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Sample records for 8-week-old male wistar

  1. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure.

  2. Deleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; İkinci, Ayşe; Özyılmaz, Cansu; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-10-22

    Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure. PMID:26239913

  3. Effects of male sexual maturity of reproductive endpoints relevant to DART studies in Wistar Hannover rats.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Ikuro; Creasy, Dianne M; Yokoi, Ryohei; Terashima, Yukari; Onozato, Tomoya; Maruyama, Yoshimasa; Chino, Tomonobu; Tahara, Toru; Tamura, Toru; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Wistar Hannover rats have been utilized as one of major strains in regulatory toxicology studies. This study was performed to verify the appropriate age of male sexual maturity in the development and reproductive toxicity (DART) study in Wistar Hannover rats (RccHan:WIST) by comparing reproductive endpoints between 8, 10 and 12 weeks of ages. Although fertility showed a tendency toward decrease in 8-week-old males, copulation index was not different among three ages. Testis weights reached a plateau at 10 weeks of age, whereas weights of other reproductive organs developed until 12 weeks of age. Indices of spermatogenesis (sperm motility, number of sperm in the epididymis and testis and contents of morphologically abnormal sperm) showed age-related progress and did not fully develop except for 12-week-old. For histology, epididymal tubules in 8-week-old animals showed immaturity with tall epithelium. At cesarean section, dams mated with 8-week-old males showed high incidence of preimplantation loss and the number of live fetuses was less than 10. In conclusion, although reproductive performance attained maturity by age of 10 weeks, spermatogenesis was not fully established at 10-week-old, which could result in a low fertility index. Therefore, we recommend that Wistar Hannover male rats at 12-week-old or older are used to conduct DART study properly and evaluate any adverse effects on dams and embryo-fetal development. PMID:24646708

  4. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Moradi, Hemen; Zarei, Sadegh; Asadi, Soheila; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ghafourikhosroshahi, Abolfazl; Mortazavi, Motahareh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) on adult male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups of six animals each were used for this study. For ten days, Groups one to four continuously received 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg nZnO, respectively. Group five served as the control group. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological study of the liver and renal tissue, sperm analysis, serum oxidative stress parameters and some liver enzymes were done. The results of this study showed that nZnO at concentration more than 50 mg/kg lead to significant changes in liver enzymes, oxidative stress, liver and renal tissue and sperm quality and quantity. In conclusion, the toxicity of nZnO is more significant when the concentration is increased; however, the use of low doses requires further investigation.

  5. Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.

  6. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  7. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  8. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty in the Male Wistar Rat. D L Guidici, R L Cooper and T E Stoker. Endocrinology Branch, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC.
    Sponsor: R J Kavlock.
    Atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters pubertal pr...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty and Thyroid Function in the Male Wistar Rat. Stoker, T.E1., Guidici, D.L.2, Laws, S.C.2 and Cooper, R.L.2 Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  10. Fixed-consecutive-number performance in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van Haaren, F; van Hest, A

    1990-03-26

    The present experiment was designed to investigate whether or not response rate differences between male and female Wistar rats observed in many different experimental procedures could be attributed to sex differences in behavioral perseverance, as has been suggested by the results of previous experiments. Male and female Wistar rats were thus exposed to different fixed-consecutive-number schedules of reinforcement. Fixed-consecutive-number schedules require subjects to emit a specified number of responses on one (work) lever, before a response on another (food) lever results in the presentation of reinforcement. The response requirement on the work lever was manipulated in different experimental conditions. Subjects had to emit between 3 and 7, 8 and 12 or 13 and 17 responses on the work lever before a response on the food lever produced reinforcement. When subjects emitted fewer or more than the required number of responses on the work lever, a 5-s time-out period was presented. Males responded at higher rates than females during all experimental conditions; response rates of males and females increased as the response requirement on the work lever was increased. Sex differences in response efficiency were not observed, but males seemed to reach final response efficiency faster than females. Response efficiency decreased as the response requirement on the work lever was increased. Error analysis showed that both males and females made more errors by not producing enough responses on the work lever than by producing too many. However, males were more likely than females to emit more responses than the requirement on the work lever, while females were more likely than males not to produce enough responses on the work lever.

  11. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Molet, Jenny; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS) alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control) from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%), self-grooming (69%), and putting the pups back to the nest (167%). LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring. PMID:27149676

  12. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  13. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-12-20

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at P<0.05. Male offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during

  14. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at P<0.05. Male offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during

  15. Accurate measurement of body weight and food intake in environmentally enriched male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Beale, Kylie E L; Murphy, Kevin G; Harrison, Eleanor K; Kerton, Angela J; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. In particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and body weight. To accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. Environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. However, the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake and thus experimental outcome is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake, body weight, behavior and fecal and plasma stress hormones in male Wistar rats. Singly housed 5-7-week-old male rats were given either no environmental enrichment, chew sticks, a plastic tube of 67 mm internal diameter, or both chew sticks and a tube. No differences in body weight or food intake were seen over a 7-day period. Importantly, the refeeding response following a 24-h fast was unaffected by environmental enrichment. Rearing, a behavior often associated with stress, was significantly reduced in all enriched groups compared to controls. There was a significant increase in fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in animals housed with both forms of enrichment compared to controls at the termination of the study, suggesting enrichment reduces hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in singly housed rats. In summary, environmental enrichment does not influence body weight and food intake in singly housed male Wistar rats and may therefore be used to refine the living conditions of animals used in the study of energy homeostasis without compromising experimental outcome.

  16. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  17. The effects of atrazine metabolites on puberty and thyroid function in the male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Tammy E; Guidici, D L; Laws, S C; Cooper, R L

    2002-06-01

    Recently we reported that atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats. In this study, we examined the same reproductive parameters in the developing male rat following a similar exposure to the primary, chlorinated metabolites of atrazine. Intact male Wistar rats were gavaged from postnatal day (PND) 23 through PND 53 and several reproductive endpoints were examined. The doses selected were the molar equivalents to atrazine in our previous work. Deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropyl-atrazine (DIA), and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) were administered by gavage at doses equivalent to the atrazine equimolar doses (AED) of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg. Preputial separation (PPS) was significantly delayed by DEA at 25, 100, and 200 AED, by DIA at 25, 100, and 200 AED, and by DACT at 12.5 through 200 AED. When the males were killed on PND 53, DEA (100 and 200 AED), DIA (50 through 200 AED), and DACT (200 AED) treatments caused a significant reduction in ventral prostate weight, while only the highest doses of DIA and DEA resulted in a significant decrease in lateral prostate weight. Seminal vesicle weight was reduced by DEA (25, 100, and 200 AED), DIA (100 and 200 AED), and 100 and 200 AED of DACT. Epididymal weights were reduced in the DEA (200 AED), DIA (200 AED), and DACT (100 and 200 AED) treatment groups. Serum testosterone was reduced only in the males receiving the 2 highest doses of DIA. Serum estrone was increased in the 2 highest doses of the DACT group, while serum estradiol was not different in any group. No differences were observed in any of the thyroid measures. In summary, the metabolites of ATR delay puberty in a manner similar to that observed in the previous study testing atrazine. These data also suggest that the 3 chlorinated metabolites are similar to ATR, by affecting the CNS control of the pituitary/gonadal axis and subsequent development of the reproductive tract.

  18. Nephroprotective activity of Bilvādi agada in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Sangeeta; Hiremath, S. K.; Unger, Banappa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity accounts for 10–30% of the acute renal failure (ARF) among drug-induced ARF. In Ayurveda such side effects are considered as the poisonous effects of low potent poisons called gara viṣa. Bilvādi agada (BA), a classical formulation is indicated in gara viṣa and most of its ingredients have proven for their nephroprotective activity. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of BA in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: BA, GM, normal saline were procured from standard companies. Settings and Designs: Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, viz. Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 8 days; toxic group received GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. for 8 days, and trial group received both GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. and BA 216 mg/each rat weighing ~200 g orally 1 h after administration of GM. Statistics: All the values were expressed as mean ± standard error and data were analyzed by applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparison. Results: BA treated group showed a significant change (P < 0.05) in levels of serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine potassium. There was no significant change (P > 0.05) seen in serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus and urine sodium, chloride in all three groups. Glomerular congestion, interstitial edema, tubular necrosis, interstitial hemorrhage was reduced in BA treated group. The results of this study indicate that BA reduces GM-induced nephrotoxicity and it may be due to anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, diuretic and anti-oxidant properties of drugs. Further studies are necessary to explore the exact mechanism of BA in nephroprotection. PMID:26120225

  19. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  20. Chlorotriazine herbicides and metabolites activate an ACTH-dependent release of corticosterone in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Laws, Susan C; Hotchkiss, Michelle; Ferrell, Janet; Jayaraman, Saro; Mills, Lesley; Modic, Walker; Tinfo, Nicole; Fraites, Melanie; Stoker, Tammy; Cooper, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study characterizes the temporal changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CORT, and P4 in male Wistar rats following a single dose of ATR (0, 5, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), simazine (SIM; 188 mg/kg), propazine (PRO; 213 mg/kg), or primary metabolites, deisopropylatrazine (DIA; 4, 10, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg), deethylatrazine (DEA; 173 mg/kg), and diamino-s-chlorotriazine (DACT; 3.37, 33.7, 67.5, and 135 mg/kg). The maximum dose for each chemical was the molar equivalent of ATR (200 mg/kg). Significant increases in plasma ACTH were observed within 15 min, following exposure to ATR, SIM, PRO, DIA, or DEA. Dose-dependent elevations in CORT and progesterone were also observed at 15 and 30 min post-dosing with these compounds indicating an activation of adrenal steroidogenesis. Measurement of the plasma concentrations of the parent compounds and metabolites confirmed that ATR, SIM, and PRO are rapidly metabolized to DACT. Although DACT had only minimal effects on ACTH and steroid release, dosing with this metabolite resulted in plasma DACT concentrations that were 60-fold greater than that observed following an equimolar dose of ATR and eightfold greater than equimolar doses of DIA or DEA, indicating that DACT is not likely the primary inducer of ACTH release. Thus, the rapid release of ACTH and subsequent activation of adrenal steroidogenesis following a single exposure to ATR, SIM, PRO, DIA, or DEA may reflect chlorotriazine-induced changes at the level of the brain and/or pituitary.

  1. Isoflavones and their effects on the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Caceres, S; Peña, L; Moyano, G; Martinez-Fernandez, L; Monsalve, B; Illera, M J; Millan, P; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to determine how two of the most important isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, affect the gonadal axis in male prepuberal rats. One hundred and seventy-five prepuberal male Wistar rats were allocated into seven groups: one control group and six experimental groups that were orally administered a high or low dose of genistein, daidzein or a mixture of both. Testosterone determination was assayed by EIA. The testes and body weights were measured, and the histology of the epididymis with the sperm content and epididymal sperm count were evaluated. In the control group, we observed an increase in the serum testosterone levels (>2.5 ng ml(-1) ) at the third week (52 days), which corresponded to the onset of puberty in these rats. The same increase in serum testosterone levels was observed at the fourth week in rats that received low doses of isoflavones; therefore, we concluded that the onset of puberty was delayed. At high doses, there was no significant increase in testosterone levels, which could be related to the fact that these male rats did not reach puberty. These findings were supported by the results obtained from the analysis of the epididymal content as well as the testes/body weight ratio.

  2. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016.

  3. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  4. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  5. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    PubMed

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group treated with 1200 and 800 mg/kg/day. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity underwent a significant (p < 0.05) increase in both groups. The obtained observations clearly reveal hepatotoxic effects of mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms. PMID:26080489

  6. Effects of sodium arsenate and arsenite on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cláudia Ferreira; Marchesi, Sarah Cozzer; Ferraz, Rafael Penha; Lima, Graziela Domingues de Almeida; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; Machado-Neves, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As), in the form of trivalent arsenite or pentavalent arsenate, is a ubiquitous toxic compound naturally occurring in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two different forms of inorganic As on reproductive parameters following oral exposure. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite or arsenate at concentrations of 0.01 mg/L or 10 mg/L for 56 d in drinking water. Sodium arsenite at both concentrations and sodium arsenate at 10 mg/L produced reduction in daily sperm production, in number of spermatids in the testis, and in sperm in the epididymal caput/corpus regions. Changes in epididymal morphometry were variable and region specific. Total and progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology did not differ markedly between controls and animals exposed to As. The body and reproductive organs weights, as well as testosterone concentration, remained unchanged among all groups. In conclusion, As exposure in drinking water over 56 d produced damage in male reproductive functions in adult rats, suggesting that fertility problems might occur. Therefore, additional studies need to be undertaken to investigate potential mechanisms underlying sodium arsenite- and arsenate-induced disturbances in fertility and reproductive performance.

  7. Effects of sodium arsenate and arsenite on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cláudia Ferreira; Marchesi, Sarah Cozzer; Ferraz, Rafael Penha; Lima, Graziela Domingues de Almeida; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; Machado-Neves, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As), in the form of trivalent arsenite or pentavalent arsenate, is a ubiquitous toxic compound naturally occurring in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two different forms of inorganic As on reproductive parameters following oral exposure. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite or arsenate at concentrations of 0.01 mg/L or 10 mg/L for 56 d in drinking water. Sodium arsenite at both concentrations and sodium arsenate at 10 mg/L produced reduction in daily sperm production, in number of spermatids in the testis, and in sperm in the epididymal caput/corpus regions. Changes in epididymal morphometry were variable and region specific. Total and progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology did not differ markedly between controls and animals exposed to As. The body and reproductive organs weights, as well as testosterone concentration, remained unchanged among all groups. In conclusion, As exposure in drinking water over 56 d produced damage in male reproductive functions in adult rats, suggesting that fertility problems might occur. Therefore, additional studies need to be undertaken to investigate potential mechanisms underlying sodium arsenite- and arsenate-induced disturbances in fertility and reproductive performance. PMID:27029432

  8. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05), fibrosis/inflammation scores (p < 0.001), collagen volume fraction (p < 0.01) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (p ≤ 0.001) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In addition, conventional coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p < 0.001), but only conventional coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p < 0.001), active metalloproteinase 2 (p ≤ 0.004) and the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive preneoplastic lesions (p < 0.05) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In conclusion, conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats. PMID:22646289

  9. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty in the Male Wistar Rat. D L Guidici, R L Cooper and T E Stoker. Endocrinology Branch, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC.
    Sponsor: R J Kavlock.
    Atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters pubertal pr...

  10. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood of spontaneously or induced muricidal male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Augier, S; Penes, M C; Debilly, G; Miachon, A S

    2003-04-15

    Serum levels of several n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were compared in male Wistar muricidal (Mu) and non-Mu rats. The Mu behavior was either spontaneous or induced by long-term isolation, feeding with a starch-enriched polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (PUFA+S), water restriction, or adrenalectomy (ADX). Arachidonic acid (ARA) levels were lower in diet-induced (PUFA+S) Mu rats than in their non-Mu controls. Total n-6 fatty acid levels were also lower in spontaneously Mu rats than in spontaneously non-Mu rats. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 fatty acids levels were lower in rats with isolation-induced Mu behavior. The n-3/n-6 ratio was higher in spontaneously Mu rats than in spontaneously non-Mu rats. The changes in ARA levels were greater than those in DHA levels, possibly due to the higher blood-brain barrier passage of arachidonic acid. The results were analyzed in the light of recent results showing a role of PUFAs in human and animal behavior. PMID:12725904

  12. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of carbofuran in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Owumi, Solomon E; Akinseye, Victor; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2014-03-01

    Carbofuran based pesticides have gained wide usage in Nigeria recently. Consequently, animals and human populations are exposed to them in the environment. Information on in vivo toxicity of carbofuran in experimental models is scanty. The present study therefore examined the hepatotoxicity and clastogenic effects of carbofuran in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to carbofuran (p.o) at 0-5mg/kg bw for 5weeks. Carbofuran induced significant (p<0.05) increase in the serum activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase when compared with the negative control, but not activity of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. It also significantly (p<0.05) induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes formation in the bone marrow as compared with the control. The level of induction is dose dependent in both cases. In addition, there was significant (p<0.05) higher number of hepatic cells in the cell/mm(2) assay for the group treated with carbofuran. Histopathological analysis of liver samples from the treated groups revealed lesions ranging from general congestion (portal, central venous and sinusoidal), mild periportal cellular infiltration, diffused sinusoidal congestion and hepatic necrosis to severe congestion. Findings from this study suggest that carbofuran has clastogenic and hepatotoxic effects in rats. It therefore may constitute an environmental health risks in individuals so exposed.

  13. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]). PMID:21960667

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is recognized as a major public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Its persistence in the body fluids may lead to continuous blood circulation, liver exposure and hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of curcumin on lindane-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty-two healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Group I was given dimethylsulfoxide. A single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg bw) was given to group II. Lindane (30 mg/kg bw) was given daily to group III for 14 days. Treatment with curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given to groups IV and V before (pretreatment) and to groups VI and VII after (post-treatment) 14 days exposure of lindane. Oxidative stress parameters and antioxidative enzymes were investigated in the liver of exposed and treated rats. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and decrease in glutathione level, Superoxide dismutase catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and NADPH quinine reductase activities was observed in liver of rats exposed to lindane. Curcumin (Pre- and post-treatment) nearly normalized all these parameters. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue after lindane exposure. Treatment with curcumin significantly prevented the lindane-induced histological alterations. In conclusion, curcumin has protective effect over lindane-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. PMID:21976817

  15. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  16. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days. PMID:22448098

  17. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  18. Dietary taurine reduces zinc-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Hsieh, You-Liang; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2011-05-01

    Taurine is an agent for treating the heavy metal intoxication and presence of metals such as zinc, copper, and iron may have a role in heavy metal toxicity, a study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on the toxicity of zinc in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups and fed different diets with or without supplement of 5% taurine and 150 to 600 ppm zinc for 2 mo. It was found that the body weight of rats, the ratios of liver and kidney weight to body weight, and the level of glutathione in the liver were decreased with increasing the dose of zinc. The levels of zinc in the liver, kidney, and plasma, the levels of malondialdehyde in the plasma, the levels of thiobarbiture acid-reactive substances in the liver, the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase in the plasma, the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the plasma of rats were increased with the increasing dose of zinc. Hence, symptoms of zinc toxicity in rats included loss of body weight, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. However, these toxic effects of zinc were significantly reduced when the rats fed diet with supplement of taurine. Furthermore, the level of zinc in the feces of rats treated with taurine and zinc was higher than that of rats treated with zinc alone. It indicated that taurine thereby leading to a decreased absorption of dietary zinc and promoted excretion. PMID:22417375

  19. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  20. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Haydée; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% ± 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% ± 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% ± 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% ± 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine. PMID:26253580

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics of purified flaxseed and associated mammalian lignans in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Muir, Alister D; Krol, Ed S; Alcorn, Jane

    2015-03-14

    Consumption of flaxseed lignans is associated with various health benefits; however, little is known about the bioavailability of purified lignans in flaxseed. Data on their bioavailability and hence pharmacokinetics (PK) are necessary to better understand their role in putative health benefits. In the present study, we conducted a comparative PK analysis of the principal lignan of flaxseed, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), and its primary metabolites, secoisolariciresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in rats. Purified lignans were intravenously or orally administered to each male Wistar rat. SDG and its primary metabolites SECO, ED and EL were administered orally at doses of 40, 40, 10 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, and intravenously at doses of 20, 20, 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 (pre-dose), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 45 min, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, and serum samples were analysed. PK parameters and oral bioavailability of purified lignans were determined by non-compartmental methods. In general, administration of the flaxseed lignans SDG, SECO and ED demonstrated a high systemic clearance, a large volume of distribution and short half-lives, whereas administration of EL at the doses of 1 mg/kg (intravenously) and 10 mg/kg (orally administered) killed the rats within a few hours of dosing, precluding a PK analysis of this lignan. PK parameters of flaxseed lignans exhibited the following order: systemic clearance, SDG < SECO < ED; volume of distribution, SDG < SECO < ED; half-life, SDG < ED < SECO. The percentage of oral bioavailability was 0, 25 and < 1 % for SDG, SECO and ED, respectively.

