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Sample records for 8-week-old male wistar

  1. ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

  2. Metabolism of 2,6-dinitrotoluene in male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Kawajiri, T; Sayama, M; Taniuchi, Y; Miyahara, T; Kozuka, H

    1989-07-01

    1. Unchanged 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2-amino-6-nitrobenzyl alcohol, conjugated 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol and conjugated 2-amino-6-nitrobenzyl alcohol were detected in urine of male Wistar rats dosed with 2,6-DNT. The major metabolite was conjugated 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, which accounted for about 1.5% of the dose. 2. Unchanged 2,6-DNT, 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, and conjugates of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde were detected in the bile of rats dosed with 2,6-DNT. The major metabolite was conjugated 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, which accounted for 30% of the dose. Conjugates of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol (major) and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde (minor) were common biliary metabolites in rats dosed with 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol or 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde. 3. 2,6-Dinitrobenzyl alcohol and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde were detected by incubating bile from rats given 2,6-DNT with rat intestinal contents under N2. 4. Incubation of 2,6-DNT with hepatic microsomal preparations gave 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol. Incubation of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol with microsomal plus cytosol preparations gave 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde. Incubation of 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde with cytosol preparations gave 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid. The activities of 2,6-DNT oxidation to 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol oxidation to 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde oxidation to 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid, and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde reduction to 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol were 22.0, 4.7, 1.3, and 23.3 nmol formed/g liver per min, respectively. 5. These results indicate that 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, an intermediary metabolite of 2,6-DNT in male Wistar rats, is produced either by oxidation of 2,6-DNT in the liver, or by oxidation of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol formed by hydrolysis of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol conjugates excreted in the

  3. Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats.

    PubMed

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, male WKHAs emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in male WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone conditional stimulus (CS) or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs, and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC.

  4. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  5. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  6. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty and Thyroid Function in the Male Wistar Rat. Stoker, T.E1., Guidici, D.L.2, Laws, S.C.2 and Cooper, R.L.2 Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  7. ATRAZINE STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACTH AND ADRENAL STEROIDS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in increased serum corticosterone (C), progesterone (P), androgens and estrogens. The observation of increased C following single or multiple doses of ATR (up to 21 days of dosing) su...

  8. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  9. Serum pharmacokinetics and coagulation aberration induced by sodium dehydroacetate in male and female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Ying, Donglai; Liu, Hao; Yu, Zengrong; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Xie, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is used as a preservative in food, animal feeds and cosmetics. Severe haemorrhage in organs and prolongation of coagulation factors in Sprague–Dawley rats has been reported upon oral administration of Na-DHA. We investigated alterations in coagulation parameters and serum pharmacokinetics upon Na-DHA administration. Wistar rats were administered Na-DHA (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.). Weight gain, food consumption, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum levels of Vitamin k (Vk)1, and serum levels of Na-DHA were measured, and histopathology undertaken. Significant reductions in body weight, food consumption and serum levels of Vk1, as well as prolonged PT and APTT, were observed. Females were significantly different from males in terms of serum Na-DHA concentration. Congestion in hepatic sinusoids, renal tubules and spleen, as well as haemorrhage in lung alveoli, gastric mucosa, intestinal mucosa and cardiac muscle cells, were observed by histopathological analyses. Correlation of serum Na-DHA via PT and APTT, as well as serum Vk1 via PT and APTT, in females was better than that in males. Female rats are more sensitive than males to Na-DHA. Hence, Na-DHA can induce coagulation aberration in Wistar rats, with higher sensitivity seen in females than males. PMID:28387309

  10. Oral propylparaben administration to juvenile male Wistar rats did not induce toxicity in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Gazin, Vincent; Marsden, Edward; Marguerite, Fabien

    2013-12-01

    Parabens are in widespread use as preservatives in drugs. In the late 1990 s, concerns were raised about their capacity to disrupt endocrine function based on in vitro data and in vivo uterotrophic tests. Studies in juvenile male rats provided conflicting results on pospubertal sperm production. In an exploratory pharmacokinetic study, Wistar male rats received a single dose of propylparaben (PP) at 3, 10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg, orally on postnatal day (PND) 31. Plasma PP concentrations were quantifiable up 8h after dosing with a mean T max value of 15 min. Distribution was 4.8 l/kg, the plasma elimination half-life was 47 min, and clearance was 4.20 (l/h)/kg at 10mg/kg. A sulfoconjugated metabolite was detected. In the juvenile toxicology study, PP was orally administered by gavage to 20 Wistar male rats at doses of 3, 10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg/day in 1% hydroxyethylcellulose for 8 weeks starting on PND21. A first subgroup of 10 males/dose was necropsied immediately after the 8-week exposure period; a second subgroup of 10 males/dose was necropsied after a 26-week washout period. Blood samples were taken from additional satellite animals after dosing on PND21 and PND77 for toxicokinetic analysis. There was no evidence of an effect of PP on the weight of the male reproductive organs, epididymal sperm parameters, hormone levels, or histopathology. The dose of 1000 mg/kg/day was the no-observed adverse effect level, corresponding to a maximum plasma concentration of 12,030 ng/ml and exposure to 47 760 ng · h/ml (AUC0-8 h) at the end of the treatment.

  11. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Molet, Jenny; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS) alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control) from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%), self-grooming (69%), and putting the pups back to the nest (167%). LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring. PMID:27149676

  12. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  13. The Anti-fertility Effects of Acacia nilotica in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lampiao, Fanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A bulk of contraceptives on the market is women-oriented today. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a medicinal herb, Acacia nilotica on various parameters of male fertility using a rat model. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly divided in to two groups. One group received Acacia nilotica, while the other acted as controls. Ten animals from each group were sacrificed after 16 weeks. Treatment was withdrawn for the remaining animals for 8 weeks. Blood was collected for hormonal analysis. The testis was removed for histological examination, while epididymal spermatozoa were retrieved for motility and morphological analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Sperm motility, progressive motility and sperm concentration significantly decreased in treated animals compared to the controls (p<0.05). Withdrawing the treatment did not restore these parameters (p<0.05). Abnormal sperm morphology significantly increased in both the treated and treatment withdrawn groups when compared to the controls (p<0.05). Testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in the treated group when compared to the controls (p<0.05) and no significant differences were observed between the controls and the treated animals when treatment was withdrawn. Histological observations showed that Acacia nilotica treatment disrupted semeniferous tubule architechture and consequently the spermatogenesis process. Conclusion These results show that Acacia nilotica severely affects sperm morphology, progressive motility and sperm concentration irreversibly in Wistar rats. PMID:23926560

  14. Infradian biorhythms of mitotic activity esophageal epithelium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Diatroptov, M E; Makarova, O V

    2015-01-01

    Infradian rhythms of esophageal epithelium mitotic activity were studied in male Wistar rats of two age groups: 35-45 days (prepubertal) and 3-4 months (adults). Studies of the time course of esophageal epithelium mitotic indexes in adult males showed 4- and 12-day biorhythms, while prepubertal rats exhibited only 4-day infradian biorhythms of this parameter. Studies of the mitotic activity over long periods (3 years) showed 4.058- and 12.175-day periodicity of infradian biorhythms for this parameter, presumably due to external exposures synchronizing the biorhythms. Studies of the mean daily values of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field during the period of our research (2012-2013) showed rhythmicities analogous to changes in the mitotic activity of the epithelium. The minimum mitotic indexes were detected on the days of the most pronounced negative values of the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component.

  15. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag; Axelstad, Marta; Dreisig, Karin; Hadrup, Niels; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie

    2013-12-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and lactation with 0, 5, 15 or 50μg/kg bw/day of ethinyl estradiol. This potent estrogen was found to induce an increased number of nipples and reduced ovary weight in female offspring. Malformations of female genitalia were found in young as well as adult offspring, as an increased AGD was seen at birth and a deeper urethral slit length was seen in adulthood. In prepubertal male offspring, estrogen-regulated gene expression in ventral prostate was increased dose-dependently and a decreased ventral prostate weight was seen at 15μg/kg. Female external sexual characteristics and prostate development were found to be targets for exposure to estrogenic compounds and may be of interest in studies on estrogenic environmental compounds.

  16. Appetizer administration stimulates food consumption, weight gain and leptin levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadikar, D D; Premavalli, K S

    2011-08-01

    Appetizers based on different spices/herbs are highly acceptable but evaluation of their functionality needs more attention. The present study, investigated the effects of appetizers on food consumption, weight gain, and leptin levels in male Wistar rats. Three appetizers, namely ginger beverage, ajowan beverage, and karpurvalli beverage were administered to groups of rats. The fasting leptin levels ranged from 0.75 to 2.5 ng/ml, while weights were in the range of 147-201 g. Decreased (3.4-10.8%) leptin levels following the consumption of appetizers indicated their appetizing effect, with a greater reduction (p<0.05) for ginger beverage and karpurvalli beverage. Weight gain after 10 days was 7.68% in the control group whereas it was 11.20 and 13.26% in rats fed with ginger and karpurvalli beverages, respectively. However, food consumption was higher in all the appetizer groups than in the controls.

  17. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  18. Isoflavones and their effects on the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Caceres, S; Peña, L; Moyano, G; Martinez-Fernandez, L; Monsalve, B; Illera, M J; Millan, P; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to determine how two of the most important isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, affect the gonadal axis in male prepuberal rats. One hundred and seventy-five prepuberal male Wistar rats were allocated into seven groups: one control group and six experimental groups that were orally administered a high or low dose of genistein, daidzein or a mixture of both. Testosterone determination was assayed by EIA. The testes and body weights were measured, and the histology of the epididymis with the sperm content and epididymal sperm count were evaluated. In the control group, we observed an increase in the serum testosterone levels (>2.5 ng ml(-1) ) at the third week (52 days), which corresponded to the onset of puberty in these rats. The same increase in serum testosterone levels was observed at the fourth week in rats that received low doses of isoflavones; therefore, we concluded that the onset of puberty was delayed. At high doses, there was no significant increase in testosterone levels, which could be related to the fact that these male rats did not reach puberty. These findings were supported by the results obtained from the analysis of the epididymal content as well as the testes/body weight ratio.

  19. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    PubMed

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  20. Anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker (Asphodelaceae) stem at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was investigated for anabolic and androgenic effects in male Wistar rats. Sixty male rats were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of 15 each. Group A (control) was orally treated with 0.5 mL of distilled water for 14 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control except they received 0.5 mL containing 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. All the doses of the extract increased (P <0.05) the testicular-body weight ratio as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, glycogen, sialic acid, protein, and cholesterol content of the testes except the single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight which compared well (P>0.05) with the controls for glycogen and cholesterol. The testicular and serum testosterone concentration were increased except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the tissue and serum hormone did not manifest until after the first and seven daily doses respectively. Testicular acid phosphatase activity, serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone concentrations also increased at all the doses except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the enzyme and the hormone did not manifest until after seven days. The increases were most pronounced in the 50 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The results indicate anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male rat testes with the 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the highest anabolizing and androgenic activities. These activities further support the folkloric use of the plant most especially at 50 mg/kg body weight in the management of male sexual dysfunction in South Africa.

  1. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016.

  2. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  3. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  4. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    PubMed

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group treated with 1200 and 800 mg/kg/day. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity underwent a significant (p < 0.05) increase in both groups. The obtained observations clearly reveal hepatotoxic effects of mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms.

  5. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05), fibrosis/inflammation scores (p < 0.001), collagen volume fraction (p < 0.01) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (p ≤ 0.001) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In addition, conventional coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p < 0.001), but only conventional coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p < 0.001), active metalloproteinase 2 (p ≤ 0.004) and the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive preneoplastic lesions (p < 0.05) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In conclusion, conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats.

  6. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  7. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against hyperoxaluria induced mitochondrial dysfunction in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Kaur, Tanzeer; Singla, S K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephro-protective potential of N-acetylcysteine against hyperoxaluria-induced renal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Nine days dosing of 0.4 % ethylene glycol +1 % ammonium chloride, developed hyperoxaluria in male wistar rats which resulted in renal injury and dysfunction as supported by increased level of urinary lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, and decreased creatinine clearance. Mitochondrial oxidative strain in hyperoxaluric animals was evident by decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Declined activities of respiratory chain enzymes and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes showed mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperoxaluric animals. N-acetylcysteine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), by virtue of its -SH reviving power, was able to increase the glutathione levels and thus decrease the oxidative stress in renal mitochondria. Hence, mitochondrial damage is, evidently, an essential event in ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria and N-acetylcysteine presented itself as a safe and effective remedy in combating nephrolithiasis.

  8. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  9. Daily NO rhythms in peripheral clocks in aging male Wistar rats: protective effects of exogenous melatonin.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2016-11-01

    In mammals suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), acts as a light entrainable master clock and by generation of temporal oscillations regulates the peripheral organs acting as autonomous clocks resulting in overt behavioral and physiological rhythms. SCN also controls synthesis and release of melatonin (hormonal message for darkness) from pineal. Nitric Oxide (NO) acts as an important neurotransmitter in generating the phase shifts of circadian rhythms and participates in sleep-wake processes, maintenance of vascular tone as well as signalling and regulating inflammatory processes. Aging is associated with disruption of circadian timing system and decline in endogenous melatonin leading to several physiological disorders. Here we report the effect of aging on NO daily rhythms in various peripheral clocks such as kidney, intestine, liver, heart, lungs and testis. NO levels were measured at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0, 6, 12 and 18 in these tissues using Griess assay in male Wistar rats. Aging resulted in alteration of NO levels as well as phase of NO in both 12 and 24 months groups. Correlation analysis demonstrated loss of stoichiometric interaction between the various peripheral clocks with aging. Age induced alterations in NO daily rhythms were found to be most significant in liver and, interestingly least in lungs. Neurohormone melatonin, an endogenous synchroniser and an antiaging agent decreases with aging. We report further differential restoration with exogenous melatonin administration of age induced alterations in NO daily rhythms and mean levels in kidney, intestine and liver and the stoichiometric interactions between the various peripheral clocks.

  10. Pathological and biochemical effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of celecoxib in Wistar albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, Evrim A; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz; Kismet, Kemal; Akay, M Turan

    2010-10-01

    Celecoxib is intended for acute pain, menstrual cramps, pain, and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of celecoxib (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) treatment on rats orally for 28 days. We examined effects on some biochemical parameters and kidney and liver tissues of celecoxib-treated Wistar albino male rats. At the end of the study, hepatic and renal function tests were performed and liver and kidney of rats were microscopically examined to detect systemic toxicity of celecoxib. Celecoxib-treated rats had statistically significant decreases of cholesterol, total bilirubin, total protein, urea, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase levels increased in 10- and 50-mg/kg/day celecoxib-treated rats. Histological examinations showed mononuclear cell infiltration, hyperplasia, and cellular degeneration in liver and tubular damage and mononuclear cell infiltration in kidney. We suggest that high doses of celecoxib may cause changes in liver and kidney histopathology, liver function, and in some biochemical parameters.

  11. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  12. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  13. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of p< 0.05. Activities of membrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  14. Role of vitamin E in mitigating methomyl induced acute toxicity in blood of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, Dharm Paul; Kiran, Ravi; Bansal, Anil K; Malhotra, Anshoo; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective potential of vitamin E, if any, in attenuating the toxic effects induced by acute methomyl treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing between 230 and 250 g, received either a single oral dose of 9 mg/kg of methomyl, vitamin E alone injected intraperitoneally on alternate days (4 injections) at 50 mg/kg body for 1 week prior to methomyl treatment, or both methomyl plus vitamin E given in a similar manner. The effects of different treatments were studied on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes, which included superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase and various hematological parameters, including total leucocytes count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), hemoglobin, platelets counts, red cell counts, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Acute 24-h treatment to rats resulted in a significant increase in the LPO. GSH levels and the activities of catalase, GST, and GSHPx were found to be significantly decreased following methomyl treatment. A significant elevation in the activity of SOD and in TLC was also observed after 24 h of methomyl treatment. Further, a significant increase in the neutrophils and eosinophil counts was also observed. However, lymphocytes showed a significant decrease following methomyl treatment. SEMs showed significant morphological changes following methomyl treatment. Vitamin E pretreatment to methomyl-treated rats effectively normalized the levels of LPO and GSH. Vitamin E could also significantly elevate the activity of catalase, increase platelets counts and TLC, and normalized the activities of SOD and GSHPx. Vitamin E pretreatment improved the morphology of the red blood cells. The study concludes that vitamin E affords protection in methomyl-induced toxicity in the rat.

  15. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon, lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water. PMID:28348973

  16. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p < .05) in the levels of germinal epithelial diameter in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. There was no significant change (p < .05) in cross-sectional diameter of all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Group D rats showed a significant decrease (p ˂ .05) in lumen diameter compared with group B rats. There was an uneven distribution of germinal epithelial cells in groups B, C and D. However, there was degeneration of the epithelia cells in group D when compared to the control and group B rats. Sera levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are markers of reactive oxygen species, significantly increased (MDA) and decreased (SOD), respectively, in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Also sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) significantly decreased (p < .05) in groups C and D compared with the control group. The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased

  17. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Haydée; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-04

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% ± 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% ± 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% ± 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% ± 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine.

  18. Biosterilant effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 extract on male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Peki, Vanlal; Devi, Maibam Sunita; Sanjeev, Sanasam; Khusboo, Maurya; Zothansanga, R; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2017-01-15

    Chemosterilants have long been used in sterilization programs for managing pet, stray, and wild animals but adverse effects such as trauma, incomplete responses to treatment, and complete abolition of gonadal sources of testosterone often occurs. This study describes the biosterilant effects of administering three doses of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 (Bt 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg; 20 rats/dose) extract in adult male Wistar albino rats on testicular parameters, function, histology, and a number of biochemical markers of overall health, free radical production, and cell proliferation. Intratesticular administration of Bt extract to rats induces testicular oxidative stress and damages and consequently, perturb spermatogenesis, degeneration of testis, reduction in testes size, and depletion of testosterone and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in a dose-dependent manner because of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. No morbidity or mortality adverse effects were observed in both the saline control and Bt extract-treated rats. Significant variation was noted in clinical manifestations, weight and volume of testes, and hormonal and biochemical profiles between Bt doses in comparison with the saline control. Aspermia/azoospermia (100%) resulted in Bt-treated rats without any adverse effects. Histopathological analysis showed degeneration, necrosis, vacuolation, fewer germ cells, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and a lack of elongated spermatids in atrophic seminiferous tubules in Bt extract-treated groups in the presence of low concentrations of testosterone, antioxidant enzymes, and suppression of germ cell proliferation. Dose-dependent effects were evident in most parameters that were measured. The vast array of tests that were undertaken also provides some important indicators of the physiological effects associated with the treatments that were applied. Intratesticular injection of Bt extract impairs spermatogenesis and induces permanent sterility

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  20. A subtoxic interactive toxicity study of ethanol and chromium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Mehta, K; Krishnan, S; Rao, C V

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactive toxicity of ethanol with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7-chromium). Young, male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups of five or six animals each and were dosed, through water, with 10% ethanol (vol./vol.) or 25 ppm chromium or were dosed with a combination of ethanol+chromium at the same concentrations for a period of 22 weeks ad libitum and were maintained on normal diet. Control animals were maintained on a normal diet and water for the same period. The serum succinate dehydrogenase and liver total triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the three treated groups. The serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly reduced in ethanol-treated rats, and there was no significant change in the acid phosphatase activity. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels in the three treated groups were significantly increased. The liver glycogen significantly decreased in both the ethanol-treated and the chromium-treated rats. There was a significant increase in liver total cholesterol levels in chromium-treated rats. Total glutathione levels were significantly decreased in the livers of ethanol-treated and ethanol+chromium-treated rats. To further substantiate these findings, a histological examination of the liver and kidneys was undertaken. The livers of alcohol-treated animals showed altered hepatic architecture in the centrilobular and periportal areas, with increased sinusoidal space (space of Disse), vacuolation, and necrosis of hepatocytes. Similar changes were observed in a histological examination of the livers of chromium-treated rats, except that the damage to the hepatocytes was more confined to the periportal area. Moreover, histological examination of the livers of ethanol+chromium-treated rats revealed uniform damage in the centrilobular and periportal areas, as was observed in the groups treated either with ethanol or chromium. The histological examination of the

  1. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  2. Determinants of Retention in 8-Week-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Eleanor Vander; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eight-week-old infants learned to execute an operant footkick to produce crib mobile movement in one of two conditions: training duration on (1) varied within single session and (2) consistent across multiple sessions. Results, in contrast with data from 3-month-olds, demonstrated that conditions of original learning influence immediate and…

  3. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  4. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  5. Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the Reproductive Indices of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01–11.71%), protein (1.56–1.95%), ash (0.22–0.35%), moisture (92.55–98.24%), and alcohol (0.26–3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×106), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals. PMID:25101691

  6. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats.

  7. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  8. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on age-related hepatocyte changes in old male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2004-10-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs, such as the liver, and this process might be due to damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis shows a reduction with age, and this fact could be associated with some age-related changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Two and twenty two month-old male and female Wistar rats were used. Old rats were treated with human recombinant GH for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated from the liver and cultured, and different parameters were measured in cells and medium. Plasma IGF-1 was also measured. Aging significantly decreased plasma IGF-1 in males. In females, plasma IGF-1 was also reduced, but not significantly. GH treatment restored plasma IGF-1 levels to values similar to young males. Aging was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate (cGMP), as well as a reduction in adenosyl triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. GH administration partially prevented all these changes in males. In females, some of the parameters were significantly improved by GH (ATP, CO, cGMP), while others showed a tendency to improvement, although differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, GH administration could exert beneficial effects against age-related changes in hepatocytes, mainly in males.

  9. In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

  10. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    Male Wistar rats have been shown to be the most sensitive sex, strain and species to ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity in subchronic studies. A chronic toxicity and dosimetry study was therefore conducted in male Wistar rats administered ethylene glycol via the diet at 0, 50, 150, 300, or 400 mg/kg/day for up to twelve months. Subgroups of animals were included for metabolite analysis and renal clearance studies to provide a quantitative basis for extrapolating dose-response relationships from this sensitive animal model in human health risk assessments. Mortality occurred in 5 of 20 rats at 300 mg/kg/day (days 111-221) and 4 of 20 rats at 400 mg/kg/day (days 43-193), with remaining rats at this dose euthanized early (day 203) due to excessive weight loss. Increased water consumption and urine volume with decreased specific gravity occurred at 300 mg/kg/day presumably due to osmotic diuresis. Calculi (calcium oxalate crystals) occurred in the bladder or renal pelvis at {>=} 300 mg/kg/day. Rats dying early at {>=} 300 mg/kg/day had transitional cell hyperplasia with inflammation and hemorrhage of the bladder wall. Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at {<=} 150 mg/kg/day. No significant differences in kidney oxalate levels, the metabolite responsible for renal toxicity, were observed among control, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups. At 300 and 400 mg/kg/day, oxalate levels increased proportionally with the nephrotoxicity score supporting the oxalate crystal-induced nephrotoxicity mode of action. No treatment-related effects on the renal clearance of intravenously infused {sup 3}H-inulin, a marker for glomerular filtration, and {sup 14}C-oxalic acid were observed in rats surviving 12 months of exposure to ethylene glycol up to 300 mg/kg/day. In studies with naive male Wistar and F344 rats (a

  11. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Marchesi, Guilherme D’Aprile; de Fatima Soto, Sônia; de Castro, Isac; Rodrigues, Thiago Guimarães; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Pazetti, Rogerio; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages. PMID:28355363

  12. Protective effect of pentoxifylline on male Wistar rat testicular germ cell apoptosis induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymeth amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahnaz; Movassaghi, Shabnam; foroumadi, Alireza; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Sharifi, Zahra Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) one of the methamphetamine derivatives that affect the reproductive system, has not been well understood. Many young people are consumers of drugs such as MDMA that can affect their reproductive capability. Apoptosis is the main mechanism for male infertility. Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases cAMP intracellularly and reduces tumor necrosis factor-α. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PTX administration in MDMA-induced apoptosis in testes of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into five groups: control group (without any intervention), group receiving 7.5 mg/kg MDMA three times every two hours for one day, first experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX just at the time of third injection of MDMA, second experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX a week before MDMA administration, and the vehicle group, which received MDMA+saline. Two weeks later, testes were removed and prepared for H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blot techniques. Results: There was a significant decrease of the score in the MDMA group compared with the control group. In first and second experimental groups, the quality of seminiferous epithelium was improved compared with the MDMA group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells/tubule increased in MDMA and vehicle groups, which is decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Expression of active caspase-3 significantly increased in MDMA group, which is significantly decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Conclusion: PTX can significantly reduce the severity of lesions in the testes following administration of MDMA. PMID:27482346

  13. Influence of melatonin therapy and orchiectomy on T cell subsets in male Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Santello, Fabricia H; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Caetano, Leony C; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana N; Dos Santos, Carla D; Alonso Toldo, Míriam P; do Prado, José C

    2009-10-01

    Gonadal steroids exert an important influence on the host immune response during infection. Changes resulting from the absence or replacement of gonadal hormones may represent a distinct evolution of a particular parasite. Taking into account the greater susceptibility of males to parasites, the magnitude of the immune response seems to depend on the interaction of many hormones that will act synergistically with other immune cells. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the luck of male sex hormones due to orchiectomy, and the influence of oral administration of melatonin on the immune response of male Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. The percentage of CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD3(+) CD8(+) lymphocyte T cell subsets were evaluated using flow cytometry and the measurement of IL-2 and IL-12. For all parameters examined, a synergistic action of melatonin and orchiectomy on the host's immune response was observed, promoting an effective response against the parasite during the acute phase of infection. These results offer insight into other possibilities for possibly controlling T. cruzi proliferation through melatonin therapy and also the stimulatory effects on host's immune response triggered by the absence of male gonadal steroids during the acute phase of infection.

  14. Standardised extract of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) increases aphrodisiac potential besides being safe in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Singhal, S; Kumar, N; Rao, C M; Sumalatha, S; Dave, J; Dave, R; Nandakumar, K

    2016-12-01

    The standardised extract of root of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) was evaluated for its aphrodisiac potential and safety profile on reproductive system. Wistar albino rats were trained to provide sexual experience under a dim red light (10 W) in a glass tank. Male and female rats were placed periodically in the glass tank in a particular order, that is male followed by introduction of the receptive female. Dosing of extract was carried out for 54 days at 125 and 250 mg kg(-1) p.o to male rats. On 14th and 28th days, the animals were observed from the cage side for sexual behaviours. Safed musli at both dose levels enhanced sexual vigour and libido which might be useful for treatment of sexual dysfunction in male till 28th day. Safety profile was assessed after 54 days of drug treatment, where both doses showed an increase in sperm count and increase in sperm motility. Thus, it can be stated that both doses possessed the spermatogenic potential, which would be highly beneficial in treating oligospermia or low sperm count. After 54 days of study, there was increase in sperm abnormality (%) at both doses, but not more than 10%, which indicated that this formulation will not induce infertility.

  15. Pharmacological validation of the free-exploratory paradigm in male Wistar rats: A proposed test of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Thiago Henrique; Goes, Tiago Costa; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-08-01

    The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety for both mice and rats. However, its pharmacological validation has only been carried out for the mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to pharmacologically validate FEP for Wistar rats, by testing the effects of clinically established anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, in four different experiments. In all experiments, male Wistar rats were first tested in FEP to be categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Then, only medium trait anxiety rats were selected to be tested again in FEP, two weeks later, after being pharmacologically treated, according to each experiment as follows: Experiment I: 0.5mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) or vehicle; Experiment II: 20mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or vehicle; Experiment III: 5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX5) or vehicle: and Experiment IV: 0.5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX0.5) or vehicle. As a group, the results showed that PTZ and FLX5 increased levels of trait anxiety and reduced locomotor activity, whereas DZP and FLX0.5 decreased levels of trait anxiety, without impairing locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that FEP for rats is able to predict clinical anxiolytic and anxiogenic activities of different drugs, including fluoxetine, which is believed to present a dual effect on anxiety. Therefore, this paradigm can be proposed as an effective method for testing potential trait anxiety-reducing drugs, in rats.

  16. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  17. Effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on prevention of ethylene glycol induced renal stone in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Sadrollah; Askarpour, Eslam; Mehrabi, Farhad; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasturtium officinale is a traditional herb that is used for diuresis. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on ethylene glycol-induced renal stone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this study 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups and studied during 30 days. Two groups of negative and healthy control received 1% ethylene glycol in water respectively. Low and high dose preventive groups, in addition to 1% ethylene glycol, daily gavaged with 750 mg/kg and 1.5 g/kg of extract respectively. All rats were hold in metabolic cages individually in days 0, 15 and 30 and 24-hour urine samples were collected and checked for urinary parameters of stone formation. In 30th day, rats were anesthetized with ether, and after taking serum sample from them, were sacrificed and their kidneys were sent for pathological evaluation and for presence and volume of calcium oxalate crystals. Results Percentage of calcium oxalate crystals in negative control groups (75%), preventive groups with low dose (28.6%) and high dose (57.1%) in comparison to healthy control group (12.5%) increased (P < 0.05). In 30th day urinary oxalate concentration in preventive and negative control groups were more than healthy control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions This research showed that the Nasturtium officinale extract has no significant effects in urinary and chemical parameters efficient in calcium oxalate stone crystals in rat but its extract in low dose has some preventive effect on renal stone formation. PMID:27921023

  18. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  19. Administration of IκB-kinase inhibitor PS1145 enhances apoptosis in DMBA-induced tumor in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rajmani, R S; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Sahoo, Aditya P; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Saxena, Shikha; Kumar, Rajiv; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a key anti-apoptotic factor, plays a critical role in tumor cell growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB is normally suppressed in the cytoplasm due to its association with a natural inhibitor molecule IκB. Phosphorylation of the IκB at Ser 32 and Ser 36 by the IκB kinase complex (IKK) marks the degradation of the molecule by 26S proteasome. As NF-κB is constitutively activated in most of the tumor cells, inhibition of the activities of IKK may significantly sensitize the tumor cells to apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IκB kinase-specific blocker PS1145 on DMBA-induced skin tumor of male Wistar rats. We examined the apoptotic effect of PS1145 on DMBA-induced tumor by various histopathological and molecular techniques. Our results demonstrate the significant expression of major pro-apoptotic genes like caspases 2, 3, 8, 9, and p53 in PS1145-treated tumor bearing group at mRNA levels as well as significant (P < 0.05) down regulation in the expression levels of NF-κB and VEGF, the major pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors, respectively. The histopathological examination showed that the tumor progression, mitotic, AgNOR, and PCNA indices were significantly reduced in PS1145 treatment groups as compared to PBS control on day 28 of post-treatment. Furthermore, significant increase in TUNEL positive nuclei and observation of peculiar apoptotic nuclei in transmission electron microscopy were seen in PS1145 treatment group. We conclude that intravenous application of PS1145 promotes direct apoptosis in DMBA-induced skin tumor in male Wistar rats by blocking NF-κB and VEGF activities.

