoga classes with daily at-home practice; 2) individualized facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week; and 3) 0.615 gram omega-3 supplement, 3 times/day. Outcomes: Menopausal Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) total and domain (VMS, psychosocial, physical and sexual) scores. Results Among 355 randomized women, average age 54.7 years, 338 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.6/day and mean baseline total MENQOL score was 3.8 (range 1-8 from better to worse) with no between-group differences. For yoga compared to usual activity, baseline to 12-week improvements were seen for MENQOL total -0.3 (95% CI -0.6 to 0.0, p=0.02), and VMS (p=0.02) and sexuality (p=0.03) domain scores. For exercise and omega-3 compared to controls, improvements in baseline to 12-week total MENQOL scores were not observed. Exercise showed benefit in the MENQOL physical domain score at 12-weeks (p=0.02). Conclusion All women become menopausal and many seek medical advice on ways to improve quality of life; little evidence-based information exists. We found, among healthy sedentary menopausal women, yoga appears to improve menopausal QOL - the clinical significance of our finding is uncertain due to modest effect. PMID:24215858

  18. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, A.; Touchton-Leonard, K.

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight.

  19. A Journey of Self-Discovery: An Intervention Involving Massage, Yoga and Relaxation for Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Attending Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lesley; Gilchrist, Mollie; Stapley, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention involving massage, yoga and relaxation delivered to young children with identified emotional and behavioural difficulties, and at risk of exclusion. Children (n = 126) were invited by the head teacher to participate in the Self-discovery Programme (involving massage, yoga, breath work and relaxation) with…

  20. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, A.; Touchton-Leonard, K.

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight. PMID:27594890

  1. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Ross, A; Brooks, A; Touchton-Leonard, K; Wallen, G

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight. PMID:27594890

  2. Inner Correspondence and Peacefulness with Practices among Participants in Eurythmy Therapy and Yoga: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Weisskircher, Annette; Fouladbakhsh, Judith M.; Heusser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Several mind body medicine interventions require an active participation of the practitioners. We intended to develop a questionnaire to operationalize and measure the “inner correspondence” of individuals practicing Yoga or Eurythmy Therapy. In an anonymous cross-sectional study we enrolled 501 individuals (61% yoga). Exploratory factor analysis (study 1) of the 12-item instrument (Cronbach's alpha = .84) pointed to a 3-factor solution, with one major scale and good internal consistency (alpha = .83) and two minor scales with weak internal consistency. To improve the quality of the main scale, we added 8 new items which were tested in a sample of 135 individuals (study 2: 71% Yoga). Factor analysis confirmed a 12-item single factor (alpha = .95), that is, Inner Correspondence/Peaceful Harmony with Practices (ICPH). The scale correlated strongly with mindfulness (FMI; r > .50), moderately with life and patient satisfaction (BMLSS; r between .32 and .43), and weakly negative with symptom score (VAS; r = −.23). In conclusion, the scale ICPH was confirmed as a relevant tool to measure the inner correspondence and feelings of peacefulness with practices. It can be used in clinical studies to assess the efficacy of mind-body practices involving physical movements. PMID:20953427

  3. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice.

    PubMed

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI-Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS-Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  4. Clinical efficacy of herbal Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa)

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Doddanagali, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda refers to bronchial asthma as Tamaka Swasa and it is well explained in Charaka Samhita. It contributes several modalities of the treatment for Swasa roga(asthma). Among all modalities of treatment, polyherbal combinations are said to be well-accepted, safe and effective in asthma. A study was carried out in 40 patients of either sex in between the age of 15-65 years to assure the clinical response of Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa) at P.G. department of Kayachikitsa, D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag, Karnataka. The sum total properties of Padmapatradi yoga is tikta katu rasa, laghu and tikna guna (light and penetrating properties), ushna virya (hot potency) and vatakaphagna (decrease vata and kapha dosa) Padmapatradi yoga is effective in increased peak expiratory flow rate, breath holding time, and reduces the absolute eosinophil count of studied cases and also found statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. The drug is quite safe and acts as a bronchodilator, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory. PMID:21760694