  2. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    PubMed

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  3. Endurance treadmill running training benefits the biomaterial quality of bone in growing male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Shang-Chih; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Hsieh, Sandy S; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance running training on the bones of growing rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were assigned to a sedentary control group (CON, n = 10), a continuous endurance running group (CEN, n = 10), or an intermittent endurance running group (IEN, n = 12). After an 8-week training period, both exercise groups had significantly less body weight (BW) gain but higher aerobic capacity, shown by increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity. Bone area (BA), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total femur and sections of femora. Except for showing a significantly higher aBMD in total femora, the CON group was only slightly and nonsignificantly higher in other DXA measurements. In tissue weight measurements, the CON group showed a nonsignificantly higher tissue dry weight (P = 0.146), but a significantly lower tissue water content ratio (WCR, %) as compared to the exercise group. Despite having nonsignificantly lower long bone cross-sectional parameters, both exercise groups showed significantly better biomaterial properties, as measured by a three-point bending test. In extrinsic analysis, femora of the two exercise groups showed no difference in bending load and stiffness, but were significantly higher in post-yield bending energy and total ultimate bending energy (P < 0.05). Similar phenomena were revealed in tissue-level measurements; the CEN and IEN groups were significantly higher in ultimate toughness and post-yield toughness (P < 0.05). Higher post-yield energy shown by two exercise groups implied a change in bone matrix organization. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that two endurance treadmill training modes benefit bone, with subjects showing better tissue biomaterial properties without significantly increasing aBMD, BMC, or bone dimension. Further study would be valuable to investigate the effects of endurance

  4. Effect of chlorpromazine pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Wistar (WF/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Rehm, S; Waalkes, M P

    1994-06-01

    A recent report has indicated that cadmium-induced testicular damage in CF-1 mice can be prevented by pretreatment with calmodulin inhibitors such as chlorpromazine (CPZ), trifluoperazine, or N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7). However, the basis of this tolerance to cadmium is unclear and has not been demonstrated in any species other than mice. Thus, we examined the effects of the calmodulin inhibitor CPZ on cadmium toxicity in male Wistar (WF/NCr) rats. A single sc injection of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg proved nonlethal over 24 h but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions and increases in hemoglobin content (as assessed by hemoglobin absorbance in testicular supernatant). Pretreatment with 40 mumol CPZ/kg had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions but did reduce testicular hemoglobin content, while 120 mumol CPZ/kg moderately reduced the severity of testicular lesions and hemoglobin contents. CPZ pretreatment in some cases increased cadmium content in liver and reduced testicular content but had no effect on renal levels. Cadmium treatment markedly increased hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with tolerance to cadmium. CPZ alone likewise increased hepatic MT and MT mRNA, but did not modify renal MT, renal MT mRNA, or testicular MT mRNA. In contrast to liver and kidney, testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) decreased in rats exposed only to cadmium or to CPZ, while CPZ pretreatment had no further effect on cadmium-induced reductions in TCBP levels. These results indicate that, like mice, CPZ in rats can reduce the testicular toxicity of cadmium as indicated by CPZ-induced reductions in testicular vascular lesions and hemoglobin contents. However, in rats CPZ has a less dramatic effect on such cadmium-induced lesions than in mice. The CPZ-induced stimulation of hepatic MT gene expression or modification of toxicokinetics may both play roles in this acquired tolerance to cadmium

  5. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  6. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  7. Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the Reproductive Indices of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01–11.71%), protein (1.56–1.95%), ash (0.22–0.35%), moisture (92.55–98.24%), and alcohol (0.26–3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×106), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals. PMID:25101691

  8. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  9. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  10. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  11. BDNF-stimulated intracellular signalling mechanisms underlie exercise-induced improvement in spatial memory in the male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Ranya G; Lyne, Ronan; Kelly, Áine M

    2014-12-15

    Exercise-induced improvements in learning are associated with neurotrophic and neurogenic changes in the dentate gyrus, but the intracellular signalling mechanisms that may mediate these improvements remain unknown. In the current study we investigate the effects of one week of forced exercise on spatial memory and analyse in parallel BDNF-stimulated signalling pathways in cells of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we test whether a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of BDNF can mimic the observed cognitive and signalling changes. Male Wistar rats were assigned to exercised and sedentary groups and tested in a spatial task post-exercise. Tissue from the dentate gyrus was assessed for expression and release of BDNF, and for changes in expression and activation of TrkB, ERK and synapsin-1. In a separate set of experiments, male Wistar rats received a single i.c.v. injection of BDNF and were then tested in the same spatial learning task. Exercised and BDNF-treated (but not control) rats could successfully complete an object displacement task that tests spatial learning. Exercised rats and BDNF-treated rats displayed increases BDNF expression and ERK1 activation, while exercised rats showed increases in cell division, stimulated BDNF release, TrkB activation, and synapsin-1 expression in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that exercise-induced increases in BDNF in the dentate gyrus are sufficient to cause improvements in spatial memory by activating signalling cascades that enhance synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

  12. In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

  13. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    Male Wistar rats have been shown to be the most sensitive sex, strain and species to ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity in subchronic studies. A chronic toxicity and dosimetry study was therefore conducted in male Wistar rats administered ethylene glycol via the diet at 0, 50, 150, 300, or 400 mg/kg/day for up to twelve months. Subgroups of animals were included for metabolite analysis and renal clearance studies to provide a quantitative basis for extrapolating dose-response relationships from this sensitive animal model in human health risk assessments. Mortality occurred in 5 of 20 rats at 300 mg/kg/day (days 111-221) and 4 of 20 rats at 400 mg/kg/day (days 43-193), with remaining rats at this dose euthanized early (day 203) due to excessive weight loss. Increased water consumption and urine volume with decreased specific gravity occurred at 300 mg/kg/day presumably due to osmotic diuresis. Calculi (calcium oxalate crystals) occurred in the bladder or renal pelvis at {>=} 300 mg/kg/day. Rats dying early at {>=} 300 mg/kg/day had transitional cell hyperplasia with inflammation and hemorrhage of the bladder wall. Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at {<=} 150 mg/kg/day. No significant differences in kidney oxalate levels, the metabolite responsible for renal toxicity, were observed among control, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups. At 300 and 400 mg/kg/day, oxalate levels increased proportionally with the nephrotoxicity score supporting the oxalate crystal-induced nephrotoxicity mode of action. No treatment-related effects on the renal clearance of intravenously infused {sup 3}H-inulin, a marker for glomerular filtration, and {sup 14}C-oxalic acid were observed in rats surviving 12 months of exposure to ethylene glycol up to 300 mg/kg/day. In studies with naive male Wistar and F344 rats (a

  14. Protective effect of pentoxifylline on male Wistar rat testicular germ cell apoptosis induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymeth amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahnaz; Movassaghi, Shabnam; foroumadi, Alireza; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Sharifi, Zahra Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) one of the methamphetamine derivatives that affect the reproductive system, has not been well understood. Many young people are consumers of drugs such as MDMA that can affect their reproductive capability. Apoptosis is the main mechanism for male infertility. Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases cAMP intracellularly and reduces tumor necrosis factor-α. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PTX administration in MDMA-induced apoptosis in testes of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into five groups: control group (without any intervention), group receiving 7.5 mg/kg MDMA three times every two hours for one day, first experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX just at the time of third injection of MDMA, second experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX a week before MDMA administration, and the vehicle group, which received MDMA+saline. Two weeks later, testes were removed and prepared for H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blot techniques. Results: There was a significant decrease of the score in the MDMA group compared with the control group. In first and second experimental groups, the quality of seminiferous epithelium was improved compared with the MDMA group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells/tubule increased in MDMA and vehicle groups, which is decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Expression of active caspase-3 significantly increased in MDMA group, which is significantly decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Conclusion: PTX can significantly reduce the severity of lesions in the testes following administration of MDMA. PMID:27482346

  15. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:19718326

  16. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment.

  17. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  18. Macrophage activity and histopathology of the lymphohematopoietic organs in male Wistar rats orally exposed to single or mixed pesticides.

    PubMed

    De Camargo, Marcela Rodrigues; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; Martinez, Meire França; Da Silva Franchi, Carla Adriene; De Camargo, João Lauro Viana; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2013-01-01

    The noxious effects of low or effective dose exposure to single or mixed pesticides on macrophage activity and the lymphohematopoietic organs were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally exposed to dichlorvos, dicofol, endosulfan, dieldrin and permethrin, either as single or combined mixtures during a 28-day study containing eight groups: one group received a semipurified diet (non-treated); two groups received a semipurified diet containing low dose mixture (dieldrin 0.025 mg/kg, endosulfan, 0.6 mg/kg, dicofol 0.22 mg/kg, dichlorvos 0.23 mg/kg, permethrin 5 mg/kg) or an effective dose mixture (dichlorvos 2.3 mg/kg, dicofol 2.5 mg/kg, endosulfan 2.9 mg/kg, dieldrin 0.05 mg/kg and permethrin 25.0 mg/kg), respectively; the other five groups received a semipurified diet containing each single pesticide in effective doses. At sacrifice, the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Payer's patches and bone marrow were removed for histological analysis. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained to determine the phagocytosis and spreading indexes and tumoral necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and H₂O₂ production. Exposure to pesticide mixtures did not alter the percentage of macrophage phagocytosis and spreading, TNF-α production or the NO and H₂O₂ release when compared to the non-treated group. Neither was there any apparent evidence that a pesticide mixture at low or effective doses altered the histological structure of the lymphohematopoietic organs. The findings indicate that short-term treatment with pesticide mixtures did not induce an apparent immunotoxic effect in male Wistar rats.

  19. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  20. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  1. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-02

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  2. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  3. Effects of altered food intake during pubertal development in male and female Wistar rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA is currently validating assays that will be used in a Tier I Screening Battery to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals. A primary concern with the Protocols for the Assessment of Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Juvenile Male and Female Rats is that a non...

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < .05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P < .05). The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P < .05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  5. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, ameliorates ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Arisekola, Muritala

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each; Group 1 (control) was administered corn oil, group 2 was given 45%v/v ethanol at 3g/kg body weight, group 3 received ethanol and KV (200mg/kg) simultaneously and group 4 received KV alone. All drugs were given daily by oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in relative weight of testis of the animals. In the spermatozoa, ethanol intoxication resulted in 54%, 21% and 38% decreases in testicular protein content, sperm motility and count, respectively. In addition, ethanol administration enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) process assessed by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the testis. Precisely, MDA level was increased by 121% in the testis of ethanol-treated rats relative to the control. Furthermore, levels of testicular glutathione and activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in ethanol-treated rats. Histopathology showed extensive degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes in testis of ethanol-treated rats. Interestingly, co-administration of KV with ethanol led to almost complete inhibition of testicular LPO thereby enhancing antioxidant status of the testis. Overall, KV ameliorates ethanol-induced toxic assault on testis and improves seminal qualities of the rats. PMID:23955400

  6. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  7. Chronic toxicity of diethyl phthalate-A three generation lactational and gestational exposure study on male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Contzen; Mapuskar, Kranti; Rao, C Vaman

    2007-05-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is widely used in the perfume industry as a vehicle for fragrances and in personal care products making human exposure of DEP significant to adults as well as neonatals, as confirmed by levels recorded in blood as well as breast milk samples of human populations in some parts of the world. Therefore, a study was undertaken to understand the toxic effect of DEP over three generations in male Wistar rats. Healthy male and female albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 75-100g (6-7 weeks old) were randomly assigned to two groups of six each. Group I (Control) male and female rats were fed on normal diet and water ad libitum. Group II (DEP) male and female rats were given DEP dissolved in corn oil mixed with the diet at 50mg/kg of the diet/day. Hundred days after the treatment, females were mated with males for 10 days. Exposure to DEP was continued throughout mating, gestation until termination at weaning, which was 150 days of total treatment period of the parental generation. The F1 and F2 generation pups were then segregated on the basis of their sex and six male and female pups of both generations were allowed to grow till they were 75-100g in weight. The treatment was then carried out similar to the parental generation but with reduced dose of 25mg/kg of the diet/day for F1 generation and 10mg/kg of the diet/day for F2 generation. Hundred days after the treatment, females were mated with males for 10 days. Exposure to DEP was continued throughout mating, gestation (21 days) until termination at weaning (21 days), which was 150 days of total treatment period of the F1 and F2 generation. Liver and serum ALT, AST and triglycerides were significantly increased over the three generations, which was much more significant in the F2 generation DEP treated group. The serum cholesterol and liver glutathione and glutathione reductase showed a significant decrease over the three generations, which was much more significant in the F2 generation DEP

  8. Subchronic exposure to leachate activates key markers linked with neurological disorder in Wistar male rat.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, J K; Oboh, G

    2015-12-01

    The linking of various environmental chemicals exposure to neurodegenerative disorders is current. This study was undertaken to elucidate the toxic effects and the underlying biochemical mechanism of leachate obtained from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) using key markers of neuronal damage in rat via an oral route. Analysis of the concentrations of heavy metals showed that lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese, and iron were higher than the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority-the World Health Organization. Whereas, copper, zinc, and cobalt were lower than permissible limits. EOMABRL was administered at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% concentrations to adult male rats for 60 days. An in vitro study was also carried out in the cerebellum to assess cholinesterase biochemistry assays. Following exposure, brain was collected to determine the antioxidant status. EOMABRL administration significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and a sequential decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level with a concomitant increase in the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was observed, when compared with the control. The treated rat had a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activities of acetycholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Taken together, these findings conclude that some possible mechanisms by which EOMABRL elicits neuronal disorder in male rat could be through the activation of AChE and BuChE and induction of oxidative stress with necrosis of neuronal cells. PMID:26362636

  9. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) and Wistar (WF/NCr) rats.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Barter, R A; Uno, H; Waalkes, M P

    1994-09-01

    A previous report indicated that progesterone pretreatment can markedly reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in male NAW mice. Therefore we examined the effects of progesterone pretreatment on Cd toxicity in male Fischer (F344) and Wistar (WF) rats. A single subcutaneous injection of 10 or 30 mumole (CdCl2)/kg proved nonlethal over 24 hr but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions in these rats. Moreover, when F344 rats were pretreated with progesterone (100 mg/kg, sc, at -48, -24, and 0 hr) and then given cadmium (20 mumole CdCl2/kg, 0 hr), this dose of cadmium proved very toxic, unexpectedly causing 53% mortality. Progesterone pretreatment had no effect on cadmium-induced lethality in WF rats or on testicular lesions in either strain. Significant elevations in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, were also observed in progesterone-pretreated F344 rats given cadmium as compared to rats given Cd alone. Progesterone did not induce increases in hepatic or renal metallothionein (MT) and hepatic or testicular MT-I mRNA levels in F344 rats. In contrast, levels of the testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) in progesterone-pretreated F344 rats were doubled. This increase in TCBP provided no protection against cadmium toxicity in the testes. These results indicate that, in contrast to previously reported data for mice, progesterone pretreatment increased the lethality of cadmium in male F344 rats and had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in F344 and WF rats. PMID:7843114

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. leaves in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyedemi, S O; Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was investigated for toxicity in male rats following administration on daily basis for 21 days. The extract did not significantly (p > .05) alter the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, basophils, total protein, phosphorus, calcium and chloride ions of the animals. Whereas the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, albumin as well as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity were decreased by the extract, those of neutrophil, magnesium, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as liver and kidney body weight ratios increased. There was decrease in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cholesterol only at the 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, whereas the large unstained cells, sodium ions, white blood cells and uric acid increased only at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. The urea, creatinine and potassium increased only at 125 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the globulin content was elevated only at 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The doses did not produce any definite pattern of effect on the red blood cells and platelets. These alterations by the aqueous extract of L. leonurus leaves on the haematological together with the liver and kidney functional indices suggests parameter and dose-selective effects of the extract and will have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the blood system, kidney and liver of the animals. The extract is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk when repeatedly consumed on daily basis at the doses investigated for 21 days. Therefore, the aqueous extract of L. leonurus

  11. Malathion-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Flehi-Slim, Imen; Chargui, Issam; Boughattas, Sonia; El Mabrouk, Aymen; Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-11-01

    The increasing use of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment constitutes an ecotoxicological hazard especially for humans and non-target animals. Hereby, we analyzed the toxic effects of malathion on the histological structure of liver and biochemical parameters in male rats. Three groups received daily different amounts of malathion: 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 LD50 for 30 days. The weights of treated rat's liver have increased. Analyzed tissues showed centrilobular and sinusoidal congestion, hepatocyte hypertrophy, cellular vacuolization, anucleated hepatocytes, depletion of organelles affecting the majority of cells, and presence of necrotic foci into the hepatic parenchyma. Histological sections of the liver showed important hepatocyte glycogen storage. We conclude that malathion stimulates the filing of glycogen in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemical parameters showed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased in the treated groups when the level of total protein decreased in intoxicated groups. PMID:26162445

  12. Effect of Atorvastatin on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    MirHashemi, Amir Hossein; Afshari, Maryam; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Sheikhzade, Sedigheh; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups. Results: The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the studied histologic variables among the three groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation. PMID:24910664

  13. Intracranial self-administration of ethanol within the ventral tegmental area of male Wistar rats: evidence for involvement of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Melendez, Roberto I; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Zhang, Ying; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2004-02-01

    Previous work from our laboratory indicated that female Wistar rats will self-administer ethanol (EtOH) directly into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA). These results suggested that VTA dopamine (DA) neurons might be involved in mediating the reinforcing actions of EtOH within this region. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the dose-response effects for the self-administration of EtOH into the VTA of male Wistar rats, and (2) the involvement of VTA DA neurons in the reinforcing actions of EtOH within the VTA. Adult male Wistar rats were implanted stereotaxically with guide cannulas aimed at the posterior or anterior VTA. After 1 week, rats were placed in standard two-lever (active and inactive) experimental chambers for a total of seven to eight sessions. The first experiment determined the intracranial self-administration of EtOH (0-400 mg%) into the posterior and anterior VTA. The second experiment examined the effects of coadministration of the D2/3 agonist quinpirole on the acquisition and maintenance of EtOH self-infusions into the posterior VTA. The final experiment determined the effects of a D2 antagonist (sulpiride) to reinstate self-administration behavior in rats given EtOH and quinpirole to coadminister. Male Wistar rats self-infused 100-300 mg% EtOH directly into the posterior, but not anterior, VTA. Coadministration of quinpirole prevented the acquisition and extinguished the maintenance of EtOH self-infusion into the posterior VTA, and addition of sulpiride reinstated EtOH self-administration. The results of this study indicate that EtOH is reinforcing within the posterior VTA of male Wistar rats and suggest that activation of VTA DA neurons is involved in this process.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Riahinia, Narges; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Behdani, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24) were randomly assigned into four groups including: I) healthy, receiving normal saline; II) Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg); III) pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg); IV) pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg). Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats. PMID:25386395

  15. Interaction between the antioxidant activity of curcumin and cholinergic system on memory retention in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarlak, Zeynab; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (turmeric extract) and the cholinergic system and their interaction on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: At first, an injection cannula was implanted in right ventricles of the animals. One week after the surgery, the animals were trained with a shuttle box set up. Post-training, injections were performed in all experiments. Administration of curcumin increased memory retention. Also administrations of nicotine and pilocarpine, the cholinergic receptor agonists, increased memory retention, while it is decreased by succinylcholine and scopolamine, the cholinergic receptor antagonists. Then co-administration of curcumin and cholinergic drugs were performed. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections were applied for the curcumin and cholinergic drugs, respectively. Results: Co-administration of curcumin (45 mg/kg) with a low dose of nicotine (0.1 µg/rat) or pilocarpine (0.5 µg/rat) increased memory retention significantly. Effects of succinylcholine (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) or scopolamine (0.1, 1 and 5 µg/rat) were attenuated by curcumin markedly (45 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results suggest that curcumin has a close interaction with cholinergic system in memory retention process. PMID:26019804

  16. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on spermatic parameters and testicular histopathology in male wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Porentezari, Majid; Mirjalili, Aghdas; Hasanpor, Ashraf; Dashti, R. Mohammad Hossein; Anvari, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Ayurveda and traditional medicines of different countries such as Iran, America and Brazil, asafoetida has been used as an aphrodisiac agent. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asafoetida on spermatic and testicular parameters in treated rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats divided equally to five groups (one control and four test groups receiving 25, 50,100 and 200 mg/kg asafoetida respectively). After 6 weeks, a small part of the cauda epididymis of each rat was dissected, and the spermatic parameters were evaluated for at least 200 spermatozoa of each animal. Testis of all rats was harvested for pathologic examination. The testosterone concentration of serum was also determined. Data were statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA and value of P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: This study indicated that the asafoetida significantly increased the number and viability of sperms (P < 0.05). Histological study showed that spermatogenesis process and numbers of Leydig cells were increased with increasing the dose, but the Leydig cells become vacuolated. Johnsen score in experimental groups was increased compared to control although this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Asafoetida showed a positive effect on spermatic parameters although the histopathological effects on the testis were observed, particularly at high doses. PMID:26604552

  17. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  18. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  20. Impulsive choice and pre-exposure to delays: III. Four-month test-retest outcomes in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J

    2016-05-01

    Delay discounting describes the tendency for organisms to devalue outcomes because they are delayed. Robust, positive correlations exist between excessive delay discounting and many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, obesity). Several studies have demonstrated that delay discounting can be reduced and this may hold promise for improving treatment outcomes. One method of reducing delay discounting provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcement (i.e., delay-exposure training) and this significantly reduces impulsive choices, relative to rats trained with an equal number of immediate-reinforcement sessions (i.e., immediate-exposure training). To evaluate the stability of this effect, 12 weanling male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive either delay-exposure or immediate-exposure training for 120 sessions. Impulsive choice was assessed using an increasing-delay procedure immediately following training and 120 days after completion of the initial assessment. Delay-exposed rats discounted delayed food rewards significantly less than immediate-exposed rats in the initial assessment and the reassessment conducted 120 days later. These results are encouraging as they suggest that the effects of delay-exposure training are robust to the passage of time and intervening experience. PMID:27016155

  1. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  2. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone exposure and effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 35 days to mobile phone frequency. The specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.007) showed a decrease, while an increase in catalase (P < 0.005) was observed. Malondialdehyde (P < 0.003) showed an increase and histone kinase (P = 0.006) showed a significant decrease in the exposed group. Micronuclei also show a significant decrease (P < 0.002) in the exposed group. A significant change in sperm cell cycle of G(0)-G(1) (P = 0.042) and G(2)/M (P = 0.022) were recorded. Generation of free radicals was recorded to be significantly increased (P = 0.035). Our findings on antioxidant, malondialdehyde, histone kinase, micronuclei, and sperm cell cycle are clear indications of an infertility pattern, initiated due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is concluded that radiofrequency electromagnetic wave from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.