  20. Macrophage activity and histopathology of the lymphohematopoietic organs in male Wistar rats orally exposed to single or mixed pesticides.

    PubMed

    De Camargo, Marcela Rodrigues; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; Martinez, Meire França; Da Silva Franchi, Carla Adriene; De Camargo, João Lauro Viana; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2013-01-01

    The noxious effects of low or effective dose exposure to single or mixed pesticides on macrophage activity and the lymphohematopoietic organs were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally exposed to dichlorvos, dicofol, endosulfan, dieldrin and permethrin, either as single or combined mixtures during a 28-day study containing eight groups: one group received a semipurified diet (non-treated); two groups received a semipurified diet containing low dose mixture (dieldrin 0.025 mg/kg, endosulfan, 0.6 mg/kg, dicofol 0.22 mg/kg, dichlorvos 0.23 mg/kg, permethrin 5 mg/kg) or an effective dose mixture (dichlorvos 2.3 mg/kg, dicofol 2.5 mg/kg, endosulfan 2.9 mg/kg, dieldrin 0.05 mg/kg and permethrin 25.0 mg/kg), respectively; the other five groups received a semipurified diet containing each single pesticide in effective doses. At sacrifice, the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Payer's patches and bone marrow were removed for histological analysis. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained to determine the phagocytosis and spreading indexes and tumoral necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and H₂O₂ production. Exposure to pesticide mixtures did not alter the percentage of macrophage phagocytosis and spreading, TNF-α production or the NO and H₂O₂ release when compared to the non-treated group. Neither was there any apparent evidence that a pesticide mixture at low or effective doses altered the histological structure of the lymphohematopoietic organs. The findings indicate that short-term treatment with pesticide mixtures did not induce an apparent immunotoxic effect in male Wistar rats.

  1. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats.

  2. Whey protein isolate and glycomacropeptide decrease weight gain and alter body composition in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Royle, Peter J; McIntosh, Graeme H; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-07-01

    The effect of feed protein type on body composition and growth has been examined. Evidence exists that whey protein concentrate is effective at limiting body fat expansion. The presence of caseinomacropeptide, a mixture of glycosylated and non-glycosylated carbohydrate residues, in particular glycomacropeptide (GMP) in whey protein concentrate may be important for this effect. The influence of whey protein isolate (WPI) and GMP on weight gain and body composition was examined by feeding Wistar rats ad libitum for 7 weeks with five semi-purified American Institute of Nutrition-based diets differing in protein type: (1) casein; (2) barbequed beef; (3) control WPI (no GMP); (4) WPI+GMP at 100 g/kg; (5) WPI+GMP at 200 g/kg. Body composition was assessed, and plasma samples were assayed for TAG, insulin and glucose. Body-weight gain was lower (- 21 %) on the control WPI diet relative to casein, with a non-significant influence associated with GMP inclusion (- 30 %), the effect being equivalent at both levels of GMP addition. Renal and carcass fat mass were reduced in the highest GMP diet when compared with WPI (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin was lowered by GMP at the highest addition compared with WPI alone (- 53 %; P < 0.01). Plasma TAG in the WPI+GMP (200 g/kg) group were lower (- 27 %; P < 0.05) than the casein and beef groups. In conclusion, GMP appears to have a significant additional influence when combined with WPI on fat accumulation. WPI alone appears to have the predominant influence accounting for 70 % of the overall effect on body-weight gain. Mechanisms for this effect have not been identified but food intake was not responsible.

  3. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < .05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P < .05). The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P < .05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  4. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  5. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  6. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone administration on body composition and vascular function and structure in old male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Cruzado, Mar; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Gil-Loyzaga, Pablo; Lahera, Vicente; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2005-01-01

    The process of ageing affects negatively both cardiovascular system and body composition. On the other hand, the hormones of the somatotrophic axis, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), whose production is reduced by age, are involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH on body composition, vascular function and structure in old male rats. Old (20 months) and adult (4 months) male Wistar rats were used. One group of old animals was treated with GH for 4 weeks. Periepididimary fat weight, Specific Gravity Index (SGI), dose responses to Acetylcholine (ACh), Isoproterenol (Iso), Phenylephrine (Phe) and ACh in the presence of NG-nitro-L: -arginine metylester (L-NAME; ACh + L-NAME), as well as vascular morphology in aortic rings, were studied. Old rats showed increased fat weight and decreased SGI as compared to adult animals. GH increased SGI and tended to reduce fat weight. Old rats showed an impairment in the vasodilator response to ACh and Iso; GH significantly improved the vasodilatation induced by Iso, whereas the response to ACh was not significantly enhanced by GH treatment. There were no significant differences between adult and old rats in the contractile response to Phe, and GH did not show any effect. Contraction induced by ACh + L-NAME was higher in old rats as compared to adults, and treatment with GH significantly reduced this response. Aortic media area was increased in old rats, and GH administration reduced this parameter. In conclusion, GH shows beneficial effects on body composition, as well as on vascular function and morphology in old male rats.

  7. Methanol Extract of Adansonia digitata Leaf Protects Against Sodium Arsenite-induced Toxicities in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adegoke, Ayodeji Mathias; Gbadegesin, Michael Adedapo; Odunola, Oyeronke Adunni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human and animal population exposure to arsenic through the consumption of arsenic contaminated water is rampant in many parts of the world. Protective agents of medicinal plants origin could provide maximum protection against toxicities of various kinds. Objective: The protective role of orally administered methanol extract of the leaves of Adansonia digitata (MELAD) on sodium arsenite (SA) – induced clastogenicity and hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats divided into six Groups (1–6) of five animals each were used for the study. Group 1 (negative control) received distilled water and normal diet only, Groups 2–6 received the extract (at 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) and/or SA at 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Results: There was statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation in the SA group as compared with the negative control and treated groups. Administration of the extract reduced the effects of SA on the above parameters. Activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases did not show statistically significant effects; however, the histological analyses revealed periportal cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, whereas the MELAD treated groups show mild cellular infiltration and mild portal congestion. Conclusions: MELAD protect against SA-induced toxicities in rats, and it may offer protection in circumstances of co-exposure and cases of arsenicosis. SUMMARY MELAD extract significantly reduce the lipid peroxidation induced by sodium arsenite in the liver of rats.MELAD did not show profound effects on the activities of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotranferases.MELAD offered significant protection against sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity in the micronuclei induction assay.In the circumstances of co-exposure to arsenic contamination, MELAD may protect against sodium arsenite

  8. Malathion-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Flehi-Slim, Imen; Chargui, Issam; Boughattas, Sonia; El Mabrouk, Aymen; Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-11-01

    The increasing use of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment constitutes an ecotoxicological hazard especially for humans and non-target animals. Hereby, we analyzed the toxic effects of malathion on the histological structure of liver and biochemical parameters in male rats. Three groups received daily different amounts of malathion: 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 LD50 for 30 days. The weights of treated rat's liver have increased. Analyzed tissues showed centrilobular and sinusoidal congestion, hepatocyte hypertrophy, cellular vacuolization, anucleated hepatocytes, depletion of organelles affecting the majority of cells, and presence of necrotic foci into the hepatic parenchyma. Histological sections of the liver showed important hepatocyte glycogen storage. We conclude that malathion stimulates the filing of glycogen in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemical parameters showed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased in the treated groups when the level of total protein decreased in intoxicated groups.

  9. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Riahinia, Narges; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Behdani, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24) were randomly assigned into four groups including: I) healthy, receiving normal saline; II) Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg); III) pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg); IV) pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg). Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats. PMID:25386395

  11. Anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in male Wistar rats submitted to early weaning.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Lisboa, Patrícia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Silva, Juliana Oliveira; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C

    2014-01-30

    The most frequently used animal models of early weaning (EW) in rodents, maternal deprivation and pharmacological inhibition of lactation, present confounding factors, such as high stress or drug side effects, that can mask or interact with the effects of milk deprivation per se. Given these limitations, the development of new models of EW may provide useful information regarding the impact of a shortened period of breastfeeding on the endocrine and nervous systems, both during development and at adulthood. Using a model of EW in which lactating Wistar rat dams are wrapped with a bandage to block access to milk during the last three days of lactation, we have recently shown that the adult offspring presented higher body mass, hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, leptin as well as insulin resistance, and higher adrenal catecholamine content at adulthood. Here, we used this EW model, which involves no pharmacological treatment or maternal separation, to analyze anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in the adult male offspring. To that end, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze, in the hole board arena and in the radial arm water maze. Except for an increased number of rearing events (a measure of vertical activity), no other behavioral differences were observed between EW and control animals. The contrasting behavioral results between the three EW models may be associated with differences in HPA axis function in the offspring at weaning, since it has been observed that bandaging does not affect corticosteronemia while maternal separation and pharmacological EW increase it.

  12. The Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Nandrolone Decanoate Disrupts Redox Homeostasis in Liver, Heart and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frankenfeld, Stephan P.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Rego-Monteiro, Igor CC.; Chaves, Elen A.; Ferreira, Andrea C.; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Carvalho, Denise P.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g−1 body weight) once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state. PMID:25225984

  13. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Stephan P; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Ortenzi, Victor H; Rego-Monteiro, Igor C C; Chaves, Elen A; Ferreira, Andrea C; Leitão, Alvaro C; Carvalho, Denise P; Fortunato, Rodrigo S

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1) body weight) once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  14. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  15. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  16. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone exposure and effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 35 days to mobile phone frequency. The specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.007) showed a decrease, while an increase in catalase (P < 0.005) was observed. Malondialdehyde (P < 0.003) showed an increase and histone kinase (P = 0.006) showed a significant decrease in the exposed group. Micronuclei also show a significant decrease (P < 0.002) in the exposed group. A significant change in sperm cell cycle of G(0)-G(1) (P = 0.042) and G(2)/M (P = 0.022) were recorded. Generation of free radicals was recorded to be significantly increased (P = 0.035). Our findings on antioxidant, malondialdehyde, histone kinase, micronuclei, and sperm cell cycle are clear indications of an infertility pattern, initiated due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is concluded that radiofrequency electromagnetic wave from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.

  17. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

  18. Interaction between the antioxidant activity of curcumin and cholinergic system on memory retention in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarlak, Zeynab; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (turmeric extract) and the cholinergic system and their interaction on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: At first, an injection cannula was implanted in right ventricles of the animals. One week after the surgery, the animals were trained with a shuttle box set up. Post-training, injections were performed in all experiments. Administration of curcumin increased memory retention. Also administrations of nicotine and pilocarpine, the cholinergic receptor agonists, increased memory retention, while it is decreased by succinylcholine and scopolamine, the cholinergic receptor antagonists. Then co-administration of curcumin and cholinergic drugs were performed. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections were applied for the curcumin and cholinergic drugs, respectively. Results: Co-administration of curcumin (45 mg/kg) with a low dose of nicotine (0.1 µg/rat) or pilocarpine (0.5 µg/rat) increased memory retention significantly. Effects of succinylcholine (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) or scopolamine (0.1, 1 and 5 µg/rat) were attenuated by curcumin markedly (45 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results suggest that curcumin has a close interaction with cholinergic system in memory retention process. PMID:26019804

  19. Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats.

  20. Impulsive choice and pre-exposure to delays: III. Four-month test-retest outcomes in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J

    2016-05-01

    Delay discounting describes the tendency for organisms to devalue outcomes because they are delayed. Robust, positive correlations exist between excessive delay discounting and many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, obesity). Several studies have demonstrated that delay discounting can be reduced and this may hold promise for improving treatment outcomes. One method of reducing delay discounting provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcement (i.e., delay-exposure training) and this significantly reduces impulsive choices, relative to rats trained with an equal number of immediate-reinforcement sessions (i.e., immediate-exposure training). To evaluate the stability of this effect, 12 weanling male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive either delay-exposure or immediate-exposure training for 120 sessions. Impulsive choice was assessed using an increasing-delay procedure immediately following training and 120 days after completion of the initial assessment. Delay-exposed rats discounted delayed food rewards significantly less than immediate-exposed rats in the initial assessment and the reassessment conducted 120 days later. These results are encouraging as they suggest that the effects of delay-exposure training are robust to the passage of time and intervening experience.

  1. Promotion of liver and kidney carcinogenesis by ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2015-10-01

    Tumor-promoting effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) were investigated in a 2-stage carcinogenesis bioassay with regard to hepatic and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given drinking water containing N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nitrosamine (EHEN), as an initiator, at a dose of 500 ppm for 2 weeks. Starting one week thereafter, the animals were administered ETBE at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day by gavage for 19 weeks from week 4 to 22. Necropsy of all rats was performed at week 23, and livers and kidneys were examined histopathologically. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas, and those of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were significantly elevated in rats given 1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE, but not 100‒500 mg/kg/day ETBE, and there was a significant increase in the average numbers of lesions. No significant differences in incidences and average numbers of renal tubule neoplasms were found in rats administered 100‒1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE. However, the average numbers of atypical tubule hyperplasias, considered to be preneoplastic lesions, were significantly increased in rats given ETBE at 1,000 mg/kg/day, but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. Thus, these results imply that ETBE has hepatic and renal tumor-promoting activities that affect EHEN-induced carcinogenesis in male rats, and the no-observed-effect level is 500 mg/kg/day under the present experimental conditions.

  2. Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsan, Awais; Wang Xu; Liu Zhaoying; Wang Yulian; Huang Xianju; Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui; Yuan Zonghui

    2011-05-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

  3. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  4. Effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors on acute and subacute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kagal, Urmila Anil; Angadi, Netravathi Basavaraj; Matule, Somnath Mallikarjun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached alarming proportions due to the rapidly increasing rates of this disease worldwide. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed elevated levels of inflammatory markers in a vast number of illnesses such as T2DM, obesity, and atherothrombosis collectively called metabolic syndrome leading to adverse cardiovascular events. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors which are the enhancers of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP -1), could have anti-inflammatory potential which could help in reducing cardiovascular complications of diabetes and benefit patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors, namely vildagliptin and saxagliptin on acute and subacute models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, standard, and two treatment groups (6 animals in each group, total 24 animals). The animals received the drugs orally. The effects of vildagliptin and saxagliptin on inflammation were tested in acute (carrageenan-induced paw edema method) and subacute (grass pith and cotton pellet implantation method) models of inflammation. Results: Vildagliptin and saxagliptin used in the present study showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute and subacute models of inflammation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that vildagliptin and saxagliptin have significant anti-inflammatory potential. Based on the findings of the present study and the available literature, it can be concluded that the anti-inflammatory potential of DPP-4 inhibitors could help to reduce the cardiovascular complications of Type 2 diabetes and the related cluster of metabolic disorders collectively called the metabolic syndrome. PMID:28251104

  5. Antiurolithiatic activity of ethanol leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Moonjit; Malipeddi, Himaja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa (Convolvulaceae) (IEE) in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). All the groups received stone-inducing treatment till 28th day, comprising 1% ethylene glycol (v/v) with 1% ammonium chloride (w/v) for 4 days, followed by 1% ethylene glycol alone in water, except Group I (Control). Group II received only stone-inducing treatment till 28th day. Group III (Standard) received cystone (500 mg/kg) from 15th day till 28th day. Group IV (Prophylactic) received IEE (200 mg/kg) from 1st day till 28th day and Group V (Curative) received IEE (200 mg/kg) from 15th day till 28th day. Various biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, urea, and creatinine levels were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. The kidneys were also sectioned and examined histopathologically under light microscope to study the kidney architecture and calcium oxalate deposits. Results: The IEE treatment (prophylactic and curative) significantly (P < 0.001) restored the parameters in urine, serum, and kidney homogenate to near-normal level. The histopathological examinations revealed that calcium oxalate crystal deposits in the renal tubules and congestion and dilation of the parenchymal blood vessels were significantly reverted after IEE treatment. Conclusions: The leaf extract of I. eriocarpa reduces and inhibits the growth of urinary stones showing its effect as an antiurolithiatic agent. PMID:27298496

  6. Temporal relationship between diet-induced steatosis and onset of insulin/leptin resistance in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Song, Haiyan; Ge, Yingli; Ji, Guang; Yao, Zemin

    2015-01-01

    Rats fed with high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet are known to manifest metabolic syndrome including hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The aim of the current study is to determine the temporal relationships between the development of hepatic steatosis and the onset of insulin and leptin resistance in hypothalamus and liver in male Wistar rats (six weeks of age) fed chow or HFHS diet for up to 8 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids/lipoproteins, insulin and leptin levels were quantified, histopathologic score of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were assessed, and the responses of common checkpoints of insulin and leptin signalling responsible for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis were analyzed. In addition, acute insulin or leptin administration was performed at different stages of HFHS dieting to determine the responsiveness of the respective signalling pathways. Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and increased homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance occurred 1-week after HFHS dieting, coinciding with upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 in both hypothalamus and liver. However, hepatosteatosis, accompanied with increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, did not manifest until 4- to 8-week after HFHS dieting. Lowered insulin sensitivity (shown by decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B phosphorylation) occurred approximately 2 weeks prior to leptin resistance (shown by impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation) in both the liver and hypothalamus. Acute insulin/leptin administration also demonstrated the impaired insulin or leptin signalling transduction. These data suggest that lowered insulin sensitivity and leptin resistance occurred at least 2-3 weeks earlier than the manifestation of hepatosteatosis in rats fed HFHS diet.

  7. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Attia, Sabry M.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Giesy, John P.; Musarrat, Javed

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Neelakandan, Yuvaraj; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this objective is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of sulfated polysaccharide purified fractions isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii and seagrass Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats. Subjects and Methods: Crude sulfated polysaccharide from S. wightii and H. ovalis was subjected to anion exchange chromatography, and the chemical composition was investigated. The antinociceptive activity of purified fractions was investigated using formalin and hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis model, and Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced arthritis model were employed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity. Results: In the formalin test, there was a significant reduction in licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 5, 10 mg/kg suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism. Sw FrIV and Ho FrIV significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration at 10 mg/kg, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, a significant reduction in paw volume was observed in Sw FrIV and Ho FrIV-treated groups (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: Purified components from S. wightii and H. ovalis have strong antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect on animal model. However, to determine the molecular mechanism, it is necessary to investigate the effect of purified fractions on inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression mediated by inhibiting the phosphorylation of various signal proteins in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PMID:27721544

  9. Hypothalamic norepinephrine turnover response to a single low protein, high carbohydrate meal in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Raum, W.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    A single meal stimulates norepinephrine turnover (NET) by approximately 4-fold in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this experiment the role of the hypothalamus in regulating this response was examined. NET was measured in the cortex (C), ventro-medial (VMH), and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g body weight) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (N = 24) was meal deprived and the other (N = 24) was given a low protein, high carbohydrate test meal for 2 hours. NET was determined by the synthesis inhibition method using alpha-methyltyrosine (AMT) injected within one hour after the meal. Norepinephrine (NE) content in each brain section was measured by radioimmunoassay at 4 time points (0, 1, 2, 3 hours) after AMT. The turnover rate (TR) was calculated as the slope of the decline in NE content over time (ng/mg protein/hr) following AMT. The fraction of the total pool of NE released/hr (k) was calculated by dividing the slope (TR) by the Y intercept (NE content at zero time). NET (TR) increased significantly (p < .05) in the VMH following a meal (9.36 +/- .67 vs 8.04 +/- .98 ng/hr; fed vs deprived). There was no change in TR in the C or LH, or in k in any brain section. The marked (4-fold) increase in BAT NET and minimal increase in VMH NET suggests that the meal has a direct effect on BAT with the VMH playing a secondary or modulatory role.

  10. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  11. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Badkoobeh, Puran; Parivar, Kazem; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Salabat, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including one control and three experimentals (6 rats per group). They received saline (as control), DOX alone (6 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), nZnO alone (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and nZnO followed by DOX. Animals were sacrificed 28 days after treatment and evaluations were made by sperm count and measuring sex hormone levels in plasma. Also total antioxidant power (TAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in plasma were tested. Data was analyzed with SPSS-14 and one way ANOVA test. P<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: In the DOX-exposed rats significant differences were found compared with the control group (p=0.001) in plasma total antioxidant power (TAP) (425.50±32.33 vs. 493.33±18.54 mmol/mL), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) (3.70±0.44 vs. 2.78±0.68 μmol/mL), plasma testosterone (3.38±0.69 vs. 5.40±0.89 ng/dl), LH (0.26±0.05 vs. 0.49±0.18 mlU/mL), sperm count (157.98±6.29 vs. 171.71±4.42×106/mL) and DNA damage (11.51±3.45 vs. 6.04±2.83%). Co-administration of nZnO significantly improved DOX-induced changes (p=0.013) in plasma TAP (471.83±14.51 mmol/mL), LPO (2.83±0.75 μmol/mL), plasma testosterone (5.00±1.07 ng/dl), LH (0.52±0.08 mlU/mL), sperm count (169.13±5.01×106/mL) and DNA damage (7.00±1.67%). Conclusion: At the dose designed in the present investigation cytoprotective role of nano-zinc oxide through its antioxidant potential is illuminated in DOX-induced male gonadotoxicity. PMID:24639766

  12. Effect of chromium picolinate and melatonin either in single or in a combination in high carbohydrate diet-fed male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Doddigarla, Zephy; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to know the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and melatonin (Mel) each alone and in a combination on high carbohydrate diet-fed (HCD-fed) male Wistar rats that exhibit insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats have been categorized into five groups. Each group consisted of six male Wistar rats, control rats (group I), HCD (group II), HCD + CrPic (group III), HCD + Mel (group IV), and HCD + CrPic + Mel (group V). Insignificant differences were observed in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and zinc in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II rats respectively. Significant differences were observed in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II in homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), and in the levels of blood glucose (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), triacylglycerols (<0.05, <0.001, <0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), malondialdehyde (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), catalase (P <0.05, <0.05, <0.05), glutathione (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05), Mel (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), and copper (P < 0.05, <0.05, < 0.001). In view of these results, HCD-fed male Wistar rats that are destined to attain IR and T2DM through diet can be prevented by giving CrPic and Mel administration in alone or in a combination.

  13. Influence of oestrogens on formation of reactive oxygen species in liver microsomes of differently aged male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Landmann, G; Liepold, K; Zapf, H; Müller, D; Karge, E; Klinger, W

    1999-07-01

    Metabolic pathways of oestrogens are the formation of catechol oestrogens (CE; 2- and 4-hydroxy-oestrogens), redox cycling of CE and free radical generation, mediated through cytochrome P450 (P450) oxidase/reductase activity. We checked the oestrogens oestradiol (E2), oestradiol valerate (E2V) and ethinyloestradiol (EE2) for formation of reactive oxygen species in vitro and ex vivo in male Wistar rats in dependence on age. In liver microsomes of 10-, 30-, 60- and 270-day-old rats the influence of E2, E2V and EE2 (10(-7)-10(-3) M) on NADPH-Fe(++)-stimulated lipid peroxidation (LPO), H2O2 generation and lucigenin (LUC) and luminol (LUM) amplified chemiluminescence (CL) was investigated. The same parameters, additionally P450 content and monooxygenase activities were measured in liver 9000 x g supernatants after subchronic administration of the oestrogens (1, 10 mg/kg b. wt. orally). The most important results are the strong inhibitory capacities of the oestrogens in vitro on LPO in the order of E2V < E2 < EE2, most pronounced in 10-, 60- and 270-day-old animals. In microsomes of 30-day-old rats with the highest control LPO the antioxidative effect of the oestrogens was lower. Whereas the H2O2 generation was not changed by E2, enhanced by E2V, but diminished by EE2 in all age groups, CL(LUC) and CL(LUM) were inhibited in the order of E2 < E2V < EE2. Also after subchronical treatment of the rats the antioxidative action of the oestrogens was evident, microsomal LPO was inhibited in the order of E2 < E2V < EE2. All oestrogens inhibited ethylmorphine N-demethylation. But enhanced H2O2 generation and increased CL(LUC) also indicate a formation of reactive oxygen species by these oestrogens. Obviously in vitro the antioxidative phenolic structure of the oestrogens dominates, whereas after in vivo administration the dose- and age-dependent biotransformation produces prooxidative in addition to antioxidative structures.

  14. Daily Socs1 rhythms alter with aging differentially in peripheral clocks in male Wistar rats: therapeutic effects of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2017-03-22

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in synchronization with the peripheral clocks regulates the temporal oscillations leading to overt rhythms. Aging leads to attenuation of such circadian regulation, accompanied by increased inflammatory mediators prevalently the cytokines. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins such as SOCS 1, 3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) negatively regulate the cytokine signaling pathway. The role of SOCS1 in aging and circadian system is obscure. We therefore studied the daily rhythms of rSocs1 mRNA expression at Zeitgeber time (ZT) -0, 6, 12 and 18 in peripheral clocks such as liver, kidney, intestine and heart of 3, 12 and 24 months (m) old male Wistar rats. Interestingly the peripheral clocks studied displayed a rhythmic rSocs1 gene expression in 3 months. In 12 months group, 12 h phase advance in liver and 12 h phase delay in kidney and heart was observed with abolition of rhythms in intestine. Aging (24 months group) resulted in a phase advance by 6 h in liver and heart with abolition of rhythms in intestine in 24 months group. Kidney was also significantly affected upon aging with significant decrease in the rSocs1 levels and abolition of rhythms. The decrease in melatonin levels with aging is associated with decreased immunity and increased oxidative stress. The exogenous administration of melatonin has been linked to play a role in re-synchronization of circadian rhythms, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing immune properties. We therefore had studied the effect of exogenous melatonin upon age induced changes in daily rSocs1 gene expression patterns. Melatonin treatment partially restored the rhythms and daily pulse (ratio of maximum:minimum levels) in liver and intestine in 12 months group. Melatonin administration resulted in a significant increase in mean 24 h rSocs1 expression in intestine and heart of 24 months group compared to that of 3 months. The melatonin administration

  15. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  16. Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra reduces serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in adult male albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, I. O.; Emmanuel, O. A.; Nna, V. U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following the high rate of consumption of Cola nitida (cola nut) among the male population in Nigeria, this study seeks to determine the effects of consumption of Cola nitida on serum reproductive hormones and sperm count, which are major determinants of male fertility. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male albino wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used for this study and were divided into 4 groups of eight animals each. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received 2 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 1), group 3 received 6 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 2) and group 4 received 10 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 3). After 6 weeks of treatment, reproductive hormonal assay was carried out using the rat serum. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and sperm count determined. Results: Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in test 2 and 3, compared with control. Sperm count was significantly lower in test group 1 (P < 0.05), 2 (P < 0.001) and 3 (P < 0.001) compared with control, with test 3 significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with test 1. There was no significant difference in testicular and epididymis weight in the different experimental groups studied. Conclusion: Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra resulted in reduced serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in male wistar rats, and may therefore be detrimental to reproductive health, hence the need for regulation of its consumption. PMID:25538361

  17. Effect of feeding graded doses of citrinin on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats through the F1 generation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nittin Dev; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Dwivedi, Prabhaker; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Rahman, Shafiqur; Reddy, Jamuna; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the effect of graded doses of citrinin (CIT) on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats till F1 generation. The animals were divided into four groups comprising 25 males and 25 females each, that is, group I: 1 ppm CIT; group II: 3 ppm CIT; group III: 5 ppm CIT; and group IV was kept as a control. The male and female animals of all the groups were kept separately and were fed basal rations containing the above-mentioned concentrations of CIT for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, male and female animals of respective groups were kept for mating (one male/two females). After getting 10 pregnant females, the males were killed. These 10 pregnant females were allowed to give birth to young ones (F1 generation) naturally which were fed CIT in the above-mentioned doses till the age of 6 weeks and then were killed. Apoptosis was analysed in kidneys, liver and testes by DNA ladder pattern, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling assay and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Besides, tissue oxidative stress was also analysed. It was concluded in the present study that CIT induces its toxic effects till F1 generation, and apoptosis and oxidative stress both play a very important role in toxicity. The effect of CIT was observed in a dose-dependent manner. However, in kidneys, both the mechanisms (apoptosis and oxidative stress) play their role in inflicting renal damage, while in liver only reactive oxygen species play a major role. Finally, the CIT toxicity did not lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress in male gonads till F1 generation.

  18. Grape juice increases the BDNF levels but not alter the S100B levels in hippocampus and frontal cortex from male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Dani, Caroline; Andreazza, Ana Cristina; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Kapizinski, Flávio; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian

    2017-03-02

    Several studies have shown that a high consumption of vegetables and fruits is consistently associated with a low risk of oxidative stress-induced diseases, which includes some degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson. Therefore, the objective of this study is to verify the effects of conventional and organic grape juice in the modulation of the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and astrocytic markers protein (S100B) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of Wistar rats. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. To the first one, it was given organic purple grape juice; to the second, conventional grape juice, while the last one received only saline. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and hippocampus and frontal cortex were dissected. The animals that received organic and conventional grape juice showed, in frontal cortex, an elevated BNDF levels in relation to saline group. However, S100B levels did not change. These results showed that grape juices are able to modulate important marker in brain tissue, and could be an important factor to prevent brain diseases.

  19. Comparison of constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes between Wistar-Kyoto and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Ikeda, Ayaka; Ito, Sei; Miyata, Misaki; Yoshida, Chiaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2013-01-01

    Serum total cholesterol amounts in the stroke-prone hypertensive rat (SHRSP) strain are lower than in the normotensive control strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. To understand the strain difference, constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes in male 8-week-old SHRSP and WKY rats were comparatively examined by DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Of 22 cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme genes, expression levels of 8 genes, Pmvk, Idi1, Fdps, Fdft1, Sqle, Lss, Sc4mol, and Hsd17b7, in SHRSP were less than 50% those of the WKY rats; especially, the expression level of Sqle gene, encoding squalene epoxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, was about 20%. The gene expression level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which functions as a transcription factor upregulating gene expression of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes, in SHRSP was about 70% of that in WKY rats. These results demonstrate the possibility that the lower serum total cholesterol level in SHRSP is defined by lower gene expression of most hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes. In particular, decreased gene expression level of Sqle gene might be the most essential factor. Moreover, the broad range of lowered rates of these genes in SHRSP suggests that the abnormal function and/or expression not only of SREBP-2 but also of one or more other transcription factors for those gene expressions exist in SHRSP.