  5. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  6. The 'world of yoga': the production and reproduction of therapeutic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hoyez, Anne-Cécile

    2007-07-01

    Yoga is becoming more and more fashionable all around the world. This activity, partly considered as therapeutic, reveals contemporary ways of producing global practices. Via a questionnaire completed by individuals at yoga centres in India and France, the paper analyses this phenomenon using the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Furthermore, it examines how these therapeutic landscapes are influenced by globalisation. Bringing together the concepts of therapeutic landscapes, globalisation and the practice of yoga, the paper analyses the production and reproduction of yogic therapeutic landscapes in the world's space. Constituted of natural physical elements and built structures, these therapeutic landscapes are also strongly linked to emotional qualities and intimate feelings evoked by the place and related to health and well-being. The paper also underlines that the emergence of internationally recognised therapeutic landscapes demands a cultural and social geographical approach that could help to examine the repercussions of local and global phenomena on therapeutic landscapes. Indeed, very often, yogis, all around the world, refer to ideal places where they rarely go. Consequently, they create an imagined therapeutic environment that the paper describes.

  7. New energy geographies: a case study of yoga, meditation and healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Philo, Chris; Cadman, Louisa; Lea, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Beginning with a routine day in the life of a practitioner of yoga and meditation and emphasising the importance of nurturing, maintaining and preventing the dissipation of diverse 'energies', this paper explores the possibilities for geographical health studies which take seriously 'new energy geographies'. It is explained how this account is derived from in-depth fieldwork tracing how practitioners of yoga and meditation find times and spaces for these practices, often in the face of busy urban lifestyles. Attention is paid to the 'energy talk' featuring heavily in how practitioners describe the benefits that they perceive themselves to derive from these practices, and to claims made about 'energies' generated during the time-spaces of these practices which seemingly flow, usually with positive effects, into other domains of their lives. The paper then discusses the implications of this energy talk in the context of: (a) critically reviewing conventional approaches to studying 'energy geographies'; (b) identifying an alertness to the likes of 'affective energies' surfacing in recent theoretically-attuned works of human geography (and cognate disciplines); and (c) exploring differing understandings of energy/energies extant in geographical studies of health and in step with the empirical research materials presented about yoga, meditation and healthfulness. While orientated towards explicitly geographical inquiries, the paper is intended as a statement of interest to the wider medical humanities. PMID:25503269

  8. Effects of an integrated yoga programme on chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, R M; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R; Gopinath, K S; Srinath, B S; Ravi, B D; Patil, S; Ramesh, B S; Nalini, R

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the effect of an integrated yoga programme on chemotherapy-related nausea and emesis in early operable breast cancer outpatients. Sixty-two subjects were randomly allocated to receive yoga (n = 28) or supportive therapy intervention (n = 34) during the course of their chemotherapy. Both groups had similar socio-demographic and medical characteristics. Intervention consisted of both supervised and home practice of yoga sessions lasting for 60 min daily, while the control group received supportive therapy and coping preparation during their hospital visits over a complete course of chemotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis (MANE) assessed after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes included measures for anxiety, depression, quality of life, distressful symptoms and treatment-related toxicity assessed before and during the course of chemotherapy. Following yoga, there was a significant decrease in post-chemotherapy-induced nausea frequency (P = 0.01) and nausea intensity (P = 0.01), and intensity of anticipatory nausea (P = 0.01) and anticipatory vomiting (P = 0.05) as compared with the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between MANE scores and anxiety, depression and distressful symptoms. In conclusion, the results suggest a possible use for stress reduction interventions such as yoga in complementing conventional antiemetics to manage chemotherapy-related nausea and emesis.