  3. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  4. Social deprivation enhances the vulnerability of male Wistar rats to stressor- and amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S H; Stinus, L; Le Moal, M; Cador, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of experiential factors on the vulnerability of rats to develop amphetamine (AMPH)- and stressor-induced behavioral sensitization. Young male Wistar rats with previous social experience were isolated from their peers for 2 weeks. 1) The effect of this short-lasting social deprivation were: a) a reduced tendency to explore a fearful environment; b) a prolonged exploratory activity in response to a novel but little fearful environment; and c) a dose-dependent increase in the psychomotor stimulation induced by systemic AMPH injection. 2) After repeated AMPH injections (injection every other day for 10 days), isolated rats exhibited behavioral sensitization at lower doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg) than those required for group-housed rats (1 mg/kg). 3) After being submitted to a repeated stressor (3, 7 or 14 footshock sessions, with 2 days between sessions), the isolated rats exhibited a greater increase in the behavioral responsivity to a subsequent AMPH challenge (1 mg/kg) than did the group-housed rats regardless of the number of stress sessions. In conclusion, these results suggest that experiential factors such as privation of contact with peers (social isolation) may make rats more vulnerable to the long-term repercussions of chronic environmental and pharmacological challenges. PMID:7724696

  5. Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsan, Awais; Wang Xu; Liu Zhaoying; Wang Yulian; Huang Xianju; Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui; Yuan Zonghui

    2011-05-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

  6. Promotion of liver and kidney carcinogenesis by ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-promoting effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) were investigated in a 2-stage carcinogenesis bioassay with regard to hepatic and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given drinking water containing N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nitrosamine (EHEN), as an initiator, at a dose of 500 ppm for 2 weeks. Starting one week thereafter, the animals were administered ETBE at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day by gavage for 19 weeks from week 4 to 22. Necropsy of all rats was performed at week 23, and livers and kidneys were examined histopathologically. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas, and those of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were significantly elevated in rats given 1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE, but not 100‒500 mg/kg/day ETBE, and there was a significant increase in the average numbers of lesions. No significant differences in incidences and average numbers of renal tubule neoplasms were found in rats administered 100‒1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE. However, the average numbers of atypical tubule hyperplasias, considered to be preneoplastic lesions, were significantly increased in rats given ETBE at 1,000 mg/kg/day, but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. Thus, these results imply that ETBE has hepatic and renal tumor-promoting activities that affect EHEN-induced carcinogenesis in male rats, and the no-observed-effect level is 500 mg/kg/day under the present experimental conditions. PMID:26538808

  7. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:26435406

  8. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Attia, Sabry M.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Giesy, John P.; Musarrat, Javed

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  9. Hypothalamic norepinephrine turnover response to a single low protein, high carbohydrate meal in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Raum, W.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    A single meal stimulates norepinephrine turnover (NET) by approximately 4-fold in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this experiment the role of the hypothalamus in regulating this response was examined. NET was measured in the cortex (C), ventro-medial (VMH), and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g body weight) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (N = 24) was meal deprived and the other (N = 24) was given a low protein, high carbohydrate test meal for 2 hours. NET was determined by the synthesis inhibition method using alpha-methyltyrosine (AMT) injected within one hour after the meal. Norepinephrine (NE) content in each brain section was measured by radioimmunoassay at 4 time points (0, 1, 2, 3 hours) after AMT. The turnover rate (TR) was calculated as the slope of the decline in NE content over time (ng/mg protein/hr) following AMT. The fraction of the total pool of NE released/hr (k) was calculated by dividing the slope (TR) by the Y intercept (NE content at zero time). NET (TR) increased significantly (p < .05) in the VMH following a meal (9.36 +/- .67 vs 8.04 +/- .98 ng/hr; fed vs deprived). There was no change in TR in the C or LH, or in k in any brain section. The marked (4-fold) increase in BAT NET and minimal increase in VMH NET suggests that the meal has a direct effect on BAT with the VMH playing a secondary or modulatory role.

  10. Antiurolithiatic activity of ethanol leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Moonjit; Malipeddi, Himaja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa (Convolvulaceae) (IEE) in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). All the groups received stone-inducing treatment till 28th day, comprising 1% ethylene glycol (v/v) with 1% ammonium chloride (w/v) for 4 days, followed by 1% ethylene glycol alone in water, except Group I (Control). Group II received only stone-inducing treatment till 28th day. Group III (Standard) received cystone (500 mg/kg) from 15th day till 28th day. Group IV (Prophylactic) received IEE (200 mg/kg) from 1st day till 28th day and Group V (Curative) received IEE (200 mg/kg) from 15th day till 28th day. Various biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, urea, and creatinine levels were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. The kidneys were also sectioned and examined histopathologically under light microscope to study the kidney architecture and calcium oxalate deposits. Results: The IEE treatment (prophylactic and curative) significantly (P < 0.001) restored the parameters in urine, serum, and kidney homogenate to near-normal level. The histopathological examinations revealed that calcium oxalate crystal deposits in the renal tubules and congestion and dilation of the parenchymal blood vessels were significantly reverted after IEE treatment. Conclusions: The leaf extract of I. eriocarpa reduces and inhibits the growth of urinary stones showing its effect as an antiurolithiatic agent. PMID:27298496

  11. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Neelakandan, Yuvaraj; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this objective is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of sulfated polysaccharide purified fractions isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii and seagrass Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats. Subjects and Methods: Crude sulfated polysaccharide from S. wightii and H. ovalis was subjected to anion exchange chromatography, and the chemical composition was investigated. The antinociceptive activity of purified fractions was investigated using formalin and hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis model, and Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced arthritis model were employed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity. Results: In the formalin test, there was a significant reduction in licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 5, 10 mg/kg suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism. Sw FrIV and Ho FrIV significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration at 10 mg/kg, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, a significant reduction in paw volume was observed in Sw FrIV and Ho FrIV-treated groups (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: Purified components from S. wightii and H. ovalis have strong antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect on animal model. However, to determine the molecular mechanism, it is necessary to investigate the effect of purified fractions on inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression mediated by inhibiting the phosphorylation of various signal proteins in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PMID:27721544

  12. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  13. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  14. Effect of restricted feeding on nocturnality and daily leptin rhythms in OVLT in aged male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V D K; Jagota, Anita

    2014-06-01

    Circadian system has direct relevance to the problems of modern lifestyle, shift workers, jet lag etc. To understand non-photic regulation of biological clock, the effects of restricted feeding (RF) on locomotor activity and daily leptin immunoreactivity (ir) rhythms in three age groups [3, 12 and 24 months (m)] of male Wistar rats maintained in light:dark (LD) 12:12 h conditions were studied. Leptin-ir was examined in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Reversal of feeding time due to restricted food availability during daytime resulted in switching of the animals from nocturnality to diurnality with significant increase in day time activity and decrease in night time activity. The RF resulted in % diurnality of approximately 32, 29 and 73 from % nocturnality of 82, 92 and 89 in control rats of 3, 12 and 24 m age, respectively. The increase in such switching from nocturnality to diurnality with restricted feeding was found to be robust in 24 m rats. The OVLT region showed daily leptin-ir rhythms with leptin-ir maximum at ZT-0 in all the three age groups. However leptin-ir levels were minimum at ZT-12 in 3 and 12 m though at ZT-18 in 24 m. In addition the mean leptin-ir levels decreased with increase in food intake and body weight significantly in RF aged rats. Thus we report here differential effects of food entrained regulation in switching nocturnality to diurnality and daily leptin-ir rhythms in OVLT in aged rats.

  15. Protective effect of morin on cardiac mitochondrial function during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Baskar, Arul Albert

    2012-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial function and free radical-mediated tissue damage have been suggested as an important pathological event in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity. This study was undertaken to know the preventive effect of morin on mitochondrial damage in ISO-induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was induced by ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. Morin was given to rats as pre-treatment for 30 days orally using an intragastric tube. ISO-treated rats showed a significant elevation of mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) level and pre-treatment with morin significantly prevented the increase of TBARS and HP level to near normality. The level of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants was decreased significantly in ISO-treated rats and pre-treatment with morin significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione to normality. The activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase were decreased significantly in ISO-treated myocardial ischemic rats and upon pre-treatment with morin restored these enzymes activity to normality. In addition, the decreased activities of cytochrome-C oxidase and NADH-dehydrogenases were observed in ISO-treated rats and pre-treatment with morin prevented the activities of cytochrome-C oxidase and NADH-dehydrogenase to normality. Pre-treatment with morin favorably restored the biochemical and functional parameters to near normal indicating morin to be a significant protective effect on cardiac mitochondrial function against ISO-induced MI in rats.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers alter hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzyme kinetics in male Wistar rats: implications for lipid and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nash, Jessica T; Szabo, David T; Carey, Gale B

    2013-01-01

    Xenobiotics such as phenobarbital, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and Aroclor 1254 significantly suppress the activity of a key gluconeogenic and glyceroneogenic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), suggesting that xenobiotics disrupt hepatic glucose and fat metabolism. The effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), a family of synthetic flame-retardant chemicals, on PEPCK activity is unknown. This study investigated the effect of DE-71, a commercial PBDE mixture, on PEPCK enzyme kinetics. Forty-eight 1-mo-old male Wistar rats were gavaged daily with either corn oil or corn oil containing 14 mg/kg DE-71 for 3, 14, or 28 d (n = 8/group). At each time point, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured and hepatic PEPCK activity, lipid content, and three cytochrome P-450 enzymes (CYP1A, -2B, and -3A) were assayed. PBDE treatment for 28 d significantly decreased PEPCK Vmax ( μ mol/min/g liver weight) by 43% and increased liver lipid by 20%, compared to control. CYP1A, -2B, and -3A Vmax values were enhanced by 5-, 6-, and 39-fold, respectively, at both 14 and 28 d in treated rats compared to control. There was a significant inverse and temporal correlation between CYP3A and PEPCK Vmax for the treatment group. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were not markedly affected by treatment, but the glucose:insulin ratio was significantly higher in treated compared to control rats. Data suggest that in vivo PBDE treatment compromises liver glucose and lipid metabolism, and may influence whole-body insulin sensitivity.

  17. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  18. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  19. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  20. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  1. Tracheal overexpression of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA in obese-asthmatic male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Khamaneh, Amir Mehdi; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Fallahi, Maryam; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Human and animal studies have shown a close relationship between obesity and asthma severity. Here, we examined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on the expression levels of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA in male Wistar rats tracheal after sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats divided to four groups, included, control group with normal diet (C+ND), OVA-sensitized group with normal diet (S+ND), control group with high-fat diet (C+HFD), and OVA-sensitized group with high-fat diet (S+HFD). All animals fed for 8 weeks with standard pelts or high-fat diet, and then were sensitized and challenged with OVA or saline for another 4 weeks with designed regimens. At the end of study, trachea isolated and examined for expression levels of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA with RT-PCR method. Results: Diet-induced obesity groups developed increased weight, obesity indexes and lipid profiles (P<0.05 to P<0.001). The expression levels of IL-1β mRNA in OVA-sensitization groups (S+ND and S+HFD) showed a significantly increased when compared with control group. Also in S+HFD group, expression level of TRAF-6 mRNA was higher than other groups (P<0.001). IRAK-1 expression level was high in S+HFD compared with control group.IL-1β and TRAF-6 mRNA correlated positively with obesity indexes. Conclusion: The results showed that DIO causes overexpression of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA in an experimental model of asthma. Our results suggested that in obese-asthmatic conditions locally production and activation of pro-inflammatory agents can be increased. These findings showed that possible mechanism for obesity-asthma relationships. PMID:27279977

  2. Cumulative rate and distribution of Cd and Pb in the organs of adult male Wistar rats during oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2014-11-01

    The degree of accumulation of Cd and Pb in the brains, spleens, lungs, hearts, livers and kidneys of adult Wistar rats was compared both for separate (Cd or Pb) and combined (Cd+Pb) oral exposure. In addition, the metals were administered either with liquids or with solid feed. Rats were exposed to low doses of metals (7mg Cd and 50mg Pb/kg feed or L of distilled water) over 6 or 12 weeks. In total the organs of rats accumulated about 0.3-0.5% Cd and 0.4-0.6% Pb supplied with food or drink. The presented studies demonstrated that the distribution of Cd and Pb in the organs is affected by: the type of exposure (separate or combined), the source of metals (feed or drinks) and the duration of exposure. It was found that simultaneous exposure to low doses of Cd and Pb supplied with food is much more hazardous than exposure to such metals supplied with water.

  3. Male and female Wistar rats differ in decision-making performance in a rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Ruud; Jolles, Jolle; van der Knaap, Lisette; Baars, Annemarie; de Visser, Leonie

    2012-10-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures decision-making processes by simulating real-life decisions involving reward, punishment, and uncertainty of outcomes. In humans, men show more choices for the advantageous option than women. Here, we investigated sex differences in a rat model of the IGT (r-IGT). In our r-IGT mildly food-deprived rats learn to differentiate a long-term advantageous arm from a long-term disadvantageous arm differing in frequency and amount of sugar pellets as well as unpalatable but not uneatable quinine-treated sugar pellets. We also used a T-maze discrimination procedure in which rats learn to differentiate a high from a low reward arm to further explore sex differences in reward-related decision-making. In line with human data, male rats showed a stronger task progression of choices for the advantageous option than female rats. Furthermore, male rats showed more win-stay and less lose-shift behaviour in the advantageous arm as the task progressed than female rats. Whilst both male and female rats had a stronger preference for the high over the small reward arm in the T-maze, males increased this preference over sessions, whilst females did not. These data are discussed in relation to sex differences in processing rewards and punishments. PMID:22814113

  4. Transient Inactivation of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Affects Both Anxiety and Decision-Making in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, Leonie; Baars, Annemarie M.; van ’t Klooster, José; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-01-01

    In both humans and rats high levels of anxiety impair decision-making in the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in male subjects. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos as marker of neural activity in rat studies indicated a role of the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic and infralimbic region; mPFC) in mediating the relationship between anxiety and decision-making. To delineate this relationship further and assess the underlying neurobiology in more detail, we inactivated in the present study the mPFC in male rats using a mixture of the GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM) to measure effects on anxiety and to the rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT). Inactivation led to increased levels of anxiety on the EPM, while not affecting general activity. The effect in the r-IGT (trials 61–120) was dependent on levels of performance prior to inactivation (trial 41–60): inactivation of the mPFC hampered task performance in rats, which already showed a preference for the advantageous option, but not in rats which were still choosing in a random manner. These data suggest that the mPFC becomes more strongly involved as rats have learned task-contingencies, i.e., choose for the best long-term option. Furthermore they suggest, along with the data of our earlier study, that both anxiety and decision-making in rats are mediated through a neural circuitry including at least the mPFC. The data are discussed in relation to recent data of rodent studies on the neural circuitry underlying decision-making. PMID:21927595

  5. Lead-induced cardiac and hematological alterations in aging Wistar male rats: alleviating effects of nutrient metal mixture.

    PubMed

    Basha, D Chand; Basha, S Sadak; Reddy, G Rajarami

    2012-08-01

    Age related mitochondrial impairments are considered to be contributors of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to examine whether early life exposure to lead (Pb) would lead to the Pb induced age related hematological and cardiac mitochondrial changes in rats, and to further examine the protective effect of nutrient metal mixture containing zinc, iron and calcium. Male albino rats were lactationally exposed to 0.2 % Pb-acetate or 0.2 % Pb-acetate together nutrient metal mixture (0.02 %) in drinking water of the mother from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND 21. The hemoglobin level, the activities of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase, cardiac mitochondrial enzymes catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and Pb levels were analyzed at PND 45, 12 and 24 months age. The hematological parameters, and the cardiac TCA cycle and antioxidant enzyme markers and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly altered following Pb exposure in young rats (PND 45). These Pb induced changes persisted, though at much lower level in the aged rats. The Pb levels in blood and heart were also significantly higher in PND 45 and remained at detectable levels in older rats. The nutrient metal mixture containing iron, calcium and zinc significantly reversed these changes in all the chosen markers except lipid peroxidation in which the reversal effect was not significant. These data are supportive of age-related cardiac mitochondrial impairments and further provide evidence for the protective efficacy of nutrient metal mixture against Pb-toxicity.

  6. Concerted Gene Expression of Hippocampal Steroid Receptors during Spatial Learning in Male Wistar Rats: A Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors (ER) should be correlated to GR receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a) of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR) and GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit) relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME). Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor interaction, however the cubic fit

  7. Chronic, long-term social stress can cause decreased microtubule protein network activity and dynamics in cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Eskandari Sedighi, Ghazaleh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Cheraghi, Tayebe; Atarod, Deyhim; Rafiei, Shahrbanoo

    2015-03-01

    Social stress is viewed as a factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. Animal models of social stress are well developed and widely used in studying clinical and physiological effects of stress. Stress is known to significantly affect learning and memory, and this effect strongly depends on the type of stress, its intensity, and duration. It has been demonstrated that chronic and acute stress conditions can change neuronal plasticity, characterized by retraction of apical dendrites, reduction in axonogenesis, and decreased neurogenesis. Various behavioral studies have also confirmed a decrease in learning and memory upon exposure of animals to long-term chronic stress. On the other hand, the close relationship between microtubule (MT) protein network and neuroplasticity controlling system suggests the possibility of MT protein alterations in high stressful conditions. In this work, we have studied the kinetics, activity, and dynamicity changes of MT proteins in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats that were subjected to social instability for 35 and 100 days. Our results indicate that MT protein network dynamicity and polymerization ability is decreased under long-term (100 days) social stress conditions.