  20. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  1. d-Galactose High-Dose Administration Failed to Induce Accelerated Aging Changes in Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory on Young Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Magano, Sara; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The model of accelerated senescence with the prolonged administration of d-galactose is used in anti-aging studies because it mimics several aging-associated alterations such as increase of oxidative stress and decline of cognition. However, there is no standardized protocol for this aging model, and recently some reports have questioned its effectiveness. To clarify this issue, we used a model of high-dose d-galactose on 1-month-old male Wistar rats and studied the hippocampus, one of the most affected brain regions. In one group (n = 10), d-galactose was daily administered intraperitoneally (300 mg/kg) during 8 weeks whereas age-matched controls (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally with saline. A third group (n = 10) was treated with the same dose of d-galactose and with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2 grams/L), a green tea catechin with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. After treatments, animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular layer was quantified. There were no significant alterations when the three groups were compared in the number of doublecortin- and Ki-67–immunoreactive cells, and also on anxiety levels, spatial learning, and memory. Therefore, d-galactose was not effective in the induction of accelerated aging, and EGCG administered to d-galactose–treated animals did not improve behavior and had no effects on neurogenesis. We conclude that daily 300 mg/kg of d-galactose administered intraperitoneally may not be a suitable model for inducing age-related neurobehavioral alterations in young male Wistar rats. More studies are necessary to obtain a reliable and reproducible model of accelerated senescence in rodents using d-galactose. PMID:25936362

  2. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be

  3. D-Galactose High-Dose Administration Failed to Induce Accelerated Aging Changes in Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory on Young Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Magano, Sara; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2015-12-01

    The model of accelerated senescence with the prolonged administration of d-galactose is used in anti-aging studies because it mimics several aging-associated alterations such as increase of oxidative stress and decline of cognition. However, there is no standardized protocol for this aging model, and recently some reports have questioned its effectiveness. To clarify this issue, we used a model of high-dose d-galactose on 1-month-old male Wistar rats and studied the hippocampus, one of the most affected brain regions. In one group (n = 10), d-galactose was daily administered intraperitoneally (300 mg/kg) during 8 weeks whereas age-matched controls (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally with saline. A third group (n = 10) was treated with the same dose of d-galactose and with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2 grams/L), a green tea catechin with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. After treatments, animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular layer was quantified. There were no significant alterations when the three groups were compared in the number of doublecortin- and Ki-67-immunoreactive cells, and also on anxiety levels, spatial learning, and memory. Therefore, d-galactose was not effective in the induction of accelerated aging, and EGCG administered to d-galactose-treated animals did not improve behavior and had no effects on neurogenesis. We conclude that daily 300 mg/kg of d-galactose administered intraperitoneally may not be a suitable model for inducing age-related neurobehavioral alterations in young male Wistar rats. More studies are necessary to obtain a reliable and reproducible model of accelerated senescence in rodents using d-galactose.

  4. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old). METHODS: The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz), pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents. CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress. PMID:21876981

  5. Effect of S-Methyl-L-Cysteine on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Male Wistar Rats Fed with High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sithara; Senthilkumar, Gandhipuram Periyasamy; Sivaraman, Kuppuswamy; Bobby, Zachariah; Paneerselvam, Sankar; Harichandrakumar, Kotten Thazhath

    2015-01-01

    Background S-methyl cysteine (SMC) is a hydrophilic cysteine-containing compound naturally found in garlic and onion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of SMC on oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in an experiment of metabolic syndrome. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (6 rats in each group), namely; control, control+S-methyl cysteine (SMC), high fructose diet (HFD), HFD+SMC and HFD+metformin. The 60% fructose used for 8 weeks and SMC in the dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day/rat was used in the study. The fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and tumor necrosis factor alpha and erythrocyte enzymatic antioxidants were measured. Results Increased levels of plasma glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin resistance and decreased levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were found in rats on a high fructose diet. Oral administration of SMC (100 mg/kg bw/day/rat) for 60 days resulted in significant attenuation of plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor–alpha, insulin resistance and improved antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusion Oral treatment of SMC is effective in improving insulin resistance while attenuating metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and oxidative stress in male rats fed with fructose rich diet. PMID:25650289

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  7. Ethanol-induced effects on opioid peptides in adult male Wistar rats are dependent on early environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, L; Zhou, Q; Nylander, I

    2007-05-25

    The vulnerability to develop alcoholism is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these factors are not fully understood but individual divergence in the endogenous opioid peptide system may contribute. We have previously reported that early-life experiences can affect endogenous opioids and also adult voluntary ethanol intake. In the present study, this line of research was continued and the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol drinking on the opioid system are described in animals reared in different environmental settings. Rat pups were subjected to 15 min (MS15) or 360 min (MS360) of daily maternal separation during postnatal days 1-21. At 10 weeks of age, male rats were exposed to voluntary ethanol drinking in a four-bottle paradigm with 5%, 10% and 20% ethanol solution in addition to water for 2 months. Age-matched controls received water during the same period. Immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels were thereafter measured in the pituitary gland and several brain areas. In water-drinking animals, lower ir MEAP levels were observed in the MS360 rats in the hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and the periaqueductal gray, whereas no differences were seen in ir DYNB levels. Long-term ethanol drinking induced lower ir MEAP levels in MS15 rats in the medial prefrontal cortex and the periaqueductal gray, whereas higher levels were detected in MS360 rats in the hypothalamus, striatum and the substantia nigra. Chronic voluntary drinking affected ir DYNB levels in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and the substantia nigra, with minor differences between MS15 and MS360. In conclusion, manipulation of the early environment caused changes in the opioid system and a subsequent altered response to ethanol. The altered sensitivity of the opioid peptides to ethanol may contribute to the previously reported differences in ethanol intake between MS15 and MS

  8. Concerted Gene Expression of Hippocampal Steroid Receptors during Spatial Learning in Male Wistar Rats: A Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors (ER) should be correlated to GR receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a) of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR) and GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit) relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME). Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor interaction, however the cubic fit

  9. Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Adegoke, Ayodeji M; Olugbami, J Olorunjuwon; Uche, Ndidi S

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and clastogenicity in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were divided into four groups and were treated daily via oral gavage for one week before they were sacrificed. Brain, liver and blood serum were collected for antioxidant and protein assays. Clastogenicity, in vitro antioxidant activity, vitamins and minerals were also evaluated. From the results, co-administration of Acacia honey with sodium arsenite on the animals increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities with concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and anti-clastogenic effects relative to the group treated with sodium arsenite only. The honey possesses reducing power, high hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, good amount of vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids (5.08 ± 0.92 mg QE/100 g) and phenolics (5.40 ± 0.69 mg GAE/100 g). The minerals present include zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. In conclusion, Acacia honey from Nigeria may mitigate oxidative stress and clastogenicity.

  10. Immunotoxicological effects of arsenic bioaccumulation on spatial metallomics and cellular enzyme response in the spleen of male Wistar rats after oral intake.

    PubMed

    Soria, Elio A; Pérez, Roberto D; Queralt, Ignasi; Pérez, Carlos A; Bongiovanni, Guillermina A

    2017-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is a worldwide environmental contaminant, which compromises immunity and causes various associated disorders. To further investigate its immunotoxicity, male Wistar rats were exposed to 100ppm of sodium arsenite (inorganic AsIII) in drinking water for 2 months. Given that metals are significant immune regulators, their content and distribution were analysed in spleen tissues, to then evaluate subsequent changes of redox enzyme responses in spleen parenchyma cells (splenocytes). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry demonstrated As accumulation in both white and red pulps (p<0.005), and As-related pulp-dependent modifications of the content of Cu, Ca, Zn and Fe (p<0.01). Correlational path analysis revealed direct effects of As on their spatial distribution (Cu: -0.76, Ca: -0.61, Zn: 0.38; p<0.02). As-exposed splenocytes showed ɣ-glutamyltranspeptidase inhibition, peroxidase induction, and variable responses of nitric oxide synthase (p<0.05). Concanavalin A-treated splenocytes (T cell mitogen) were more susceptible in vitro to these As-related enzymatic changes than those treated with lipopolysaccharide (B cell mitogen) (p<0.05). The study thus established the impact of As bioaccumulation on metallic spatial homeostasis in the spleen, and then identified enzymatic dysfunctions in splenocytes. This suggested that arsenic disrupts biometal-dependent immune pathways and redox homeostasis, with mitogen exposure modifying the toxicological response.

  11. Influence of Endurance Exercise Overloading Patterns on the Levels of Left Ventricular Catechoamines After a Bout of Lactate Threshold Test in Male Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is well known that exercise training has positive effect on catecholamine response to a given work load. But in this regard, the effective method of training needs to be studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks endurance exercise with two overloading patterns on the left ventricular catecholamine levels. Materials and Methods: 29 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (n = 9), daily sinusoidal overloading (n = 10) and weekly sinusoidal overloading (n = 10) groups. After the last exercise session, left ventricular blood samples were obtained immediately after lactate threshold test. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured by ELISA method. One way analysis of variance was used for analysis of the data. Results: Immediately after lactate threshold test, adrenaline level was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in weekly loading group than in control and daily loading groups. Adrenaline was higher in the daily loading group compared with control group but did not reach the significant level. Noradrenaline levels were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between three study groups. Conclusions: The results showed 8 weeks of endurance exercise with weekly sinusoidal overloading pattern could induce a lower adrenal medulla activity (reflection of physical and physiological improvement) than daily sinusoidal loading pattern in response to the same absolute work load. PMID:26715962

  12. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  13. Protective effect of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (alliin) on glycoproteins and hematology in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, T; Quine, S Darlin

    2008-07-01

    The antihyperlipidemic, antilipoperoxidative and antioxidant effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (SACS) in myocardial infarcted rats were reported previously. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the preventive role of SACS on some biochemical parameters, glycoproteins and hematology in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Myocardial infarction was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO) (150 mg kg(-1)) at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-treated rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum iron, uric acid and blood glucose, Na(+) and Ca(2+) in the heart and a significant decrease in the levels of plasma iron binding capacity, serum total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, heart K(+) and heart glycogen. The levels/concentrations of glycoproteins in serum and the heart were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Myocardial infarcted rats also showed a significant increase in red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, white blood cells, neutrophils, platelet count and fibrinogen level and a significant decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, eosinophils, lymphocytes, bleeding, clotting and prothrombin time. Oral pretreatment with SACS (40 and 80 mg kg(-1)) daily for a period of 35 days showed a positive effect on all the biochemical parameters studied in ISO-induced rats. Thus, the study showed the protective effect of SACS on ISO-induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats.

  14. Effects of ethanolic extract of pine needles (Pinus eldarica Medw.) on reserpine-induced depression-like behavior in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bolandghamat, Samira; Moghimi, Ali; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    Background: In this study, the antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Pinus eldarica Medw needles was assessed using forced swimming test (FST) in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six Groups and treated as follows: first group was received only reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.), second group was received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), three experimental groups received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) and three doses of pine needle extract (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) respectively and the final group (control group) received only vehicle (5% DMSO, i.p.). Results: Acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of P. eldarica Medw needles at a dosage of 300 mg/kg reduced reserpine-induced increase in immobility time in the FST, demonstrating an antidepressant effect in the FST. Additionally, extract treatment did not modify the ambulation and rearing evaluated in open field test, indicating that antidepressant effect found in the forced swimming test was not based on the stimulation of locomotor activity. Conclusion: These results indicate that ethanolic extract of Pinus eldarica needles possesses an antidepressant activity. PMID:21969797

  15. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K

    2015-09-08

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC's content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  16. Nutraceutical inherent of Spinacia oleracea Linn. methanolic leaf extract ameliorates isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats via mitigating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vutharadhi, Shivaranjani; Jolapuram, Umamaheswari; Kodidhela, Lakshmi Devi

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries. The present study was intended to appraise the nutraceutical inherent of HPLC standardized Spinacia oleracea methanolic leaf extract (SoLE) in isoproterenol (ISO) induced male albino Wistar rats via activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathway that drives myocardial necrosis. Biochemical analysis of ISO injected rats showed significant alterations in the activities of homocysteine, paraoxonase, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 which were further confirmed by the histopathological examination. In addition, it also flaunted a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in ISO administered rats when compared with normal control rats. Pretreatment with SoLE (100, 200, and 300mg/kg bw) along with positive control gallic acid, significantly prevented all the adverse effects in ISO administered rats in a dose dependent manner. These results also reiterated the expected amelioration of myocardial necrosis in ISO induced MI rats conveying anti-atherogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities of SoLE.

  17. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (p<0.05). We concluded that subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  18. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100 mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  19. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Katsanou, Efrosini S; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG), a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE), at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE.

  20. Ro 04-6790-induced cognitive enhancement: No effect in trace conditioning and novel object recognition procedures in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Thur, K.E.; Nelson, A.J.D.; Cassaday, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for cognitively enhancing effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists such as Ro 04-6790 is inconsistent and seems to depend on the behavioral test variant in use. Trace conditioning holds promise as a behavioral assay for hippocampus-dependent working memory function. Accordingly, Experiment 1 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) on associating a noise conditioned stimulus paired with foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) at a 3 or 30 s trace interval in adult male Wistar rats. Contextual conditioning was measured as suppression to the contextual cues provided by the experimental chambers and as suppression to a temporally extended light background stimulus which provided an experimental context. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) on recognition memory as tested by the exploration of novel relative to familiar objects in an open arena. In Experiment 1, Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10 mg/kg) was without effect on trace and contextual conditioning. In Experiment 2, there was no indication of the expected improvement under Ro 04-6790 at the same doses previously found to enhance recognition memory as measured in tests of novel object exploration. Thus, there was no evidence that treatment with the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 acted as a cognitive enhancer in either trace conditioning or object recognition procedures. We cannot exclude the possibility that the experimental procedures used in the present study would have been sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of Ro 04-6790 in a different dose range, behavioral test variant, or in a different strain of rat. Nonetheless the drug treatment was not ineffective in that object exploration was reduced under 10 mg/kg Ro 04-6790. PMID:25450117

  1. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  2. Ro 04-6790-induced cognitive enhancement: no effect in trace conditioning and novel object recognition procedures in adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Thur, K E; Nelson, A J D; Cassaday, H J

    2014-12-01

    The evidence for cognitively enhancing effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists such as Ro 04-6790 is inconsistent and seems to depend on the behavioral test variant in use. Trace conditioning holds promise as a behavioral assay for hippocampus-dependent working memory function. Accordingly, Experiment 1 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on associating a noise conditioned stimulus paired with foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) at a 3 or 30s trace interval in adult male Wistar rats. Contextual conditioning was measured as suppression to the contextual cues provided by the experimental chambers and as suppression to a temporally extended light background stimulus which provided an experimental context. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on recognition memory as tested by the exploration of novel relative to familiar objects in an open arena. In Experiment 1, Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg) was without effect on trace and contextual conditioning. In Experiment 2, there was no indication of the expected improvement under Ro 04-6790 at the same doses previously found to enhance recognition memory as measured in tests of novel object exploration. Thus, there was no evidence that treatment with the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 acted as a cognitive enhancer in either trace conditioning or object recognition procedures. We cannot exclude the possibility that the experimental procedures used in the present study would have been sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of Ro 04-6790 in a different dose range, behavioral test variant, or in a different strain of rat. Nonetheless the drug treatment was not ineffective in that object exploration was reduced under 10mg/kg Ro 04-6790.

  3. Improved oral bioavailability of cyclosporin A in male Wistar rats. Comparison of a Solutol HS 15 containing self-dispersing formulation and a microsuspension.

    PubMed

    Bravo González, Roberto Carlos; Huwyler, Jörg; Walter, Isabelle; Mountfield, Richard; Bittner, Beate

    2002-10-01

    Oral bioavailability of the highly lipophilic and poorly water-soluble immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CyA) in two different formulations was investigated in male Wistar rats. An aqueous microsuspension and a self-dispersing formulation composed of the surface-active ingredients Solutol HS 15:Labrafil M2125CS:oleic acid=7:2:1 (v/v/v) were administered to the animals at a dose level of 20 mg/kg. In order to calculate the absolute oral bioavailability, CyA was additionally administered intravenously at 10 mg/kg as microsuspension. It was found that the oral bioavailability of CyA in the Solutol HS 15-based formulation was twofold higher as compared to the microsuspension (69.9+/-2.8 vs. 35.7+/-3.3%, P=0.001). By contrast, the time to reach maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) and the terminal half-life (t(1/2)) did not differ significantly with the different formulations (t(max): 7.0+/-1.0 vs. 6.3+/-1.7 h; t(1/2): 20.5+/-2.9 vs. 16.7+/-4.7 h). In vitro solubility experiments demonstrated a marked increase in the aqueous solubility of CyA in the presence of the self-dispersing formulation as compared to the micronized powder alone (solubility after 120 min at 37 degrees C: 136 vs. 23.2 microg/ml in human gastric juice; 133 vs. 10.8 microg/ml in simulated intestinal juice). Most likely, the enhanced systemic exposure of CyA in the self-dispersing formulation was caused by improved solubility of CyA in the gastrointestinal fluids in the presence of the surface-active ingredients. Additional factors that may have contributed to increased oral bioavailability are inhibition of metabolism and/or transport processes as well as permeability enhancement by the co-administered excipients.

  4. Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu

    2015-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD.

  5. Neuropeptide Y expression confers benzo[a]pyrene induced anxiolytic like behavioral response during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saroj Kumar; Patri, Manorama

    2017-02-01

    Environmental neurotoxicant like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is known to induce neurobehavioral changes. Our previous reports address the adverse effect of B[a]P on the neurobehavioral responses and neuromorphology of sensitive brain regions in adolescent rats. Present study was conducted on male Wistar rat neonates at postnatal day 5 (PND5) to ascertain B[a]P induced anxiolytic like behavioral response could be an outcome of neuropeptide Y (NPY) overexpression in brain. Single intracisternal administration of B[a]P was carried out at PND5 to elucidate the role of NPY on neurobehavioral responses at PND30. The behavioral studies showed anxiolytic like effect of B[a]P in both light and dark box and elevated plus maze tests. Antioxidant assay involving glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly decreased where as lipid peroxidation was significantly augmented in both hippocampus and hypothalamus of B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The neurotransmitter estimation by HPLC-ECD showed significant increase in 5-HT level in both hippocampus and hypothalamus of B[a]P treated group. Significant elevation in NPY expression was observed in both hippocampus and hypothalamus of B[a]P group. Intracellular Ca(2+) estimation using Fura-2AM by fluorometry showed that B[a]P induced increase in Ca(2+) influx was associated with augmented NPY expression in brain. As NPY has orexigenic effect, our result revealed that there was a significant increase in body weight at PND30 following B[a]P administration to rat neonates at PND5. These findings suggested that NPY overexpression in brain regions might be associated with anxiolytic like behavioral response and orexigenic effect in rats following single intracisternal B[a]P administration. Future research directing towards understanding the signaling cascades of B[a]P induced biochemical and neuromorphological alteration might address the independent pathway which induce neurodegeneration despite NPY overexpression in

  6. Effects of swim training on liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats fed a low-fat or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aguiar e Silva, Marco Aurélio; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan José; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Azevedo, Luciana; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of swim training on the promotion-progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were submitted to chemically induced liver carcinogenesis and allocated into 4 major groups, according their dietary regimen (16 weeks) and swim training of 5 days per week (8 weeks): 2 groups were fed low-fat diet (LFD, 6% fat) and trained or not trained and 2 groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) and trained or not trained. At week 20, the animals were killed and liver samples were processed for histological analyses; immunohistochemical detection of persistent or remodeling preneoplastic lesions (pPNL and rPNL) expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) enzyme; or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein levels by Western blotting or malonaldehyde (MDA) and total glutathione detection by HPLC. Overall analysis indicated that swim training reduced the body weight and body fat in both LFD and HFD groups, normalized total cholesterol levels in the HFD group while decreased the MDA levels, increased glutathione levels and both number of GST-P-positive pPNL and hepatocellular adenomas in LFD group. Also, a favorable balance in PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 levels was detected in the liver from the LFD-trained group in relation to LFD-untrained group. The findings of this study indicate that the swim training protocol as a result of exercise postconditioning may attenuate liver carcinogenesis under an adequate dietary regimen with lowered fat intake.

  7. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in

  8. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G.; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue. PMID:27403200

  9. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  10. Modulatory effect of naringenin on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine- and saturated sodium chloride-induced gastric carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Peramaiyan, Rajendran; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Venkataraman, Magesh; Dhanapal, Sakthisekaran

    2008-10-01

    Naringenin is a flavanone that is believed to have many biological actions, including as an anti-oxidant, free radical scavenger and an antiproliferative agent. The global incidence of gastric carcinoma is increasing rapidly, more than for any other cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the effects of naringenin on gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and saturated sodium chloride (S-NaCl) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups and treated over a period of 20 weeks as follows: (i) a control group given corn oil (1 mL/rat, p.o.) daily 20 weeks; (ii) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14 with S-NaCl (1 mL/rat) administered twice a week for the first 3 weeks; (iii) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14, with naringenin (200 mg/kg, p.o., daily) treatment for the entire 20 weeks; (iv) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14, with naringenin treatment (200 mg/kg, p.o., daily) initiated from 6 to 20 weeks; (v) 200 mg/kg, p.o., naringenin alone daily for 20 weeks. In Group II rats in which gastric cancer was inducted with MNNG and S-NaCl, there was a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels, with decreases in reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition, in Group II rats with gastric cancer, there were significant increases in the activity of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b(5) and NADPH cytochrome c reductase, with concomitant decreases in the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase. Naringenin treatment (Groups III and IV) restored enzyme activity to near control levels. These results indicate that naringenin has a chemopreventive action against MNNG-induced gastric carcinoma in experimental rats.

  11. Early Ethanol and Water Intake: Choice Mechanism and Total Fluid Regulation Operate in Parallel in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol / water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol / water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol / water choice. PMID:24095933

  12. Early Ethanol and Water Consumption: Accumulating Experience Differentially Regulates Drinking Pattern and Bout Parameters in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different origin, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. PMID:24095931

  13. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  14. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  15. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation.

  16. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  17. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p < 0.05) were upregulated at birth and 14 weeks postweaning. DNA hypermethylation (2% p = 0.006) was observed in the dopamine receptor 1 (Drd1) promoter region. We conclude that a gestational diet high in vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  18. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Beneficial effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Sreenivasulu, N; Sasi Bhusana Rao, B; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) on the effects of high-fat diet feeding on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. High-fat diet (60% of fat) and CFE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 90 days. Feeding with high-fat diet resulted in the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia and impaired insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). Administration of CFE to high-fat diet-fed rats for 90 days resulted in a significant improvement in plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and triglycerides. Regarding liver antioxidant status, high-fat fed rats showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and lower GSH levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, while CFE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. In conclusion, intake of CFE may be beneficial for the suppression of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress.

  20. Effects of perinatal simultaneous exposure to tributyltin (TBT) and p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) on male offspring of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuji; Omura, Minoru; Ogata, Rika

    2004-03-12

    p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene; DDE] and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitous in the environment and in Japan were shown to bioaccumulate in marine products. Thus these chemicals serve as a source of contaminant in the mammalian food chain. Fetuses and neonates through maternal ingestion may be exposed to DDE and TBT. Therefore, the effects of concurrent exposure to DDE and TBT were investigated in male Wistar rat offspring of dams ingesting these two contaminants. In this study, TBT suppressed the growth and delayed eye opening. However, both growth retardation and delayed eye opening produced by TBT failed to occur in the presence of DDE. Unexpectedly, the prostate weight of male rat offspring was significantly reduced with the administration of TBT but restored in the presence of DDE. These results indicate that TBT and DDE affected the development of male rat offspring following maternal exposure, and simultaneous administration of DDE prevented some of the observed effects of TBT, especially of an antagonistic nature, through a mechanism, still to be determined.

  1. Long-term ethanol self-administration induces ΔFosB in male and female adolescent, but not in adult, Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wille-Bille, Aranza; de Olmos, Soledad; Marengo, Leonardo; Chiner, Florencia; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2017-03-06

    Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol. ΔFosB is a transcription factor that accumulates after chronic drug exposure and serves as a molecular marker of neural plasticity associated with the transition to addiction. We analyzed the impact of chronic (18 two-bottle choice intake sessions spread across 42days, session length: 18h) ethanol [or only vehicle (control group)] self-administration during adolescence or adulthood on the induction of ΔFosB in several brain areas, anxiety-like behavior, and ethanol-induced locomotor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) in Wistar rats. Adolescent rats exhibited a progressive escalation of ethanol intake and preference, whereas adult rats exhibited a stable pattern of ingestion. Few behavioral differences in the open field or light-dark test were observed after the intake test. Furthermore, ethanol self-administration did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced CPP. There were, however, large age-related differences in the neural consequences of ethanol drinking: a significantly greater number of ethanol-induced ΔFosB-positive cells was found in adolescents vs. adults in the prelimbic cortex, dorsolateral striatum, nucleus accumbens core and shell, and central amygdala nucleus capsular and basolateral amygdala, with sex-related differences found at central amygdala. This greater ethanol-induced ΔFosB induction may represent yet another age-related difference in the sensitivity to ethanol that may put adolescents at higher risk for

  2. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  3. Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage.

  4. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  5. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Leslie C.; Radin, M. Judith; Heller, Lois; Rogers, Lynette K.; Tobias, Anthony; Matise, Ilze; Wang, Qi; Apple, Fred S.; McCune, Sylvia A.

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

  6. The effects of sub-chronic administration of sub-lethal doses of amitraz/xylene on selected reproductive parameters of male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Omoja, V. U.; Anika, S. M.; Asuzu, I. U.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sub-chronic administration of sub-lethal doses of amitraz on some testicular parameters of Albino rats. Twenty-four adult male Albino rats (100 ± 10 g) randomly assigned into four groups were used for the study. Groups A, B and C received 10.0, 2.0 and 0.4 mg/kg amitraz in 10 ml/kg water while group D received equivalent volume of water orally and daily for 84 days. Serum testosterone levels (TESL) were assessed on days 0, 28, 56 and 84. Epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), testicular sperm reserve (TSR), testicular weight index (TWI) and testicular histology were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results revealed dose-dependent reduction (P<0.05) in the mean TESL, ESR and TSR in the amitraz-treated groups as the dose of the amitraz increased. Histological study revealed testicular degeneration characterized by depopulation of seminiferous tubules and depletion of the spermatogenic cells in rats in group A. It was concluded that sub-chronic administration of sub-lethal doses of amitraz could lead to reduced sperm quantity. PMID:28224014

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging.

  8. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Asystasia gangetica on the blood pressure and heart rate in male spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asystasia gangentica (A. gangetica) belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It is used to treat hypertension, rheumatism, asthma, diabetes mellitus, and as an anthelmintic in South Africa, India, Cameroun, Nigeria, and Kenya respectively. It has also been reported to inhibit the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in-vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the in-vivo effect of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of A. gangetica on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in anaesthetized male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); and to elucidate possible mechanism(s) by which it acts. Methods The ALE of A. gangetica (10–400 mg/kg), angiotensin I human acetate salt hydrate (ANG I, 3.1–100 μg/kg) and angiotensin II human (ANG II, 3.1–50 μg/kg) were administered intravenously. The BP and HR were measured via a pressure transducer connecting the femoral artery to a Powerlab and a computer for recording. Results A. gangetica significantly (p<0.05), and dose-dependently reduced the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP. The significant (p<0.05) reductions in HR were not dose-dependent. Both ANG I and ANG II increased the BP dose-dependently. Co-infusion of A. gangetica (200 mg/kg) with either ANG I or ANG II significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the hypertensive effect of both ANG I and ANG II respectively, and was associated with reductions in HR. Conclusions A. gangetica ALE reduced BP and HR in the SHR. The reduction in BP may be a result of actions of the ALE on the ACE, the ANG II receptors and the heart rate. PMID:24160568

  9. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  10. Sertraline and its iodine product: experimental and theoretical vibrational studies: potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Graciela E; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A M; Ferrer, Evelina G

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  11. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment.

  12. Sertraline and its iodine product: Experimental and theoretical vibrational studies. Potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Graciela E.; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A. M.; Ferrer, Evelina G.

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  13. Social isolation prompts maternal behavior in sexually naïve male ddN mice.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Chitose; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Katsumata, Harumi; Sato, Manami; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Minami, Shiro; Sakuma, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Maternal behavior in mice is considered to be sexually dimorphic; that is, females show maternal care for their offspring, whereas this behavior is rarely shown in males. Here, we examined how social isolation affects the interaction of adult male mice with pups. Three weeks of isolation during puberty (5-8 weeks old) induced retrieving and crouching when exposed to pups, while males with 1 week isolation (7-8 weeks old) also showed such maternal care, but were less responsive to pups. We also examined the effect of isolation during young adulthood (8-11 weeks old), and found an induction of maternal behavior comparable to that in younger male mice. This effect was blocked by exposure to chemosensory and auditory social signals derived from males in an attached compartment separated by doubled opaque barriers. These results demonstrate that social isolation in both puberty and postpuberty facilitates male maternal behavior in sexually naïve mice. The results also indicate that air-borne chemicals and/or sounds of male conspecifics, including ultrasonic vocalization and noise by their movement may be sufficient to interfere with the isolation effect on induction of maternal behavior in male mice.

  14. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  15. The effect of dietary supplementation with limonene or myo-inositol on the induction of neoplasia and matrix metalloproteinase and plasminogen activator activities in accessory sex organs of male Lobund-Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lindgren, Bruce R; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2008-10-01

    Prostate cancer, the most prevalent non-cutaneous cancer in men, is associated with increased age. This suggests that dietary chemopreventive measures could be effective in delaying the onset or decreasing the severity of the disease. We utilized the Lobund-Wistar rat nitrosomethylurea induced, testosterone promoted (NMU-T) model of male sex accessory gland cancer to test the potential chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol and limonene on tumor incidence and associated protease activities. Tumors were found to arise in the seminal vesicles and dorsal and anterior prostate lobes. There were also some tumors that appeared to arise in both the seminal vesicles and anterior prostate, and in some cases the tissue of origin was not clear. The distribution of tumors as to site of origin in limonene or myo-inositol treated animals did not vary from that of the starch fed control animals, and the number of animals presenting with metastases did not vary significantly between treatment groups. There was a statistically significant delay in onset of tumors in myo-inositol, but not limonene fed rats, at 10 months post-induction of carcinogenesis; however, at 12 and 15 months this was not significant. The ventral prostate and seminal vesicles expressed pro-MMP-2 and plasminogen activator (PA) activities. Based on sensitivity to amiloride, the PA activities were predominately urokinase (uPA) in the ventral prostate and a mixture of tissue-type activator (tPA) and uPA in the seminal vesicles of non-treated rats. Sex accessory gland tumors, and metastases, expressed increased levels PA and pro- and active forms of MMP-2 and -9. The PA activities of the tumors were a mixture of uPA and tPA. There was no difference in the levels of these protease activities based on the tissue of tumor origin, nor in tumor vs metastasis. These studies indicate that MMP and PA activities play a role in sex accessory gland tumor biology and that dietary supplementation with myo-inositol can delay

  16. Electrophysiological, vasoactive, and gastromodulatory effects of stevia in healthy Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yesmine, Saquiba; Connolly, Kylie; Hill, Nicholas; Coulson, Fiona R; Fenning, Andrew S

    2013-07-01

    Antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of stevia, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), have been demonstrated in several human and animal models. The current study aims to define stevia's role in modifying the electrophysiological and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Tissues from thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, ileum, and left ventricular papillary muscles were excised from 8-week-old healthy Wistar rats. The effects of stevia (1 × 10-9 M to 1 × 10-4 M) were measured on these tissues. Stevia's effects in the presence of verapamil, 4-AP, and L-NAME were also assessed. In cardiomyocytes, stevia attenuated the force of contraction, decreased the average peak amplitude, and shortened the repolarisation phase of action potential - repolarisation phase of action potential20 by 25 %, repolarisation phase of action potential50 by 34 %, and repolarisation phase of action potential90 by 36 %. Stevia caused relaxation of aortic tissues which was significantly potentiated in the presence of verapamil. In mesenteric arteries, incubation with L-NAME failed to block stevia-induced relaxation indicating the mechanism of action may not be fully via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Stevia concentration-dependently reduced electrical field stimulated and carbachol-induced contractions in the isolated ileum. This study is the first to show the effectiveness of stevia in reducing cardiac action potential duration at 20 %, 50 %, and 90 % of repolarisation. Stevia also showed beneficial modulatory effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tissues via calcium channel antagonism, activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor function, and enhanced nitric oxide release.