  9. Yoga asanas as an effective form of experiential learning when teaching musculoskeletal anatomy of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Danielle C; Pang, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Physical movement as a conduit for experiential learning within the academic context of anatomy is a strategy currently used in university dance education. This same approach can be applied to other movement-based practices, for example, yoga. The primary purpose of this study was to pilot a novel teaching curriculum to yoga practitioners, based on Bruner's Theory of Instruction, which incorporated the four adaptive modes of Kolb's Theory of Experiential Learning. The secondary purpose was to assess the applicability of anatomical knowledge within the participants' yoga practice. Following the development of a curriculum appropriate for a spectrum of academic backgrounds, participants were recruited to attend a 2-hour learning session within the Department of Anatomy at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The learning session guided participants through the bones and muscles of the lower limb pertaining to five specific yoga poses. Based on participant feedback, the sessions were positively received and consistent. In addition, learning session participants were able to apply the anatomical information they were taught to their yoga practice 1-month later. Bruner and Kolb's independent theories on curriculum design and effective learning practice were successfully incorporated to create a 2-hour learning session. The potential use of experiential learning to compliment and/or enhance traditional didactic teaching in the academic context of anatomy should be further explored.

  10. Effects of Yoga on Symptoms, Physical Function, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults with Osteoarthritis: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena; Park, Juyoung; Wyman, Jean F

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic condition. Because physical activity is a key component in OA management, effective exercise interventions are needed. Yoga is an increasingly popular multimodal mind-body exercise that aims to promote flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance. Its gentle approach is potentially a safe and effective exercise option for managing OA. The purpose of this focused review is to examine the effects of yoga on OA symptoms and physical and psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive search was conducted using seven electronic databases. Twelve reports met inclusion criteria involving a total of 589 participants with OA-related symptoms. A variety of types, frequencies, and durations of yoga interventions were reported; Hatha and Iyengar yoga were the most commonly used types. Frequency of intervention ranged from once a week to 6 days a week. Duration of the interventions ranged from 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks. Yoga intervention resulted in reductions in pain, stiffness, and swelling, but results on physical function and psychosocial well-being were inconclusive because of a variety of outcome measures being used.

  11. Medical Yoga for Patients with Stress-Related Symptoms and Diagnoses in Primary Health Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Köhn, Monica; Persson Lundholm, Ulla; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of patients are suffering from stress-related symptoms and diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the medical yoga treatment in patients with stress-related symptoms and diagnoses in primary health care. A randomized controlled study was performed at a primary health care centre in Sweden from March to June, 2011. Patients were randomly allocated to a control group receiving standard care or a yoga group treated with medical yoga for 1 hour, once a week, over a 12-week period in addition to the standard care. A total of 37 men and women, mean age of 53 ± 12 years were included. General stress level (measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), burnout (Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)), pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)), and overall health status (Euro Quality of Life VAS (EQ-VAS)) were measured before and after 12 weeks. Patients assigned to the Yoga group showed significantly greater improvements on measures of general stress level (P < 0.000), anxiety (P < 0.019), and overall health status (P < 0.018) compared to controls. Treatment with medical yoga is effective in reducing levels of stress and anxiety in patients with stress-related symptoms in primary health care. PMID:23533465

  12. Comparative Assessment of the Effects of Hatha Yoga and Physical Exercise on Biochemical Functions in Perimenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Gayathry; Nayak, Akshatha Ganesh; Rao, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Menopause is a transitional phase in which some women experience discomfort, while others may exhibit variety of symptoms. The power of yoga therapy in relieving stress, enhancing health, improving fitness and managing symptoms of a variety of disorders is remarkable. Aim The current study was designed to study the effect of Hatha yoga therapy and regular physical exercise on the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Glycated Haemoglobin (GHB), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), serum cortisol and total plasma thiol levels in perimenopausal women. Materials and Methods The study included 216 women with perimenopausal symptoms, 111 in test group (Hatha yoga) and 105 in control group (physical exercise). The duration of intervention was 45 minutes every day for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected in the pre and post intervention period. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Results FBS and GHB (p≤0.05) showed a significant decrease after yoga therapy. Cortisol levels significantly (p≤0.05) increased in the post intervention period in the control group. However, it is maintained in the test group between the two time periods. The total plasma thiols level showed a rise in the post intervention period, significant rise (p≤0.001) in control group but not significant in the test group. The TSH levels were not altered in any group. Conclusion It is concluded that exercise helps in maintaining the sugar levels but calming effects of yoga practice is important in relieving stress and enhancing health in perimenopausal women. PMID:27656468