  8. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  9. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications. PMID:26713546

  10. Attenuation of lead-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver, kidney and blood of male Wistar rats by Moringa oleifera seed powder.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Daughtry, Lucius K; Jones, Angelica C; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves and seeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the present investigation, M. oleifera seed powder was tested against lead-induced oxidative stress and compared against meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control (2000 ppm of sodium acetate for 2 weeks), exposed (2000 ppm of lead acetate for 2 weeks), Moringa treated (500 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure), and DMSA treated (90 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure). After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the brain was separated into cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem; liver, kidney, and blood were also collected. The data indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid perioxidation products (LPP), total protein carbonyl content (TPCC), and metal content of brain regions, liver, and kidney in the exposed group compared with their respective controls. In the blood, delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit showed significant (p<0.05) decrease on lead exposure. However, administration of M. oleifera restored all the parameters back to control, tissue-specifically, and also showed improvement in restoration better than DMSA treatment, indicating reduction of the negative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Effect of nucleus accumbens shell 5-HT4 receptors on the impairment of ACPA-induced emotional memory consolidation in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khodayar, Ebrahim; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell on the impairment of emotional memory consolidation induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation. The elevated plus maze test-retest paradigm was used to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. Intra-NAc shell administration of ACPA (selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist 0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist 0.01 µg/rat), immediately after training, decreased emotional memory consolidation, suggesting a drug-induced amnesia, whereas post-training intra-NAc shell microinjections of RS67333 (5-HT4 receptor agonist 0.016 µg/rat) increased emotional memory consolidation. Interestingly, RS67333 exerted a dual effect on ACPA-induced behaviors, potentiating and restoring amnesia caused by the subthreshold and effective doses of ACPA, respectively. However, neither RS23597 nor AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist 30, 60 and 120 ng/rat) affected emotional memory consolidation. Nonetheless, a subthreshold dose of AM251 (120 ng/rat) reversed the amnesia induced by ACPA (0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (0.01 µg/rat). None of the above doses altered the locomotor activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that the NAc-shell 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the modulation of ACPA-induced amnesia.

  12. Decreased Activity in Neuropathic Pain Form and Gene Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase5 and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta in Soleus Muscle of Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Masoud; Taherabadi, Seyed Jalal; Mehrabi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between decreased activity/neuropathic pain and gene expression alterations in soleus muscle has remained elusive. Objectives: In this experimental study, we investigated the effects of decreased activity in neuropathic pain form on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 β (GSK-3β) gene expression in soleus muscle of rats. Materials and Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) tight ligation of the L5 spinal nerve (SNL: n = 4); (2) sham surgery (Sham: n = 4), and (3) control (C: n = 4). The threshold to produce a withdrawal response to a mechanical and thermal stimulus was measured using von Frey filaments and radiation heat apparatus, respectively. Following 4 weeks after surgery, the left soleus muscle was removed and mRNA levels were determined by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: Compared to control animals, L5 ligated animals developed mechanical and heat hypersensitivity during total period of study. Soleus muscle weight as well as CDK5 mRNA levels (less than ~ 0.4 fold) was decreased and GSK-3β mRNA levels (up to ~ 7 folds) increased in L5 ligated animals. Conclusions: These results showed enhanced muscle atrophy processes following peripheral nerve damage and might provide a useful approach to study underlying muscle mechanisms associated with clinical neuropathic pain syndromes. PMID:26290750

  13. Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Adegoke, Ayodeji M; Olugbami, J Olorunjuwon; Uche, Ndidi S

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and clastogenicity in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were divided into four groups and were treated daily via oral gavage for one week before they were sacrificed. Brain, liver and blood serum were collected for antioxidant and protein assays. Clastogenicity, in vitro antioxidant activity, vitamins and minerals were also evaluated. From the results, co-administration of Acacia honey with sodium arsenite on the animals increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities with concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and anti-clastogenic effects relative to the group treated with sodium arsenite only. The honey possesses reducing power, high hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, good amount of vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids (5.08 ± 0.92 mg QE/100 g) and phenolics (5.40 ± 0.69 mg GAE/100 g). The minerals present include zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. In conclusion, Acacia honey from Nigeria may mitigate oxidative stress and clastogenicity.

  14. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  15. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (p<0.05). We concluded that subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  16. Chronic carcinogenic and toxic effects of a single subcutaneous dose of cadmium in the male Fischer rat

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, M.P.; Rehm, S.; Sass, B.; Konishi, N.; Ward, J.M. )

    1991-06-01

    This study determined tumor incidence in various tissues of male Fischer F344 rats after a single dose of cadmium. Cadmium (as CdCl{sub 2}) was given sc in the dorsal thoracic midline at 30 {mu}mole/kg to 70 8-week old male F344 rats while controls received saline. Rats were observed during the next 90 weeks. Early deaths ({much lt} 32 weeks), due mostly to acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, accounted for 37 of the cadmium-treated rats while no control rats died in the same period. A high incidence of injection site sarcomas (ISS) occurred in the cadmium-treated group while only 1/50 occurred in controls (2%). In fact, ISS were the major cause of morbidity after 35 weeks in cadmium-treated rats. These tumors were mostly fibrosarcomas, although histiocytic and osteogenic sarcomas also occurred. Testicular interstitial cell tumors, which show a very high spontaneous incidence in this strain, were not markedly affected by cadmium. This is in sharp contrast to other strains, such as the Wistar, in which cadmium treatment is reported to cause as much as an eightfold increase in interstitial cell (Leydig cell) tumor incidence. The incidence of large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia, which also occurred frequently in control F344 rats was markedly decreased by cadmium in lymphoid tissues of rats, and this may be related to the suppression of the leukemia.

  17. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development.

  18. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  19. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Imafidon, Christian Eseigbe; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Sanusi, Abubakar Abefe; Ogundipe, Oluwadare Joshua; Olukiran, Olaoluwa Sesan; Ayowole, Oladele Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effects of a polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) on the feeding pattern of rats that are exposed to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml a 100 g rats), daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4) at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml per 100 g rats), respectively via oral route for 4 weeks after they were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. PMID:26649233

  20. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumari, Kajal; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajamani, Paulraj; Verma, H N; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiation produced by wireless telecommunications and a number of electrical devices used in household or in healthcare institutions may adversely affects the reproductive pattern. Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): Sham exposed, Melatonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells.

  1. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue. PMID:27403200

  2. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumari, Kajal; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajamani, Paulraj; Verma, H N; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiation produced by wireless telecommunications and a number of electrical devices used in household or in healthcare institutions may adversely affects the reproductive pattern. Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): Sham exposed, Melatonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells. PMID:23676079

  3. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Katsanou, Efrosini S; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG), a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE), at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE. PMID:24950217

  4. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G.; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue. PMID:27403200

  5. Intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid alone or combined with various antidepressant drugs produce antidepressant-like actions in male Wistar rats forced to swim.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

    2012-01-10

    Intra-cerebral administrations of folic acid produce antidepressant-like effects; either alone or combined with several antidepressant drugs. However, the specific limbic structures implied in the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid are un-known. Thus, intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid (5.0 nmol, P<0.05; 10.0 nmol, P<0.05) or oral administrations of folic acid (50 mg/kg, P<0.05, p.o.; 75.0; mg/kg, P<0.05, p.o.) or systemic administrations of fluoxetine (20.0 mg/kg, P<0.05; 25.0 mg/kg, P<0.05) reduced immobility by increasing swimming behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) of male Wistar rats. Conversely, desipramine (10.0 mg/kg, P<0.05; 15.0 mg/kg, P<0.05) reduced immobility by increasing climbing behavior. Subthreshold doses of folic acid (2.5 nmol/intra-LSN) combined with subthreshold doses of folic acid (25.0 mg/kg, p.o., P<0.05) or with subthreshold doses of fluoxetine (15.0 mg/kg, P<0.05) and they produced antidepressant-like effects which were canceled by ketanserin. In conclusion, intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid alone or combined with systemic doses of folic acid or fluoxetine reduced immobility in the FST. These antidepressant-like actions, probably, were due to modifications of the serotonergic system since swimming behavior was increased and these effects were canceled by ketanserin.

  6. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  7. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  8. Protective role of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine against reproductive toxicity due to interaction of lead and cadmium in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Banothu Anil; Reddy, Alla Gopala; Kumar, Pentela Ravi; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Rao, Thirtham Madava; Haritha, Chiluka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: One of the target organs of heavy metals is testis and many authors proposed that oxidative stress could be responsible to induce their toxicity. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity, their toxicodynamic interaction and to evaluate therapeutic potential of N-Acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) against the reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Material and methods: rats were randomly divided into 8 groups comprising of 6 rats in each. Group 1 and 2 were syam and NAC control, Group 3, 4 and 5 were kept as toxic control groups such as lead, cadmium and lead + cadmium respectively, where as Group 6, 7 and 8 were therapeutic groups with NAC. The experiment scheduled for 3 months. Body weights, anti-oxidant profile (GSH, GST, TBARS and protein carbonyls) in testis, testis weight, testicular LDH, sperm count and histopathology were conducted. And also, interaction of Pb and Cd with zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in testis was assessed. Results: The present study revealed significant alterations in body weights, anti-oxidant profile, weights of testes, testicular LDH, sperm count, and concentration of Zn and Cu in toxic control groups 3, 4 and 5 as compared to control and NAC-treated groups. The toxic combination (Pb+Cd) group 5 showed significant alterations in protein carbonyls, GST levels and testicular LDH as compared to Pb and Cd alone administered groups and these results are substantiated with marked changes in the histopathology. All the NAC-treated groups revealed significant improvement in all the parameters. Conclusion: The results of the investigation revealed that Pb, Cd and their combination induces toxicity to the biological system due to the excess generation of free radicals and impairment of anti-oxidant defenses. Toxic effects were more pronounced in the group that received a combination of Pb and Cd, suggesting positive toxicodynamic interaction. Use of NAC countered the

  9. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  10. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  11. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  12. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p < 0.05) were upregulated at birth and 14 weeks postweaning. DNA hypermethylation (2% p = 0.006) was observed in the dopamine receptor 1 (Drd1) promoter region. We conclude that a gestational diet high in vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  13. Daily rhythms of serotonin metabolism and the expression of clock genes in suprachiasmatic nucleus of rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease male Wistar rat model and effect of melatonin administration.

    PubMed

    Mattam, Ushodaya; Jagota, Anita

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) involves regulated serotonin levels and coordinated expression of various clock genes. To understand circadian disfunction in the age-related neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD), the rotenone-induced PD (RIPD) male Wistar rat model was used. The alterations in the rhythmic dynamic equilibrium of interactions between the various components of serotonin metabolism and the molecular clock were measured. There was significant decrease in the mean 24 h levels of tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin (5-HT), N-acetyl serotonin (NAS) and melatonin (MEL) by approximately 63, 51, 76 and 96% respectively ( p ≤ 0.05). However significant increase in 5-methoxy indole acetic acid (5-MIAA), 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOH), 5-hydroxy tryptophol (5-HTOH) indicated increased serotonin catabolism with the abolition of daily rhythms of MEL, 5-HTP and 5-MIAA in RIPD. 24 h mean levels of rPer1, rCry1, rBmal1 reduced by about 0.5, 0.74 and 0.39-fold and increased for rPer2 by about 1.7-fold. The daily pulse of rPer2, rCry1, rCry2 and rBmal1 significantly decreased by 0.36, 0.6, 0.14, 0.1 and 0.2-fold. As melatonin, an antioxidant and an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm declined in RIPD male Wistar rat model, the effects of melatonin-administration on the rhythmic expression of various clock genes were studied. Interestingly, melatonin-administration resulted in restoration of the phase of rPer1 daily rhythm in RIPD indicating differential sensitivity of various clock components towards melatonin. The animals which were administered both rotenone and MEL for 48 days interestingly showed neuroprotective effects in dark phase on correlations between expression of various genes.

  14. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system.

  15. Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor function in cerebral cortex of diabetic young and old male Wistar rats and the role of muscarinic receptors in calcium release from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Balakrishnan; Joseph, Binoy; Peeyush Kumar, T; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    We investigated acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine and muscarinic M1, M3 receptors kinetics in the cerebral cortex of young and old streptozotocin induced and insulin treated diabetic rats. The role of muscarinic receptors in intracellular calcium release from pancreatic islets was studied in vitro. Wistar rats of 7 and 90-weeks old were used. All studies were done in cerebral cortex. AChE assay was done by spectrophotometric method. Radioreceptor binding assays were done for Acetylcholine, Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors using specific ligands. Calcium imaging was done using fluo4-AM in pancreatic cells. Ninety-weeks old control rats showed significantly decreased Vmax and increased Km for AChE compared to 7-weeks old control rats. An increased Vmax observed in both 7 and 90-weeks old diabetic groups with significant decrease in Km. Scatchard analysis using specific agonists showed significant decrease in the B (max) and K (d) of acetylcholine and muscarinic M1 receptors in 90-weeks old control rats compared to 7-weeks old control. Binding studies for M3 receptors showed no significant change compared to 7-weeks old control. Acetylcholine, muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor number significantly increased in 90-weeks old diabetic rat groups compared to their respective controls. Insulin treatment significantly reversed the binding parameters to near control compared to diabetic group. In vitro studies showed that acetylcholine through muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors' stimulated calcium release from the pancreatic islets. Thus our studies suggest that Insulin signaling play an important part in differentially regulating pancreatic cholinergic activity, and the diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions with age.

  16. Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Obianime, A W; Roberts, I I

    2009-12-01

    The effect of different doses of cadmium [CD] on some biochemical, hormonal and histopathological parameters of the liver, kidney and testes of the Wistar rate were investigated. Cadmium in the dose range 0-40 mg/kg while causing a time-and dose-dependent decrease of the basal serum levels of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] also caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum concentration of the acid and prostatic acid phosphatases. The value of the ALP changed from 148.7+/-1.0 IU/L in the control to 53.7+/-0.098 at 40 mg/kg of cadmium. While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6+/-0.72 and 7 Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40 mg/kg of CD. Furthermore cadmium also caused positively correlated dose-and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, vacuolation, destruction of the seminal epithelial layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminal epithelia layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of spermatogenesis. CD also caused granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, enlargement of sinusoids with kupffer cells, haemorrhage and apoptosis of cells. Finally pre-treatment with vitamin C [0.0015/kg], vitamin E [1.51/g] and selenium [0.25 mg] which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the liver, kidney and testes. These results may be explained by the oxidational/antioxidational properties of these xenobiotics and their mechanisms of actions.

  17. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  18. Sub-chronic concomitant ingestion of L-arginine and monosodium glutamate improves feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Egbuonu, Anthony C Cemaluk

    2012-03-15

    The use of L-arginine (ARG) is common in supplements, whereas, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is widely used as flavor enhancing food additive. Thus, ARG and MSG may be present together in human diets, warranting this study aimed at investigating the effect of concomitant ingestion of ARG and MSG on some biochemical indices in male rats. Twelve male albino rats were grouped into three (n = 4) and concomitantly exposed to 0:0, 20:5 and 60:15 mg kg(-1) of ARG:MSG. Exposure was peroral and every twenty four h for 28 days. ARG plus MSG treatment caused a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in Feed Efficiency (FE) (Low dose: 5.23 +/- 22%; High dose: 5.60 +/- 11%), whereas, it decreased (p < or = 0.05) the serum Total Cholesterol (T-Chol) (low dose: 80.83 +/- 0.11 mg/100 mL, high dose: 92.55 +/- 0.14 mg/100 mL), triacylglycerol (TAG) (low dose: 179.91 +/- 0.09 mg/100 mL, high dose: 119.77 +/- 0.32 mg/100 mL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (low dose: 5.00 +/- 0.07 mg/100 mL, high dose: 24.36 +/- 0.10 mg/100 mL) concentrations of the rats in a dose dependent manner. However, (at the high dose) the increase in Body Weight (BW) (0.08 +/- 0.07 kg), Feed Intake (FI) (0.40 +/- 0.03 kg) and Water Intake (WI) (0.65 +/- 0.18 L) induced by ARG plus MSG exposure was not significant (p < or = 0.05), suggesting non treatment related effect on these routine parameters. However, exposure to ARG plus MSG may significantly improve feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in the male rats. PMID:24175428

  19. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Leslie C.; Radin, M. Judith; Heller, Lois; Rogers, Lynette K.; Tobias, Anthony; Matise, Ilze; Wang, Qi; Apple, Fred S.; McCune, Sylvia A.

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

  20. Acute oral gallium arsenide exposure and changes in certain hematological, hepatic, renal and immunological indices at different time intervals in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J; Kumar, P; Kannan, G M; Rai, G P

    1998-01-31

    Male albino rats were given a single oral dose of gallium arsenide (GaAs) (100, 200 or 500 mg/kg). Erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was inhibited in all the three GaAs-exposed groups accompanied by elevated urinary excretion of ALA. A significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT) was observed. A significant increase in hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in hepatic glutathione contents were also noted. Renal alkaline phosphatase activity, urinary ALA and protein excretion increased significantly on GaAs exposure. These changes were accompanied by significant alterations in almost all the immunological variables, with an increase in gallium and arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. While most of the above biochemical alterations were prominent at day 7 following single exposure to 200 and 500 mg/kg GaAs, most of the immunological indices altered with all the three doses and remained high even at day 21. The results suggest only a moderate effect of GaAs on renal and hepatic tissues. By contrast, immunological and haematological systems are the most vulnerable to the toxic effects of GaAs.

  1. Melatonin has differential effects on age-induced stoichiometric changes in daily chronomics of serotonin metabolism in SCN of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Y; Jagota, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls various physiological, endocrine and behavioral functions by regulating conversion of serotonin (5-HT) to melatonin (MEL). Aging leads to alterations in the neural and temporal organization of the SCN leading to circadian dysfunction. Age-induced stoichiometric alterations in daily chronomics of various components of 5-HT metabolism were studied by constructing interactomes between parameters. The levels of tryptophan (TRP), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), N-acetyl 5-methoxytryptamine (MEL), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-methoxyindole acetic acid (5-MIAA), 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOH), 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTOH) and N-acetyltryptamine (NAT) were measured at (Zeitgeber time 0, 6, 12 and 18) in male rat SCN of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups. Age-induced decrease was observed in mean levels of NAS, MEL, 5-HIAA, 5-MIAA, 5-MTOH, and NAT and increase was observed in TRP, 5-HTP, 5-HT and 5-HTOH in rat SCN. Daily pulses decreased with aging significantly for TRP, 5-HT, NAS, MEL, 5-HIAA, 5-MIAA and NAT. We report here, the age-induced change in interactions between various 5-HT metabolism components by middle age (12 m) changing further by 24 m. The daily rhythms persisted with aging for NAS, MEL and 5-HTOH. Though, rhythms were abolished for TRP, 5-HTP, 5-HIAA, 5-MIAA, 5-MTOH and NAT differentially at 12 and 24 m. The MEL administration showed restoration in 5-HT ratio with 5-HTP, MEL and 5-HTOH in 24 m and NAS and 5-HIAA in 12 m SCN. Thus, MEL administration effects alterations of age-induced stoichiometry in levels and chronomics of serotonin metabolic network interactomes.

  2. Sertraline and its iodine product: Experimental and theoretical vibrational studies. Potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Graciela E.; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A. M.; Ferrer, Evelina G.

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  3. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment. PMID:24737450

  4. Correlation of histopathology, urinary biomarkers, and gene expression responses following hexachloro-1:3-butadiene-induced acute nephrotoxicity in male Hanover Wistar rats: a 28-day time course study.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David P; Turton, John A; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Swain, Aubrey J; McClure, Fiona J; Smyth, Rosemary; Pereira, Ines B; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J

    2013-07-01

    Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) causes segment-specific injury to the proximal renal tubule. A time course study of traditional and more recently proposed urinary biomarkers was performed in male Hanover Wistar rats receiving a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 45 mg/kg HCBD. Animals were killed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, and 28 postdosing and the temporal response of renal biomarkers was characterized using kidney histopathology, urinary and serum biochemistry, and gene expression. Histopathologic evidence of tubular degeneration was seen from day 1 until day 3 postdosing and correlated with increased urinary levels of α-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST), albumin, glucose, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and increased gene expression of KIM-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1, and heme oxygenase (decycling) 1. Histopathologic evidence of tubular regeneration was seen from day 2 postdosing and correlated with raised levels of urinary KIM-1 and osteopontin and increased gene expression of KIM-1 and annexin A7. Traditional renal biomarkers generally demonstrated low sensitivity. It is concluded that in rat proximal tubular injury, measurement of a range of renal biomarkers, in conjunction with gene expression analysis, provides an understanding of the extent of degenerative changes induced in the kidney and the process of regeneration.