  17. Sexual dimorphism of hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kava, R A; West, D B; Lukasik, V A; Greenwood, M R

    1989-02-01

    Obese and lean male and female Wistar fatty rats were fed a high-sucrose (68% of calories) diet from 5 to 22 wk of age. Obese males, but not obese females, developed hyperglycemia in the fed state and were more glucose intolerant during an intragastric glucose tolerance test than obese females. Lean Wistar fatty rats did not become hyperglycemic on the sucrose diet. Obese males also showed a smaller insulin response during the glucose tolerance test than did obese females. The Wistar fatty rat is a sexually dimorphic model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which the male but not the female obese rats become diabetic. The diabetic condition and impaired glucose tolerance in the obese male Wistar fatty rat may be related to impaired pancreatic insulin release and peripheral insulin resistance.

  18. Evaluation of protective effect of myricetin, a bioflavonoid in dimethyl benzanthracene-induced breast cancer in female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, J. K.; Nirmala, P.; Praveen Kumar, B. A.; Kumar, Ashok P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Alarmingly, the incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly in India. Aim: The present research was focused to assess the role of myricetin; a bioflavonoid in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 female Wistar rats (total 6 groups, n = 6 per group) 6 - 8 weeks old, weighing 150 gm were used in the study. DMBA was given at the dose of 7.5 mg/kg subcutaneously in the mammary region once a week for 4 consecutive weeks in group 2. Vincristine was given in the dose of 500 μg/kg intraperitonially every week for 4 consecutive weeks in group 3. Myricetin was given orally in a dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg in group 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The statistical significance of the data was determined using one way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test. Results: The result showed that myricetin increased the antioxidant levels in plasma, erythrocyte lysate, and breast tissue and was effective in preventing the oxidative damage induced by the carcinogen DMBA. Myricetin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/oral for 120 days treated animal resulted comparable results to that of standard vincristine and control groups. Conclusions: Myricetin was found to be either equieffective or more effective than vincristine in all the parameters studied. Myricetin proved the capacity of flavonols to act as antioxidant in cells represents a potential treatment in the field of oncology. PMID:24818105

  19. DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms.

  20. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.; Moser, A.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats. PMID:22473322

  1. Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.

  2. Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew; Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz

    2008-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compared to control strains. To further this work, the present study utilized autoradiographic analysis of [3H]-SCH23390 binding to DA D1 receptors in various brain regions of naïve male WKY and Wistar (WIS) rats. The results revealed a significant strain difference, with WKY rats demonstrating lower D1 binding in the caudate putamen and regions of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05). An opposite pattern was found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata where D1 binding was higher in WKY rats compared to WIS rats (p<0.05). Because the D1 receptor represents a critical site where DA acts to modify behavior related to depression, the altered expression of this receptor in the WKY rat found in the present study may be reflective of the depressive susceptibility noted in this strain. PMID:18558411

  3. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  4. A novel Xq22.1 deletion in a male with multiple congenital abnormalities and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Aypar, Umut

    2016-05-01

    Here we report the first male case of a novel Xq22.1 deletion. An 8-week-old boy with multiple congenital abnormalities and respiratory failure was referred to the Mayo Clinic Cytogenetics laboratory for testing. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified a novel 1.1 Mb deletion at Xq22.1. A similar deletion has only been described once in the literature in a female patient and her mother; both have intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features. In addition, the mother had a son who died at 15 days due to breathing failure. Recently, a mouse model revealed that a 0.35 Mb sub-region, containing 4 genes, is sufficient to cause majority of the Xq22.1 deletion phenotypes. The deleted intervals in our male patient and the female patients contain 15 common genes, including the four described in the 0.35 Mb sub-region. Male mice with deletion of the 0.35 Mb sub-region died perinatally from respiratory failure due to pulmonary hypoplasia, consistent with the breathing problem and potential neonatal fatality in male patients. The phenotypes of the mouse models and the patients are strikingly similar; therefore, the deletion of these five genes (ARMCX5, ARMCX5-GPRASP2, GPRASP1, GPRASP2, and BHLHB9) is likely responsible for the novel Xq22.1 deletion syndrome.

  5. Platelets of the Wistar Furth rat have reduced levels of alpha-granule proteins. An animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C W; Hutson, N K; Steward, S A; Saito, N; Cramer, E M

    1991-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Furth (WF) strain have hereditary macrothrombocytopenia (large mean platelet volume [MPV] with increased platelet size heterogeneity and reduced platelet count). Ultrastructural studies suggest that this anomaly results from erratic subdivision of megakaryocyte cytoplasm into platelets. In this study, we have examined protein profiles of platelets of WF rats for biochemical abnormalities associated with this anomaly. Marked decreases in protein bands with an Mr of 185, 57, 53, 16, 13, and 8 kd were observed in one-dimensional reduced SDS-PAGE gels in WF platelets compared with platelets of Wistar, Long Evans, and Sprague-Dawley rats. These proteins were released into the supernatant when washed platelets were treated with thrombin suggesting that they were alpha-granule proteins. These abnormalities were not present in offspring of crosses between Wistar Furth and Wistar rats; however, they were present in platelets of offspring with large MPV derived from backcrosses of (WF X Wistar) F1 males to WF females, but not in backcross offspring with normal platelet size. Immunoblotting confirmed decreased levels of thrombospondin, fibrinogen, and platelet factor 4 in WF platelets. Electron microscopic examination revealed that platelet alpha granules were usually smaller in Wistar Furth than in Wistar rats. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the surface connected canalicular system of the large Wistar Furth platelets, contained dense material composed of alpha-granule proteins, not present in Wistar platelets. From these results, we conclude that the Wistar Furth rat platelet phenotype of large mean platelet volume and decreased levels of alpha-granule proteins represents an animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome. The autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of the large MPV phenotype and platelet alpha-granule protein deficiencies suggests that a component common to both formation of platelet alpha granules, and

  6. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kosyreva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10-12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose-15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats.

  7. Toxicity assessment of nanosilver wound dressing in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Mahdavi, Moujan; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Korani, Mitra; Amani, Amir; Ziarati, Parisa

    2013-05-07

    Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days) model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing) and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT) at the endpoint (21 days) of the study (P=0.027). Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci were recognized around the central hepatic vein in treatment group. Mild hepatotoxic effects of nanosilver wound dressing in wistar rat emphasize the necessity of more studies on toxicity potentials of low dose nanosilver by dermal applications.

  8. Effects of ageing and pharmacological hypothyroidism on pituitary-thyroid axis of Dutch-Miranda and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, D G; Marassi, M P; Corrêa da Costa, V M; Carvalho, D P; Rosenthal, D

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of the aged rat pituitary to increase TSH secretion in response to major decreases in serum thyroid hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by methimazole in young and old, male and female, Dutch-Miranda and Wistar rats. Before MMI-treatment there were no differences in serum TSH of young and old rats, but serum T(4) was significantly decreased in aged rats from both genders and strains, while serum T(3) was significantly decreased in aged male rats from both strains, and in old Wistar females. MMI treatment significantly decreased serum T(4) and T(3) in all treated animals, and progressively increased serum TSH in both male and female rats, but the increase was significantly smaller in the elder rats. The pituitary TSH content was higher in Wistar than in Dutch-Miranda rats, of both genders, and was not significantly affected by age. MMI treatment decreased the pituitary TSH in both young and old Dutch-Miranda rats, but in the Wistar strain only the old females had a significant decrease. Our results show that the ability of the pituitary thyrotrophs to increase hormonal secretion in response to decreased levels of thyroid hormones is impaired in the old rat, even when the thyroid hormone levels are dramatically reduced.

  9. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  10. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cruzan, George; Corley, Richard A; Hard, Gordon C; Mertens, Jos J W M; McMartin, Kenneth E; Snellings, William M; Gingell, Ralph; Deyo, James A

    2004-10-01

    Ethylene glycol (CAS RN 107-21-1) can cause kidney toxicity via the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in a variety of species, including humans. Numerous repeated dose studies conducted in rats have indicated that male rats are more susceptible than female rats. Furthermore, subchronic and chronic studies using different dietary exposure regimens have indicated that male Wistar rats may be more sensitive to renal toxicity than male Fischer-344 (F-344) rats. This study was conducted to compare the toxicity of ethylene glycol in the two strains of rats under identical exposure conditions and to evaluate the potential contribution of toxicokinetic differences to strain sensitivity. Ethylene glycol was mixed in the diet at concentrations to deliver constant target dosage levels of 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks to groups of 10 male Wistar and 10 male F-344 rats based on weekly group mean body weights and feed consumption. Kidneys were examined histologically for calcium oxalate crystals and pathology. Samples of blood, urine, and kidneys from satellite animals exposed to 0, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 or 16 weeks were analyzed for ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Treatment of Wistar rats at 1000 mg/kg/day resulted in the death of two rats; in addition, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, group mean body weights were decreased compared to control throughout the 16 weeks. In F-344 rats exposed at 1000 mg/kg/day and in Wistar rats receiving 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, there were lower urine specific gravities, higher urine volumes, and increased absolute and relative kidney weights. In both strains of rats treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, some or all treated animals had increased calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tubules and crystal nephropathy. The effect was more severe in Wistar rats than in F-344 rats. Accumulation of oxalic acid in the kidneys of both strains of rats was consistent with the dose-dependent and strain

  11. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats is related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruzan, G; Corley, Rick A.; Hard, G; Mertens, J W.; McMartin, K. E.; Snellings, W; Gingell, Ralph; Deyo, J A.

    2004-10-01

    Ethylene Glycol (CAS RN 107-21-1) can to cause kidney toxicity via the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in a variety of species including humans. Numerous repeated dose studies conducted in rats have indicated that male rats are more susceptible than female rats. Furthermore, subchronic and chronic studies using different dietary exposure regimens have indicated that male Wistar rats may be more sensitive to renal toxicity than male F344 rats. This study was, therefore, conducted to compare the toxicity of ethylene glycol in the two strains of rats under identical exposure conditions and to evaluate the potential contribution of toxicokinetic differences to strain sensitivity. Ethylene glycol was mixed in the diet at concentrations to deliver constant target dosage levels of 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks to groups of 10 male Wistar and 10 male F-344 rats based upon weekly group mean body weights and feed consumption. Kidneys were examined histologically for calcium oxalate crystals and pathology. Samples of blood, urine and kidneys from satellite animals exposed to 0, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 or 16 weeks were analyzed for ethylene glycol, glycolic acid and oxalic acid. Treatment of Wistar rats at 1000 mg/kg/day resulted in the death of 2 rats; in addition, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, group mean body weights were decreased compared to control throughout the 16 weeks. In F-344 rats exposed at 1000 mg/kg/day and in Wistar rats at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, there were lower urine specific gravities, higher urine volumes, and increased absolute and relative kidney weights. In both strains of rats treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, some or all treated animals had increased calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tubules and crystal nephropathy. The effect was more severe in Wistar rats than in F-344 rats. Accumulation of oxalic acid in the kidneys of both strains of rats were consistent with the dose- and strain-dependent toxicity. As the

  12. Gonadal status of male recipient mice influences germ cell development in immature buffalo testis tissue xenograft.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Niranjan; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Thathi, Revanth; Suman, Sanjay Kumar; Jose, Jedy; Goel, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Growth and development of immature testis xenograft from various domestic mammals has been shown in mouse recipients; however, buffalo testis xenografts have not been reported to date. In this study, small fragments of testis tissue from 8-week-old buffalo calves were implanted subcutaneously onto the back of immunodeficient male mouse recipients, which were either castrated or left intact (non-castrated). The xenografts were retrieved and analyzed 12 and 24 weeks later. The grafted tissue survived and grew in both types of recipient with a significant increase in weight and seminiferous tubule diameter. Recovery of grafts from intact recipients 24 weeks post-grafting was significantly lower than that from the castrated recipients. Seminal vesicle indices and serum testosterone levels were lower in castrated recipients at both collection time points in comparison to the intact recipients and non-grafted intact mouse controls. Pachytene spermatocytes were the most advanced germ cells observed in grafts recovered from castrated recipients 24 weeks post-grafting. Complete spermatogenesis, as indicated by the presence of elongated spermatids, was present only in grafts from intact recipients collected 24 weeks post-grafting. However, significant number of germ cells with DNA damage was also detected in these grafts as indicated by TUNEL assay. The complete germ cell differentiation in xenografts from intact recipients may be attributed to efficient Sertoli cell maturation. These results suggest that germ cell differentiation in buffalo testis xenograft can be completed by altering the recipient gonadal status.

  13. Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Naomi; Fujioka, Masaki; Doi, Kenichiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP). Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found. Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats. In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats. PMID:27391589

  14. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular Functions in Nicotine Treated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, T A; Oyeyemi, W A; Adigwe, C; Leko, B; Udeh, C; Dapper, D V

    2015-12-20

    Effect of honey on reproductive functions of male rats exposed to nicotine was examined in this study. Thirty-two adult male wistar rats (n=8/Group) were grouped as Control (distilled water), Nicotine (1.0mg/kg bwt), Honey (100mg/kg bwt) and Nicotine with Honey. The animals were orally treated for 35 days consecutively. Epididymis sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were estimated, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone were assayed using ELISA method and testicular histology were also assessed. Significant reduction in percentage sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were observed in nicotine group compared to control. Serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were significantly reduced in nicotine group when compared with the control. There was significant improvement in sperm motility, viability, morphology, counts, FSH, LH and Testosterone in group co-treated with nicotine and honey  relative to nicotine group. Also, the degenerative seminiferous tubule architecture due to nicotine was improved by honey. In conclusion, honey may suppress nicotine toxic effect on reproductive functions in male Wistar rats.

  15. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.; Bel, E. Del; Defino, H.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration. PMID:23532265

  16. Exposition to tannery wastewater did not alter behavioral and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-04-22

    There are scarce data on the neurotoxicity in mammalian induced by tannery wastewaters. Previously, the anxiogenic effect of tannery wastewater was demonstrated in mice, while wastewater submitted to photoelectrooxidation (PEO) process treatment did not affect the anxiety state. Considering that species may response differently to xenobiotics, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of exposure to tannery wastewaters (non-PEO or PEO-treated) on behavioral and neurochemical markers in another species of laboratory animals, specifically Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were given free access to water bottles containing non-PEO or PEO-treated tannery wastewaters (0.1, 1 and 5% in drinking water). During the exposure, behavioral tests of anxiety (elevated plus-maze, neophobia, open field and light-dark box), depression (forced swimming) and memory (inhibitory avoidance, novel object and discriminative avoidance) were performed. On the 30th day, brain structures were dissected out to evaluate cellular oxidative state (hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum) and acetylcholinesterase activity (hippocampus and striatum). Exposure to tannery effluent with or without photoelectrochemical treatment did not alter any behavioral and neurochemical parameters evaluated. Our data indicate that Wistar rats may not be an adequate species for ecotoxicological studies involving tannery effluents and that POE treatment did not generate other toxic compounds.

  17. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2017-03-10

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats.

  18. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  19. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  20. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  1. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  2. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  3. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats.

  4. Assessment of enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation by intermittent fasting in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Rima L Abdul; Abu-Hozaifa, Bodour M; Bamosa, Abdullah O; Ali, Nemah M

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a type of feeding regimen where the frequency of eating is reduced enhances cardiovascular stress adaptation and improves cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Data on the effect of IF on the endothelium is not common, so we examined whether IF showed similarity to documented beneficial effects of caloric restriction on endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses of rat aortic rings. 25 young male Wistar rats had ad libitum (AL) access to food and 25 others were provided with food every other day for 2 months, during which their weight was measured every 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity of abdominal aorta was simultaneously evaluated using dual wire myographs. Weight gain was greater in the AL group (P<0.001) at all weighing intervals. Acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10)-10(-5)M) produced greater (P<0.05) vasorelaxation in IF rats at the two highest concentrations. IF reduces weight gain in young male rats and improves their aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  5. Genotoxicity of nimesulide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Debojyoti; Panda, Sushen K; Sahoo, Gyana R; Parija, Subas C

    2014-04-01

    It is mandatory for all new drugs to be tested for their potential genotoxicity in addition to general toxicity testing. Some old drugs have not been tested adequately for their genotoxic effects because these were in use before the local regulations were enforced. According to the material safety database, the toxicological effect of nimesulide is not yet fully understood. The present study therefore aimed to explore the genotoxic potential of nimesulide in Wistar albino rats. Nimesulide at the dose level of 50 (Gr-50), 100 (Gr-100) and 200 (Gr-200) mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given orally. Each rat in treated groups (Gr-50 to Gr-200; n = 10) and negative control group (Gr-NC; n = 10) were administered orally (p.o.) with nimesulide and normal saline, respectively, for 14 days. Similarly, rats of positive control (Gr-PC; n = 10) were administered with cyclophosphamide (CPA; 20 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. CPA served as positive control, whereas normal saline served as as negative control. Approximately 1-2 mL of blood was collected from retro-orbital sinus for comet assay and subsequently rats were sacrificed to aspirate the femoral bone marrow for the micronucleus test. Structural chromosomal aberration, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and comet tail length were calculated using micronucleus assay and comet assay, respectively, which served as markers of genotoxicity. In the present study, it was observed that a significant increase in (1) different classified structural chromosomal aberrations with increase in nimesulide dose, such as gaps (50 mg/kg), gaps, breaks and pulverizations (100 mg/kg) and gaps, breaks, fragments, rings and pulverizations (200 mg/kg) and (2) % MnPCE and comet tail length was observed in animals treated with CPA (p < 0.001) or 200 mg of nimesulide (p < 0.05), as compared to negative control. In conclusion, nimesulide (200 mg/kg b.w.) produced a

  6. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  7. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol.

  8. In vivo influence of sodium fluoride on sperm chemotaxis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaojing; Wang, Shaolin; Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Jundong

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive process covers lots of procedures, including capacitation, hyperactivation, chemotaxis and the acrosome reaction. Each plays an important role in the success of fertilization. Although multiple studies have reported the toxic effects of fluoride on the male reproduction, the effect of fluoride on sperm chemotaxis is little known. This study is to examine the effect of fluoride on the sperm chemotaxis and then to reveal the underling mechanisms of fluoride toxicity in sperm chemotaxis. 260 healthy Kunming male mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to 50, 100, 150 mg NaF/L in the drinking water for 8 weeks. At the end of the exposure, sperm chemotaxis was examined using a microchannel-based device. Ca(2+) concentration, adenylate cyclase (AC) content and mRNA expression of mACIII, mACVIII, Golf alpha, CatSper1, CatSper2 were measured to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that the percentage of chemotactic sperm was decreased by NaF in a dose-dependent manner. In the 100 and 150 mg/L groups, Ca(2+) concentration and AC content were notably lower than the control group. Compared with the control group, mRNA expression of CatSper1 in the 100 and 150 mg/L treatment groups was decreased significantly, and other genes showed no statistical difference. These data suggested that excessive fluoride did adversely affect sperm chemotaxis. The alteration of Ca(2+) concentration, AC content and CatSper1 mRNA expression level may play a key role in the mechanism underlying the affection.

  9. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model.

  10. Wistar rats: a forgotten model of age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Juan C.; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Blanco, José L.; Juiz, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is one of the most frequent sensory impairments in senescence and is a source of important socio-economic consequences. Understanding the pathological responses that occur in the central auditory pathway of patients who suffer from this disability is vital to improve its diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize age-related modifications in auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and to determine whether these functional responses might be accompanied by an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus of Wistar rats. To do so, ABR recordings at different frequencies and immunohistochemistry for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) were performed in young, middle-aged and old male Wistar rats. The results demonstrate that there was a significant increase in the auditory thresholds, a significant decrease in the amplitudes and an increase in the latencies of the ABR waves as the age of the rat increased. Additionally, there were decreases in VGLUT1 and VGAT immunostaining in the VCN of older rats compared to younger rats. Therefore, the observed age-related decline in the magnitude of auditory evoked responses might be due in part to a reduction in markers of excitatory function; meanwhile, the concomitant reduction in both excitatory and inhibitory markers might reflect a common central alteration in animal models of ARLH. Together, these findings highlight the suitability of the Wistar rat as an excellent model to study ARHL. PMID:24634657

  11. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI. PMID:21808588

  12. A program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on maximal oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Carol Góis; Levada, Adriana Cristina; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; De-Castro, Célia Barbosa; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Moderate physical training is often associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes and the general population. In animals, studies are designed to investigate basic physiology that could be invasive and uncomfortable for humans. The standardization of an exercise training protocol for rats based on maximal consumption of oxygen (VO(2)max) is needed. This study validated a program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max determined once a week. A 10-stage treadmill running test was developed to measure VO(2)max through an indirect, open circuit calorimeter. Thirty male Wistar rats (210-226 g) were randomly assigned to either a nontrained group or a trained group. The animals were evaluated weekly to follow their VO(2)max during 8 weeks of moderate training and to adjust the intensity of the protocol of training. The soleus muscle was removed for determination of citrate synthase activity. Trained animals maintained their values of VO(2)max during a moderate running training and showed a significant less body weight gain. An increase of 42% in citrate synthase activity of the soleus muscle from trained rats was found after the training program. Our study presents a protocol of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max. Peripheral adaptations such as the values of citrate synthase activity also responded to the moderate training program imposed as observed for VO(2)max. Other studies can use our protocol of moderate training to study the physiologic adaptations underlying this specific intensity of training. It will provide support for study with humans.

  13. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  14. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  15. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

  16. Cardioprotective potential of myricetin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Roshan; Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Kasture, Sanjay; Maxia, Andrea; Ballero, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the protective role of myricetin obtained from Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) on heart rate, electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphological and histopathological changes in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate and ST elevation in ECG, and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes - lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with myricetin (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, levels of LDH, CK, AST, SOD, CAT, vascular reactivity changes and ECG patterns. Treatment with myricetin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) alone did not alter any of the parameters compared with vehicle treated Wistar rats. Myricetin treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Thus, myricetin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI.

  17. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.

  18. Alternative Multiorgan Initiation-Promotion Assay for Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Solano, Marize de Lourdes Marzo; Rocha, Noeme Souza; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Franchi, Carla Adriene da Silva; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi; de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana

    2016-12-01

    The medium-term multiorgan initiation-promotion chemical bioassay (diethylnitrosamine, methyl-nitrosourea, butyl-hydroxybutylnitrosamine, dihydroxypropylnitrosamine, dimethylhydrazine [DMBDD]) with the Fischer 344 rat was proposed as an alternative to the conventional 2-year carcinogenesis bioassay for regulatory purposes. The acronym DMBDD stands for the names of five genotoxic agents used for initiation of multiorgan carcinogenesis. The Brazilian Agency for the Environment officially recognized a variation of this assay (DMBDD(b)) as a valid method to assess the carcinogenic potential of agrochemicals. Different from the original protocol, this DMBDD(b) is 30-week long, uses Wistar rats and two positive control groups exposed to carcinogenesis promoters sodium phenobarbital (PB) or 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). This report presents the experience of an academic laboratory with the DMBDD(b) assay and contributes to the establishment of this alternative DMBDD bioassay in a different rat strain. Frequent lesions observed in positive groups to evaluate the promoting potential of pesticides and the immunohistochemical expressions of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1/2B2 and CYP1A2 enzymes were assessed. Commonly affected organs were liver, kidney, intestines, urinary bladder, and thyroid. PB promoting activity was less evident than that of 2-AAF, especially in males. This study provides a repository of characteristic lesions occurring in positive control animals submitted to a modified alternative 2-stage multiorgan protocol for carcinogenesis in Wistar rat.

  19. Pathological and immunological effects of respirable coal fly ash in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dormans, J A; Steerenberg, P A; Arts, J H; van Bree, L; de Klerk, A; Verlaan, A P; Bruijntjes, J P; Beekhof, P; van Soolingen, D; van Loveren, H

    1999-01-01

    In this study the effects of inhalatory exposure to coal fly ash on lung pathology and the immune system in rats were examined. Rats were exposed to 0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/m(3) coal fly ash (6 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk, or to 0 and 100 mg/m(3) for 1 wk, and for 1 wk followed by a recovery in clean air of 3 wk. A concentration-related increase in lung weight was found starting from 30 mg/m(3) coal fly ash. After exposure to 100 mg/m(3), a time-related deposition of free particles in the lungs was observed as well as a time-related number of coal fly ash particles phagocytized in alveolar macrophages. Histological examination revealed increased cellularity in alveolar septa, consisting mainly of mononuclear cell infiltrate, proliferated type II cells, and a slight fibrotic reaction. After a recovery period of 3 wk the histological picture was identical to that after 1 wk of exposure, indicating no significant recovery. No toxicological significant changes were found in the hematological, clinical chemistry, or urine parameters. Effects both on nonspecific defense mechanisms and on specific immune responses were noted. With regard to the immune function in the draining lymph nodes of the lung, a significantly increased number of both T and B lymphocytes was observed. The ratio of both cell types was not changed in either of the groups. In serum of exposed rats a significant increase of up to 150% of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) content was found. The number and phagocytic capacity of macrophages were significantly increased, while the killing of Listeria bacteria per cell ex vivo/in vitro remained unchanged. Natural killer (NK) activity in pulmonary cell suspensions was slightly stimulated in rats exposed for 4 wk to 10 and 30 mg/m(3), whereas an exposure to 100 mg/m(3) resulted in a slight decrease; however, both changes were not significant. In conclusion, the alterations in lung histopathology and immunity, observed in a dose and exposure time relation at concentrations up to and including 100 mg/m(3) coal fly ash, may be considered an adverse response of the host to inhalation of particulate matter. Whether these observed alterations may effect the host resistance must be learned from infection studies.

  20. Ameliorative effect of resveratrol against fluoride-induced alteration of thyroid function in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chaitali; Pal, Sudipta

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol and well-known natural antioxidant has been evaluated for its protective effect against fluoride-induced metabolic dysfunctions in rat thyroid gland. Fluoride, the most abundant anions present in groundwater throughout the world, creates a major problem in safe drinking water and causes metabolic, structural, and functional injuries in different organ systems. Sub-acute exposure to sodium fluoride at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day orally to rat for 30 days induces thyroidal dysfunction including suppressed synthetic machinery of the thyroid gland to produce nucleic acids and thyroid hormones, mainly T3 and T4. Other functional changes are alteration of certain metabolic enzyme activities like Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, thyroid peroxidase, and 5,5'-deiodinase. Structural abnormality of thyroid follicles by fluoride intoxication clearly indicates its thyrotoxic manifestation. Resveratrol supplementation in fluoride-exposed animals appreciably prevented metabolic toxicity caused by fluoride and restored both functional status and ultra-structural organization of the thyroid gland towards normalcy. This study first establishes the therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant in thyroprotection against toxic insult caused by fluoride.

  1. Expression of spinal cord GABA transporter 1 in morphine-tolerant male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shokoofeh, Siroosi; Homa, Manaheji; Leila, Dargahi; Samira, Daniali

    2015-11-15

    Chronic morphine exposure produces morphine tolerance. One of the mechanisms of morphine tolerance involves γ-aminobutric acid (GABA), whose level is regulated by GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GAT-1 in the spinal cord during morphine treatment. Morphine was administrated to rats via drinking water for 21 days. On day 21, a single dose of morphine (10mg/kg) was injected, followed by the administration of 5% formalin after 30 min. Expression of GAT-1 in the lumbar spinal cord during morphine treatment was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay. In another set of experiments, a morphine-tolerant group was treated with a GAT-1 inhibitor, ethyl nipecotate (60 mg/kg), 5 min prior to the formalin test. To assess a possible analgesic effect of the GAT-1 inhibitor, a non-tolerant group was injected only with ethyl nipecotate 5 min prior to the formalin test. Our results indicated that a chronic consumption of morphine led to morphine tolerance. Morphine tolerance was also concomitant with GAT-1 up-regulation in the lumbar spinal cord. The GAT-1 inhibitor ethyl nipecotate improved the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the morphine-tolerant group. Ethyl nipecotate also had an antinociceptive effect on the non-tolerant group. Thus, our data suggest that GAT-1 overexpression in the spinal cord plays an important role in morphine tolerance.

  2. The impact of postnatal environment on opioid peptides in young and adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lisa; Oreland, Sadia; Hoffmann, Pernilla; Nylander, Ingrid

    2008-04-01

    Early environmental influences can change the neuronal development and thereby affect behavior in adult life. The aim in the present study was to thoroughly examine the impact of early environmental factors on endogenous opioids by using a rodent maternal separation (MS) model. The endogenous opioid peptide system is not fully developed at birth, and short- and/or long-term alterations may occur in these neural networks in animals exposed to manipulation of the postnatal environment. Rat pups were subjected to one of five rearing conditions; 15 min (MS15) litter (l) or individual (i), 360 min (MS360) l or i daily MS, or housed under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions during postnatal days 1-21. Measurements of immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels in the pituitary gland and in a number of brain areas, were performed at three and 10 weeks of age, respectively. MS-induced changes were more pronounced in ir MEAP levels, especially in individually separated rats at three weeks of age and in litter-separated rats at 10 weeks of age. The enkephalin and dynorphin systems have different developmental patterns, dynorphin appearing earlier, which may point at a more sensitive enkephalin system during the early postnatal weeks. The results provide evidence that opioid peptides are sensitive for early environmental factors and show that the separation conditions are critical and also result in changes manifesting at different time points. MS-induced effects were observed in areas related to stress, drug reward and dependence mechanisms. By describing effects on opioid peptides, the study addresses the possible role of a deranged endogenous opioid system in the previously described behavioral consequences of MS.