  13. Effect of an integrated approach of yoga therapy on quality of life in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Ebnezar, John; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Bali, Yogitha; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of addition of integrated yoga therapy to therapeutic exercises in osteoarthritis (OA) of knee joints. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of t participants with OA of knee joints between 35 and 80 years (yoga, 59.56 ± 9.54 and control, 59.42 ± 10.66) from the outpatient department of Dr. John's Orthopedic Center, Bengaluru, were randomly assigned to receive yoga or physiotherapy exercises after transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment of the affected knee joints. Both groups practiced supervised intervention (40 min per day) for 2 weeks (6 days per week) with followup for 3 months. The module of integrated yoga consisted of shithilikaranavyayama (loosening and strengthening), asanas, relaxation techniques, pranayama, meditation and didactic lectures on yama, niyama, jnana yoga, bhakti yoga, and karma yoga for a healthy lifestyle change. The control group also had supervised physiotherapy exercises. A total of 118 (yoga) and 117 (control) were available for final analysis. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon's) and between groups (P < 0.001, Mann–Whitney U-test) on all domains of the Short Form-36 (P < 0.004), with better results in the yoga group than in the control group, both at 15th day and 90th day. Conclusion: An integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than therapeutic exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in improving knee disability and quality of life in patients with OA knees. PMID:22022123

  14. The Digital Learning Faculty Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Ekaterina; Chepya, Peter; Demers, David

    2010-01-01

    To assist in the training and professional development of faculty new to teaching online, Sacred Heart University established the Digital Learning Faculty Certificate Program. This 8-week online cohort program provides faculty with best practices for teaching online, including instructional design, effective online communication and appropriate…

  15. The integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: a one-year controlled study.

    PubMed

    Uma, K; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, R; Vaidehi, S; Seethalakshmi, R

    1989-10-01

    Ninety children with mental retardation of mild, moderate and severe degree were selected from four special schools in Bangalore, India. Forty-five children underwent yogic training for one academic year (5 h in every week) with an integrated set of yogic practices, including breathing exercises and pranayama, sithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), suryanamaskar, yogasanas and meditation. They were compared before and after yogic training with a control group of 45 mentally retarded children matched for chronological age, sex, IQ, socio-economic status and socio environmental background who were not exposed to yoga training but continued their usual school routine during that period. There was highly significant improvement in the IQ and social adaptation parameters in the yoga group as compared to the control group. This study shows the efficacy of yoga as an effective therapeutic tool in the management of mentally retarded children.

  16. Distress Tolerance as a Predictor of Adherence to a Yoga Intervention: Moderating Roles of BMI and Body Image.

    PubMed

    Baird, Scarlett O; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether distress tolerance, body image, and body mass index (BMI) predicted adherence to a yoga intervention. Participants were 27 women who participated in a yoga intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Attendance and distress tolerance were assessed weekly, and body image and BMI were measured at baseline. Multilevel modeling revealed a three-way interaction of distress tolerance, BMI, and body image (p < .001). For participants with few body image concerns, distress tolerance was positively associated with adherence regardless of BMI (p = .009). However, for those with poor body image, increases in distress tolerance were associated with increases in adherence among overweight participants (p < .001) but lower adherence among obese participants (p = .007). Distress tolerance may be implicated in adherence to a yoga intervention, although its effects may be dependent on body image concerns, BMI, and their interaction. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26530475

  17. Peer volunteers in an integrative pain management program for frail older adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is co