  5. Age dependent differences in the regulation of hippocampal steroid hormones and receptor genes: relations to motivation and cognition in male rats.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K; Korz, V

    2013-02-01

    Estrogen and estrogenic functions are age-dependently involved in the modulation of learning, memory and mood in female humans and animals. However, the investigation of estrogenic effects in males has been largely neglected. Therefore, we investigated the hippocampal gene expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα, β) in 8-week-old, 12-week-old and 24-week-old male rats. To control for possible interactions between the expression of the estrogen receptor genes and other learning-related steroid receptors, androgen receptors (AR), corticosterone-binding glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were also measured. Furthermore, the concentrations of the ligands 17β-estradiol, testosterone and corticosterone were measured. The spatial training was conducted in a hole-board. The 8-week-old rats exhibited higher levels of general activity and exploration during the training and performed best with respect to spatial learning and memory, whereas no difference was found between the 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The trained 8-week-old rats exhibited increased gene expression of ERα compared with the untrained rats in this age group as well as the trained 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, however, were generally higher in the 24-week-old rats than in the 8-week-old and 12-week-old rats. The ERα mRNA concentrations correlated positively with behavior that indicate general learning motivation. These results suggest a specific role of ERα in the age-related differences in motivation and subsequent success in the task. Thus, estrogen and estrogenic functions may play a more prominent role in young male behavior and development than has been previously assumed.

  6. Social isolation prompts maternal behavior in sexually naïve male ddN mice.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Chitose; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Katsumata, Harumi; Sato, Manami; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Minami, Shiro; Sakuma, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Maternal behavior in mice is considered to be sexually dimorphic; that is, females show maternal care for their offspring, whereas this behavior is rarely shown in males. Here, we examined how social isolation affects the interaction of adult male mice with pups. Three weeks of isolation during puberty (5-8 weeks old) induced retrieving and crouching when exposed to pups, while males with 1 week isolation (7-8 weeks old) also showed such maternal care, but were less responsive to pups. We also examined the effect of isolation during young adulthood (8-11 weeks old), and found an induction of maternal behavior comparable to that in younger male mice. This effect was blocked by exposure to chemosensory and auditory social signals derived from males in an attached compartment separated by doubled opaque barriers. These results demonstrate that social isolation in both puberty and postpuberty facilitates male maternal behavior in sexually naïve mice. The results also indicate that air-borne chemicals and/or sounds of male conspecifics, including ultrasonic vocalization and noise by their movement may be sufficient to interfere with the isolation effect on induction of maternal behavior in male mice.

  7. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  8. Effects of zinc pre-treatment on blood glutathione, serum zinc and kidney histological organisation in male rats exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Jemai, Hedya; Lachkar, Hedia Ait; Messaoudi, Imed; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-10-01

    The effects of sub-chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on the blood glutathione, serum zinc and on the kidney histological organisation in rats as well as the possible protective role of zinc (Zn) are the object of this study. For this purpose, 60 male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into three groups: the first group was exposed to Cd in the form of CdCl(2), administered in five doses (each of 0.4 mg Cd/kg b.w.) on days 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25, giving a total dose of 2mg Cd/kg b.w., i.p.; the second group was simultaneously exposed to Zn and Cd with the same timeline and the same doses of Cd as the first group but with, in addition, injections of Zn in the form of ZnCl(2), administered in doses of 0.8 mg Zn/kg b.w., giving a total dose of 4 mg Zn/kg b w, i.p.; a control group received 0.5 mL of physiological saline in an identical manner. Intoxication with Cd was followed by a significant decrease in blood glutathione, increase in oxidized glutathione as well as histological damage in kidneys. Pre-treatment with Zn exhibited a protective role against Cd toxicity with a significant decrease in serum zinc content. This fact may be explained by an excessive use of zinc in metallothionein synthesis as a cadmium detoxification agent.

  9. Effects of the type of dietary fat at two levels of vitamin E in Wistar male rats during development and aging. I. Life span, serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Porta, E A; Joun, N S; Nitta, R T

    1980-05-01

    This experiment was designed to study in rats the implications of the dietary type of fat at two levels of vitamin E on the life span as well as on several biochemical and anatomopathological age-related changes. For this purpose, six different isoenergetic diets containing 15% coconut oil (SFD), safflower oil (UFD) or a combination of both (CFD) with 2 or 200 mg% of dl-alpha-tocopherol were offered ad libitum to outbred Wistar male rats from weaning to senescence. The results indicated that up to 9--12 months the body weights of rats consuming the CFD or the UFD increased generally faster than those fed the SFD, and that all rats developed moderate degrees of obesity. Age-dependent changes in organ weights (kidneys, testes, spleen, brain, liver and heart) were unaffected by diet. Serum levels of vitamin E generally reflected the corresponding dietary levels, but were also influenced by the type of dietary fat. Serum cholesterol levels were not significantly affected by the type of diet or by age. Only transient hypotriglyceridemic and hypophospholipidemic effects of the UFD were observed and, while the levels of triglycerides decreased with age up to the 18th month followed by an increase at 24 months, the levels of serum phospholipids remained unchanged. Neither diet nor age modified the serum albumin/globulin ratios. While no differences in maximum life span were found between dietary groups, the 50% survival time of rats fed the UFD at high level of vitamin E was significantly longer than in all the other groups. This beneficial effect was related to postponement of the onset and reduction of incidence of malignant neoplasms, but was apparently not related to any particular influence on the incidence or severity of chronic nephropathy which practically developed in all rats. Various neoplastic, degenerative and inflammatory diseases encountered in rats dying during the course of the experiment were tabulated and compared with similar findings reported by others

  10. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor. PMID:15311399

  11. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor.

  12. Electrophysiological, vasoactive, and gastromodulatory effects of stevia in healthy Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yesmine, Saquiba; Connolly, Kylie; Hill, Nicholas; Coulson, Fiona R; Fenning, Andrew S

    2013-07-01

    Antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of stevia, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), have been demonstrated in several human and animal models. The current study aims to define stevia's role in modifying the electrophysiological and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Tissues from thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, ileum, and left ventricular papillary muscles were excised from 8-week-old healthy Wistar rats. The effects of stevia (1 × 10-9 M to 1 × 10-4 M) were measured on these tissues. Stevia's effects in the presence of verapamil, 4-AP, and L-NAME were also assessed. In cardiomyocytes, stevia attenuated the force of contraction, decreased the average peak amplitude, and shortened the repolarisation phase of action potential - repolarisation phase of action potential20 by 25 %, repolarisation phase of action potential50 by 34 %, and repolarisation phase of action potential90 by 36 %. Stevia caused relaxation of aortic tissues which was significantly potentiated in the presence of verapamil. In mesenteric arteries, incubation with L-NAME failed to block stevia-induced relaxation indicating the mechanism of action may not be fully via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Stevia concentration-dependently reduced electrical field stimulated and carbachol-induced contractions in the isolated ileum. This study is the first to show the effectiveness of stevia in reducing cardiac action potential duration at 20 %, 50 %, and 90 % of repolarisation. Stevia also showed beneficial modulatory effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tissues via calcium channel antagonism, activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor function, and enhanced nitric oxide release.

  13. In vivo study on the effects of microcystin extracts on the expression profiles of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in liver, kidney and testis of male Wistar rats injected i.v. with toxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a potent liver tumor promoter, possessing potent tumor-promoting activity and weak initiating activity. Proto-oncogenes are known to be involved in the tumor-promoting mechanisms of microcystin-LR. However, few data are available on the effects of MCs on proto-oncogenes in the whole animal. To investigate the effects of MCs on the expression profile of the proto-oncogenes in different organs, male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with microcystin extracts at a dose of 86.7 mug MC-LR eq/kg bw (MC-LR eq, MC-LR equivalents). mRNA levels of three proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc in liver, kidney and testis were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR at several time points post-injection. Significant induction of these genes at transcriptional level was observed in the three organs. In addition, the increase of mRNA expression of all three genes was much higher in liver than in kidney and testis. Meanwhile, the protein levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were investigated by western blotting. Both proteins were induced in the three organs. However, elevations of protein levels were much lower than those of mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc might be one possible mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity and initiating activity of microcystins.

  14. Sexually dimorphic proteinuria in Wistar rats: Relevance to clinical models.

    PubMed

    Imafidon, Eseigbe Christian; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Oladele, Abraham Ayodele

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between physiological proteinuria and the histomorphometry of the renal corpuscles in apparently healthy Wistar rats of both sexes, belonging to the same age group. This was with a view to appraise any possible connection between potential expression of sexual dimorphism and the histomorphometry of some integral parts of the glomerular filtration barrier. Twenty Wistar rats of both sexes between ages 9 and 10 weeks were used for this study. This comprised 10 male and 10 female rats weighing 110-200g which were housed in separate metabolic cages for the collection of urine samples.They were sacrificed 24h and 7 days after 2 weeks of acclimatization, respectively. The rats were fasted for 24h during the collection of urine samples. The results showed 74.75% significantly higher urine total protein (p<0.0001), 187.29% significantly higher mg protein/100g body weight (p<0.0001), 32.34% significantly higher Bowman's capsular thickness (p<0.0001), 30.64% significantly higher glomerular thickness (p=0.0002), 59.47% significantly higher Bowman's capsular space (p=0.003), 5.30% insignificantly lower creatinine clearance (p=0.24) and 28.05% significantly higher level of urine protein to creatinine ratio (p<0.0001) in the male when compared with their female counterpart. In conclusion, Wistar rats express sexually dimorphic proteinuria which is structural in origin. PMID:26896858

  15. DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

  16. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.; Moser, A.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats. PMID:22473322

  17. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Arts, Johanna W M; Kramer, Klaas; Arndt, Saskia S; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-10-30

    Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments) transfer the animals internally to the testing room.

  18. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Reuben, James M.; Illera, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  19. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  20. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-07-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  1. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosyreva, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10–12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose—15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats. PMID:27350991

  2. Toxicity assessment of nanosilver wound dressing in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Mahdavi, Moujan; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Korani, Mitra; Amani, Amir; Ziarati, Parisa

    2013-05-07

    Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days) model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing) and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT) at the endpoint (21 days) of the study (P=0.027). Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci were recognized around the central hepatic vein in treatment group. Mild hepatotoxic effects of nanosilver wound dressing in wistar rat emphasize the necessity of more studies on toxicity potentials of low dose nanosilver by dermal applications.

  3. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Rupesh; Misra, Chandrasekhar; GH, Chethan; Shetty, Pallavi; Mutalik, Srinivas; Lewis, Shaila

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats. PMID:26101786

  4. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    PubMed

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  5. Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

    2008-01-28

    Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats.

  6. Baseline serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in Sprague-Dawley, spontaneous hypertensive, Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto, and Fisher rats as determined with an ultrasensitive immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Herman, Eugene; Knapton, Alan; Rosen, Elliot; Zhang, Jun; Estis, Joel; Agee, Sara J; Lu, Quynh-Anh; Todd, John A; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2011-06-01

    Cardiac troponins have proved to be reliable blood biomarkers for identifying a variety of myocardial alterations in humans and animals. Recently, an ultrasensitive cTnI assay (Erenna IA) has been used to demonstrate increases in baseline cTnI resulting from drug-induced myocardial injury in rats, dogs, and monkeys, as well as to document baseline cTnI ranges in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The present study was initiated to use the Erenna cTnI assay to further document baseline cTnI concentrations in normal control animals from multiple strains, including SD, Spontaneous Hypertensive (SHR), Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), and Fisher strains. Baseline cTnI concentrations were quantified in all rats tested, and males had higher mean cTnI concentrations than females of the same strain. SHR males had the highest mean cTnI concentrations and the largest cTnI variability. Interestingly, cTnI concentrations increased in castrated SHR compared with unaltered male SHR, whereas cTnI concentrations decreased in ovariectomized SHR compared with unaltered female SHR. These results show significant differences in cTnI concentrations between strains, sexes, and noncardiac surgical alterations in control animals, and identify these as potential contributing factors to cTnI baseline variability that should be taken into account when using ultrasensitive cTnI as a biomarker to assess preclinical cardiotoxicity.

  7. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  8. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats is related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruzan, G; Corley, Rick A.; Hard, G; Mertens, J W.; McMartin, K. E.; Snellings, W; Gingell, Ralph; Deyo, J A.

    2004-10-01

    Ethylene Glycol (CAS RN 107-21-1) can to cause kidney toxicity via the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in a variety of species including humans. Numerous repeated dose studies conducted in rats have indicated that male rats are more susceptible than female rats. Furthermore, subchronic and chronic studies using different dietary exposure regimens have indicated that male Wistar rats may be more sensitive to renal toxicity than male F344 rats. This study was, therefore, conducted to compare the toxicity of ethylene glycol in the two strains of rats under identical exposure conditions and to evaluate the potential contribution of toxicokinetic differences to strain sensitivity. Ethylene glycol was mixed in the diet at concentrations to deliver constant target dosage levels of 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks to groups of 10 male Wistar and 10 male F-344 rats based upon weekly group mean body weights and feed consumption. Kidneys were examined histologically for calcium oxalate crystals and pathology. Samples of blood, urine and kidneys from satellite animals exposed to 0, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 or 16 weeks were analyzed for ethylene glycol, glycolic acid and oxalic acid. Treatment of Wistar rats at 1000 mg/kg/day resulted in the death of 2 rats; in addition, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, group mean body weights were decreased compared to control throughout the 16 weeks. In F-344 rats exposed at 1000 mg/kg/day and in Wistar rats at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, there were lower urine specific gravities, higher urine volumes, and increased absolute and relative kidney weights. In both strains of rats treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, some or all treated animals had increased calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tubules and crystal nephropathy. The effect was more severe in Wistar rats than in F-344 rats. Accumulation of oxalic acid in the kidneys of both strains of rats were consistent with the dose- and strain-dependent toxicity. As the

  9. Altered somatotroph feedback regulation improves metabolic efficiency and limits adipose deposition in male mice.

    PubMed

    Romero, Christopher J; Wolfe, Andrew; Law, Yi Ying; Costelloe, ChenChen Z; Miller, Ryan; Wondisford, Fredric; Radovick, Sally

    2016-04-01

    Several transgenic mouse models with disruption in the growth hormone (GH) axis support the role of GH in augmenting metabolic homeostasis. Specifically, interest has focused on GH's lipolytic properties and ability to affect adipose deposition. Furthermore, both GH and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) may also play a direct or indirect role in adipose development. The somatotroph insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor knockout (SIGFRKO) mouse with only a modest increase in serum GH and IGF-1 demonstrates less adipose tissue than controls. In order to characterize the metabolic phenotype of SIGFRKO mice, histologic analysis of fat depots confirmed a smaller average diameter of adipocytes in the SIGFRKO mice compared to controls. These changes were accompanied by an increase in lipolytic gene expression in fat depots. Indirect calorimetry performed on 6-8week old male mice and again at 25weeks of age demonstrated that SIGFRKO mice, at both ages, had a higher VO2 and increased energy expenditure when compared with controls. The calculated respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lower in the younger SIGFRKO mice compared to controls. No differences in food consumption or in either ambulatory or total activity were seen between SIGFRKO and control mice in either age group. These studies highlight the role of GH in adipose deposition and its influence on the expression of lipolytic genes resulting in an altered metabolic state, thus providing a mechanism for the decrease in weight gain seen in the SIGFRKO mouse model.

  10. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oller, Adriana R; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m(3) nickel metal powder (MMAD=1.8 microm, GSD=2.4 microm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m(3) nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies. PMID:18822311

  11. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.; Bel, E. Del; Defino, H.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration. PMID:23532265

  12. Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Naomi; Fujioka, Masaki; Doi, Kenichiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP). Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found. Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats. In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats. PMID:27391589

  13. Training-induced Increase in Bone Mineral Density between Growing Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Joo, W; Singh, H; Ahles, C P; Lee, Y; Colazas, W; Lee, L C; Prakash, A; Jaque, S V; Sumida, K D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sex differences in the resistance training-induced elevation in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength (Fmax) during the growth period in rats. 16 male (M) and 16 female (F) rats (approx. 8 weeks old) were randomly divided into sedentary control (MC=8, FC=8), and resistance-trained (RT) groups (M-RT=8, F-RT=8). The RT groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder 4 consecutive times (per exercise session) with weights attached to their tail 3 days per week for a total of 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, there were no interaction effects (sex×exercise). The main effect of sex indicated no difference in tibial BMD (in g/cm(2)) for males (0.226±0.005) compared to females (0.221±0.004). However, Fmax (in Newtons) was significantly greater for males (131.3±5.3) compared to females (89.9±3.0). The main effect of exercise indicated that tibial BMD and Fmax were significantly greater for RT groups (0.234±0.004 g/cm(2) and 120.9±7.4 Newtons) compared to controls (0.212±0.003 g/cm(2) and 100.3±5.1 Newtons). The results indicate that during growth, there were no sex differences in the training-induced elevation in BMD and bone mechanical properties. PMID:26212247

  14. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  15. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  16. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  17. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats.

  18. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  19. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  20. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. PMID:26174043

  1. Medial temporal lobe functioning and structure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: comparison with Wistar-Kyoto normotensive and Wistar-Kyoto hypertensive strains.

    PubMed

    Wells, Audrey M; Janes, Amy C; Liu, Xiaoxu; Deschepper, Christian F; Kaufman, Marc J; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2010-06-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is used as an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It displays deficits in frontostriatal functioning, but it is unclear if medial temporal lobe functioning and structure are affected. We used behavioral tasks that evaluate functioning of the amygdala and hippocampus to compare male SHR to male rats from two inbred comparator strains, the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and the hypertensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKHT) rat (n = 8/strain). The three strains showed similar levels of amygdala-related stimulus-reward learning during conditioned cue preference testing. In the ambiguous T-maze task, which dissociates between spatial and habit learning, significantly more WKHT than SHR or WKY used a response (indicative of habit learning) versus a place (indicative of spatial learning) strategy during an early probe test on day 8. During a later probe test on day 24, WKY progressed significantly from using a place strategy to a response strategy. Throughout all probe tests, a place strategy was used predominately by SHR and a response strategy by WKHT. Thus, SHR exhibited deficits in dorsal striatum-related habit learning, whereas WKHT exhibited deficits in hippocampus-related spatial learning. Following behavioral testing, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted in subgroups of rats from each strain (n = 4/strain). FLAIR imaging detected bilateral hippocampal hyperintensities in three of four WKHT and unilateral hippocampal atrophy in one of four SHR. The association between response strategy use during the initial probe test to forage for food in the ambiguous T-maze task and bilateral hippocampal abnormalities was significant. Collectively, while medial temporal lobe functioning appears to be normal in SHR exhibiting an ADHD-like phenotype, WKHT rats display both hippocampal functioning deficits and signs of bilateral hippocampal cell loss. The latter

  2. In vivo influence of sodium fluoride on sperm chemotaxis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaojing; Wang, Shaolin; Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Jundong

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive process covers lots of procedures, including capacitation, hyperactivation, chemotaxis and the acrosome reaction. Each plays an important role in the success of fertilization. Although multiple studies have reported the toxic effects of fluoride on the male reproduction, the effect of fluoride on sperm chemotaxis is little known. This study is to examine the effect of fluoride on the sperm chemotaxis and then to reveal the underling mechanisms of fluoride toxicity in sperm chemotaxis. 260 healthy Kunming male mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to 50, 100, 150 mg NaF/L in the drinking water for 8 weeks. At the end of the exposure, sperm chemotaxis was examined using a microchannel-based device. Ca(2+) concentration, adenylate cyclase (AC) content and mRNA expression of mACIII, mACVIII, Golf alpha, CatSper1, CatSper2 were measured to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that the percentage of chemotactic sperm was decreased by NaF in a dose-dependent manner. In the 100 and 150 mg/L groups, Ca(2+) concentration and AC content were notably lower than the control group. Compared with the control group, mRNA expression of CatSper1 in the 100 and 150 mg/L treatment groups was decreased significantly, and other genes showed no statistical difference. These data suggested that excessive fluoride did adversely affect sperm chemotaxis. The alteration of Ca(2+) concentration, AC content and CatSper1 mRNA expression level may play a key role in the mechanism underlying the affection.