  3. The effects of Nigella sativa on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Fatemeh; Abareshi, Azam; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Saeedjalali, Mohsen; Mohebbati, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimmune factors contribute on the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. Nigella sativa (NS) has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects. In the present study, the effect of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into five groups (n=10 in each): (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, administered two hours before behavioral tests), (3-5) LPS-Nigella sativa 100 , 200 and 400 mg/kg (LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400, respectively). Open- field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed. Results: In OF, LPS reduced the peripheral crossing, peripheral distance, total crossing and total distance compared to control (p<0.01- p<0.001). The central crossing, central distance and central time in LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS200 and LPS-NS 400 groups were higher than LPS (p<0.01- p<0.001). In EPM, LPS decreased the open arm entries, open arm time and closed arm entries while increased the closed time compared to control (p<0.001). Pretreatment by NS extract reversed the effects of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). In FST, LPS increased the immobility time while, decreased the climbing and active times compared to control (p<0.05- p<0.001). In LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400 groups the immobility time was less while, the active and climbing times were more than those of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS reduced the LPS-induced sickness behaviors in rats. Further investigations are required for better understanding the responsible compound (s) and the underlying mechanism(s). PMID:27247927

  4. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  5. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  6. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  7. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint).

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M V Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  8. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  9. Isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior without affecting learning abilities of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernandez, M; Tellez-Alcantara, P; Perez-Garcia, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Isolation-reared rats display fear-like behavior and depressive-like behavior in several behavioral tasks, suggesting that isolation rearing may model certain aspects of human psychopathologies. 2. After weaning (20 days old), male and female Wistar rats were isolation-reared during 20, 50 or 70 days. After that, they were tested in the elevated plus maze test, and in the open field test. Another group of isolation-reared rats (70 days of isolation) were tested in an auto-shaping task. 3. Isolation-reared rats displayed high levels of fear-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test, and hyperlocomotion in the open field test. But, isolation-reared rats learned an auto-shaping task. 4. In conclusion, isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior, without affect learning abilities of rats.

  10. Subchronic toxicity study of ulvan from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huimin; Liu, Xiaolei; Wang, Kai; Liu, Dongmei; Huang, Liye; Liu, Shunmei; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-12-01

    Ulvan extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) is a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharide, for simplicity, the sulfated polysaccharide is referred to as ulvan in this paper. To our knowledge, there is no detailed report investigating the toxicity of ulvan. In this study, the subchronic (6 months) toxicity of varying levels of ulvan extracted from U. pertusa was investigated in Wistar rats after oral administration. ALT, ALB, ALP, WBC, PLT, and liver relative organ weigh of female rats showed significantly difference at 3000 mg/kg body weight per day, compared with control group. On the other hand, TG, T-CHO concentrations of female rats (6 months) were significantly decreased at 600, 1200 and 3000 mg/kg body weight per day. This result proved that ulvan had antihyperlipidemic activity. Beside, ulvan showed anticoagulant activity in this study. Overall, our findings indicated that ulvan had affected specific hematology, serum biochemistry parameters and liver, and had great differences between males and females rats.

  11. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  12. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  13. Oral L-glutamine administration attenuated cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Saurabh; Kandhare, Amit; Zanwar, Anand A; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Shinde, Sudhir; Deshmukh, Shahaji; Kharat, Ravindran

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of L-glutamine in laboratory rats using excision and incision wound models. Excision wounds of size 500 mm(2) and depth 2 mm were made on the dorsal portion of male Wistar rats (230-250 g) and were used for the study of oral L-glutamine (1 g/kg) treatment on the rate of contraction of wound and epithelisation. Histological evaluation of wound tissue was also performed. Six-centimetre-long two linear-paravertebral incisions in male Wistar rats (230-250 g) were used to study the effect of L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.) treatment on tensile strength, total protein and hydroxyproline content in the incision model. Oral administration of L-glutamine (1 g/kg) significantly decreased wound area, epithelisation period and wound index, whereas the rate of wound contraction significantly increased (P < 0·001) when compared with vehicle control rats in the excision wound model. Tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein level were significantly increased (P < 0·001) in L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.)-treated rats when compared with vehicle control rats in the incision wound model. Histological evaluation of wound tissue from L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.)-treated rats showed complete epithelialisation with new blood vessel formation and high fibrous tissues in the excision wound model. In conclusion, oral administration of l-glutamine (1 g/kg) promotes wound healing by acting on various stages of wound healing such as collagen synthesis, wound contraction and epithelialisation.

  14. TITLE Disposition and kinetics of Tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Sanders, J. Michael; Sadik, Abdella M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In these studies, the primary route of elimination following [14C]-TBBPA administration (25, 250 or 1,000 mg/kg) was in feces; recoveries in 72 h were 95.7±3.5%, 94.3±3.6% and 98.8±2.2%, respectively (urine: 0.2-2%; tissues: <0.1). TBBPA was conjugated to mono-glucuronide and —sulfate metabolites and eliminated in the bile. Plasma toxicokinetic parameters for a 250 mg/kg dose were estimated based on free TBBPA, as determined by UV/radiometric-HPLC analyses. Oral dosing by gavage (250 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid absorption of compound into the systemic circulation with an observed Cmax at 1.5 h post-dose followed by a prolonged terminal phase. TBBPA concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly after an IV dose (25 mg/kg) followed by a long elimination phase. These results indicate low systemic bioavailability (F<0.05), similar to previous reports using male rats. Elimination pathways appeared to become saturated leading to delayed excretion after a single oral administration of the highest dose (1,000 mg/kg); no such saturation or delay was detected at lower doses. Chronic high exposures to TBBPA may result in competition for metabolism with endogenous substrates in extrahepatic tissues (e.g., SULT1E1 estrogen sulfation) resulting in endocrine disruption. PMID:24977115

  15. Two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Bermudez, Edilberto

    2013-07-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to reduce tailpipe emissions and its use has been discontinued. There remains a concern that drinking water sources have been contaminated with MTBE. A two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of MTBE was conducted in Wistar rats (males, 0, 0.5, 3, 7.5 mg ml(-1); and females, 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg ml(-1)). Body weights were unaffected and water consumption was reduced in MTBE-exposed males and females. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased at the end of two years of exposure to 7.5 mg ml(-1) MTBE. Chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in males and females, was more severe in males, and was exacerbated in the high MTBE exposure groups. Brain was the only tissue with a statistically significant finding of neoplasms. One astrocytoma (1/50) was found in a female rat (15 mg ml(-1)). The incidence of brain astrocytomas in male rats was 1/50, 1/50, 1/50 and 4/50 for the 0, 0.5, 3 and 7.5 mg ml(-1) exposure groups, respectively. This was a marginally significant statistical trend, but not statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were made or when multiple comparisons were taken into account. The incidence of astrocytoma fell within historical control ranges for Wistar rats, and the brain has not been identified as a target organ following chronic administration of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tertiary butyl alcohol (in drinking water) to mice and rats. We conclude that the astrocytomas observed in this study are not associated with exposure to MTBE.

  16. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.

  17. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  18. Male circumcision.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  19. Paraptosis-like cell death in Wistar rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ramírez, Nayeli; Escobar, María L; Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H; Ortiz, Rosario; Echeverría, Olga M

    2016-10-01

    Follicular atresia, a common process present in all mammals, involves apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the participation of paraptosis, a type of caspase-independent cell death, during follicular atresia is unknown. This study found swollen endoplasmic reticulum in the granulosa cells of adult Wistar rats. Calnexin was used as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural and optical levels. The cells with swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum were negative to the TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 immunodetection, indicating that this swelling is not part of any apoptotic or autophagic process. Additionally, immunodetection of the CHOP protein was used as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and this confirmed the presence of the paraptosis process. These data suggest that paraptosis-like cell death is associated with the death of granulosa cells during follicular atresia in adult Wistar rats.

  20. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents.

  1. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) following exposure of Wistar Rats for 13 weeks or one year via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Edilberto; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Dodd, Darol

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen-week and one-year toxicity studies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) administered in drinking water to Wistar rats were conducted. Male and female rats were exposed to MTBE in drinking water at 0.5, 3, 7.5 and 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks and at 0.5, 3 and 7.5 (males) or 0.5, 3 and 15 mg ml(-1) (females) for 1 year. Body weights were reduced only in males following 13 weeks of exposure. Reduced water consumption and urine output were observed in males and females exposed to MTBE. Kidney cell replication and α(2u)-globulin levels in males were increased at 1 and 4 weeks of MTBE exposure and tubular cell regeneration was increased in male kidneys exposed to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater for 13 weeks. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased following 13 weeks, 6 months and 1 year of exposure to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater. Kidney wet weights were increased in females at MTBE concentrations of 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks. Tertiary-butyl alcohol blood levels increased linearly with dose in males and females following 1 year of exposure. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), of minimal to mild severity, increased in males, but not females, with 1 year of MTBE exposure. In summary, exposure of Wistar rats to MTBE in the drinking water resulted in minimal exposure-related effects including limited renal changes in male rats suggestive of α(2u)-globulin nephropathy following 13 weeks of exposure and an exacerbation of CPN in males at the end of 1 year of exposure.

  2. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  3. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  4. [Twenty-eight-day repeated dose toxicity test for tetrachlorvinphos in Wistar rat].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Suzuki, S; Takada, K; Sai, K; Kamata, E; Umemura, T; Kaneko, T; Kurokawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    A 28-day oral toxicity test of tetrachlorvinphos (TCV) was conducted in male and female Slc: Wistar rats by gavage at dose levels of 0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg/day. The male and female rats showed dose-related inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity. At a dose of 1000 mg/kg, body weight gain was decreased in males, and there were 6 deaths in females. Adrenal gland, liver, kidney and thyroid gland weights were increased. The adrenal lesions were characterized by vacuolization and swelling of the cortex cells. The hepatic lesions consisted of vacuolization and necrosis of the hepatocytes. The renal lesions consisted of regeneration and necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells. These lesions were mostly observed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. After a 14-day recovery period in the 1000 mg/kg group, the changes of cholinesterase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen in serum were restored or showed a tendency toward recovery. However, the lesions in the kidney and adrenal remained. More than 14 days are therefore considered to be needed for recovery. At doses of more than 10 mg/kg, significant inhibition of the serum cholinesterase activity in both sexes, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in males, and lesions of the adrenal gland in females were observed. Target organs for TCV-treated rats were the adrenal, liver and kidney. It was concluded that the NOEL under this experimental condition is less than 10 mg/kg/day.

  5. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) supports intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Aarde, S. M.; Angrish, D.; Barlow, D.J.; Wright, M. J.; Vandewater, S. A.; Creehan, K.M.; Houseknecht, K. L.; Dickerson, T. J.; Taffe, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recreational use of the drug 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone; 4-MMC) became increasingly popular in the United Kingdom in recent years, spurred in part by the fact it was not criminalized until April of 2010. Although several fatalities have been associated with consumption of 4-MMC and cautions for recreational users about its addictive potential have appeared on Internet forums, very little information about abuse liability for this drug is available. This study was conducted to determine if 4-MMC serves as a reinforcer in a traditional intravenous self-administration model. Groups of male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer 4-MMC in one hour sessions. Per infusion doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg were consistently self-administered resulting in greater than 80% discrimination for the drug-paired lever and mean intakes of about 2–3 mg/kg/hr. Dose-substitution studies after acquisition demonstrated that the number of responses and/or the total amount of drug self-administered varied as a function of dose. In addition, radiotelemetry devices were employed to show that self-administered 4-MMC was capable of increasing locomotor activity (Wistar) and decreasing body temperature (Sprague-Dawley). Pharmacokinetic studies found the T1/2 of 4-MMC was about an hour in vivo in rat plasma and 90 minutes using in vitro liver microsomal assays. This study provides evidence of stimulant-typical abuse liability for 4-MMC in the traditional preclinical self-administration model. PMID:23363010

  6. Green tea catechins, alleviate hepatic lipidemic-oxidative injury in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, E; Jayakumar, T; Elanchezhian, R; Sakthivel, M; Geraldine, P; Thomas, P A

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the efficacy of green tea catechins (GTC from the plant Camellia sinensis), with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as the major component, was studied in relation to hepatic oxidative abnormalities in atherosclerotic rats. When male albino Wistar rats were fed an atherogenic diet for 30 days and then treated with saline for 7 or 15 days, there was a significant decline in hepatic mean activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E) while there was a significant elevation in the mean level of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), in comparison to the values noted in control rats fed a normal diet. In addition, a concomitant increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was noted, when compared to the values in control rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of GTC (100mg/kg) for 7 or 15 days to rats fed the atherogenic diet, significantly higher mean activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lower mean levels of MDA in hepatic tissue and lower mean activities of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH in serum were observed, compared to the values in the rats fed the atherogenic diet and treated with saline. Histopathological studies were performed to provide direct evidence of the atherogenic diet-induced hepatic changes and of the hepatoprotective effect of GTC. These results suggest that EGCG as a major component of green tea catechins may protect against the hepatic abnormalities occurring in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

  7. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  8. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel.

  9. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P < 0.05) in red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, blood platelets count and neutrophils in animals treated with Red Bull and Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  10. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  11. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of copovidone (Kollidon VA 64) in Wistar rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Gembardt, C; Hildebrand, B; Schulte, S

    2004-10-01

    Kollidon VA 64 (copovidone, CAS-No. 25086-89-9) was administered in the diet to male and female Wistar rats (0, 700, 1400, and 2800 mg/kg body weight) for 24 months, and to male and female beagle dogs (0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 52 weeks. Clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, and gross and histopathological evaluations were conducted on both rats and dogs, and dogs also underwent hearing tests, ophthalmoscopic examinations, electrocardiograms, blood pressure measurement, and clinical chemistry and urinalysis evaluations. No adverse in-life observations related to treatment were observed in either species. The rats exhibited dark discoloration of the feces that was attributed to the intake and excretion of large amounts of test substance and was not considered to be an adverse effect. No treatment-related hematological changes, or gross or histopathological lesions were observed in either species that could be considered clinically relevant. Vacuolated histiocytosis in the mesenteric lymph nodes of four dogs that was not accompanied by inflammation or degenerative changes reflected histiocytic removal and degradation of the test article rather than a toxic effect. The results of these studies demonstrate the absence of any significant toxicological findings of high dietary levels copovidone in rats and dogs, resulting in no-observed-adverse-effect levels of 2800 mg/kg body weight/day in rats and 2500 mg/kg body weight/day in dogs, the highest doses tested.

  12. Effect of melatonin administration on parameters related to oxidative damage in hepatocytes isolated from old Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs and tissues, such as the liver, and this process might be due to oxidative damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. Melatonin is a secretory product with well-known antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Twenty-two-month old male Wistar rats were treated with oral melatonin for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated and cultured, and different parameters were measured in both cells and medium. Aging induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate, as well as a reduction in adenosine triphosphate content and phosphatidylcholine synthesis when compared to young animals. Melatonin administration significantly ameliorated all these age-related changes in males. Melatonin administration seems to exert beneficial effects against age-induced changes in hepatocytes.

  13. Protective and ameliorative effect of sea buckthorn leaf extract supplementation on lead induced hemato-biochemical alterations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Rizwana; Raghuwanshi, Pratiksha; Rastogi, Ankur; Koul, Aditi Lal; Khajuria, Pallavi; Ganai, Aafreen Wahid; Kour, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective and ameliorative effect of aqueous sea buckthorn leaf extract (SLE) on hemato-biochemical profile in lead intoxicated Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted for 60 days. 36 adult male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 177.8±12.6 g were divided into five groups and were subjected to various daily oral treatment regimens. Group I served as a negative control receiving only feed and water, Group II (positive control for lead) received lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water, and Group III (positive control for SLE) received SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. Animals in Group IV received a combination of lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water for the first 45 days and SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. throughout the experimental period of 60-day, and in Group V for the last 15 days of the trial after the administration of lead acetate until the first 45 days of the trial to study the protective and ameliorating effects of SLE, respectively. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital fossa of each rat on 0th, 45th, and 60th day of the experiment for hemato-biochemical analysis including hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) lower levels of serum total proteins and albumin, and a significantly (p<0.01) higher serum cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels were observed in Group II (lead intoxicated group) in comparison to Group I (negative control). Administration of SLE at 100 mg/kg body wt. to lead intoxicated Wistar rats resulted in normalization of almost all the biochemical parameters studied in both the treatment Groups, i.e., IV and V (protective and ameliorative). However, the effects were more pronounced in the protective group. No effects of SLE supplementation were observed on Hb levels. PCV levels improved in protective groups, but no effect was observed in ameliorative group

  14. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  15. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  17. Electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from Wistar Audiogenic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fernando; Aguiar, José F; Oliveira, José A; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Varanda, Wamberto A

    2005-03-15

    The main goal of this work was to analyze the electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from a particular epileptic rat strain, called Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR). The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record both active and passive membrane responses in an attempt to detect alterations in their characteristics in relation to controls from Wistar rats. Neurons from WARs show a significant reduction in the magnitude of the inhibitory GABAergic currents ( approximately 45%), in spite of maintaining a normal level of the excitatory glutamatergic currents. In addition, the magnitude of potassium currents, measured at +80 mV, is reduced by about 30% in comparison to controls. Surprisingly, we also found important changes in the passive cellular properties in WAR neurons such as membrane potential (-50.0 mV in WARs and -63.1 mV in controls) and input resistance (647 MOmega in WARs and 408 MOmega in controls). The changes described here, could be the basis of the neurophysiological and behavioral alterations present in these hyperexcitable animals, contributing to a better understanding of epileptogenesis in this particular animal model.

  18. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castañon, G. A.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patiño-Marin, N.; Reyes-Macías, J. F.; Vargas-Morales, J. M.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2013-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) ( p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  19. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  20. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  1. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  2. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  3. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  4. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  5. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p < 0.001), brain (p < 0.004) and spleen (p < 0.006) in samples from rats exposed to microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  6. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  7. Effect of apitherapy formulations against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in Wistar rats after three weeks of treatment.

    PubMed

    Andritoiu, Calin Vasile; Ochiuz, Lacramioara; Andritoiu, Vasile; Popa, Marcel

    2014-08-29

    The human body is exposed nowadays to increasing attacks by toxic compounds in polluted air, industrially processed foods, alcohol and drug consumption that increase liver toxicity, leading to more and more severe cases of hepatic disorders. The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the apitherapy diet in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, by analyzing the biochemical determinations (enzymatic, lipid and protein profiles, coagulation parameters, minerals, blood count parameters, bilirubin levels) and histopathological changes at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas. The experiment was carried out on six groups of male Wistar rats. Hepatic lesions were induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (dissolved in paraffin oil, 10% solution). Two mL per 100 g were administered, every 2 days, for 2 weeks. Hepatoprotection was achieved with two apitherapy diet formulations containing honey, pollen, propolis, Apilarnil, with/without royal jelly. Biochemical results reveal that the two apitherapy diet formulations have a positive effect on improving the enzymatic, lipid, and protein profiles, coagulation, mineral and blood count parameters and bilirubin levels. The histopathological results demonstrate the benefits of the two apitherapy diet formulations on reducing toxicity at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas in laboratory animals.

  8. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window.

  9. [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukio; Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanno, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A 52-week study of oral-repeated-dose toxicity for the extraction powder of Gymnema sylvestre (GS), Indian-native genus, Metaplexis japonica, was conducted in both genders of Wistar rats. The rats were administered a graded dose of GS at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00% of basal powder diet, along with a group fed solely with the basal powder diet without GS, for 52 weeks. General conditions were recorded daily. Body weights and food consumptions were recorded weekly up to 12 weeks, and thereafter at longer intervals. At 26 weeks, for an intermediate examination, and 52 weeks, for the final examination, animals were subjected to hematology, serum chemistry, and pathological examination. None of the animals died in the period up to 52 weeks. No exposure-related changes in body-weight, in the food consumption, in the hematological examinations, or in the serum biochemical examinations were recognized. No histopathological alterations were seen. Thus, it was concluded that there was no toxic effect in rats treated with GS at up to 1.00% in the diet for 52 weeks. The no-observable-effect level from this study is 1.00% GS, i.e., 504 mg/kg/day for male and 563 mg/kg/day for female as mean daily intake, for 52 weeks.

  10. Cytotoxic compounds generated in heated oil and assimilation of oil in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Burenjargal, Munkhjargal; Totani, Nagao

    2009-01-01

    We have previously suggested that gluten binds with decomposition products from thermally oxidized oil during frying, and that low-molecular-weight compounds bound to browned gluten damage the liver in rats. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were fed for 11 weeks ad libitum a diet containing 7 wt% fresh frying oil and 0.1 wt% gluten heated in/without oil at 180 degrees C for 10 h. Feces collected weekly and serum were subjected to lipid and hematological analyses, respectively. Values obtained in the analyses did not differ from those of the control group. The results show that thermally processed gluten does not influence the digestion, absorption, metabolism, and growth of rats, regardless of the cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds, and that ingested fresh oil was assimilated normally. Together with the previous results, the odor of thermally processed gluten stimulated the rats' appetite, and completely assimilable fresh oil and cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds bound to gluten were ingested, and thus organ damage and rapid body weight increase were observed. As commercial deep-fried products are often made with repeatedly used oil with periodically added fresh oil, similar to the present experimental diet, obesity and organ damage may also occur in humans.

  11. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats*, **

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Rodrigo de las Heras; Alves, Edson Marcelino; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos; Guardia, Renan Cenize; Buzo, Henrique Vivi; de Faria, Carolina Arruda; Yamashita, Camila; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD. PMID:24626269

  12. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    López, Patricia; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2014-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models. PMID:24971309

  13. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru . E-mail: xrwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  14. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md. Sabir; Alam, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  15. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  16. Tamarix gallica ameliorates thioacetamide-induced hepatic oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Sultana, Sarwat

    2006-04-01

    Tamarix gallica, a hepatic stimulant and tonic, was examined for its ability to inhibit thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity and early tumor promotion response in male Wistar rats. TAA (6.6 mmol/kg body wt. i.p) enhanced lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content, glutathione S-transferase and xanthine oxidase with reduction in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and caused depletion in the level of hepatic glutathione content. A marked increase in liver damage markers was also observed. TAA treatment also enhanced tumor promotion markers, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Pretreatment of rats orally with Tamarix gallica extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) prevented TAA-promoted oxidative stress and toxicity. Prophylaxis with Tamarix gallica significantly reduced the susceptibility of the hepatic microsomal membrane for iron-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, glutathione S-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities. There was also reversal of the elevated levels of liver marker parameters and tumor promotion markers. Our data suggests that Tamarix gallica is a potent chemopreventive agent and may suppress TAA-mediated hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity, and tumor promotion response in rats.

  17. Changes caused by haloperidol are blocked by music in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Tasset, Inmaculada; Quero, Ismael; García-Mayórgaz, Ángel D; del Río, Manuel Causse; Túnez, Isaac; Montilla, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of classical music, using Mozart's sonata for two pianos (K. 448), on changes in dopamine (DA) levels in the striatal nucleus (SN), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and mesencephalon, and on prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone secretion in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) haloperidol treatment (single dose of 2 mg/kg s.c.), (3) music (two 2-h sessions per day) and (4) haloperidol plus music. Rats were sacrificed 2 h after haloperidol injection. Music prompted a fall in plasma PRL and corticosterone levels in healthy rats (P < 0.05) and prevented the increase in levels triggered by haloperidol (P < 0.001). Moreover, exposure to music was associated with a significant increase in DA levels in all groups, with the increase being particularly marked in PFC and SN (P < 0.001). Haloperidol is a recognised D2 receptor antagonist, and these findings suggest that music, by contrast, enhances DA activity and turnover in the brain. The results obtained here bear out reports that music triggers a reduction in systolic pressure and an increase in mesencephalon dopamine levels in human and rats treated with ecstasy, through a calmodulin-dependent system.

  18. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p < 0.05), erythrocytes lipid peroxidation (MDA) (p < 0.01), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) (p < 0.001), increased by 153%, 31%, and 290%, respectively, in response to alloxan treatment, while intracellular reduced glutathione (p < 0.001) and total antioxidant potential of plasma in terms of Ferric reducing ability (FRAP) (p < 0.01) decreased by 75% and 22%, respectively, on alloxan treatment. Okra supplementation provided protection to the rats against alloxan-induced changes. Based on the present results, we hypothesize that okra has strong antioxidative potential and may be used as a dietary supplementation in diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications.

  19. Effects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kursungoz, Canan; Ak, Mehmet; Yanik, Tulin

    2015-01-30

    Although the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats.

  20. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  1. Immune modulating capability of two exopolysaccharide-producing Bifidobacterium strains in a Wistar rat model.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nuria; López, Patricia; Garrido, Pablo; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Gueimonde, Miguel; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 10(9) cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF- β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  2. Mild ingestion of used frying oil damages hepatic and renal cells in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Ojiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control) or used frying oil recovered from Japanese food manufacturing companies (recovered oil) for 12 weeks and subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to recovered oil were observed. There was a tendency toward higher consumption of the diet in the experimental group as compared to the control group. In the serum of the experimental group, no difference was detected in the levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. But many dark-red patches, necrosis, and bleeding were found in the livers of 75% of the experimental rats; these rats had extremely high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Average AST and ALT values of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the controls. The renal cells were also obviously damaged. These results raise the concern that frying oil contained in ready-made foods, snacks, etc., if deteriorated to an extent equal to or greater than that of the recovered oil, may be able to change human serum AST/ALT levels and damage the liver and kidneys.

  3. Litsea deccanensis ameliorates myocardial infarction in wistar rats: evidence from biochemical and histological studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions.

  4. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg(-1) body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg(-1) bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg(-1) bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats.

  5. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Odilon A.; Sanches, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Ícaro E.F.; Silva, Márcio L.A.; Vinhólis, Adriana H.C.; Felix, Mireille A.P.; Santos, Raquel A.; Cecchi, Andréa O.

    2012-01-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa (“ipê roxo”) on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg−1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg−1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects. PMID:22888300

  6. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O

    2012-04-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  7. Litsea Deccanensis Ameliorates Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: Evidence from Biochemical and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions. PMID:22224035

  8. Effects of hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on sperm health and testes of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, N K; Awasthi, K K; John, P J

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for various applications including biomedical purposes. Owing to their remarkable physical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, CNTs have become an area of intense research and industrial activity in recent years. Therefore, toxicity and risk assessment studies are becoming increasingly important. The present study was designed to assess the effects of hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled CNTs (OH-f MWCNTs) on sperm health and testes of adult Wistar rats. Animals were treated with different doses of OH-f MWCNTs (0.4, 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) along with a control group receiving only vehicle. Assessments after 15 alternate intraperitoneal doses revealed dose-related adverse effects on many endpoints tested. Results of the study showed significant impairment of sperm health at 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg. Histology of testes demonstrated degeneration of germinal epithelium and loss of germ cells in the treatment groups. The exposure resulted in increased oxidative stress in testes in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of the study demonstrate that CNTs are potentially harmful for male reproductive health.

  9. Differences between dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine: behavioral changes and oxidative damage in brain of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da-Rosa, Dayane D; Valvassori, Samira S; Steckert, Amanda V; Arent, Camila O; Ferreira, Camila L; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Varela, Roger B; Mariot, Edemilson; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Andersen, Monica L; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    In this study methamphetamine (m-AMPH) and dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH) were compared to determine the potency of the two drugs on behavior and oxidative damage in brain of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were given single (acute administration) or repeated (chronic administration, 14 days) intraperitoneal injections of saline (0.9% NaCl), d-AMPH (2 mg/kg) or m-AMPH (0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg). Locomotor activity was evaluated in open-field apparatus 2 h after the last drug injection. Additionally, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl formation were measured in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and striatum. In both experiments, d-AMPH and m-AMPH (all doses administered) increased the locomotor activity of animals, meantime, no significant difference between d-AMPH and m-AMPH was observed. d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased lipid and protein damage, but m-AMPH was more potent than d-AMPH, however, this effect varies depending on the brain region and the experimental protocol. The results of this study show that d-AMPH and m-AMPH have similar behavioral effects, which previous studies had already reported. On the other hand, this study demonstrated that the m-AMPH induces oxidative damage greater than d-AMPH, showing neurochemical differences previously unknown.

  10. Preventive Effect of Phytic Acid on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brindha, E.; Rajasekapandiyan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on membrane bound enzymes such as sodium potassium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) and magnesium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+ ATPase) and glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively) for a period of 56 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant decrease in the activity of Na+ /K+ ATPase and increase in the activities of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase in the heart and a significant (P<0.05) increase in the levels of glycoproteins in serum and the heart were also observed in ISO-induced rats. Pretreatment with phytic acid for a period of 56 days exhibited a significant (P<0.05) effect and altered these biochemical parameters positively in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that phytic acid has cardioprotective role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  11. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rizwana; Tanvir, E M; Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md Sabir; Alam, Nadia; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  13. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  14. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Leo T M; van de Kuil, Ton; Leonards, Pim E G; Slob, Wout; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Litens, Sabina; Herlin, Maria; Håkansson, Helen; Cantón, Rocío F; van den Berg, Martin; Visser, Theo J; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Josephus G; Piersma, Aldert H

    2009-02-25

    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/day (mkd) in parental rats during 10 (males) or 2 (females) weeks premating, during gestation and lactation, and in their F1 offspring from weaning until final necropsy. Effects were assessed in F1 animals. Livers of these animals showed increased HBCD concentrations, in a dose-dependent way. The trabecular bone mineral density of the tibia was dose-dependently decreased in females (BenchMark Dose Lower confidence bound, BMDL=0.056 mkd). The IgG response after immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased in males (BMDL=0.46 mkd). Further sensitive effects were decreased weight of the testis (BMDL=1.5 mkd), increased fraction of neutrophilic granulocytes (BMDL=7.7 mkd), decreased concentration of apolar retinoids in female livers (BMDL=1.3 mkd), and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase in females (BMDL=8.6 mkd). CYP19/aromatase activity in the ovary was correlated to the concentration of gamma-HBCD in the liver. A developmental origin of these effects is considered, and this is also true for sensitive effects observed in neurobehavioural testing in littermates from the same experiment, i.e. in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials and in a catalepsy test [Lilienthal, H., Van der Ven, L.T.M., Piersma, A.H., Vos, J.G. Neurobehavioral effects of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in rats after pre- and postnatal exposure, in press]. The low BMDLs of these effects may raise concern for human health, particularly when based on body burdens of HBCD, which leads to critical margins of exposure particularly for the occupational setting.

  15. Male to male transmission of supernumerary nipples.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, M; Uchida, M; Uchino, S; Fujisawa, R; Kamei, T; Itoh, T

    1997-03-17

    We report on a father and his son with supernumerary nipples. No male-to-male transmission has previously been described with this trait. This observation confirms that this trait is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.

  16. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  17. No effect of testosterone on behavior in aged Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Borbélyová, Veronika; Domonkos, Emese; Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Bosý, Martin; Hodosy, Július; Celec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In men, aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in androgen secretion. Studies suggest beneficial effects of endogenous and exogenous testosterone on affective behavior and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral and cognitive sex differences and to analyze the effects of long-term androgen deficiency in aged male rats. Thirty-months old rats divided into three groups (males, females and males gonadectomized as young adults) underwent a battery of behavioral tests assessing locomotor activity, anxiety, memory, anhedonia, sociability and depression-like behavior. No major effect of gonadectomy was found in any of the analyzed behavioral measures in male rats. The only consistent sex difference was confirmed in depression-like behavior with longer immobility time observed in males. In an interventional experiment, a single dose of testosterone had no effect on gonadectomized male and female rats in the forced swim test. In contrast to previous studies this comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of aged rats revealed no major role of endogenous testosterone. Based on our results long-term hypogonadism does not alter the behavior of aged male rats, neither does acute testosterone treatment. Whether these findings have any consequences on androgen replacement therapy in aged men remains to be elucidated. PMID:27852981

  18. Environmental levels of oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds feminize digit ratios in male rats and their unexposed male progeny

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques; Le Denmat, Dominique; Berges, Raymond; Doridot, Ludivine; Salmon, Benjamin; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Eustache, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Digit length ratios, especially the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), are associated with various pathological and behavioural conditions in many species including humans and are dependent upon prenatal androgen to oestrogen balance. It is unknown whether digit ratios are modified by environmental exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disruptors. We studied the effect on adult male Wistar rat digit ratios of a gestational exposure to the oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds bisphenol A (BPA), genistein and vinclozolin, in low doses, and in combination with investigating in parallel a possible sexual dimorphism of this trait. We also investigated the effects on the male progeny not exposed during gestation. X-rays were taken of the left and right forepaws, and 2D–5D proximal to distal phalanx distances were measured by a standardized procedure based on semi-automatic image analysis. We provide evidence that there is a sexual dimorphism of digit ratios in the Wistar rat, and we found that BPA alone or in combination with genistein and vinclozolin significantly feminized digit ratios in male rats. Intriguingly, significant feminization of digit ratios was also found in the unexposed male progeny of males that had been exposed to compound mixtures. In conclusion, prenatal environmental levels of endocrine-active substances permanently disrupt digit ratios. Digit ratio measurement in adults is thus a promising biomarker of prenatal exposure to low-dose endocrine disruptors in rodents, with potential implications for future studies in humans. PMID:23926155

  19. Mandibular Branch of the Facial Nerve in Wistar Rats: New Experimental Model to Assess Facial Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies. PMID:25992106

  20. Effect of Calea serrata Less. n-hexane extract on acetylcholinesterase of larvae ticks and brain Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vera Lucia Sardá; Vanzella, Cláudia; Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Santos, Jaqueline Campiol Dos; Martins, João Ricardo Souza; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2012-10-26

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses, is a target for pesticides and its inhibition by organophosphates leads to paralysis and death of arthropods. It has been demonstrated that the n-hexane extract of Calea serrata had acaricidal activity against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of the acaricidal action of C. serrata n-hexane extract are specifically to investigate the in vitro anticholinesterase activity on larvae of R. microplus and in brain structures of male Wistar rats. The n-hexane extract significantly inhibited in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity in R. microplus larvae and rat brain structures. The results confirm that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a possible mechanism of action of hexane extract at C. serrata.

  1. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  2. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  3. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  4. Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal(®) Consta(®)-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Eric J; Roosen, Wendy; Vinken, Petra; Vandenberghe, John; Sterkens, Patrick; Lammens, Lieve

    2012-09-28

    RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as "osteodystrophy" were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®)-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.

  5. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Asgharzade, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Amin; Reiisi, Somaye; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-1; group A, 300 mg.kg-1; group B, and only normal saline; group C (control group). They were mated with untreated females and the reproductive and chemical parameters were assessed for each group, including semen quality, serum testosterone, sperm fertility, gonad and body weight, serum NO concentration (by the Griess method), and iNOS gene expression (using RT-PCR). Results: The testes weight, serum testosterone, as well as sperm count and fertility of the AVG treated groups were significantly reduced when compared to the control (P<0.001). Concentration of serum NO was significantly increased (37.1±4.63 µM) in the administrated group with higher AVG concentration, compared to the control group (P<0.001; 10.19±0.87 µM); however, iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the treated animals (P<0.001). Conclusion: iNOS may play a functional role in spermatogenesis via apoptosis, reducing sperm count, but further studies are needed to illustrate the mechanisms by which AVG exerts its negative effects on spermatogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:26730330

  6. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Linn.) Bulbs Ameliorated Pituitary-Testicular Injury and Dysfunction in Wistar Rats with Pb-Induced Reproductive Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ayoka, Abiodun O.; Ademoye, Aderonke K.; Imafidon, Christian E.; Ojo, Esther O.; Oladele, Ayowole A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs (AEASAB) on pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with lead-induced reproductive disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups such that the control group received propylene glycol at 0.2 ml/100 g intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days, the toxic group received lead (Pb) alone at 15 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 10 days while the treatment groups were pretreated with lead as the toxic group after which they received graded doses of the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day via oral route for 28 days. RESULTS: Pb administration induced significant deleterious alterations in the antioxidant status of the brain and testis, sperm characterization (counts, motility and viability) as well as reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) of exposed rats (p < 0.05). These were significantly reversed in the AEASAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was marked improvement in the Pb-induced vascular congestion and cellular loss in the pituitary while the observed Pb-induced severe testicular vacuolation was significantly reversed in the representative photomicrographs, following administration of the extract. CONCLUSION: AEASAB treatment ameliorated the pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with Pb-Induced reproductive disturbances. PMID:27335588

  8. Historical control data of neoplastic lesions in the Wistar Hannover Rat among eight 2-year carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Carlus, Marine; Elies, Laëtitia; Fouque, Marie-Claude; Maliver, Pierre; Schorsch, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    Incidences of neoplastic lesions were evaluated in untreated Hannover Wistar Rats RjHan: WI (470 males and 470 females) used as control animals in eight carcinogenicity studies. All these studies were performed in a similar environment either for the in vivo and the postmortem evaluation. The major neoplastic lesions were found in the endocrine, integumentary and reproductive systems. Pituitary adenoma was the most frequent neoplasm and occurred in 33.9% of the males and 54.6% of the female rats. The other most frequent tumors in males were thyroid C-cell adenoma (8.6%), pancreatic islet cell adenoma (8.1%), subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (6.6%), subcutaneous fibroma (4.7%), benign pheochromocytoma (3.4%), and cutaneous keratoacanthoma (3.4%). In females, the other highest incidences were mammary fibroadenoma (29%), uterine endometrial stromal polyp (18.1%), mammary adenocarcinoma (14.2%), mammary fibroadenoma with atypia (13.7%), thyroid C-cell adenoma (7.5%), benign thymoma (3.7%), and subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (3.6%). All these data were compared to previously published historical control data. This retrospective analysis was undergone in order to illustrate the result of a stable organization which guarantees a robust historical data base for neoplastic and non neoplastic findings.

  9. Variability in the cardiac venous system of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle.

  10. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  11. Antipsychotic-like effects of zolpidem in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewski, Pawel; Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Wesolowska, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Maciej; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2016-02-15

    Aside from their use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia, benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor positive modulators are widely used as add-on treatments in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychoses. However, there is relatively little direct clinical or pre-clinical evidence for antipsychotic effects of GABAergic medications. Previous studies have indicated that zolpidem, a GABAergic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors, may produce catalepsy through interactions with dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of zolpidem in experimental models of antipsychotic activity and extrapyramidal side effects in Wistar rats. Effects of zolpidem were compared with that of a classic benzodiazepine drug, diazepam and a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone. High doses of risperidone (10.0mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (10.0mg/kg, i.p.), but not diazepam, induced relatively short-lasting cataleptic responses in the bar test. Zolpidem and risperidone, but not diazepam, produced some antipsychotic-like effects at doses, which produced no catalepsy and did not inhibit spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The present results tend to indicate that zolpidem exerts some neuroleptic-like effects at doses, which do not produce motor side effects. Our findings may provide further rationale for the development of new subtype-selective GABAA receptor modulators for the treatment of psychotic symptoms.

  12. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... understand your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  13. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Akt and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) phosphorylation in different tissues of C57BL6, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) male mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Tajima, Kazuki; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) suppresses the activity and mRNA expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1 and IRS2 reportedly differ between the liver and muscle tissue and the effect of DHEA on insulin signaling has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined DHEA's effect on the liver and muscle tissue of IRS1(-/-) and IRS2(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD containing 0.2% DHEA for 4 weeks. In a separate experiment, 8-week-old male C57BL6 mice were fed an HFD or an HFD containing 0.2% androstenedione for 4 weeks. In an insulin tolerance test, DHEA administration decreased the initial plasma glucose levels in the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice but did not decrease the ratios to the basal blood glucose level. Although DHEA administration increased Akt phosphorylation in the liver of the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice, androstenedione administration did not increase Akt phosphorylation in the liver of C57BL6 mice. DHEA administration did not increase Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), or IRS2(-/-) mice. However, androstenedione administration increased Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6 mice. These findings suggest that the effect of DHEA on insulin action in the liver is self-mediated by DHEA or DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) in the presence of IRS1, IRS2, or both.

  14. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  15. Microscopic anatomy of brachial plexus branches in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula; Suaid, Carla Adelino; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli; Barreira, Amilton Antunes

    2007-05-01

    In the present study, we analyze the morphology and morphometry of the lateral proper digital nerve of the third finger, and of the proximal and distal segments of the ulnar, median, and radial nerves, in Wistar rats 4 or 7 weeks old. The fascicular area and diameter were generally significantly greater in the proximal compared to distal segments and tended to be larger in 7-week-old compared to 4-week-old rats (e.g., median nerve area of 0.13 mm(2) for the proximal and 0.07 mm(2) for distal segments in 4-week-old rats, and 0.17 and 0.10 mm(2), respectively, for the proximal and distal segments of 7-week-old rats). The number of fascicles was significantly greater while the number of myelinated fibers was significantly less in the distal segments (e.g., 1,359 and 509 myelinated fibers, respectively, in the proximal and distal segments of the radial nerve 4-week-old rats). There was no significant difference in these parameters between the two age groups. The diameter of the myelinated fibers and their respective axons increased from 4 to 7 weeks of age (e.g., myelinated fiber diameter of 4.10 microm in 4-week-old animals and 4.7 microm in the ulnar nerve proximal segment of 7-week-old rats). The g-ratio regression line (axon diameter vs. fiber diameter quotient) was outlined for all the nerves studied here. Differences in myelinated fiber density were detected between the segments of the radial nerve, accompanying the number of myelinated fibers. Detailed knowledge of the microscopic anatomy of rat forelimb nerves provides control data for comparison with studies of experimentally induced neuropathies, which can shed more light on human neuropathies.

  16. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, I C; de Oliveira, C; Vercelino, R; Souza, A; Laste, G; Medeiros, L F; Scarabelot, V L; Nunes, E A; Kuo, J; Fregni, F; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that food craving-an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)-can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation.

  17. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of clerodendrum capitatum in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Idoh, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Potchoo, Yao; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity of C. capitatum in Wistar rats. Methods In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the hydroethanolic C. capitatum leaf extract (5 g/kg) was given orally to 5 female rats. The general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days post treatment. On the 15th day, the rats were weighed and euthanized for necropsy. In sub-chronic toxicity tests, the extract (4, 8 and 16 g/kg/day) was given orally to both male and female rats for 28 days. The animal body weight was recorded throughout the experiment, while hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and relative organs weights were evaluated on the 29th day. Results Clerodendrum Capitatum did not cause any death or any hazardous symptoms of acute toxicity, showing an LD50 higher than 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic administration of C. capitatum resulted in no noticeable changes in weight gain and water or food consumption. White blood cells and hemoglobin increased while urea concentration, liver enzymes, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations significantly decreased in treated animals. No changes in macroscopical aspect of organs were observed in the animals. Conclusion These results showed that acute or sub-chronic oral administration of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum capitatum may be considered as relatively free of toxicity. PMID:27642406

  18. Rapamycin Effectively Impedes Melamine-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Yu, Mei; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated that autophagy significantly reduced melamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. In the present study, we further examine if rapamycin, used as an autophagy activator, can play a significant role in protecting neurons and alleviating the impairment of spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in melamine-treated rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, melamine-treated, and melamine-treated + rapamycin. The animal model was established by administering melamine at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally given at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The Morris water maze test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in melamine-treated rats were considerably damaged, whereas rapamycin significantly impeded the cognitive function impairment. Rapamycin efficiently alleviated the melamine-induced impairments of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation, which were damaged in melamine rats. Rapamycin further increased the expression level of autophagy markers, which were significantly enhanced in melamine rats. Moreover, rapamycin noticeably decreased the reactive oxygen species level, while the superoxide dismutase activity was remarkably increased by rapamycin in melamine rats. Malondialdehyde assay exhibited that rapamycin prominently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) level of hippocampal neurons in melamine-treated rats. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity, which was elevated by melamine. Consequently, our results suggest that regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine.

  19. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, W. L. N. V. Vara; Srilatha, Ch.; Sailaja, N.; Raju, N. K. B.; Jayasree, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage. PMID:27956790

  20. Gene expression profiling reveals potential key pathways involved in pyrazinamide-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Su, Yijing; Chen, Mi; Li, Fu; Liu, Li; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important sterilizing prodrug that shortens the duration of tuberculosis therapy. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported during clinical trials investigating PZA. To determine the hepatotoxic effects of PZA in vivo and to further investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, we profiled the gene expression patterns of PZA-treated rat livers by microarray analysis. Wistar rats of both sexes were orally administered PZA at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 28 days. Body weight, absolute and relative liver weight, biochemical analysis, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates and changes in global transcriptomic expression were evaluated to study the hepatotoxic effects of PZA. Our results confirm the dose-dependent and sex-related hepatotoxicity of PZA. Female rats were more sensitive to PZA-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Furthermore, changes in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione and malondialdehyde), indicating the development of oxidative stress, were more significant in the PZA-treated group. PZA-induced gene expression changes were related to pathways involved in drug metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the regulation of selected genes involved in PZA-hepatotoxicity (Ephx1, Cyp2b1, Gstm1, Gstp1, Fabp7, Acaa1, Cpt-1b, Cyp8b1, Hmox1 and Ntrk1). We observed for the first time that these genes have effects on PZA-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, drug metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways may play an important role in PZA hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these findings will be useful for future PZA hepatotoxicity studies.

  1. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  2. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g) were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (TG), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (FG) with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P<0.001) and between TG and CG (P<0.001). Qualitative histological analyses confirmed 100% HO in FG and CG, while in TG the HO was detected in 54.5% of the animals. The effects of the muscle contractions caused by FES increased HO, while anti-inflammatory effects of TENS reduced HO. PMID:26292223

  3. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F A; Mattar, R; Facincani, I; Defino, H L A; Ramalho, L N Z; Jorgetti, V; Volpon, J B; de Paula, F J A

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility.

  4. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  5. Effects of leflunomide on inflamation and fibrosis in bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Aygul; Duran, Latif; Tutuncu, Serife; Guzel, Ahmet; Gunaydın, Mithat; Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Selcuk, Mustafa Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Purposes Pulmonary fibrosis is a rare and progressive lung disease with a high mortality rate. The treatment regimens still fail to recover the disease. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activity that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of LEF in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods A total of 21 male, adult wistar albino rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups as control, BLM and BLM plus LEF groups (n=7). In BLM group, mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of BLM (2.5 U/kg). Control group received the same volume of saline instead of BLM. In LEF group, in addition to BLM, LEF (10 mg/kg, daily) was administrated by oral gavage. The effect of LEF on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was studied by measurements of serum clara cell protein-16 (CC-16), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels and lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB by immunhistochemical examinations. Results LEF significantly increased the level of CC-16 and decreased the level of AOPP (P=0.042 and P=0.003 respectively). Lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB significantly decreased in LEF group compared to BLM group by immunhistochemical examinations (P<0.001). Conclusions LEF reduces oxidative stress factors, alveolar inflammation and attenuates lung injury and fibrosis. PMID:24255778

  6. Dose-Dependent Effect of Deltamethrin in Testis, Liver, and Kidney of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir; Jan, Mysra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, household pest control, protection of foodstuff, and disease vector control. Although initially thought to be least toxic, a number of recent reports showed its toxic effects in mammalian and non-mammalian animal species. The current study was performed to assess the dose-dependent deltamethrin toxicity on testes, liver, and kidney of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided in four groups of 6 each. Group A served as normal control. Group B, C, and D were administered with different doses (2 or 3 or 6 mg/kg corresponding to 1/30th or 1/20th or 1/10th of LD50, respectively) of deltamethrin for 28 days. Results: Deltamethrin exposure caused a significant reduction in weight of reproductive organs, decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and luteinizing hormones (LH) in testis. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were decreased in testis, liver and kidney of exposed rats. Deltamethrin exposure significantly increased sperm abnormalities in testis. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in testis, liver and kidney. Deltamethrin also caused histological alterations in testes, liver, and kidney. Conclusions: The results indicated that deltamethrin at a dose of 6 mg/kg exerts significant harmful effects on testes, liver and kidney as compare to 2 mg and 3 mg/kg. The study concluded that the system toxicity induced by deltamethrin was dose dependent. PMID:25253921

  7. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zotz, T G G; Paula, J B de

    2015-11-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g) were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (TG), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (FG) with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P<0.001) and between TG and CG (P<0.001). Qualitative histological analyses confirmed 100% HO in FG and CG, while in TG the HO was detected in 54.5% of the animals. The effects of the muscle contractions caused by FES increased HO, while anti-inflammatory effects of TENS reduced HO.

  8. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, R.I.; Coradini, J.G.; Silva, L.I.; Bertolini, G.R.F.; Brancalhão, R.M.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.C.

    2014-01-01

    A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint. PMID:25140815

  9. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  10. LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects.

    PubMed

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Milanez, Vinícius Flávio; Corrêa, Julio Cesar Molina; de Andrade Alves, Rubens Igor; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test, between two bouts of exercise, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy and cryotherapy regarding muscle damage, inflammation, and performance. Male Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, passive recovery (PR), cryotherapy (Cryo), and LED therapy. The animals were submitted to 45 min of swimming exercise followed by 25 min of recovery and then a second bout of either 45 min of exercise (muscle damage analysis) or time to exhaustion (performance). During the rest intervals, the rats were kept in passive rest (PR), submitted to cold water immersion (10 min, 10 °C) or LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) of the gastrocnemius muscle. Blood samples were collected to analyze creatine kinase activity (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts. The soleus muscles were evaluated histologically. Time to exhaustion was recorded during the second bout of exercise. After a second bout of 45 min, the results demonstrated leukocytosis in the PR and Cryo groups. Neutrophil counts were increased in all test groups. CK levels were increased in the Cryo group. CRP was increased in PR animals. The PR group presented a high frequency of necrosis, but the LED group had fewer necrotic areas. Edema formation was prevented, and fewer areas of inflammatory cells were observed in the LED group. The time to exhaustion was greater in both the LED and Cryo groups, without differences in CK levels. CRP was decreased in LED animals. We conclude that LED therapy and cryotherapy can improve performance, although LED therapy is more efficient in preventing muscle damage and local and systemic inflammation.

  11. Effects of honey HMF on enzyme activities and serum biochemical parameters of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Özkök, Duran; Silici, Sibel

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a by-product of thermal degradation of glucose and fructose. In this study, the effects of high HMF content of honey on biochemical parameters of rats were investigated. Experiments were conducted with 40 Wistar albino male rats, each weighing 250-350 g and covered a period of 5 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups. The first group was served as control group. HMF was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 200 mg/kg rat b.w. to the animals in group 2. Group 3 was fed with honey that contains 10 mg HMF/kg honey. In group 4 and 5, there were honeys that contain significantly high HMF content due to long storage period (181 mg HMF/kg honey) and heat process (140 mg HMF/kg honey). At the end of the feeding process, biochemical blood parameters of rats were investigated. It was observed that there were no differences among the glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, Na, GGT, and ALP parameters of the groups. On the other hand, significant differences were observed among the cholesterol, LDL, BUN, creatinine, Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, total bilirubin, LDH, CPK, AST, ALT, total protein, and pseudocholinesterase values of the rats. The highest adverse effects were obtained from group HMF, and it was followed by groups SH (stored honey) and HH (heated honey). It can be concluded that high HMF content of honey may affect the human health adversely; thus, HMF in honey must be controlled by beekeepers.

  12. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, F.A.; Mattar, R.; Facincani, I.; Defino, H.L.A.; Ramalho, L.N.Z.; Jorgetti, V.; Volpon, J.B.; de Paula, F.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility. PMID:22983176

  13. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  14. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  15. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats.

  16. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA somatic mutations in OXYS and Wistar strain rats.

    PubMed

    Rotskaya, U N; Rogozin, I B; Vasyunina, E A; Kolosova, N G; Malyarchuk, B A; Nevinsky, G A; Sinitsyna, O I

    2009-04-01

    Rats of the OXYS strain are sensitive to oxidative stress and serve as a biological model of premature aging. We have compared spectra of somatic mutations in a control region of mtDNA from the liver of the OXYS rat strain and of Wistar rats as a control. The majority of nucleotide substitutions in the mutation spectra were represented by transitions: 94 and 97% in the OXYS and Wistar rats, respectively. It was shown that 40% of somatic mutations in the control region of mtDNA from Wistar rats were significantly consistent with the model of dislocation mutagenesis. No statistical support for this model was found for mutations in the control region of mtDNA from OXYS rats. The mutation frequency in the ETAS section was higher in the OXYS strain rats than in Wistar rats. These results suggest different mechanisms of mutagenesis in the two rat strains under study.

  17. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males.

  18. An iron-deficient diet during development induces oxidative stress in relation to age and gender in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Jiménez-Garcés, Clementina; Hernández-González, Margarita; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention. The ages studied roughly correspond to stages of human development: birth (0 postnatal day "PND" in rats), childhood (21 PND), early adolescence (42 PND), late adolescence (56 PND), and adulthood (70 PND). The following biomarkers in the brain, blood, and liver were analyzed: lipid peroxidation products (LPO), protein carbonyl content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. It was demonstrated that ID subjects are born with high levels of LPO in the brain and low antioxidant activity, the damage being more severe in males. After birth, antioxidant defense focuses on the central level (brain) in ID females and on the peripheral level (blood and liver) in ID males. In two critical stages of development, birth and late adolescence, antioxidant protection is insufficient to counteract oxidative damage in ID subjects. Moreover, we observed that the variability of results in the literature on oxidative stress and ID comes from gender and age of the subjects under study. With this, we can establish patterns and exact moments to carry out studies or treatments.

  19. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.; Vitzel, K.F.; Monteiro, I.C.C.R.; Lima, T.I.; Queiroz, A.N.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Hirabara, S.M.; Ceccatto, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min) compared to the sedentary group (27th min). Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27783805

  20. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.

  1. Progressive Induction of Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of a Reality–Like Fructose Enriched Diet in Young Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Julie; Goanvec, Christelle; Feray, Annie; Guernec, Anthony; Alain, Charlène; Guerrero, François; Mansourati, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize short and medium-lasting effects of fructose supplementation on young Wistar rats. The diet was similar to actual human consumption. Methods Three week old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 16), fructose fed (FF; n = 16) with a fructose enriched drink for 6 or 12 weeks. Bodyweight, fasting glycemia and systolic blood pressure were monitored. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinemia was measured concomitantly and enable us to calculate insulin resistance markers (HOMA-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia: ISI-gly). Blood chemistry analyses were performed. Results After six weeks of fructose supplementation, rats were not overweight but presented increased fasting glycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to control group. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were also increased without any change in renal function (theoretical creatinine clearance). After twelve weeks of fructose supplementation, FF rats had increased bodyweight and presented insulin resistance (higher HOMA-IR, lower ISI-gly). Rats also presented higher heart volume and lower ASAT/ALAT ratio (presumed liver lesion). Surprisingly, the Total Cholesterol/Triglycerides ratio was increased only after six weeks of fructose supplementation, predicting a higher LDL presence and thus a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This risk was no longer present after twelve weeks of a fructose enriched diet. Conclusion On young Wistar rats, six weeks of fructose supplementation is sufficient to induce signs of metabolic syndrome. After twelve weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats are insulin resistant. This model enabled us to study longitudinally the early development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26799836

  2. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of the multidrug herbomineral formulation in male Wistar rats against rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S.; Shah, Praboth V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunological and inflammatory mechanisms, which may play a role in a number of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ancient ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest or prevent these disorders. Objective: Rheuma off gold (RG) is a herbomineral formulation recommended by ayurvedic medical practitioners for treatment of RA. This study was carried out to lend scientific evidence to the efficacy claim for RG in the management of RA in folklore medicine. Materials and Methods: Arthritis was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant. Treatment with formulation 100 mg/kg and dexamethasone 2 mg/kg was given to rats intragastrically once a day from day 1 to day 21 and after which estimation of physical, biochemical, and hematological parameters were carried out. Results: Treatment of formulation to adjuvant induced arthritic animal showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement in physical parameters like arthritic index, paw edema, paw thickness as well as reduction of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein, serum rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The treatment also produced statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in hemoglobin percent and improvement in splenomegaly and thymus index. In the histopathological examination, ameliorative effect of formulation was observed in hyperplasia of synovium, pannus formation, and destruction of the joint space. Conclusion: The results obtained in experiments indicated that the formulation significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced arthritis which was comparable to dexamethasone and had preferable anti-inflammatory effect without significant side effect. Thus, the formulation may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of chronic inflammation and arthritis. PMID:23930040

  4. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  5. Distribution and elimination of palladium in male wistar rats following 14-day oral exposure in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, I; Bocca, B; Fontana, L; Caimi, S; Petrucci, F; Bergamaschi, A; Alimonti, A

    2009-01-01

    The Pd tissue distribution and elimination in rats following oral exposure in drinking water of dipotassium hexachloropalladate at doses of 100 or 250 ng/ml for 14 d were determined. The sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry used for Pd quantification showed the adequate sensitivity (10 ng/l) and accuracy (96-105%), and all the more in consideration of the very low levels of Pd accumulated. Tissues were taken and analyzed after 14 d. The tissue containing the highest Pd concentration was the kidney (4 ng/g dry weight in controls and 75 ng/g dry weight at the maximum dose), with left and right kidneys showing a comparable accumulation. The Pd kidney levels rose, but not significantly, with the administered dose. None of the other organs (liver, lung, spleen, adrenal glands, and bones) appeared to accumulate Pd, even at the highest dose. At the 250-ng/ml dose, small amounts of Pd were found in serum (0.27 ng/ml vs. 0.19 ng/ml in controls), while they were higher in urine (1.2 ng/ml vs. 0.16 ng/ml in controls) and in feces (3,231 ng/g dry weight vs. 69 ng/g dry weight in controls). Feces were the main excretion route for Pd, with a significant linear correlation with exposed dose, which is likely due to low intestinal absorption of Pd.

  6. Long-term oral galactose treatment prevents cognitive deficits in male Wistar rats treated intracerebroventricularly with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Salkovic-Petrisic, Melita; Osmanovic-Barilar, Jelena; Knezovic, Ana; Hoyer, Siegfried; Mosetter, Kurt; Reutter, Werner

    2014-02-01

    Basic and clinical research has demonstrated that dementia of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) type is associated with dysfunction of the insulin-receptor (IR) system followed by decreased glucose transport via glucose transporter GLUT4 and decreased glucose metabolism in brain cells. An alternative source of energy is d-galactose (the C-4-epimer of d-glucose) which is transported into the brain by insulin-independent GLUT3 transporter where it might be metabolized to glucose via the Leloir pathway. Exclusively parenteral daily injections of galactose induce memory deterioration in rodents and are used to generate animal aging model, but the effects of oral galactose treatment on cognitive functions have never been tested. We have investigated the effects of continuous daily oral galactose (200 mg/kg/day) treatment on cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced (STZ-icv) rat model of sAD, tested by Morris Water Maze and Passive Avoidance test, respectively. One month of oral galactose treatment initiated immediately after the STZ-icv administration, successfully prevented development of the STZ-icv-induced cognitive deficits. Beneficial effect of oral galactose was independent of the rat age and of the galactose dose ranging from 100 to 300 mg/kg/day. Additionally, oral galactose administration led to the appearance of galactose in the blood. The increase of galactose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was several times lower after oral than after parenteral administration of the same galactose dose. Oral galactose exposure might have beneficial effects on learning and memory ability and could be worth investigating for improvement of cognitive deficits associated with glucose hypometabolism in AD.

  7. Effect of a peri-juvenile exposure to Triclosan on serum androgens and thyroid hormone in the male Wistar rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent antibacterial and antifungal compound that is widely used in personal care products. Studies testing triclosan exposure in the bullfrog showed altered thyroid hormone homeostasis. More recently, triclosan has been s...

  8. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITE DACT ON HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS ACTIVATION IN ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that a single administration of atrazine (ATR), a chloro-s-triazine herbicide that is used extensively throughout the USA and world, is able to induce a dose-dependent increase in plasma ACTH, with maximal concentrations observed at 15 mi...

  9. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  10. Differential expression of the phthalate syndrome in male Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats after in utero DEHP exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone and insulin-like three hormones resulting in malformations of androgen- and insulin-like three-dependent tissues. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that gubernacular lesions would...

  11. Transcriptional profile of diurnon-induces toxicity on the urinary bladder of male wistar rats to inform mode of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. Th...