  3. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception. PMID:23226635

  4. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model. PMID:25120202

  5. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model.

  6. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  7. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI. PMID:21808588

  8. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  9. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  10. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  11. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif; Bird, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  12. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions. PMID:23094205

  13. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  14. Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. R.; Yates, A. J.; Sharma, H. M.; Shim, C.; Tigner, R. L.; Thibert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Complete gross and microscopic postmortem examinations were performed on 100 BB Wistar diabetic rats, 27 BB Wistar nondiabetic siblings, and 41 Wistar rats, and the incidence of testicular lesions was tabulated. Testicular atrophy was the predominant finding in all three groups of rats, but atrophy occurred at a much younger age in the diabetic rats. There was a strong relationship between the duration of diabetes and the presence of atrophy, which was stronger than the relationship between age and atrophy. The testicular atrophy observed in the diabetic rats was morphologically similar to the senile testicular atrophy in the nondiabetic rats. Histologic findings that were associated with increasing severity of atrophy were multinucleated giant cells in the lumens of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial connective tissue, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and thickening of the tunica albuginea. Testicular atrophy has also been reported in human diabetics. Therefore, the BB Wistar rat may be a useful model for investigating this aspect of diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7091303

  15. Determination of Goitrogenic Metabolites in the Serum of Male Wistar Rat Fed Structurally Different Glucosinolates

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-ji; Zhang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are abundant in cruciferous vegetables and reported to have anti thyroidal effects. Four GLSs (sinigrin, progoitrin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin) were administered orally to rats, and the breakdown products of GLSs (GLS-BPs: thiocyanate ions, cyanide ions, organic isothiocyanates, organic nitriles, and organic thiocyanates) were measured in serum. Thiocyanate ions were measured by colorimetric method, and cyanide ions were measured with CI-GC-MS. Organic isothiocyanates and their metabolites were measured with the cyclocondensation assay. Organic nitriles and organic thiocyanates were measured with EI-GC-MS. In all treatment groups except for progoitrin, thiocyanate ions were the highest among the five GLS-BPs. In the progoitrin treated group, a high concentration of organic isothiocyanates (goitrin) was detected. In the glucoerucin treated group, a relatively low amount of goitrogenic substances was observed. The metabolism to thiocyanate ions happened within five hours of the administration, and the distribution of GLSs varied with the side chain. GLSs with side chains that can form stable carbocation seemed to facilitate the degradation reaction and produce a large amount of goitrogenic thiocyanate ions. Because goitrogenic metabolites can be formed without myrosinase, the inactivation of myrosinase during cooking would have no effect on the anti-nutritional effect of GLSs in cruciferous vegetables. PMID:25071920

  16. The effects of Nigella sativa on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Fatemeh; Abareshi, Azam; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Saeedjalali, Mohsen; Mohebbati, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimmune factors contribute on the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. Nigella sativa (NS) has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects. In the present study, the effect of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into five groups (n=10 in each): (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, administered two hours before behavioral tests), (3-5) LPS-Nigella sativa 100 , 200 and 400 mg/kg (LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400, respectively). Open- field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed. Results: In OF, LPS reduced the peripheral crossing, peripheral distance, total crossing and total distance compared to control (p<0.01- p<0.001). The central crossing, central distance and central time in LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS200 and LPS-NS 400 groups were higher than LPS (p<0.01- p<0.001). In EPM, LPS decreased the open arm entries, open arm time and closed arm entries while increased the closed time compared to control (p<0.001). Pretreatment by NS extract reversed the effects of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). In FST, LPS increased the immobility time while, decreased the climbing and active times compared to control (p<0.05- p<0.001). In LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400 groups the immobility time was less while, the active and climbing times were more than those of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS reduced the LPS-induced sickness behaviors in rats. Further investigations are required for better understanding the responsible compound (s) and the underlying mechanism(s). PMID:27247927

  17. Expression of spinal cord GABA transporter 1 in morphine-tolerant male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shokoofeh, Siroosi; Homa, Manaheji; Leila, Dargahi; Samira, Daniali

    2015-11-15

    Chronic morphine exposure produces morphine tolerance. One of the mechanisms of morphine tolerance involves γ-aminobutric acid (GABA), whose level is regulated by GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GAT-1 in the spinal cord during morphine treatment. Morphine was administrated to rats via drinking water for 21 days. On day 21, a single dose of morphine (10mg/kg) was injected, followed by the administration of 5% formalin after 30 min. Expression of GAT-1 in the lumbar spinal cord during morphine treatment was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay. In another set of experiments, a morphine-tolerant group was treated with a GAT-1 inhibitor, ethyl nipecotate (60 mg/kg), 5 min prior to the formalin test. To assess a possible analgesic effect of the GAT-1 inhibitor, a non-tolerant group was injected only with ethyl nipecotate 5 min prior to the formalin test. Our results indicated that a chronic consumption of morphine led to morphine tolerance. Morphine tolerance was also concomitant with GAT-1 up-regulation in the lumbar spinal cord. The GAT-1 inhibitor ethyl nipecotate improved the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the morphine-tolerant group. Ethyl nipecotate also had an antinociceptive effect on the non-tolerant group. Thus, our data suggest that GAT-1 overexpression in the spinal cord plays an important role in morphine tolerance.

  18. Chronic variable stress exposure in male Wistar rats affects the first step of olfactory detection.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Aurélien; Meunier, Nicolas; Acquistapace, Adrien; Bombail, Vincent

    2015-09-15

    For most animal species, olfaction plays a paramount role in their perception of the environment. Odours are initially detected in neurons located in the olfactory mucosa. This tissue is regulated by several physiological signals and can be altered in pathology. A number of clinical studies suggest an association between depressive disorders and olfactory sensory loss. In rodents, depressive-like states can be observed in models of chronic stress. We tested the hypothesis that olfactory function might be altered in a rat model of depression, induced by chronic variable stress (CVS). While CVS rats exhibited several symptoms consistent with chronic stress exposure and depressive-like states (increased sucrose intake in sucrose preference test, increased immobility in forced swim test, hyperlocomotion), their odorant responses recorded at the olfactory mucosa level by electro-olfactogram were decreased. In addition we observed increased apoptosis markers in the olfactory mucosa using Western Blot. Our data are consistent with reduced olfactory capacities in a laboratory rat model of chronic stress and depression, in agreement with human clinical data; this warrants further mechanistic studies. Furthermore, this works raises the possibility that altered olfactory function might be a confounding factor in the behavioural testing of chronically stressed or depressed rats.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of lactobacillus on carrageenan-induced paw edema in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amdekar, Sarika; Roy, Purabi; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2 × 10(7) CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at t = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at t = 24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at P < 0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway.

  20. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Ali Mard, Seyyed; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nobakht, Malihe; Mahmoudian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to four groups; sham, RIR control, pre-and post-treatment with noscapine. To induce RIR injury, 20 days after right nephrectomy, animals underwent a midline laparotomy and the renal artery was clamped for 40 min to induce ischemia, and the clamp was then removed to allow reperfusion for 48 hr. Animals received noscapine or vehicle 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, animals were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Blood samples were collected to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The kidneys were also removed for histopathlogical and western-blot analysis. Results: Noscapine treatment 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion protects the renal tissue structure as compared with the control. The expression levels of the studied inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MCP-1in pretreated-, and treated-noscapine groups decreased as compared with the control group. The levels of BUN and creatinine in pre-, and post-treated noscapine groups were significantly lower than in control animals. Conclusion: Noscapine protects renal tissue structure and function against RIR through down-regulation of the inflammatory mediators. PMID:24904716

  1. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  2. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint).

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M V Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  3. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  4. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  5. Oral L-glutamine administration attenuated cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Saurabh; Kandhare, Amit; Zanwar, Anand A; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Shinde, Sudhir; Deshmukh, Shahaji; Kharat, Ravindran

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of L-glutamine in laboratory rats using excision and incision wound models. Excision wounds of size 500 mm(2) and depth 2 mm were made on the dorsal portion of male Wistar rats (230-250 g) and were used for the study of oral L-glutamine (1 g/kg) treatment on the rate of contraction of wound and epithelisation. Histological evaluation of wound tissue was also performed. Six-centimetre-long two linear-paravertebral incisions in male Wistar rats (230-250 g) were used to study the effect of L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.) treatment on tensile strength, total protein and hydroxyproline content in the incision model. Oral administration of L-glutamine (1 g/kg) significantly decreased wound area, epithelisation period and wound index, whereas the rate of wound contraction significantly increased (P < 0·001) when compared with vehicle control rats in the excision wound model. Tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein level were significantly increased (P < 0·001) in L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.)-treated rats when compared with vehicle control rats in the incision wound model. Histological evaluation of wound tissue from L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.)-treated rats showed complete epithelialisation with new blood vessel formation and high fibrous tissues in the excision wound model. In conclusion, oral administration of l-glutamine (1 g/kg) promotes wound healing by acting on various stages of wound healing such as collagen synthesis, wound contraction and epithelialisation.

  6. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats. PMID:22659242

  7. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.

  8. Two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Bermudez, Edilberto

    2013-07-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to reduce tailpipe emissions and its use has been discontinued. There remains a concern that drinking water sources have been contaminated with MTBE. A two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of MTBE was conducted in Wistar rats (males, 0, 0.5, 3, 7.5 mg ml(-1); and females, 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg ml(-1)). Body weights were unaffected and water consumption was reduced in MTBE-exposed males and females. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased at the end of two years of exposure to 7.5 mg ml(-1) MTBE. Chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in males and females, was more severe in males, and was exacerbated in the high MTBE exposure groups. Brain was the only tissue with a statistically significant finding of neoplasms. One astrocytoma (1/50) was found in a female rat (15 mg ml(-1)). The incidence of brain astrocytomas in male rats was 1/50, 1/50, 1/50 and 4/50 for the 0, 0.5, 3 and 7.5 mg ml(-1) exposure groups, respectively. This was a marginally significant statistical trend, but not statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were made or when multiple comparisons were taken into account. The incidence of astrocytoma fell within historical control ranges for Wistar rats, and the brain has not been identified as a target organ following chronic administration of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tertiary butyl alcohol (in drinking water) to mice and rats. We conclude that the astrocytomas observed in this study are not associated with exposure to MTBE.

  9. Correlation between gender and spontaneous C-cell tumors in the thyroid gland of the Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lacave, I; Bernab, R; Sampedro, C; Conde, E; Fernández-Santos, J M; San Martín, M V; Beato, A; Galera-Davidson, H

    1999-09-01

    In many rat strains, C-cell hyperplasia occurs in an age-dependent manner and is often associated with multifocal C-cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spectrum of spontaneous, proliferative C-cell disorders by gender in Wistar rats throughout their lifespan. The incidence of C-cell hyperplasia shows a significant increase with age (P<0.001) and is much higher in female rats than in male rats (P<0.05). From 3 to 24 months of life, 27.5% of female rats showed a normal C-cell pattern, 55.0% showed C-cell hyperplasia, and 17.5% showed C-cell tumors; while 57.5% of male rats showed a normal C-cell pattern, 32.5% showed C-cell hyperplasia, and 10% showed C-cell tumors. Although the overall frequency of C-cell neoplasms in females was nearly double that in males, these data are not statistically significant. However, the number of C-cell tumors showed a significant increase with age (P<0.05). Therefore, we can conclude that there were significant differences in the incidence of the total spectrum of C-cell proliferative abnormalities in the thyroid gland of Wistar rats that were both age-dependent and gender-dependent.

  10. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy. PMID:19288530

  11. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding quinocetone fed to Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Dai, Meng-Hong; Huang, Ling-Li; Chen, Dong-Mei; Tao, Yan-Fei; Peng, Da-Peng; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 12 males and 24 females of F(1) generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for F(2) generation. Selected F(1) weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights in F(0) and F(1) rats, fetal body weight on day 21 after birth and number of viable fetuses in F(0) and F(1) generation significantly decreased. In teratogenicity study, groups of 12 males and 24 females were fed with the same diets through a 12-week prebreed period and matting periods. Pregnant rats were subjected to cesarean section on GD 20 for teratogenic examination. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights and feed efficiency, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses significantly decreased. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of quinocetone for rats was estimated to be 300 mg/kg diet.

  12. Time course of chronic oral cadmium nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats: excretion of urinary enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, E M; Maruhn, D; Rinke, M

    1999-11-01

    Twelve male and female Wistar rats each received cadmium (as CdCl2) in their diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 250 ppm for 72 weeks. After 1, 4, 8, 13, 18, 26, 32, 45, 57, and 68 weeks a total of 8 enzymes from different cellular compartments of the nephron were measured. At the end of the study period, the kidneys were examined histopathologically. Concentrations up to and including 50 ppm did not induce any adverse effect. At 250 ppm, growth of male and female animals was markedly retarded. Significantly increased activities of the cytosolic phosphohexose isomerase were excreted by males and females receiving 250 ppm at all timepoints from week 13. The values of the mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase were mostly elevated from week 1 to 57, however, due to a wide scatter range, were only occasionally significantly different from control values. The brush border enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and leucine arylamidase) were not changed in a relevant manner in female rats, while in 250 ppm males the excreted activity of ALP and LAP from week 1 to week 18, and that of GGT during the entire study period were significantly lower than the control values. Excretion of the lysosomal enzymes aryl sulfatase A, beta-galactosidase, and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase was at no time influenced in a noteworthy manner. Histopathology after 72 weeks revealed chronic but also acute degenerative changes in the kidneys of 250 ppm males and females. A comparison of published data on persons having undergone high cadmium exposure with the results presented here shows remarkable differences.

  13. [Average values of electrocardiograph parameters in healthy, adult Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Zaciragić, Asija; Nakas-ićindić, Emina; Hadzović, Almira; Avdagić, Nesina

    2004-01-01

    Average values of heart rate (HR) and the average duration of electrocardiograph parameters were investigated (RR interval, P wave, PQ interval, QRS complex and QT interval) in healthy, adult Wistar rats of both sexes (n=86). Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded by Shiller Resting ECG, and for analysis of recordings SEMA-200 Vet computer program was used. Prior to registration animals were exposed to light ether anesthesia. Mean value of HR was 203.03+/-3.09 beats/min in whole sample. Observed differences in mean values of heart rate and duration of followed ECG parameters between sexes were not statistically significant. Results gathered in our study could serve as standard values for electrocardiograph parameters in future research where will be used Wistar rats in conditions of registration and analysis of ECG that are described in our paper.

  14. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) following exposure of Wistar Rats for 13 weeks or one year via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Edilberto; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Dodd, Darol

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen-week and one-year toxicity studies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) administered in drinking water to Wistar rats were conducted. Male and female rats were exposed to MTBE in drinking water at 0.5, 3, 7.5 and 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks and at 0.5, 3 and 7.5 (males) or 0.5, 3 and 15 mg ml(-1) (females) for 1 year. Body weights were reduced only in males following 13 weeks of exposure. Reduced water consumption and urine output were observed in males and females exposed to MTBE. Kidney cell replication and α(2u)-globulin levels in males were increased at 1 and 4 weeks of MTBE exposure and tubular cell regeneration was increased in male kidneys exposed to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater for 13 weeks. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased following 13 weeks, 6 months and 1 year of exposure to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater. Kidney wet weights were increased in females at MTBE concentrations of 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks. Tertiary-butyl alcohol blood levels increased linearly with dose in males and females following 1 year of exposure. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), of minimal to mild severity, increased in males, but not females, with 1 year of MTBE exposure. In summary, exposure of Wistar rats to MTBE in the drinking water resulted in minimal exposure-related effects including limited renal changes in male rats suggestive of α(2u)-globulin nephropathy following 13 weeks of exposure and an exacerbation of CPN in males at the end of 1 year of exposure. PMID:22833177

  15. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) following exposure of Wistar Rats for 13 weeks or one year via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Edilberto; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Dodd, Darol

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen-week and one-year toxicity studies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) administered in drinking water to Wistar rats were conducted. Male and female rats were exposed to MTBE in drinking water at 0.5, 3, 7.5 and 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks and at 0.5, 3 and 7.5 (males) or 0.5, 3 and 15 mg ml(-1) (females) for 1 year. Body weights were reduced only in males following 13 weeks of exposure. Reduced water consumption and urine output were observed in males and females exposed to MTBE. Kidney cell replication and α(2u)-globulin levels in males were increased at 1 and 4 weeks of MTBE exposure and tubular cell regeneration was increased in male kidneys exposed to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater for 13 weeks. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased following 13 weeks, 6 months and 1 year of exposure to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater. Kidney wet weights were increased in females at MTBE concentrations of 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks. Tertiary-butyl alcohol blood levels increased linearly with dose in males and females following 1 year of exposure. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), of minimal to mild severity, increased in males, but not females, with 1 year of MTBE exposure. In summary, exposure of Wistar rats to MTBE in the drinking water resulted in minimal exposure-related effects including limited renal changes in male rats suggestive of α(2u)-globulin nephropathy following 13 weeks of exposure and an exacerbation of CPN in males at the end of 1 year of exposure.

  16. Slc:Wistar outbred rats show close genetic similarity with F344 inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Although Slc:Wistar rats are used widely in biomedical research as outbred rats, close similarities in growth curves, survival rates, and immunological and biochemical phenotypes have been reported between Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. We reported previously that nine genetic variations that were fixed in Slc:Wistar rats had identical genotypes in F344 rats. Here, we examined the genetic characteristics of Slc:Wistar rats using 27 simple-sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers and compared them with other Wistar stocks available in Japan and with some F344 strains. Among 27 SSLP loci, 23 (85%) were fixed in the Slc:Wistar rats, which was the highest among the other Wistar stocks. The 23 fixed loci shared identical genotypes with corresponding loci in F344 rats. Further, the predominant allele types in the unfixed loci had allele frequencies as high as 80%, and these alleles were identical in the F344 rats. When the nine genetic variations reported previously are added, a total of 32 (89%) out of the 36 loci examined were fixed and identical in the Slc:Wistar and F344 rat genomes. These findings indicate the low genetic variation in Slc:Wistar rats and the high genetic similarity between the Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. This study demonstrates the importance of characterizing outbred rats and the need to pay ample attention to the genetic characteristics the Slc:Wistar rats for their proper use.

  17. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Andrea M; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, endocrine and reproductive function of the gonads throughout all phases of life. Male hypogonadism is defined an inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiency in gametogenesis and/or secretion of gonadal hormones. In most cases, male hypogonadism is diagnosed through detailed history, physical examination and a few basic hormonal evaluations. In selected cases, however, additional tests are needed to define the aetiology and the extent of HPG axis dysfunction. These include semen analysis, pituitary imaging studies, genetic studies, bone densitometry, testicular ultrasonography, testicular biopsy and hormonal dynamic testing. The stimulation tests of the HPG are of particular importance in the differential diagnosis of congenital delayed puberty versus pre-pubertal hypogonadism in children. This review will focus on the methods, indications and limitations of endocrine testing in the characterisation and differential diagnosis of male hypogonadism at various ages. A practical hands-on guide on how to perform these tests is also provided.

  18. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Vepacide (from Azadirachta indica), a neem-based pesticide, on acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatase in different tissues of male and female albino Wistar rats. Subchronic doses of Vepacide in coconut oil (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg; maximum volume of 0.2 mL) were administered orally for 45 or 90 days. The administration of Vepacide resulted in a significant increase in AcP and AkP in serum, kidney, lung, and liver tissue (AkP only in liver), whereas a significant decrease of AcP in liver was observed in male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment with moderate and high doses. The alterations in serum, liver, kidney, and lung tissues of both male and female rats caused by this compound were statistically significant, and the changes were also dose and time dependent. The alterations in male rats were not statistically significant when compared with female rats, indicating that there were no sexual differences. The withdrawal study (28 days post-treatment) revealed significant recovery, indicating reversal of the toxic symptoms once the toxicant was removed. There was a high degree of positive correlation between results for serum as compared to those for kidney, lung, and liver (AkP only for liver). However, there was a high negative correlation between AcP results for serum as compared with those for liver. The alterations in these enzymes indicated that lung tissue was the most susceptible, followed by liver and kidney. AcP and AkP are marker enzymes, and their increase in serum, with parallel increases in different tissues, might be due to the increased permeability of plasma membranes. The decrease in liver AcP may be due to the necrosis of cellular tissues. The changes observed in these enzyme activities could be useful as biomarkers of exposure to Vepacide. PMID:15388273

  19. In vivo investigation of the neuroprotective property of Convolvulus pluricaulis in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bihaqi, Syed Waseem; Singh, Avninder Pal; Tiwari, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis aqueous extract (AE) against scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight (bwt))-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on male Wistar rats (age matched, weight 250 ± 20 g). The present study investigated cognitive-enhancing property of AE using Elevated plus maze (EPM) (transfer latency [TL]) and Morris water maze (MWM). Besides evaluating the effect of extract on neurochemical enzymes, in vivo antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities were also screened. All the measured parameters were compared with rivastigmine tartrate (1 mg/kg bwt) which was taken as standard. Results: Pretreatment of rats with AE (150 mg/kg bwt) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced increase in the TL in EPM, whereas in MWM, administration of extract improved the impairment of spatial memory induced by scopolamine. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly inhibited by extract within the cortex and hippocampus. Reduced activities or contents of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione within the cortex and hippocampus induced by scopolamine were elevated by the extract. Taken together, it could be postulated that extract may exert its potent-enhancing activity through both anti-AChE and antioxidant action. Conclusion: AE possesses neuroprotective potential, thus validating its use in alleviating toxic effects of scopolamine. PMID:22021993

  20. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Abu, Mohd Nazri; Samat, Suhana; Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  1. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  2. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  3. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel.

  4. Characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced in wistar rats following four different diets

    PubMed Central

    Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Khazzaka, Aline; Esseily, Fady; Obeid, Omar; Lahoud-Zouein, May; Younes, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased worldwide in parallel with overnutrition characterized by high-fat and high-carbohydrate intake. Our objective was to establish, in 16 weeks, a model of NAFLD in Wistar pathogen-free rats following four dietary types. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty (6 weeks old) healthy Wistar male rats, weighing an average of 150 g were randomly divided into four groups of ten and assigned a diet with the same quantity (15 g/rat/day), but with different composition. The moderate-fat (MF) group was fed a moderate-fat diet (31.5% fat and 50% carbohydrates), the high-fat (HF) group was fed a fat-rich diet (51% fat), the high-sucrose (HS) group and the high-fructose (HFr) group were fed a carbohydrate-rich diet (61%). The carbohydrate contents of the HS group was composed of 60.3% sucrose while that of the HFr group was composed of 59.3% fructose. RESULTS At week 16, the HF group had the highest percentage of cells enriched in fat (40%) and the highest weight and liver weight (P < 0.05). The HFr group showed significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin at week 16 as compared to week 1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The 15 g/rat/day diet composed of 51% fat or 61% carbohydrates enriched mainly in fructose may induce characteristics of NAFLD in rats. PMID:26244072

  5. Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on adiposity and cellularity of different fat depots in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boqué, N; Campión, J; Paternain, L; García-Díaz, D F; Galarraga, M; Portillo, M P; Milagro, F I; Ortiz de Solórzano, C; Martínez, J A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary macronutrient content on adiposity parameters and adipocyte hypertrophy/hyperplasia in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots from Wistar rats using combined histological and computational approaches. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and were assigned to different nutritional interventions: Control group (chow diet); high-fat group, HF (60% E from fat); high-fat-sucrose group, HFS (45% E from fat and 17% from sucrose); and high-sucrose group, HS (42% E from sucrose). At day 35, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected, tissues were weighed and fragments of different fat depots were kept for histological analyses with the new softwareAdiposoft. Rats fed with HF, HFS and HS diets increased significantly body weight and total body fat against Control rats, being metabolic impairments more pronounced on HS rats than in the other groups. Cellularity analyses usingAdiposoft revealed that retroperitoneal adipose tissue is histologically different than mesenteric and subcutaneous ones, in relation to bigger adipocytes. The subcutaneous fat pad was the most sensitive to the diet, presenting adipocyte hypertrophy induced by HF diet and adipocyte hyperplasia induced by HS diet. The mesenteric fat pad had a similar but attenuated response in comparison to the subcutaneous adipose tissue, while retroperitoneal fat pad only presented adipocyte hyperplasia induced by the HS diet intake after 35 days of intervention. These findings provide new insights into the role of macronutrients in the development of hyperplastic obesity, which is characterized by the severity of the clinical features. Finally, a new tool for analyzing histological adipose samples is presented.

  6. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. PMID:20335011

  7. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P < 0.05) in red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, blood platelets count and neutrophils in animals treated with Red Bull and Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  8. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  9. Toxicity of aspartame and its diketopiperazine for Wistar rats by dietary administration for 104 weeks.

    PubMed

    Ishii, H; Koshimizu, T; Usami, S; Fujimoto, T

    1981-01-01

    Aspartame (APM) or L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine, and a 3 : 1 combination of APM with its decomposition product, 5-benzyl-3,6-dioxo-2-piperazine acetic acid (DKP), were incorporated at levels of up to 4 g/kg in the diet of male and female Wistar rats from 6 weeks to 104 weeks of age. There was a dose-dependent depression of body weight gain at 2 and 4 g/kg AMP and at 4 g/kg APM + DKP in males, and at all dose levels in females, correlated with decreased food consumption and attributed to liberation of amino acids from hydrolysis of APM. Increases in urinary specific gravity and pH, with increase of relative kidney weight, were attributed to the urinary excretion DKP and acidic metabolites of APM. A dose-related increase in urinary calcium probably reflected increased calcium absorption, as from high protein diets. A slight decrease in serum cholesterol and an increase in relative spleen weight appeared to be without adverse effect. It is concluded that the treatments were without toxic effect.

  10. Evaluation of glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic Wistar rats treated with Malpighia emarginata juice.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.

  11. Protective and ameliorative effect of sea buckthorn leaf extract supplementation on lead induced hemato-biochemical alterations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Rizwana; Raghuwanshi, Pratiksha; Rastogi, Ankur; Koul, Aditi Lal; Khajuria, Pallavi; Ganai, Aafreen Wahid; Kour, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective and ameliorative effect of aqueous sea buckthorn leaf extract (SLE) on hemato-biochemical profile in lead intoxicated Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted for 60 days. 36 adult male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 177.8±12.6 g were divided into five groups and were subjected to various daily oral treatment regimens. Group I served as a negative control receiving only feed and water, Group II (positive control for lead) received lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water, and Group III (positive control for SLE) received SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. Animals in Group IV received a combination of lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water for the first 45 days and SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. throughout the experimental period of 60-day, and in Group V for the last 15 days of the trial after the administration of lead acetate until the first 45 days of the trial to study the protective and ameliorating effects of SLE, respectively. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital fossa of each rat on 0th, 45th, and 60th day of the experiment for hemato-biochemical analysis including hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) lower levels of serum total proteins and albumin, and a significantly (p<0.01) higher serum cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels were observed in Group II (lead intoxicated group) in comparison to Group I (negative control). Administration of SLE at 100 mg/kg body wt. to lead intoxicated Wistar rats resulted in normalization of almost all the biochemical parameters studied in both the treatment Groups, i.e., IV and V (protective and ameliorative). However, the effects were more pronounced in the protective group. No effects of SLE supplementation were observed on Hb levels. PCV levels improved in protective groups, but no effect was observed in ameliorative group

  12. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  13. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  14. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-04-01

    Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

  15. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  16. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  17. Electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from Wistar Audiogenic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fernando; Aguiar, José F; Oliveira, José A; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Varanda, Wamberto A

    2005-03-15

    The main goal of this work was to analyze the electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from a particular epileptic rat strain, called Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR). The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record both active and passive membrane responses in an attempt to detect alterations in their characteristics in relation to controls from Wistar rats. Neurons from WARs show a significant reduction in the magnitude of the inhibitory GABAergic currents ( approximately 45%), in spite of maintaining a normal level of the excitatory glutamatergic currents. In addition, the magnitude of potassium currents, measured at +80 mV, is reduced by about 30% in comparison to controls. Surprisingly, we also found important changes in the passive cellular properties in WAR neurons such as membrane potential (-50.0 mV in WARs and -63.1 mV in controls) and input resistance (647 MOmega in WARs and 408 MOmega in controls). The changes described here, could be the basis of the neurophysiological and behavioral alterations present in these hyperexcitable animals, contributing to a better understanding of epileptogenesis in this particular animal model.

  18. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on glycaemic profile & their localization in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhansali, Shobhit; Kumar, Vinod; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Medhi, Bikash; Jha, Vivekanand; Bhansali, Anil; Dutta, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in irradiated diabetic rat model has transiently shown to decrease blood glucose level. This study examines the effect of high dose and multiple injections of MSCs on glycemic profile, their localization and regeneration of islet in diabetic Wistar rat. Methods: The study was carried out in male Wistar rats categorized into three groups (n=6, in each group): Group 1 as control, group 2 streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) induced diabetic group and group 3 experimental group; 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelled allogenic MSCs were injected in the non-irradiated diabetic rat of the experimental group through tail vein. The blood glucose profile was subsequently monitored at regular intervals. Rats were sacrificed on day 45 and pancreas was examined for localization of BrdU labelled stem cells by immunofluorescence and islet-neogenesis by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of MSCs in the experimental group (P<0.001). The presence of BrdU labelled MSCs in islet suggested their localization in the pancreas. Co-expression of anti-BrdU and anti-insulin antibody indicated trans-differentiation/fusion into insulin producing cells evidenced by significant increase in total number of islet (P=0.004) and insulin positive cells (P<0.0001) in experimental group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the MSCs administration in non-irradiated diabetic Wistar rat reduced hyperglycaemia and was accompanied by increased islet-neogengesis, possibly through trans- differentiation/fusion. PMID:26261168

  19. Effect of 15% Alcohol Dependence on Alveolar Bone Loss and TNF-α Secretion in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rocha, José Mariano da; Gaio, Eduardo José; Cavagni, Juliano; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 15% alcohol dependence on ligature-induced alveolar bone loss and TNF-α secretion in Wistar rats. Thirty-three male Wistar rats aged 45-60 days (mean weight=253 g) were randomly allocated test or control groups. Test group (n=18) received 15% alcohol as liquid intake and control group (n=15) received water during the experimental period. TNF-α was analyzed by ELISA assay in 11 animals per group. After 14 days of alcohol/water intake, alcohol dependency was assessed and silk ligatures were placed around the left second upper molars. Ligature presence and body weight were checked weekly. After 40 days, animals were sacrificed and the maxillae were defleshed for morphometric analysis using standardized images. All animals in the test group displayed signs of alcohol dependency at day 14. No statistically significant differences in final body weight (334.83±21.38 vs. 322.48±30.65 g, p=0.20) were observed between groups. In relation to alveolar bone loss, no statistically significant difference was observed among test and control groups both for ligated teeth (0.76±0.06 vs. 0.74±0.10 mm, p=0.60) and unligated teeth (0.41±0.16 vs. 0.35±0.05 mm, p=0.22). The TNF-α secretion also did not display statistically significant differences between test and control groups (10.78±1.84 vs. 12.13±2.11 pg/mL, p=0.12). It may be concluded that 15% alcohol dependency was not capable to alter alveolar bone loss and TNF-α secretion in Wistar rats.

  20. Three dissimilar high fat diets differentially regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in obesity-resistant Slc:Wistar/ST rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Tsushima, Hiromi; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Mori, Mayumi; Nishio, Koji; Ohkubo, Takeshi; Hibino, Hidehiko; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiologic and ecologic studies suggest that dietary fat plays an important role in the development of obesity. Certain Wistar rat strains do not become obese when fed high-fat diets unlike others. In a preliminary study, we confirmed that Slc:Wistar/ST rats did not become obese when fed high-fat diets. The mechanisms governing the response of hepatic lipid-metabolizing enzymes to large quantities of dietary lipids consumed by obesity-resistant animals are unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine how obesity-resistant animals metabolize various types of high-fat diets and why they do not become obese. For this purpose, male Slc:Wistar/ST rats were fed a control low-fat diet (LS) or a high-fat diet containing fish oil (HF), soybean oil (HS), or lard (HL) for 4 weeks. We observed their phenotypes and determined lipid profiles in plasma and liver as well as mRNA expression levels in liver of genes related to lipid and glucose metabolism using DNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain analyses. The body weights of all dietary groups were similar due to isocaloric intakes, whereas the weight of white adipose tissues in the LS group was significantly lower. The HF diet lowered plasma lipid levels by accelerated lipolysis in the peroxisomes and suppressed levels of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. The HS diet promoted hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressed lipolysis in the peroxisomes and normal levels of VLDL secretion. The lipid profiles of rats fed the LS or HL diet were similar. The HL diet accelerated lipid and glucose metabolism.

  1. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  2. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  3. Influence of low intensity laser therapy (AsGa) on the cicatrization process of mechanic tendon injury in wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. G. M.; Oliveira Filho, G. R.; Lima, M. T. B. R. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Silva, J. G.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the low level Laser therapy (AsGa) in the experimental tendon injury. Low level Laser therapy has been used in several studies to observe the regenerative quality and tecidual cicatrization. Forty Wistar rats (male) were divided into 4 groups: control group (C-group); injury group (L-group); treated group with Laser therapy 3 J/cm2 (3J-group); and treated group with Laser therapy 6 J/cm2 (6J-group). Groups L, 3J, and 6J were submitted to a mechanic Achilles tendon injury with a Kocher Forceps for 10 s. The animals were sacrificed after ten days of treatment. Histopathological evaluation using hematoxylin-eosin and Picro-Sirius staining showed a decreased ( p < 0.05) of collagen in L-group (353.12 ± 9.85 μm2/field) compared to C-group (215.13 ± 22.63 μm2/field). Animals treated with Laser showed a significant increase in collagen fibers despite the applied dosage (3J-group: 375.89 ± 26.99 μm2/field; 6J group: 400.34 ± 62.92 μm2/field; p < 0.05). These data suggest that low-level Laser therapy was efficient for the treatment of mechanics Achilles tendon injury in Wistar rats.

  4. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  5. Immunocytochemical study of the ultimobranchial tubule in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Conde, E; Moreno, A M; Martin-Lacave, I; Fernandez, A; Galera, H

    1992-03-01

    A systematic immunohistochemical study of the ultimobranchial tubule (UBT) has been carried out in 45 Wistar rats of different ages (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60 and 120 days). The existence of calcitonin immunoreactive cells in the UBT wall has been demonstrated in a 5-days old rat. In addition, immunohistochemical studies for thyroglobulin revealed positive staining in follicular cells connected to the UBT and, occasionally, in isolated cells lying within solid clusters from the UBT. These last results together with the continued and repeated existence of numerous mitosis and PAS (+) microfollicles, apparently rising from the UBT, support the hypothesis that the ultimobranchial body (UBB) may contribute partially to the formation of a part of the follicular component.

  6. In vivo wireless ethanol vapor detection in the Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, C. Parks; Srijanto, B.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Ferrell, T. L.; Schultz, J.; Engleman, E. A.; McBride, W. J.; O'Connor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional alcohol studies measure blood alcohol concentration to elucidate the biomedical factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These measurements require large and expensive equipment, are labor intensive, and are disruptive to the subject. To alleviate these problems, we have developed an implantable, wireless biosensor that is capable of measuring alcohol levels for up to six weeks. Ethanol levels were measured in vivo in the interstitial fluid of a Wistar rat after administering 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg ethanol by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The data were transmitted wirelessly using a biosensor selective for alcohol detection. A low-power piezoresistive microcantilever sensor array was used with a polymer coating suitable for measuring ethanol concentrations at 100% humidity over several hours. A hydrophobic, vapor permeable nanopore membrane was used to screen liquid and ions while allowing vapor to pass to the sensor from the subcutaneous interstitial fluid. PMID:20161283

  7. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  8. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  9. Individual differences in risk-related behaviors and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Sharif, Mana; Agren, Greta; Roman, Erika

    2014-06-01

    Some personality traits and comorbid psychiatric diseases are linked to a propensity for excessive alcohol drinking. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual differences in risk-related behaviors, voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Outbred male Wistar rats were tested in a novel open field, followed by assessment of behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. Animals were classified into high risk taking and low risk taking on the basis of open-field behavior and into high risk-assessing (HRA) and low risk-assessing (LRA) on the basis of the MCSF profile. Finally, voluntary alcohol intake was investigated using intermittent access to 20% ethanol and water for 5 weeks. Only minor differences in voluntary alcohol intake were found between high risk taking and low risk taking. Differences between HRA and LRA rats were more evident, with higher intake and increased intake over time in HRA relative to LRA rats. Thus, individual differences in risk-assessment behavior showed greater differences in voluntary alcohol intake than risk taking. The findings may relate to human constructs of decision-making and risk taking associated with a predisposition to rewarding and addictive behaviors. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk-related behaviors, including risk-assessment behavior, and liability for excessive alcohol intake.

  10. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats*, **

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Rodrigo de las Heras; Alves, Edson Marcelino; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos; Guardia, Renan Cenize; Buzo, Henrique Vivi; de Faria, Carolina Arruda; Yamashita, Camila; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD. PMID:24626269

  11. Linalool as a neuroprotective agent against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mehri, Soghra; Meshki, Mohammad Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble monomer which has broad application in different industries and also can form in food during heating process. This monomer is a potent neurotoxic and damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Oxidative stress has been mentioned as an important pathway in ACR neurotoxicity, therefore the purpose of the current study was evaluation of possible effects of linalool which is a naturally enantiomer monoterpene compound. Linalool has shown antioxidant properties in several studies. Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg ip) alone or with linalool (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg ip) for 11 days. In another 2 groups rats were treated with linalool (12.5 mg/kg ip) 3 days after and before ACR administration. Then behavior index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrified and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in brain tissue. Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with linalool significantly reduced abnormalities. ACR reduced GSH content and increased level of MDA in cerebral cortex. Linalool increased GSH content while decreased ACR-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain tissue and the best protocols were initiation of supplementation before or simultaneous with ACR administration.

  12. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  13. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests. PMID:26841660

  14. Analysis of The Sensitivity and Reproducibility Of The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) Scale in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Molina, Alessandra Eira Iague Sleiman

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan functional scale in the assessment of the locomotor capacity of rats after spinal cord injury. METHODS Thirty male Wistar rats underwent laminectomy and mild, moderate or severe spinal cord contusions using the New York University Weight Drop Impactor. The mice were followed for 28 days, after which time each rat was placed in an 80x80x30 cm3 clear box lined with a blue non-slippery material and stimulated to move. Their movement was video-recorded by three digital cameras operating simultaneously. Identical copies of the edited videos were given to six independent evaluators who were blinded with regards to the degree of injury severity. Each evaluator made a determination of the locomotor capacity of the rats using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan functional scale. RESULTS We determined the sensitivity of the method to differences among the evaluators as well as between the results achieved on the left and right hind paws of rats subjected to either mild, moderate or severe injuries by comparing the functional outcomes and reproducibility using non-parametric correlation tests. CONCLUSIONS The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale showed high reproducibility and satisfactory sensitivity for identifying mild injuries; satisfactory reproducibility and non-satisfactory sensitivity for moderate injuries; and reduced reproducibility and non-satisfactory sensitivity for severe injuries. PMID:18305873

  15. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p < 0.05), erythrocytes lipid peroxidation (MDA) (p < 0.01), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) (p < 0.001), increased by 153%, 31%, and 290%, respectively, in response to alloxan treatment, while intracellular reduced glutathione (p < 0.001) and total antioxidant potential of plasma in terms of Ferric reducing ability (FRAP) (p < 0.01) decreased by 75% and 22%, respectively, on alloxan treatment. Okra supplementation provided protection to the rats against alloxan-induced changes. Based on the present results, we hypothesize that okra has strong antioxidative potential and may be used as a dietary supplementation in diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications.