  12. Corticosterone and decision-making in male Wistar rats: the effect of corticosterone application in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Koot, Susanne; Koukou, Magdalini; Baars, Annemarie; Hesseling, Peter; van ’t Klooster, José; Joëls, Marian; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones, released after stress, are known to influence neuronal activity and produce a wide range of effects upon the brain. They affect cognitive tasks including decision-making. Recently it was shown that systemic injections of corticosterone (CORT) disrupt reward-based decision-making in rats when tested in a rat model of the Iowa Gambling Task (rIGT), i.e., rats do not learn across trial blocks to avoid the long-term disadvantageous option. This effect was associated with a change in neuronal activity in prefrontal brain areas, i.e., the infralimbic (IL), lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and insular cortex, as assessed by changes in c-Fos expression. Here, we studied whether injections of CORT directly into the IL and lOFC lead to similar changes in decision-making. As in our earlier study, CORT was injected during the final 3 days of the behavioral paradigm, 25 min prior to behavioral testing. Infusions of vehicle into the IL led to a decreased number of visits to the disadvantageous arm across trial blocks, while infusion with CORT did not. Infusions into the lOFC did not lead to differences in the number of visits to the disadvantageous arm between vehicle treated and CORT treated rats. However, compared to vehicle treated rats of the IL group, performance of vehicle treated rats of the lOFC group was impaired, possibly due to cannulation/infusion-related damage of the lOFC affecting decision-making. Overall, these results show that infusions with CORT into the IL are sufficient to disrupt decision-making performance, pointing to a critical role of the IL in corticosteroid effects on reward-based decision-making. The data do not directly support that the same holds true for infusions into the lOFC. PMID:24795580

  13. The effect of tannic acid on the bone tissue of adult male Wistar rats exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk, Agnieszka; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2017-03-02

    Toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) accumulate to the largest extent in bones. Rats at the age of 12 weeks were used to check whether tannic acid (TA) at the concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%. 2.0% or 2.5% would have a protective effect on the structure and properties of bones in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb (diet: 7mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg) for 12 weeks. The effects of administration of TA in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on bone mechanical and geometric properties, trabecular histomorphometry as well as the morphology of articular and growth cartilages were determined. All the rats co-exposured to Cd and Pb had enhanced heavy metals concentration in blood plasma and bone and reduced bone Ca content irrespective of the tannic acid administration. Heave metals given to adult rats did not influence the morphology and geometry of the femur, but reduced the mechanical endurance and histomorphometric parameters of trabecular bone irrespective of the treatment. A diet rich in TA improved articular cartilage and growth plate constituents in heavy metal-poisoned rats, as indicated by the measurement of the thickness of particular zones. It seems that a use of alimentary TA supplementation in adult rats can counteract, in a dose-dependent manner, only some of the destructive changes evoked by Cd and Pb excess.

  14. Effect of Quercetin on Haematobiochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of Polychlorined Biphenyls-Induced Adult Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganya, Sekaran; Ahmad Bhat, Firdous; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure damages the rat liver cells. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red-blood cells, white-blood cells, neutrophils, platelet counts, and RBC indices were significantly decreased. Polymorphs, eosinophil counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly increased. Serum liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased by PCBs treatment. Serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins and very-low-density lipoproteins were increased in PCBs-treated rats. High-density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, globulin levels, and albumin/globulin ratio were also decreased after PCB exposure. Then levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate were also altered. Serum glucose levels were increased along with total bilirubin after PCBs exposure. Simultaneous quercetin supplementation significantly protected the PCBs-induced changes of hematobiochemical parameters. Thus, quercetin shows a protective role against PCBs-induced alterations in the hematological and biochemical parameters. PMID:26317025

  15. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:21318139

  16. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  17. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats. PMID:27047060

  18. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  19. [The status of the progeny of male rats subjected to low-dose external gamma irradiation exposure].

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, E P; Kononenko, V V; Galian, S P; Vernidub, I V; Topchiĭ, I G

    1996-01-01

    In studies on 120 mature males of Wistar rats and 252 female rats of the same line, 20-day-old fetuses and 974 young rats of the first generation, anomalies of antenatal and postnatal development were found after exposure of spermatids and spermatozoa to gamma-radiation in doses 0.25-1.0 Gy. After exposure of male rats to radiation in dose 0.25 Gy, reliable delay of pelvic bone ossification was observed as compared to the control.

  20. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  1. Antidepressants and REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Paterson, Louise M; Hutson, Peter H

    2005-10-17

    Compared to other rat strains, the Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep, one of the characteristic sleep changes observed in depressed patients. The aims of this study were firstly to validate a simple sleep stage discriminator and then compare the effect of antidepressants on suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats and an outbred rat strain (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes. Following recovery, the animals were orally dosed at light onset with either desipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), citalopram (10 or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle in a cross-over design. Every 12-s epoch was automatically scored as WAKE, NREM or REM sleep. Results confirm that Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep and decreased REM latency compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. All antidepressants significantly suppressed REM sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats, but only the high dose of citalopram suppressed REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These findings suggest that the enhanced REM activity in Wistar-Kyoto rats is less sensitive to the effect of antidepressants and therefore does not provide any additional predictive validity for assessing antidepressant efficacy.

  2. The role of oxidative stress in diazinon-induced tissues toxicity in Wistar and Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahvash; Salehi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Sediq; Asgari, Alireza; Abasnezhad, Maryam; Hajigholamali, Mansoure

    2012-10-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agricultural to control insects and in veterinary medicine to control ectoparasites. This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the brain, heart, and spleen of Wistar and Norway rats treated with acute doses of DZN. Female Wistar and Norway rats were treated with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of DZN by intraperitoneal injection. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after treatment, and tissues were isolated and analyzed. The result of this study shows that DZN at higher doses increased the level of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities and decreased glutathione (GSH) level, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholinesterase activities in the brain, heart, and spleen of both rat strains. At these concentrations, DZN toxicity also lead to a significant decrease in catalase (CAT) activity in all tissues of Wistar rat and brain of Norway rat, while it increased heart CAT activity in Norway rat. However, the alteration of these parameters was observed at lower doses of DZN in Wistar rat. These results suggest that DZN at higher doses induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress in rat tissues and strains by alteration of antioxidant enzyme activity, depletion of GSH, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Induction of oxidative stress in DZN-treated rats is in the order of brain > heart > spleen. Wistar rats appear to be more sensitive to the effects of DZN on oxidative stress induction compared to Norway rat.

  3. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  4. Postnatal changes in the number of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in midbrain raphe nuclei of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Moriizumi, Tetsuji; Shimogawa, Yuji; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the developmental changes in serotonergic neurons in the subdivisions of the dorsal (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei before puberty, the extent of the nuclei and the number of serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive (ir) cells were measured in 5-, 15-, and 30-day-old rats and 8-week-old (adult) castrated male rats. The brains were fixed and 50 μm frozen sections prepared. After immunostaining for 5-HT, the number of 5-HT-ir cells in a 0.2 × 0.2 mm frame in the dorsal, ventral and lateral subdivisions of the DR (dDR, vDR and lDR, respectively) and MR were counted. Total numbers of 5-HT-ir cells counted in the frame of three sections in each rat were expressed as the number of cells per cubic millimeter (density). The results indicated that the densities of 5-HT-ir cells in the MR were almost the same in all age groups. On the other hand, among the subdivisions of the DR, the mean density of 5-HT-ir cells in 15-day-old rats was higher than that in the 5-day-old group in the lDR only. The area of the three sections of the DR and of the MR was also measured. The area of the DR in 15-day-old rats was found to be twice that in the 5-day-old rats, and differed from the area in 30-day-old rats and adults. There were no differences among the age groups in the areas of the MR. The results indicate that the expression of 5-HT in the lDR and extent of the DR increased to adult levels from days 5 to 15 after birth. In the dDR, vDR and MR, expression of 5-HT at postnatal day 5 was at adult levels already.

  5. [Chronic administration of estradiol to ovariectomized female Wistar rats causes development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Iu O; Artem'eva, M M; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the role of female sex hormone estradiol in the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Previously, it was shown that the development of pulmonary hypertension in Wistar female rats is accompanied by a twofold increase in the estradiol level. Ovariectomy reduces the degree of pulmonary hypertension in these animals. In this work, the effect of various chronic doses of exogenous estradiol (5 and 15 microg/kg per day) on the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in Wistar female rats has been studied. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (10 h a day for 2 weeks) at simulated altitude of 5000 m (O2 concentration reduced to 10%). The administration of estradiol in different doses (5 and 15 microg/kg per day) for 21 day initiated the development of pulmonary hypertension in ovariectomized Wistar female rats.

  6. Intermittent access to beer promotes binge-like drinking in adolescent but not adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Monds, Lauren; Gunasekaran, Nathan; Dawson, Bronwyn; McGregor, Iain S

    2009-06-01

    Teenagers are more likely than adults to engage in binge drinking and could be more vulnerable to long-term brain changes following alcohol abuse. We investigated the possibility of excessive adolescent drinking in a rodent model in which beer (4.44% ethanol vol/vol) is presented to adult and adolescent male Wistar rats. Experiment 1 tracked ad libitum beer and water consumption in group-housed rats from postnatal day (PND) 28-96. Rats consumed an average of 7.8 g/kg/day of ethanol during adolescence (PND 34-55) and this gradually declined to a lower level of intake in adulthood (PND 56-93) of 3.9 g/kg/day. In Experiment 2, beer was made available to both adolescent (PND 29+) and adult (PND 57+) rats for 2h each day in a custom-built "lickometer" apparatus over 75 days. Access to beer was provided either 1 day out of every 3 ("intermittent" groups) or every day ("daily" groups). Relative to body weight, adolescent rats consumed more beer than adult rats in these limited access sessions. Adolescents with intermittent access consumed more than adolescents with daily access, a "binge"-like effect that was not observed in adult groups and that disappeared in adulthood. After 3 months of daily or intermittent alcohol consumption, the preference for beer versus sucrose was assessed. Rats previously kept under an intermittent schedule displayed a higher preference for beer relative to 3% sucrose, but only when testing occurred after 2 days of abstinence. In Experiment 3, adolescent (PND 30-37) and adult (PND 58-65) rats were given 20-min access to beer and their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were assessed. Adolescent groups consumed more alcohol than adults and showed higher BACS that were typical of human "binge" drinking (>80 mg/dL). Despite this, the correlation between BAC and beer intake was similar in both age groups. Together these results show that the intermittent presentation of alcohol itself appears to have subtle long-lasting effects on the motivation

  7. Inhaled environmental combustion particles cause myocardial injury in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Moyer, Carolyn F; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C; Nyska, Abraham

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, experimental evidence demonstrating causality and pathogenesis of particulate matter (PM)-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We hypothesized that protracted, repeated inhalation by rats of oil combustion-derived, fugitive emission PM (EPM), similar in metal composition to selected sources of urban air PM, causes exposure duration- and dose-dependent myocardial injury in susceptible rat strains. Zinc was the only primary water-leachable/bioavailable element of this EPM. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed nose-only to EPM (2, 5, or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day for 4 consecutive days or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 4 or 16 consecutive weeks). Two days following the last EPM exposure, cardiac and pulmonary tissues were examined histologically. The results showed that particle-laden alveolar macrophages were the only pulmonary lesions observed in all three rat strains. However, WKY rats exposed to EPM (10 mg/m(3) 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 16 weeks) demonstrated cardiac lesions with inflammation and degeneration. To further characterize the nature of EPM-associated lesions, more rigorous histopathological and histochemical techniques were employed for WKY and SD rats. We examined the hearts for myocardial degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium deposits, apoptosis, and the presence of mast cells. Decreased numbers of granulated mast cells, and multifocal myocardial degeneration, chronic-active inflammation, and fibrosis were present in 5 of 6 WKY rats exposed to EPM for 16 weeks. None of these lesions were present in WKY exposed to clean air. EPM-related cardiac lesions were indistinguishable from air-exposed controls in SD and SH rats. This study demonstrates that long-term inhalation exposures to environmentally relevant PM containing

  8. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA) and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC) and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK), and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups), ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg), HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg), or HNK (1,590 mg/kg) for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP) reduction

  9. A two generation reproductive toxicity study with curcumin, turmeric yellow, in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ganiger, S; Malleshappa, H N; Krishnappa, H; Rajashekhar, Geetha; Ramakrishna Rao, V; Sullivan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive toxicity of curcumin, turmeric yellow, in Wistar rats was studied in order to generate additional relevant toxicity information for the use of curcumin in humans by oral administration. The two generation reproduction study was designed and conducted in accordance with OECD Guideline No. 416 [OECD, 1983. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Guideline No. 416. Two Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study, adopted on 26th May 1983] and in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices (OECD, 1997 Principles of Good Laboratory Practice for the Testing of Chemicals. OECD, C(97)186/Final). The curcumin, mixed in the experimental diet at the concentrations of 1500, 3000 and 10,000 ppm was fed to three groups of rats, i.e., low, mid and high dose groups, and studied for two successive generations. A concurrent control group received experimental diet without the curcumin mixture. There were no treatment related adverse toxicological effects in the parental animals. No gross or microscopic changes were observed in any of the organs. None of the reproductive parameters were affected and there were no effects on the offspring other than a small reduction in pre-weaning body weight gain of the F2 pups at the highest dose level. It was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for reproductive toxicity of curcumin, fed in the diet for two successive generations to rats in this study was 10,000 ppm, which is equivalent to 847 and 959 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) per day for male rats and 1043 and 1076 for females for F0 and F1 generations, respectively. This study was the final toxicology study on curcumin reviewed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) at the 61st Meeting, 2003. The JECFA group considered that the small body weight reduction in the F2 pups of the highest dose group prevented this from being regarded as a no adverse effect level, and so allocated an ADI for curcumin of 0-3 mg/kg bw based on the intake of 250-320 mg

  10. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  11. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  12. Protective effect of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) pre-treatment on cadmium-induced damages in adult Wistar testis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo Paula; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi

    2011-06-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is an Amazonian plant. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated to be due to the high polyphenol concentration. On the other hand, one of the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced cellular damage is free radical mediated, resulting in increased oxidative processes. This study investigated P. cupana's potential to attenuate cadmium-induced damages in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats were either pre-treated with 2 mg/g body weight (BW) of powdered P. cupana seed during 56 days and/or injected with cadmium chloride at a dose of 1.15 mg/kg BW. After cadmium exposition (48 h), testes samples were evaluated by histological and stereological analyses. Both groups exposed to cadmium presented evident morphological alterations relative to control animals. A few rodents showed massive cell death in the seminiferous epithelium and intertubular space, indicating that some animals are more sensitive to cadmium. Despite the alterations observed in both groups, pre-treatment with P. cupana was effective in attenuating morphological changes in Leydig cells, as well as reducing inflammatory response, relative to animals exclusively exposed to the metal. Animals treated only with P. cupana presented a significant increase in plasma testosterone levels and a significant increase in volumetric proportions of seminiferous tubules, which are indicative of spermatogenic stimulation.

  13. Resveratrol prevents oxidative damage and loss of sperm motility induced by long-term treatment with valproic acid in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Finamor, Isabela A; Glanzner, Werner G; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug widely use for the treatment of epilepsy in both children and adults. Evidence suggests that long-term use of VPA may lead to an impairment in the male reproductive function. Oxidative stress is considered to play a major role in VPA associated toxicity. In the present work, we demonstrated that the natural antioxidant compound resveratrol (RSV) can be use to prevent VPA oxidative damage. Wistar rats treated with VPA (400mgkg(-1)) by gavage for 28days showed decrease in sperm motility accompanied by increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. Additionally, VPA administration leaded to depletion of reduced glutathione and decrease in total antioxidant potential in testes and epididymides of Wistar rats. The co-administration of RSV (10mgkg(-1)) efficiently prevented VPA pro-oxidant effects. In summary, RSV was shown to protect the reproductive system from the damage induced by VPA. Altogether, our data strongly suggests that RSV administration might be a valuable strategy to minimize reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term VPA treatment.

  14. Spontaneously Occurring Formation of Intranuclear and Cytoplasmic Inclusions in Renal Proximal Epithelium Due to Accumulation of D-Amino Acid Oxidase in Wistar Hannover Rats.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Natsumi; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Andoh, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Hoshiya, Toru

    2015-07-01

    Intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in the renal proximal tubular epithelium were observed in nontreated male and female Wistar Hannover rats in a 26-week study (32 weeks of age) and a 104-week study (110 weeks of age). The incidence rates were less than 5% in these two studies. In affected animals, the inclusions were observed in more than 60% of proximal tubular epithelium as various sized (approximately 1-8 μm in diameter) round and eosinophilic materials, but not in distal tubules, Henle's loop, or collecting ducts. Ultrastructurally, inclusions appeared finely granular, homogenous with middle-electron density, and without a limiting membrane. These inclusions were determined to be protein histochemically stained by Azan-Mallory and immunoreactive with an antibody against D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). There was no abnormality in in-life observations or in clinical test values suggestive of renal dysfunction. There were no associated degenerative or inflammatory changes in the kidneys, and no similar inclusions were observed in the other organs. These inclusions are very similar to propiverine hydrochloride (propiverine) and norepinephreine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced inclusions. This is the first report of accumulation of DAO and formation of inclusions occurring spontaneously in rat kidneys. The data are important for toxicological studies using Wistar Hannover rats.

  15. Teratogenic Effect of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on Nissl Substances of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Ekanem, Theresa B; Udoh, Paul B; Ekong, Moses B; Asuquo, Olaitan R; Akpantah, Amabe O; Nwakanma, Agnes O

    2013-01-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used for the treatment of insanity. The possible adverse effects of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of the plant on Nissl substances of albino Wistar rat fetuses were studied using 25 mature female Wistar rats. The animals were divided equally into 5 groups, labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A was the control, while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with the males overnight, and the sperm positive day was designated as day zero of pregnancy. Oral doses of 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the root bark extract were administered to groups B and C animals, respectively, while groups D and E animals received 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract, respectively, from day 7 to 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses brains extracted, and the cerebral cortices excised and routinely processed for Nissl substances using Cresyl fast violet staining method. Results showed reduced staining intensity of Nissl substances in the treated groups, especially those that received the root extract. Thus, the herbs may have adverse effects on protein synthesis within the cerebral cortex.

  16. Assessment of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel on haematology, plasma biochemistry, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iji, O T; Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-11-28

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract on markers of hepatic damage, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic fragility using the Wistar rats. Forty male Wistar rats divided into four groups of ten rats per group were used in the study. Group I which served as the control received 0.9% physiological saline while those in groups II, III and IV received Aloe vera gel (100, 250 and 500mg/kg), respectively, for four weeks. There was significant increase in the haemoglobin concentration while the PCV, RBC count, MCH and MCHC though showed some marginal increases but the increases were not significant in all the treated rats. No significant change was also observed in the erythrocyte osmotic fragility. However, there were significant reductions in plasma ALT, AST and ALP levels in animals that received the gel compared with the control while the plasma albumin and total protein values were higher than those of the control. All the animals that received the gel also showed significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol ratio compared with the control. In a similar manner, those animals that were administered with 500mg/kg gel had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol ratio than those of the control. This study showed that, chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract had no significant effects on the haematological parameters of the rats and did not affect erythrocyte osmotic resistance. It however showed some cholesterol lowering action.

  17. Regional central nervous system densities of delta-opioid receptors in alcohol-preferring P, alcohol-nonpreferring NP, and unselected Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Strother, W N; Chernet, E J; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; McBride, W J

    2001-08-01

    The densities of delta-opioid receptors in the central nervous system of alcohol-naive, adult, male, alcohol-preferring P, alcohol-nonpreferring NP, and Wistar rats were examined with the use of quantitative autoradiography. Slides with coronal 20-microm sections through the regions of interest were incubated in 5 nM [3H]-[D-Pen(2),D-Pen(5)]enkephalin (DPDPE) to label delta(1)-opioid receptor sites. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 10 microM naloxone. Significant differences between the P and the NP rat lines were found in numerous cortical regions, the basolateral amygdala, and the posterior hippocampus, with 10%-20% lower [3H]-DPDPE binding found in the P line. In most regions examined, binding levels in the Wistar rats were intermediate between those of the P and the NP rats. Significantly lower [3H]-DPDPE binding levels in the P rat may indicate fewer delta(1)-opioid receptors or decreased binding affinity. The lower binding in certain limbic regions, such as the basolateral amygdala and posterior hippocampus, as well as cortical differences in the P rat may be associated with the divergent alcohol drinking behaviors found between the P and the NP lines.

  18. Metabolomic Fingerprinting in the Comprehensive Study of Liver Changes Associated with Onion Supplementation in Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    González-Peña, Diana; Dudzik, Danuta; García, Antonia; de Ancos, Begoña; Barbas, Coral; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of functional ingredients has been suggested to be a complementary tool for the prevention and management of liver disease. In this light, processed onion can be considered as a source of multiple bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective properties. The liver fingerprint of male Wistar rats (n = 24) fed with three experimental diets (control (C), high-cholesterol (HC), and high-cholesterol enriched with onion (HCO) diets) was obtained through a non-targeted, multiplatform metabolomics approach to produce broad metabolite coverage. LC-MS, CE-MS and GC-MS results were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses, providing a list of significant metabolites. All data were merged in order to figure out the most relevant metabolites that were modified by the onion ingredient. Several relevant metabolic changes and related metabolic pathways were found to be impacted by both HC and HCO diet. The model highlighted several metabolites (such as hydroxybutyryl carnitine and palmitoyl carnitine) modified by the HCO diet. These findings could suggest potential impairments in the energy−lipid metabolism, perturbations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and β-oxidation modulated by the onion supplementation in the core of hepatic dysfunction. Metabolomics shows to be a valuable tool to evaluate the effects of complementary dietetic approaches directed to hepatic damage amelioration or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention. PMID:28134852

  19. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  20. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  1. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  2. Protective effect of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) on hepatic steatosis and damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Feral; Gul, Mehmet; Ates, Burhan; Ozturk, I Cetin; Cetin, Asli; Vardi, Nigar; Otlu, Ali; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2009-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the protective effect of 10 % and 20 % apricot-containing feed on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic steatosis and damage. Adult male Wistar rats (n 42) were divided into six groups of seven each, as follows: control group; CCl4 group; CCl4+10 % apricot group; CCl4+20 % apricot group; 10 % apricot group; 20 % apricot group. All apricot groups were fed with 10 % or 20 % apricot-containing feed for 5 months. CCl4 injections were applied to the CCl4 groups at the dose of 1 mg/kg for 3 d at the end of 5 months. In the CCl4 group, vacuolated hepatocytes and hepatic necrosis were seen, especially in the centrilobular area. Hepatocytes showed an oedematous cytoplasmic matrix, large lipid globules and degenerated organelles. The area of liver injury was found significantly decreased with apricot feeding. Malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly changed in the CCl4 group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Apricot feeding decreased this oxidative stress and ameliorated histological damage. We concluded that apricot feeding had beneficial effects on CCl4-induced liver steatosis and damage probably due to its antioxidant nutrient (beta-carotene and vitamin) contents and high radical-scavenging capacity. Dietary intake of apricot can reduce the risk of liver steatosis and damage caused by free radicals.

  3. Inhibitory effect of endostatin gene therapy combined with phosphorus-32 colloid on tumour growth in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huiqi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Yong; Fu, Peng; Shen, Baozhong

    2016-07-01

    Eighty healthy male Wistar rats, aged 5 weeks, weighing 100-120 g, were utilized for establishing tumour-bearing models by immediate Walker-256 cancerous ascites injection and randomly divided to four groups (n=20) treated with 0.2 ml solution containing saline, (32)P-colloid (0.3 mCi), endostatin gene (20 μg), endostatin gene combined with colloid (32)P. The effect of endostatin combined with a small dose of (32)P-colloidal on tumour growth in vivo was evaluated and the potential mechanism underlying the combined therapy was explored. We found that (32)P-colloid combined with endostatin exhibited higher inhibitory effect upon tumour growth compared with application of (32)P-colloid or endostatin alone, although three therapies all significantly inhibited tumour growth compared with saline control group. The higher inhibitory effect of (32)P-colloid combined with endostatin upon tumour growth might be attributed to a synergistic effect of inhibiting angiogenesis by endostatin and inducing apoptosis by (32)P-colloid, as demonstrated by microvessel density (MVD) and apoptotic index (AI) measurement. Combined therapy of (32)P-colloid and endostatin probably serves as a novel and efficacious therapy of tumour growth.

  4. Nephroprotective effect of vanillic acid against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats: a biochemical and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Ganapathy; Nishanthi, Emayavaramban; Sharmila, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the extensively used anticancer drugs against various cancers. Dosage dependent nephrotoxicity is the major problem in cisplatin chemotherapy. Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity results in the depletion of renal antioxidant defence system. Our present study is aimed to investigate the nephroprotective effect of vanilic acid to against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats. Elevated levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid and reduced antioxidant status were observed as indicatives of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin (7mg/kg bw) alone administered rats. Animals which are pre-treated with vanillic acid (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) restored the elevated levels of renal function markers and reduced antioxidant status to near normalcy when compared to cisplatin alone treated animals. Cisplatin induced lipid peroxidation was markedly reduced by oral administration of vanillic acid at a high dose. The findings in the present study suggest that vanillic acid is a potential antioxidant that reduce cisplatin nephrotoxicity and can be as a combinatorial regimen in cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Ayo, Joseph O; Kpukple, Alkali; Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan

    2016-05-05

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10⁶ CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10⁶ CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

  7. Antilipoperoxidative and antioxidant effects of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, T; Quine, S Darlin

    2006-01-01

    Our study evaluates the preventive effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS) on lipid peroxidative products and enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in rats. The male Wistar rats were rendered myocardial infarction by ISO (150 mg kg(-1), once a day for two days). The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were increased in hearts from ISO-treated rats, whereas the content of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants were declined in rats administered ISO. Oral pretreatment with SACS (40 mg kg(-1) and 80 mg kg(-1) daily for a period of 35 days) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the lipid peroxidative products and significantly (p < 0.05) increased antioxidants in ISO-induced rats. Oral administration of SACS (40 mg kg(-1) and 80 mg kg(-1)) did not show any significant effect in normal rats. Thus, the present study shows that SACS exhibits antilipoperoxidative and antioxidant effects in experimental myocardial infarction.

  8. Exhumation of Wistar rats experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran: A pathological and toxicological study.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Rodrigues, Karina Borges Almeida; Gonçalves-Júnior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2016-06-01

    Exhumation is required for the investigation of suspicions deaths when a body is buried and is usually performed under court order. Exhumation of animals is not a routine practice in forensic pathology. In this study, 30 male 70-day-old Wistar rats were experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran. Toxicological, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. Groups of 3 animals (2 exposed and 1 control) were evaluated at 24h, 3days, 5days, 7days and 10days post-mortem. In histopathological examination, the brain, liver, lungs and kidneys were assessed, and for toxicological analysis, the gastric contents, liver, vitreous humor, skeletal muscle and larvae (when available) were collected. The pesticides were detected by HPLC and quantified in the analyzed matrices, and a possible delay in tissue putrefaction due to the pesticides was observed. This study has revealed that it is possible to exhume animals for investigations of possible poisoning by carbamates and has demonstrated that the exhumation of an animal in a suspected case of poisoning should not be ruled out. The increasing demand for investigations of suspicious animal deaths, e.g., in cases of poisoning, will likely lead to an increase in the use of this type of procedure in veterinary pathology.

  9. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.

  10. Cardioprotective Activity of Methanol Extract of fruit of Trichosanthes cucumerina on Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar L.; Mali, Vishal R.; Zambare, Girish N.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The objective was to determine the activity of methanol extract of fruit of Trichosanthes cucumerina in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of fruit of T. cucumerina was prepared. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups. Group I was vehicle control. Group II animals received doxorubicin 4 mg/kg i.p. on days 21, 28, 35, and 42. Group III and IV animals were treated with methanol extract of T. cucumerina (500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) for 49 days. Doxorubicin was administered on days 21, 28, 35, and 42 days. The parameters of study were body weight, serum biomarkers, ECG, blood pressure, and left ventricular function. At the end of the study, the histology of heart, liver, and kidney was carried out. Results: Cardiac toxicity by doxorubicin was manifested as body weight loss, elevated serum LDH and CK-MB, increased ST, QT and QRS complex, reduced blood pressure, and left ventricular function. The methanol extract of T. cucumerina significantly decreased LDH and CK-MB, reduced ST, QT interval and QRS complex, increased heart rate, restored blood pressure, and left ventricular function. Doxorubicin caused liver and kidney necrosis, cellular infiltration, and vascular changes that indicated injury. Conclusion: T. cucumerina (1000 mg/kg) reduced the severity of doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage especially in heart. It is concluded that doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is reduced by pretreatment with methanol extract of fruit of T. cucumerina. PMID:22778516

  11. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  12. Radioprotective effects of sodium tungstate on hematopoietic injury by exposure to 60Co gamma-rays in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Ichimasa, M; Miyahara, K; Shiomi, M; Nishimura, Y; Ichimasa, Y

    1999-06-01

    Radioprotective effects of sodium tungstate (ST) on 60Co gamma-ray induced decrease in hematocrit value and in survival rate in Wistar strain male rats were examined. A long-term administration of ST (less than 150 mg/kg body weight/day) for 60-300 days had no significant effects on body and organs weights and survival days. The LD50/60 in 20 weeks old rats was 220 mg/kg body weight/day. Daily administration of 38, 75 or 150 mg from 7 days before and after irradiation to 60 days significantly mitigated the decrease in hematocrit values, especially at 23 days after irradiation (P < 0.05). The highest mitigation rate of the decrease in hematocrit value was observed in rats administered at a dose of 38 mg ST/day. Simultaneously, a dose of 38 mg ST/day inhibited lethal effect of 60Co gamma-rays significantly. The dose-reduction factor for survival of 38 mg ST administered rats was 1.14.

  13. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink.

  14. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, A; Yamamura, Y; Forno, E R; Mello, L E A M

    2002-06-01

    Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.

  15. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raju Suresh; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P. Gopalakrishna; Mailankot, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) with the brain is a serious concern of our society. Objective We evaluated the effect of RF-EMR from mobile phones on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. Materials and methods Healthy male albino Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 50 missed calls (within 1 hour) per day for 4 weeks, keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone) in the cage. After the experimental period, passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology were studied. Results Passive avoidance behaviour was significantly affected in mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rats demonstrated as shorter entrance latency to the dark compartment when compared to the control rats. Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. Conclusion Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. PMID:20095879

  16. Protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amamou, Fouzia; Nemmiche, Saïd; Meziane, Radjaa Kaouthar; Didi, Amal; Yazit, Sidi Mohamed; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. It is accumulated particularly in liver and kidney. The present study examined the possible protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil consumption against Cd-induced damage on plasma lipids and stress biochemical parameters of rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each and treated orally with Cd (50 mg/l), olive oil and colocynth oil (4%) alone or in combination with cadmium for 8 weeks. It was shown that Cd exposure induced significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents in exposed groups of rats compared to control group while the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and vitamins (C, A and E) were significantly decreased. Co-treatment with olive oil or colocynth oil significantly improved the oxidative damage induced by Cd. The antioxidant potential in plasma and liver were markedly restored with a significant decline in MDA levels and activity of transaminases. In conclusion, these results suggest that olive oil or colocynth oil consumption could protect the rat liver against Cd-induced injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative stress.

  17. Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Aluwong, Tagang; Ayo, Joseph O.; Kpukple, Alkali; Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27164129

  18. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  19. Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2013-12-01

    L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats.

  20. Effects of doxorubicin administration on bone strength and quality in sedentary and physically active Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, H; Carvalho, A; Esteves, J; Esteves, V I; Moreira-Gonçalves, D; Duarte, J A

    2016-12-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is used in pediatric cancer treatment. This study assessed the effects of 7 weeks of DOX and 10-week recovery on bone quality and biomechanical properties in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats. DOX decreases femur diaphysis radial growth and biomechanical properties. Some of these DOX effects were aggravated by exercise.

  1. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  2. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  3. Acute Sodium Arsenite-Induced Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ageratum conyzoides

    PubMed Central

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the ethanol leaf extract of A. conyzoides (EEAC) against hematological, serum biochemical and histological alterations induced by Sodium arsenite administration to Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group I received propylene glycol and Group II rats were given the (EEAC, 100 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 7 days. Group III were given a single oral dose of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 2.5 mg/kg b.w.). Animals in Group IV were pretreated with 100 mg/kg EEAC for 7 days followed by a single oral dose of sodium arsenite. Results: Arsenic exposure resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in values of packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) count, and elevation in total white blood cell (WBC) count with insignificant reductions in serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels. Alterations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase activities, as well as in serum levels of urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, were not statistically significant. EEAC significantly restored (P < 0.05) the PCV, Hb, RBC, and WBC as well as serum albumin, globulin, and total protein to normal values. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that EEAC possess strong potentials to protect against toxicities induced by sodium arsenite. SUMMARY Ageratum conyzoides produced significant reversal of the reduction in the erythrocytic indices (packed cell volume, red blood cell, and Hb) caused by sodium arseniteSodium arsenite-induced slight elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), correlating with the

  4. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, or total distance: a comparison of methods to equalize exercise volume in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paes, L S; Borges, J P; Cunha, F A; Souza, M G C; Cyrino, F Z G A; Bottino, D A; Bouskela, E; Farinatti, P

    2016-07-28

    This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min). Exercise duration was calculated individually to elicit EE of 5 kcal in each session. No difference between groups was found for total running distance (MIC: 801±46, HIC: 734±42, HII: 885±64 m; P=0.13). Total EE measured by RER was systematically underestimated compared to values obtained from V̇O2 (HII: 4.5% and MIC: 6.2%, P<0.05). Total EE (calculated from V̇O2), and duration of HIC bouts (2.8 kcal and 30.8±2.2 min) were lower (P<0.0001) than in MIC (4.9 kcal and 64.7±1.8 min) and HII (4.7 kcal and 46.9±2.2 min). Predicted and actual values of total V̇O2, total EE, and duration of isocaloric sessions were similar in MIC and HII (P>0.05), which were both higher than in HIC (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the time to achieve a given EE in exercise bouts with different intensities did not correspond to the total distance. Therefore, the volume of aerobic exercise in protocols involving Wistar rats should be equalized using EE rather than total covered distance.

  5. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, or total distance: a comparison of methods to equalize exercise volume in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Paes, L.S.; Borges, J.P.; Cunha, F.A.; Souza, M.G.C.; Cyrino, F.Z.G.A.; Bottino, D.A.; Bouskela, E.; Farinatti, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min). Exercise duration was calculated individually to elicit EE of 5 kcal in each session. No difference between groups was found for total running distance (MIC: 801±46, HIC: 734±42, HII: 885±64 m; P=0.13). Total EE measured by RER was systematically underestimated compared to values obtained from V̇O2 (HII: 4.5% and MIC: 6.2%, P<0.05). Total EE (calculated from V̇O2), and duration of HIC bouts (2.8 kcal and 30.8±2.2 min) were lower (P<0.0001) than in MIC (4.9 kcal and 64.7±1.8 min) and HII (4.7 kcal and 46.9±2.2 min). Predicted and actual values of total V̇O2, total EE, and duration of isocaloric sessions were similar in MIC and HII (P>0.05), which were both higher than in HIC (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the time to achieve a given EE in exercise bouts with different intensities did not correspond to the total distance. Therefore, the volume of aerobic exercise in protocols involving Wistar rats should be equalized using EE rather than total covered distance. PMID:27487418

  6. Chronic stress induces structural alterations in splenic lymphoid tissue that are associated with changes in corticosterone levels in wistar-kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  7. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  8. Consistent male-male paternity differences across female genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-23

    In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

  9. Long-term low-level laser therapy promotes an increase in maximal oxygen uptake and exercise performance in a dose-dependent manner in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Perini, Júlia Luiza; Hentschke, Vítor Scotta; Sonza, Anelise; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) represents a new intervention modality that has been explored to enhance exercise performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of LLLT (GaAIAs-850 nm) at different doses on VO2max and on exercise performance in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: "placebo" rats (P-LLLT, n = 10), rats at a dose of 0.315 J per treatment point of LLLT (8.7 J/cm(2)-LLLT, n = 10), and rats at a dose of 2.205 J per treatment point of LLLT (61.2 J/cm(2)-LLLT, n = 10). The LLLT was applied bilaterally at the biceps femoris, gluteus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, iliopsoas, and adductor longus muscles. One spot in each muscle belly was applied, with a sum of 12 spots in each rat, once a day, for 10 days. All animals performed the maximal exercise test (ET) at a metabolic treadmill for rats, with simultaneous gas analysis. The distance covered was measured during ET, before and after the conclusion of the LLLT protocol. The data were compared by a repeated measures two-way ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (p < .05). The 61.2 J/cm(2)-LLLT group increased VO2basal (~40 %), VO2max (~24 %), VCO2max (~17 %), and distance covered (~34 %) after LLLT application on the skeletal muscle. No significant results were found comparing before and after conditions for the studied variables considering P-LLLT and 8.7 J/cm(2)-LLLT groups. The LLLT promoted in a dose-dependent manner an increase in oxygen consumption uptake and a performance increment of male Wistar rats.

  10. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  11. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have sex without wearing a male or female condom Have more than one sexual partner Use drugs ... to have sexual contact, use latex or polyurethane condoms. Remember to: Use condoms for all vaginal, anal, ...

  12. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  13. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  14. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hasn't spread beyond your breast tissue. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill ... option for men with advanced breast cancer. Hormone therapy Most men with male breast cancer have tumors ...

  15. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiuyan; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Yanan; Wang, Anyi; Guo, Xinhong; Teng, Weiping; Jiang, Yaqiu

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6–8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190–210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected to swimming) groups. A bilateral adrenalectomy animal model was established. Serum TSH in the blood was measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and cerebrum tissue were excised for the measurement of TRH expression using an immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, pituitaries were excised for the extraction of total RNA. Finally, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for quantitation of TSHβ. Following swimming, the serum T3, T4 and TSH, the TSHβ mRNA expression levels in the pituitary and the TRH expression in the PVN of the surgical group were gradually increased. In the non-surgical group, no significant differences were observed in the serum T3, T4 and TSH levels compared with the control group. The TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary showed a similar result. Furthermore, the TRH expression at PVN was gradually increased and stress from swimming could increase the blood T4, T3 and TSH levels, TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary and TRH expression at the PVN in adrenalectomy Wistar rats. Moreover, the index in the surgical group changed significantly compared with the non-surgical group. In conclusion, the

  16. Oral administration of fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics can influence the physiological condition of Wistar rats in a dose-sensitive and sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    MIAO, Junjie; LANG, Chunhui; KANG, Zhiyuan; ZHU, Hong; WANG, Shijie; LI, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0.05). The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in both male and female rats (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between rats groups in body weight, food intake, food utilization rate, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that the fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics altered the nutritive status of the host animal and contributed to their health. However, such potent health-promoting effects could be deeply associated with the dose and sex specific. Therefore, different physiological targets and population characteristics should be managed with different combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:27200262

  17. High-fat diet-induced obesity Rat model: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cláudia; Meireles, Manuela; Norberto, Sónia; Leite, Joana; Freitas, Joana; Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the past decades, obesity and associated metabolic complications have reached epidemic proportions. For the study of these pathologies, a number of animal models have been developed. However, a direct comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) Rat as models of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity has not been adequately evaluated so far. Wistar and SD rats were assigned for 2 experimental groups for 17 weeks: standard (St) and high-fat (HF) diet groups. To assess some of the features of the metabolic syndrome, oral glucose tolerance tests, systolic blood pressure measurements and blood biochemical analysis were performed throughout the study. The gut microbiota composition of the animals of each group was evaluated at the end of the study by real-time PCR. HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, adiponectin and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. However, the majority of these effects were more pronounced or earlier detected in Wistar rats. The gut microbiota of SD rats was less abundant in Bacteroides and Prevotella but richer in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus comparatively to the gut microbiota of Wistar rats. Nevertheless, the modulation of the gut microbiota by HF diet was similar in both strains, except for Clostridium leptum that was only reduced in Wistar rats fed with HF diet. In conclusion, both Wistar and SD Rat can be used as models of HF diet-induced obesity although the metabolic effects caused by HF diet seemed to be more pronounced in Wistar Rat. Differences in the gut microbial ecology may account for the worsened metabolic scenario observed in Wistar Rat. PMID:27144092

  18. Improved Trabecular Bone Structure of 20-Month-Old Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Yao, Wei; Lane, Nancy E.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Gullberg, Grant T.; Seo, Youngho

    2014-01-01

    A few clinical studies have reported that elderly male participants with hypertensive disease frequently have higher BMD than the normotensive participants at several skeletal sites. The detailed mechanism is still unknown; therefore a study of bone structure and density using the hypertensive animal models could be informative. We used micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantitatively evaluate the tibial and 3rd lumbar vertebral bones in the 20-month-old male spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR). The BMD, volume fraction, and the microarchitecture changes of the SHR were compared to those of same-age normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rat, WKY). We found that in the very old (20-month) male rats, the trabecular bone fraction and microstructure were higher than those in the same-age normotensive controls. The observation of the association of hypertension with BMD and bone strength in hypertensive rats warrants further investigations of bone mass and strength in elderly males with hypertension. PMID:25106873

  19. Techniques of male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery.

  20. Hyperprolactinaemia in male diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Mooradian, A. D.; Morley, J. E.; Billington, C. J.; Slag, M. F.; Elson, M. K.; Shafer, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    We recently investigated two patients with diabetes and elevated serum prolactin levels in whom no cause of hyperprolactinaemia could be found. For this reason we measured fasting serum prolactin levels in 72 diabetic males and compared the results with those of 63 healthy males and 90 nondiabetic males attending an Impotence Clinic. The diabetic group had significantly higher serum prolactin levels (13.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml) than the two control groups (9.9 +/- 0.6 ng/ml for normal males and 7.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml for the non-diabetic impotent group). Eighteen percent of the diabetics studied had serum prolactin levels above the normal range for males (greater than 20 ng/ml). There was no correlation between serum prolactin levels and duration of diabetes, glycosylated haemoglobin level or presence of clinically apparent retinopathy. The correlation between serum prolactin level and fasting plasma glucose was weak though statistically significant (r = 0.26, P less than 0.05). PMID:3991396

  1. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  2. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  3. Nephroprotective action of Peucedanum grande against cadmium chloride induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Dayal, Rameshver; Javid, Kalim; Umar, Sadiq; Asiaf, Asia; Nafees, Sana; Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Wani, Arjumand; Samim, Mohammad; Singh, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial pollutant which accumulates in the kidney and its exposure leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of Peucedanum grande against CdCl2 induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were subjected to oral pre-treatment of P. grande (60 and 120 mg/kg b.wt) against the renal toxicity induced by administration of CdCl2 (3mg/kg b.wt). Efficacy of P. grande against the renal toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities and histopathological changes. P. grande pretreatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by CdCl2 through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of increased oxidative stress as well as by restoration of histopathological changes against CdCl2 administration.

  4. Comparative effects of X irradiation on the testes of adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, J I; Schlappack, O K; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-10-01

    The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation.

  5. Evaluation of the Toxicity of Pradosia huberi Extract during the Preimplantation in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Aldeíde de Oliveira Batista; Sousa, Liliane de Queirós; Mota, Clélia de Alencar Xavier; Santos, Elane Cristina S.; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Pimenta, Martina Bragante F.; da Silveira e Sá, Rita de Cássia

    2013-01-01

    The treatment during the embryonic preimplantation phase of Wistar rats with the Pradosia huberi extract did not interfere with the water and feed consumption, as well as upon the body-weight gain. However, it has expressed a decrease of the uterine implant number, followed by the preimplantation losses at all applied doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg), and the number of embryonic resorptions in the two highest doses (6.1 and 30.5 mg/kg). After the organ weighing (hypophysis, ovaries, and uterus), only the relative weight of the hypophysis was raised at the different doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg). It was concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of Pradosia huberi compromises the reproductive ability during the embryonic preimplantation phase, suggesting a possible toxic effect upon the reproductive system of Wistar rats. PMID:23509706

  6. [Seasonal peculiarities of the ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) and Wistar rats circadian activity].

    PubMed

    Semenova, T P; Spiridonova, L A; Zakharova, N M

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels. It included not only at night, but morning time in spring, and daytime--in summer. The circadian differences between hibernators and non-hibernators were kept during all annual cycle at night time, but in daytime--only in spring and summer time.

  7. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  8. Male Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; İnan, Aydın; Bozer, Mikdat

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Although breast carcinomas share certain characteristics in both genders, there are notable differences. Most studies on men with breast cancer are very small. Thus, most data on male breast cancer are derived from studies on females. However, when a number of these small studies are grouped together, we can learn more from them. This review emphasizes the incidence, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, pathology, survival, and prognostic factors related to MBC.

  9. Imaging of Spontaneous Ventriculomegaly and Vascular Malformations in Wistar rats: implications for Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L. Christine; Williams, Rashida A.; Lescher, Jacob D.; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not utilized, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70/162 (43.2%) of Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were utilized to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesion and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p < 0.05). These results could impact the interpretation, e.g. of a pseudo-increase of axon integrity and a pseudo-decrease of myelin integrity, based on characteristics intrinsic to rats with ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurological disease or injury in the Wistar rats. PMID:25383642

  10. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management.

  11. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    PubMed Central

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  12. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-03-05

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

  13. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm‑2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  14. Hematological toxicity associated with tissue extract from poisonous fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus--influence on erythrocyte function in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, M; Abdelmouleh, A; Jamoussi, K; Kammoun, A; El Feki, A

    2008-09-01

    The puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus represents serious public health problems in the world. The relative toxicity of each organ (liver and flesh) was determined by the relation dose-death time "mouse bioassay." The average liver toxicity of the puffer fish was the highest when compared with flesh giving 14.32 and 10.88 MU/g, respectively. A mouse unit is the amount of toxin (extract of fish organ) that kills a 20 g male mouse in 30 min after intraperitoneal injection. One mouse unit is equivalent to 0.22 microg of TTX. For the rat bioassay tests, Wistar rats were daily i.p. injected, for 10 d, with extracts of liver (LT) or flesh (FT) (muscles + skin) of L. lagocephalus. Control rats received injection of NaCl (0.9%). During the experiment, a significant reduction in red blood cell number (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration, and hematocrit (HCT) was observed essentially after 10 d of treatment in the FT and LT-exposed groups. Consequently, treatment led to severe anemia and hemolytic action as indicated by a significant reduction in the total number of erythrocytes. In fact, our study revealed a significant increase in erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (LPO) in FT and LT groups compared with controls after experimental exposure. The flesh and liver tissue extracts also altered antioxidative enzymes activities: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Histopathological alterations in the spleen occurred exclusively at the end of treatment. We marked also an increase in reticulo-endothelial cells, which led to remove damaged erythrocytes.

  15. Creatine Supplementation Induces Alteration in Cross-Sectional Area in Skeletal Muscle Fibers of Wistar Rats Under Swimming Training

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando Farias Dos; Moura, José A. A.; Curi, Rui; Fernandes, Luiz C.

    2002-01-01

    Creatine has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. In this study, we investigated the effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on cross-sectional area of type I, IIA and IIB fibers of gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus - EDL and soleus muscles from male Wistar rats subjected to swimming training for 33 days. Four groups were set up: sedentary with no supplementation (CON), sedentary with creatine supplementation (3.3 mg creatine per g chow) (CR), exercised with no supplementation (EX) and exercised with supplementation (CREX). The rats performed in a special swimming pool and swam five times a week for 1 hour each day, with a extra lead weight corresponding to 15% of their body weight. At the end of 33 days, skeletal muscles of the animals were dissected and the samples got immediately frozen using liquid nitrogen. Muscle samples were allocated to slices of 10 μm by a cryostat at -20°C, which was followed by histochemical analysis in order to identify fiber types of the muscles, and morphometrical analysis to calculate the muscle fiber areas. All groups gained body weight at the end of 33 days but there was no statistical difference among them. The EX and CREX rats had a larger food intake than the sedentary groups (CON and CR), and the CREX group had a larger food intake than CR rats. The cross-sectional area of type I and IIA fibers of the soleus muscle, type IIA and IIB fibers of EDL muscle and type IIA and IIB fibers of the white portion of gastrocnemius muscle were greater in the EX and CREX groups in comparison to sedentary rats. In addition, these fibers were greater in the CREX rats than in the EX group. There was no change in the cross sectional area of type I fibers in EDL muscle among all groups studied. Our results suggest that creatine supplementation enhances the exercise related muscle fiber hypertrophy in rodents. PMID:24701129

  16. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  17. Effects of chronic exercise on the endocannabinoid system in Wistar rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Gamelin, François-Xavier; Aucouturier, Julien; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Mazzarella, Enrico; Aveta, Teresa; Leriche, Melissa; Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Montel, Valérie; Bastide, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Heyman, Elsa

    2016-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated during obesity in tissues involved in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. We examined the effect of chronic exercise on the tissue levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and on the expression of genes coding for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively) in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues and in the soleus and extensor digitorim longus (EDL) muscles, in rats fed with standard or high-fat diet. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were placed on high-fat diet or standard diet (HFD and Ctl groups, respectively) during 12 weeks whereafter half of each group was submitted to an exercise training period of 12 weeks (HFD + training and Ctl + training). Tissue levels of eCBs were measured by LC-MS while expressions of genes coding for CB1 and CB2 receptors were investigated by qPCR. High-fat diet induced an increase in anandamide (AEA) levels in soleus and EDL (p < 0.02). In soleus of the HFD group, these changes were accompanied by elevated Cnr1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels (p < 0.05). In EDL, exercise training allowed to reduce significantly this diet-induced AEA increase (p < 0.005). 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels were decreased and increased by high-fat diet in SAT and EDL, respectively (p < 0.04), but not affected by exercise training. Unlike the HFD + training group, 2-AG levels in soleus were also decreased in the HFD group compared to Ctl (p < 0.04). The levels of eCBs and Cnr1 expression are altered in a tissue-specific manner following a high-fat diet, and chronic exercise reverses some of these alterations.

  18. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  19. Effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Masomeh Khosravi; Amraie, Esmaiel; Kavian, Peyman; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats weighing 210–250 g were selected and divided randomly into four groups of eight animals each for 21 days as follows: (1) control group, (2) diabetic control group, (3) diabetic group plus aqueous extract of alfalfa (250 mg/l), and (4) diabetic group plus aqueous extract of alfalfa (500 mg/l). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), glucose, and the liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured at the end of period in all studied groups. Results Administration of 250 and 500 mg/l aqueous alfalfa extract resulted in a significantly decreased glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL, ALT, and AST levels and increased HDL levels as compared with the control group and diabetic control group (p < 0.05). Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and pancreas. Conclusion These results suggest that aqueous alfalfa extract revealed significant effects on blood lipids and glucose levels in diabetic rats and might be useful in prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, further studies are needed to determine the exact impacts of those effects. PMID:28203391

  20. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  1. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  2. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-01-01

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive analysis of these changes will allow us to better understand the mechanism of pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (10-12 week) were exposed to air, or ozone (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm) for 4 h and pulmonary injury and inflammation were assessed at 0-h or 20-h (n = 8/group). Lung gene expression profiling was assessed at 0-h (air and 1.0 ppm ozone, n = 3-4/group). At 20-h bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid protein and neutrophils increased at 1 ppm ozone. Numerous genes involved in acute inflammatory response were up-regulated along with changes in genes involved in cell adhesion and migration, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle control and cell growth. A number of NRF2 target genes were also induced after ozone exposure. Based on expression changes, Rela, SP1 and TP3-mediated signaling were identified to be mediating downstream changes. Remarkable changes in the processes of endocytosis provide the insight that ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation are likely initiated by changes in cell membrane components and receptors likely from oxidatively modified lung lining lipids and proteins. In conclusion, ozone-induced injury and inflammation are preceded by changes in gene targets for cell adhesion/migration, apoptosis, cell cycle control and growth regulated by Rela, SP1 and TP53, likely mediated by the process of endocytosis and altered steroid receptor signaling.

  3. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Berberis integerrima Bunge. root on carbon tetrachloride-induced testicular injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Fereshteh; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza; Ashraf, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue protective effect of compounds with antioxidant properties has been demonstrated. The alkaloids found in barberry root are considered as antioxidants. Objective: According to barberry protective effects in different tissues, in this study, the protective effect of Berberis integerrima Bge. root )MEBIR) was evaluated against CCl4-induced testicular damages in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: 40 mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1: Normal control, 2: Sham: received CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v; 1ml/kg bw), intraperitoneally, twice a week for 4 weeks, 3 and 4: Sham rats treated with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) for 28 days, 5: Sham rats treated with silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. After 28 days, serum testosterone level, absolute testis weight, catalase activity, malondialdehyde level, and histological parameters were investigated. Results: In the treated rats with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (50 mg/kg bw), there was a significant increase in the absolute testis weight, testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter (p<0.001), thickness of the epithelium, tubule differentiation index) p<0.001), spermiogenesis index (p<0.001), the activity of catalase, and a significant decrease in interstitial tissue thickness (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde level in comparison with CCl4-treated group. The effect of the MEBIR at dose of 500 mg/kg bw is more than that of the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg bw). Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that the protective effects of MEBIR is possibly due to antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds. PMID:27200428

  4. Therapeutic effect of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH rather than therapeutics that can cause severe side effects. ACTICOA() (Ba0rry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP) is a cocoa polyphenolic extract, and we have shown in a previous study that oral treatment with AP prevented prostate hyperplasia. This study investigated whether AP could improve established prostate hyperplasia using the same testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostate hyperplasia model in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one group injected with corn oil and orally treated with the vehicle (negative control) and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and orally treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments started 1 week after the start of the induction of prostate hyperplasia and lasted for 2 weeks. The influence of TP and AP on body weights, food and water consumptions, plasma polyphenolic concentration, and serum dihydrotestoterone (DHT) level of rats was examined. At completion of the study, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumptions, while AP reduced significantly these differences in a dose-dependent manner. AP significantly reduced serum DHT level and prostate size ratio in comparison with positive controls also dose-dependently. In conclusion, AP orally administered was effective for reducing established prostate hyperplasia, especially at the dose of 48 mg/kg/day.

  5. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  6. Anti-inflammatory, Antithrombotic and Cardiac Remodeling Preventive Effects of Eugenol in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hajji, Raouf; Derbali, Fatma; Gammoudi, Anis; Khabbabi, Gaddour; Ellefi, Hedi; Allouche, Noureddine; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiac remodeling properties of eugenol in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, control, iso [100 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously into rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days (6th and 7th day) to induce MI] and pretreated animals with clopidogrel (0.2 mg/kg) and eugenol (50 mg/kg) orally for 7 days and intoxicated with isoproterenol (Iso + Clop) and (Iso + EG) groups. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats showed notable changes in the ECG pattern, increase in heart weight index, deterioration in the hemodynamic function and rise in plasma level of troponin-T, CK-MB and LDH and ALT by 316, 74, 172 and 45 %, respectively, with histological myocardium necrosis and cells inflammatory infiltration. In addition, significant increases in plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as fibrinogen, α1, α2, β1, β2 and γ globulins with decrease level of albumin were observed in infarcted rats as compared to normal ones. Else, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in plasma, kidney and heart of the isoproterenol-induced rats was significantly increased by 34, 47 and 93 %, respectively, as compared to normal group. However, the administration of eugenol induced a clear improvement in cardiac biomarkers injury, reduced inflammatory mediators proteins, increased heart activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase with reduce in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content and inhibition of ventricular remodeling process through inhibition of ACE activity. Overall, eugenol evidences high preventive effects from cardiac remodeling process.

  7. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  8. 1H NMR-based serum metabolomics reveals erythromycin-induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Atul; Dubey, Durgesh; Guleria, Anupam; Kumar, Umesh; Keshari, Amit K.; Chaturvedi, Swati; Prakash, Anand; Saha, Sudipta; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Erythromycin (ERY) is known to induce hepatic toxicity which mimics other liver diseases. Thus, ERY is often used to produce experimental models of drug-induced liver-toxicity. The serum metabolic profiles can be used to evaluate the liver-toxicity and to further improve the understanding of underlying mechanism. Objective: To establish the serum metabolic patterns of Erythromycin induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats using 1H NMR based serum metabolomics. Experimental: Fourteen male rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group): control and ERY treated. After 28 days of intervention, the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from ERY and control groups were analyzed using high-resolution 1D 1H CPMG and diffusion-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The histopathological and SEM examinations were employed to evaluate the liver toxicity in ERY treated group. Results: The serum metabolic profiles of control and ERY treated rats were compared using multivariate statistical analysis and the metabolic patterns specific to ERY-induced liver toxicity were established. The toxic response of ERY was characterized with: (a) increased serum levels of Glucose, glutamine, dimethylamine, malonate, choline, phosphocholine and phospholipids and (b) decreased levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, citrate, glycerol, lactate, threonine, circulating lipoproteins, N-acetyl glycoproteins, and poly-unsaturated lipids. These metabolic alterations were found to be associated with (a) decreased TCA cycle activity and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, (b) dysfunction of lipid and amino acid metabolism and (c) oxidative stress. Conclusion and Recommendations: Erythromycin is often used to produce experimental models of liver toxicity; therefore, the established NMR-based metabolic patterns will form the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate the efficacy of anti-hepatotoxic agents or the hepatotoxicity of new drug

  9. Cyclophosphamide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats: The Modulatory Role of Gallic Acid as a Hepatoprotective and Chemopreventive Phytochemical

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Olutayo Temidayo; Asenuga, Ebunoluwa Rachael; Akinleye, Akinrinde Stephen; Ogunsanwo, Rachael Omolola; Saba, Adebowale Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gallic acid (GA) is an endogenous plant phenol known to have antioxidant, free radical scavenging ability, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-fungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of GA on cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty rats were grouped into six groups of 10 rats per group. Group 1 received distilled water. Group 2 received CPA at 200 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneally on day 1. Groups 3 and 4 received a single dose of CPA (200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on day 1 and then were treated with GA at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, respectively. Rats in Groups 5 and 6 only received GA at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, respectively. GA was administered orally. Results: CPA induced hepatic damage as indicated by significant elevation (P < 0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, organ weight, and evidence by the histological study. CPA also induced hepatic oxidative stress as indicated by significant elevation (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, nitrite level, and the level of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase crashed in the CPA-treated group. GA enhanced the antioxidant defense system as indicated by significant elevation (P < 0.05) in GSH level, catalase activity, and GSH-S-transferase activity. Conclusions: Taken together, the result of this present study shows that GA has a protective effect on CPA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27076889

  10. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p < 0.05) observed in fructose-fed rats were completely prevented with TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  11. Influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants in Wistar rats submitted to repeated forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Fernanda; dos Santos, Juliano; Walber, Thais; Marcon, Juliana C; dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino de Oliveira, Cilene

    2015-04-03

    Repeated forced swimming test (rFST) may detect gradual effects of antidepressants in adult rats. Antidepressants, as enrichment, affected behavior and neurogenesis in rats. However, the influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants is unknown. Here, effects of antidepressants on rFST and hippocampal neurogenesis were investigated in rats under enriched conditions. Behaviors of male Wistar rats, housed from weaning in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE), were registered during rFST. The rFST consisted of 15min of swimming (pretest) followed by 5min of swimming in the first (test), seventh (retest 1) and fourteenth (retest 2) days after pretest. One hour before the test, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (1ml/kg), fluoxetine (2.5mg/kg) or imipramine (2.5 or 5mg/kg). These treatments were performed daily until the day of the retest 2. After retest 2, rats were euthanized for the identification of markers for neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Fluoxetine or imipramine decreased immobility in retests 1 and 2, as compared to saline. EE abolished these differences. In EE, fluoxetine or imipramine (5mg/kg) reduced immobility time in retest 2, as compared to the test. Independent of the housing conditions, fluoxetine and imipramine (5mg/kg) increased the ratio of immature neurons per progenitor cell in the hippocampus. In summary, antidepressants or enrichment counteracted the high immobility in rFST. Enrichment changed the effects of antidepressants in rFST depending on the type, and the dose of a substance but failed to change neurogenesis in control or antidepressant treated-rats. Effects of antidepressants and enrichment on rFST seemed neurogenesis-independent.

  12. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  13. Quantifying male attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait. PMID:14561306

  14. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  15. Lycopene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  16. Minority Male Afterschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Herbert F., Jr.

    Through a program called the Minority Male Afterschool Program (MMAP), college students at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena (Mississippi) are working one-on-one with high school students. The MMAP is an enrichment program that encourages at-risk African American students aged 12 to 19 to complete high school and pursue…

  17. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Gf; Castro, Marcos As; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    2011-06-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. However, as global populace ages, there is a trend to MBC increasing. Although aetiology is still unclear, constitutional, environmental, hormonal (abnormalities in estrogen/androgen balance) and genetic (positive family history, Klinefelter syndrome, mutations in BRCA1 and specially BRCA2) risk factors are already known. Clinic manifestation is painless hard and fixed nodule in the subareolar region in 75% of cases, with nipple commitment earlier than in women. Breast cancer has similar prognostic factors in males and females, among which axillary adenopathy (present in 40-55% cases) is the most important one. Although mammography, ultrasonography and scintigraphy can be useful tools in diagnosis; clinical assessment, along with a confirmatory biopsy, remains the main step in the evaluation of men with breast lesions. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The established standard of care is modified radical mastectomy followed by tamoxifen for endocrine-responsive positive disease, although other options are being explored. While similarities between breast cancer in males and females exist, it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from female disease to the treatment of male. There is a need for specific multi-institutional trials to better understanding of clinicopathologic features and establishment of optimal therapy for this disease.

  18. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  19. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  20. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  1. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  2. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation.

    PubMed

    Jensh, R P; Brent, R L

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  3. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  4. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0