  16. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md. Sabir; Alam, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  17. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p < 0.05), erythrocytes lipid peroxidation (MDA) (p < 0.01), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) (p < 0.001), increased by 153%, 31%, and 290%, respectively, in response to alloxan treatment, while intracellular reduced glutathione (p < 0.001) and total antioxidant potential of plasma in terms of Ferric reducing ability (FRAP) (p < 0.01) decreased by 75% and 22%, respectively, on alloxan treatment. Okra supplementation provided protection to the rats against alloxan-induced changes. Based on the present results, we hypothesize that okra has strong antioxidative potential and may be used as a dietary supplementation in diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:27065051

  18. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window.

  19. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru . E-mail: xrwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  20. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    López, Patricia; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2014-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models. PMID:24971309

  1. Effect of aging on islet beta-cell function and its mechanisms in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhaoyan; Du, Yingzhen; Liu, Yu; Ma, Lichao; Li, Lin; Gong, Yanping; Tian, Hui; Li, Chunlin

    2012-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by islet β-cell dysfunction and its incidence increases with age. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of aging on islet β-cell function are not fully understood. We characterized β-cell function in 4-month-old (young), 14-month-old (adult), and 24-month-old (old) male Wistar rats, and found that islet β-cell function decreased gradually with age. Old rats displayed oral glucose intolerance and exhibited a decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) and palmitic acid-stimulated insulin release (PSIR). Furthermore, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased, whereas serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased in the older rats. Moreover, we detected a significant reduction in β-cell proliferation and an increase in the frequency of apoptotic β-cells in the islets of rats in the old group. Finally, Anxa1 expression in the islets of old rats was significantly upregulated. These data provide new insights into the development of age-related β-cell dysfunction in rats.

  2. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests.

  3. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  4. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-03-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  5. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  6. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of diaveridine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Su, Shijia; Ihsan, Awais; Huang, Qin; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Guyue; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    Diaveridine, a developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, has been widely used as anticoccidial drug and antibacterial synergist. However, few studies have been performed to investigate its toxicity. To provide detailed toxicity with a wide spectrum of doses for diaveridine, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted. Calculated LD50 was 2330 mg/kg b.w. in females and 3100 mg/kg b.w. in males, and chromodacryorrhea was noted in some females before their death. In the sub-chronic study, diaveridine was fed to Wistar rats during 90 days at dietary levels of 0, 23, 230, 1150 and 2000 mg/kg, which were about 0, 2.0-2.3, 21.0-23.5, 115.2-126.9 and 212.4-217.9 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Significant decrease in body weights in both genders at 1150 and 2000 mg/kg groups and significant increases in relative weights of brain in both genders, liver in females, kidneys and testis in males, alkaline phosphatase and potassium in both genders at 2000 mg/kg diet were noted. Significant decrease in absolute weights of several organs, hemoglobin and red blood cell count in both genders, albumin and total protein in females were observed at 2000 mg/kg diet. Fibroblasts in the kidneys, cell swelling of the glomerular zone in the adrenals and inflammation in the liver were found at 2000 mg/kg group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of diaveridine was 230 mg/kg diet (21.0-23.5 mg/kg b.w./day). PMID:26209270

  7. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of diaveridine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Su, Shijia; Ihsan, Awais; Huang, Qin; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Guyue; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    Diaveridine, a developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, has been widely used as anticoccidial drug and antibacterial synergist. However, few studies have been performed to investigate its toxicity. To provide detailed toxicity with a wide spectrum of doses for diaveridine, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted. Calculated LD50 was 2330 mg/kg b.w. in females and 3100 mg/kg b.w. in males, and chromodacryorrhea was noted in some females before their death. In the sub-chronic study, diaveridine was fed to Wistar rats during 90 days at dietary levels of 0, 23, 230, 1150 and 2000 mg/kg, which were about 0, 2.0-2.3, 21.0-23.5, 115.2-126.9 and 212.4-217.9 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Significant decrease in body weights in both genders at 1150 and 2000 mg/kg groups and significant increases in relative weights of brain in both genders, liver in females, kidneys and testis in males, alkaline phosphatase and potassium in both genders at 2000 mg/kg diet were noted. Significant decrease in absolute weights of several organs, hemoglobin and red blood cell count in both genders, albumin and total protein in females were observed at 2000 mg/kg diet. Fibroblasts in the kidneys, cell swelling of the glomerular zone in the adrenals and inflammation in the liver were found at 2000 mg/kg group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of diaveridine was 230 mg/kg diet (21.0-23.5 mg/kg b.w./day).

  8. Two-generation reproduction and teratology studies of feeding aditoprim in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Tan, Ziqiang; Cheng, Guyue; Awais, Ihsan; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-12-01

    Aditoprim, a new bacteriostatic agent that belongs to diaminopyrimidines, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, good antibacterial activity and excellent pharmacokinetics. To evaluate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of aditoprim, different concentrations of aditoprim were administered to Wistar rats by feeding diets containing 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively. Each group consisting of 18 males and 25 females (F0 ) was treated with different concentrations of aditoprim through a 13-week period before mating and during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 20 males and 25 females of the F1 generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for the F2 generation. Selected F1 weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At 1000 mg kg(-1) dose group, body weights in F0 and F1 rats, fetal body weight on day 21 (0, 4 and 21) after birth and number of viable fetuses in the F0 and F1 generation significantly decreased. Teratogenicity study was performed in combination with the F1 generation of a two-generation reproduction study. F1 parents of the reproduction study were mated after weaning of the F2a pups. Pregnant female rats were subjected to cesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination. At 1000 mg kg(-1) group, body weights, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses were significantly decreased. No obvious external, skeletal or visceral malformations in fetuses were noted in any groups in the teratogenic test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for reproduction/development toxicity of aditoprim was 100 mg kg(-1) diet (about 7.89-9.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ).

  9. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  10. Mandibular Branch of the Facial Nerve in Wistar Rats: New Experimental Model to Assess Facial Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies. PMID:25992106

  11. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  12. Changes in the masticatory muscles, periodontal tissues, and the pharyngeal ring in Wistar rats in chronic psychophysical stress.

    PubMed

    Antonova, I N

    2008-11-01

    Experimental studies performed on 120 male Wistar rats using morphometric and histological methods demonstrated changes in oral cavity tissues on exposure to chronic psychophysical stress (dosed swimming). The masticatory muscles showed foci of non-infective inflammation, dystrophic changes in muscle fibers, and contractures. The periodontal ligament showed impairments to the microcirculation with congestion of the venous bed, local bleeding into the tissue, changes in the directions of bundles of collagen fibers, and deformation of bundles. The tissues of the pharyngeal ring showed decreases in lymphocyte content, progressive loosening of connective tissue, and decreases in non-degranulated mast cell numbers, as compared with controls. The intensity of these changes depended on the level of physical loading and the individual adaptive capacity of the animals. These structural changes in the tissues may be the etiopathogenetic basis of the development of chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases. PMID:18975112

  13. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Asgharzade, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Amin; Reiisi, Somaye; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-1; group A, 300 mg.kg-1; group B, and only normal saline; group C (control group). They were mated with untreated females and the reproductive and chemical parameters were assessed for each group, including semen quality, serum testosterone, sperm fertility, gonad and body weight, serum NO concentration (by the Griess method), and iNOS gene expression (using RT-PCR). Results: The testes weight, serum testosterone, as well as sperm count and fertility of the AVG treated groups were significantly reduced when compared to the control (P<0.001). Concentration of serum NO was significantly increased (37.1±4.63 µM) in the administrated group with higher AVG concentration, compared to the control group (P<0.001; 10.19±0.87 µM); however, iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the treated animals (P<0.001). Conclusion: iNOS may play a functional role in spermatogenesis via apoptosis, reducing sperm count, but further studies are needed to illustrate the mechanisms by which AVG exerts its negative effects on spermatogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:26730330

  14. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  15. Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Linn.) Bulbs Ameliorated Pituitary-Testicular Injury and Dysfunction in Wistar Rats with Pb-Induced Reproductive Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ayoka, Abiodun O.; Ademoye, Aderonke K.; Imafidon, Christian E.; Ojo, Esther O.; Oladele, Ayowole A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs (AEASAB) on pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with lead-induced reproductive disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups such that the control group received propylene glycol at 0.2 ml/100 g intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days, the toxic group received lead (Pb) alone at 15 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 10 days while the treatment groups were pretreated with lead as the toxic group after which they received graded doses of the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day via oral route for 28 days. RESULTS: Pb administration induced significant deleterious alterations in the antioxidant status of the brain and testis, sperm characterization (counts, motility and viability) as well as reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) of exposed rats (p < 0.05). These were significantly reversed in the AEASAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was marked improvement in the Pb-induced vascular congestion and cellular loss in the pituitary while the observed Pb-induced severe testicular vacuolation was significantly reversed in the representative photomicrographs, following administration of the extract. CONCLUSION: AEASAB treatment ameliorated the pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with Pb-Induced reproductive disturbances. PMID:27335588

  16. Septal regulation of male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C; Kantak, N M

    1995-06-01

    Involvement of septal nuclei in modulation of male sexual behavior in rats was investigated. Sexually active Wistar male rats were assigned to intact, sham, lateral septal nuclei lesioned (LSL), and medial septal nuclei lesioned (MSL) groups. All male rats were tested for sexual behavior in an arena in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Intromission and ejaculation latencies were increased, and mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies were decreased in the LSL group compared to the intact group. In contrast, mount and intromission latencies were decreased, and pursuit and mount frequencies were increased in the MSL group compared to the intact group. The results indicate that medial septal nuclei may inhibit and lateral septal nuclei may facilitate male sexual behavior in rats. PMID:7652045

  17. Sperm chromatin dispersion by formaldehyde in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Betancourt-Martínez, N D; Jiménez-Villarreal, J; Carranza-Rosales, P; Guzmán-Delgado, N E; Leyva Orasma, C; Viveros Valdez, E; Morán-Martínez, J

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental xenobiotic, which is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans and animals; it induces DNA damage, mutations, and clastogenicity during critical cytogenetic events. FA-mediated oxidative stress is an important mechanism that has been associated with the induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic damage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersion of sperm chromatin and reproductive parameters induced by exposure to different concentrations of FA in Wistar rats. Compared to the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA in the control group (18.10 ± 8.62%), the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA increased following exposure to 5, 10, and 30 mg FA/kg body weight (29.60 ± 8.44, 85.20 ± 20.94 and 96.0 ± 7.87, respectively; P = 0.0001). Histopathological alterations were evident, especially in the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence concerning the genotoxicity of FA, with particular reference to the decreased sperm concentration and motility and increased dispersion of DNA chromatin in rats.

  18. Renal effects of Anchomanes difformis crude extract in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ataman E, Jacob; Idu, MacDonald

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anchomanes difformis is a member of the plant family Araceae which is used as a diuretic but also has other medicinal applications. This study investigates the dietary effects of A. difformis on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Sixteen rats were used and were weighed, before and after the experiment. All rats were randomly divided into four groups. All groups were treated with the following regimen for two weeks. The control group (A) was fed on feed mash and water ad libitum throughout the period. The treatment groups B, C, and D received feed mash mixed with crude extract of A. difformis in the following proportions: 25:75(g), 50:50(g), and 75:25(g), respectively. The kidneys of the experimental animals were histologically examined for morphologic changes. Results: Results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the kidney weight of the treatment groups compared with the control. Histological examination of the renal tissues also showed considerable lesions such as inflammation, focal cortical and interstitial hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the treated rats compared with the control. Conclusion: The current study results suggest renal toxicity with excessive consumption of A.difformis. PMID:25767753

  19. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  20. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of clerodendrum capitatum in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Idoh, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Potchoo, Yao; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity of C. capitatum in Wistar rats. Methods In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the hydroethanolic C. capitatum leaf extract (5 g/kg) was given orally to 5 female rats. The general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days post treatment. On the 15th day, the rats were weighed and euthanized for necropsy. In sub-chronic toxicity tests, the extract (4, 8 and 16 g/kg/day) was given orally to both male and female rats for 28 days. The animal body weight was recorded throughout the experiment, while hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and relative organs weights were evaluated on the 29th day. Results Clerodendrum Capitatum did not cause any death or any hazardous symptoms of acute toxicity, showing an LD50 higher than 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic administration of C. capitatum resulted in no noticeable changes in weight gain and water or food consumption. White blood cells and hemoglobin increased while urea concentration, liver enzymes, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations significantly decreased in treated animals. No changes in macroscopical aspect of organs were observed in the animals. Conclusion These results showed that acute or sub-chronic oral administration of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum capitatum may be considered as relatively free of toxicity. PMID:27642406

  1. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  2. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  3. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  4. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  5. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  6. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract.

  7. Influence of State and/or Trait Anxieties of Wistar Rats in an Anxiety Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rashmi Madhava; Sadananda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Systematic individual differences between male Wistar rats can be detected in paradigms such as the elevated plus maze (EPM), which is a widely used behavioral paradigm that measures fear-motivated avoidance behavior. It has been extensively used to assess anxiety profiles with face, construct and predictive validities. During a typical EPM test, animals actively avoid the open arms in favour of the closed arms. We investigated whether individuals carry inherent trait anxiety profiles and whether perturbations of different intensities influence anxiety measures. Inherent anxiety levels and coping strategies following stress have become critical determinants in pre-disposition to other neuropsychiatric disorders and affect biomedical interventions in individuals. One group of rats was screened on EPM and in the activity box. Another set of rats were randomly divided into groups and subjected to perturbations of acute and sub-chronic isolation or restraint and tested in the EPM. Based on open-arm time in the EPM, low or high anxiety profiles were identified with significant differences in all measures. Perturbations of different intensities induced differential anxiety measures as expressed in the EPM. Anxiety levels were significantly reduced in sub-chronic restrained subjects, while isolation did not show marked difference. Anxiety profiles become evident from broad sample sizes and could constitute a critical limiting factor in personalized treatments. Stress-induced anxiety disorders could implicate comorbidity to other neuropsychiatric disorders in individuals. Coping strategies come to the fore in repeated sub-chronic perturbations indicating adaptive responses to the stressor, while acute perturbation enhances expression of anxiety behaviors. PMID:27536021

  8. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, I C; de Oliveira, C; Vercelino, R; Souza, A; Laste, G; Medeiros, L F; Scarabelot, V L; Nunes, E A; Kuo, J; Fregni, F; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that food craving-an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)-can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26972354

  9. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, F.A.; Mattar, R.; Facincani, I.; Defino, H.L.A.; Ramalho, L.N.Z.; Jorgetti, V.; Volpon, J.B.; de Paula, F.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility. PMID:22983176

  10. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g) were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (TG), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (FG) with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P<0.001) and between TG and CG (P<0.001). Qualitative histological analyses confirmed 100% HO in FG and CG, while in TG the HO was detected in 54.5% of the animals. The effects of the muscle contractions caused by FES increased HO, while anti-inflammatory effects of TENS reduced HO. PMID:26292223

  11. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zotz, T G G; Paula, J B de

    2015-11-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g) were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (TG), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (FG) with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P<0.001) and between TG and CG (P<0.001). Qualitative histological analyses confirmed 100% HO in FG and CG, while in TG the HO was detected in 54.5% of the animals. The effects of the muscle contractions caused by FES increased HO, while anti-inflammatory effects of TENS reduced HO.

  12. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of clerodendrum capitatum in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Idoh, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Potchoo, Yao; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity of C. capitatum in Wistar rats. Methods In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the hydroethanolic C. capitatum leaf extract (5 g/kg) was given orally to 5 female rats. The general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days post treatment. On the 15th day, the rats were weighed and euthanized for necropsy. In sub-chronic toxicity tests, the extract (4, 8 and 16 g/kg/day) was given orally to both male and female rats for 28 days. The animal body weight was recorded throughout the experiment, while hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and relative organs weights were evaluated on the 29th day. Results Clerodendrum Capitatum did not cause any death or any hazardous symptoms of acute toxicity, showing an LD50 higher than 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic administration of C. capitatum resulted in no noticeable changes in weight gain and water or food consumption. White blood cells and hemoglobin increased while urea concentration, liver enzymes, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations significantly decreased in treated animals. No changes in macroscopical aspect of organs were observed in the animals. Conclusion These results showed that acute or sub-chronic oral administration of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum capitatum may be considered as relatively free of toxicity.

  13. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  14. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  15. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database. PMID:26828476

  16. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  17. Toxicological evaluation of ametryn effects in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tamires; Cancian, Graziela; Neodini, Daniella N R; Mano, Deiviston R S; Capucho, Cristina; Predes, Fabrícia S; Barbieri, Renata; Oliveira, Camila A; Pigoso, Acácio A; Dolder, Heidi; Severi-Aguiar, Grasiela D C

    2015-10-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane planting in the world. Extensive use of ametryn, a triazine herbicide, in sugar cane agriculture and the properties of this herbicide suggest it could be present in the environment as a potential contaminant of soil, surface water, groundwater, and river sediment. In order to clarify the mechanism through which ametryn could be toxic, an in vivo study with Wistar rats was conducted using hematological, biochemical, molecular, morphological and genotoxic approaches. For this purpose, two sub-lethal ametryn concentrations (15 mg and 30 mg/kg/day) were administered to 42 rats divided into three groups (n=12) by gavage during 56 days, whereupon blood, liver and bone marrow were collected. The results showed ametryn genotoxic activity by in vivo micronuclei testing. This event probably occurred as consequence of oxidative stress induction demonstrated by GSTM1 transcript levels increase (indicating complexation between ametryn and/or metabolites with GSH) and by SOD activity decrease. Also, Mn-SOD transcripts were increased, probably avoiding mtDNA damage caused by EROS. These mechanisms displayed hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) activation because two major biomarkers were regulated, connexin and cadherin. N-cad transcripts were increased on both exposed groups while E-cad decreased in the T1 group, indicating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, Cx43 transcripts were decreased suggesting an increase in collagen content. Volumetric proportion of sinusoids was significantly decreased in T1 group and no significant alteration in hepatocyte volume was observed, indicating an increase in the space of Disse, due to fibrosis. Hepatocyte nuclei showed significant decrease in diameter and volume. Few hematological alterations were found. We emphasize the importance of other approaches, such as cell death and proliferation assays, so that ametryn toxicity can better be understood. PMID:26310382

  18. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  19. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males.

  20. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males. PMID:26577750

  1. Effects of copper metabolism on neurological functions in Wistar and Wilson's disease model rats.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Noriko; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Eguchi, Hironobu; Ookawara, Tomomi; Ozawa, Keiichiro; Shimoda, Shigero; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Takemura, Motohiko; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2006-10-27

    Behavioral functions of Wistar and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, Wilson's disease animal model, were compared by measuring the open-field, acoustic startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and shuttle-box avoidance learning tests with or without oral supplementation with copper or D-penicillamine, copper chelator. All of the LEC rats, irrespective of the treatment, exhibited higher locomotor activity, a decreased habituation to startle response or a lower PPI, compared with Wistar rats. The copper content of all brain regions examined, except for the medulla oblongata of LEC rats, was significantly lower than those in Wistar rats. Besides, in the region of the striatum and the nucleus accumbens of the LEC rats, lower content of norepinephrine, and higher content of dopamine and serotonin were observed compared with Wistar rats. Although copper supplementation did not affect the brain copper content, it reduced the PPI in both Wistar and LEC rats. In contrast, D-penicillamine supplementation decreased both the brain copper content and locomotor activity, and enhanced the startle amplitude only in Wistar rats. These findings suggest that an imbalance in copper homeostasis affects monoamine metabolism and behavioral functions.

  2. Progressive Induction of Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of a Reality–Like Fructose Enriched Diet in Young Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Julie; Goanvec, Christelle; Feray, Annie; Guernec, Anthony; Alain, Charlène; Guerrero, François; Mansourati, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize short and medium-lasting effects of fructose supplementation on young Wistar rats. The diet was similar to actual human consumption. Methods Three week old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 16), fructose fed (FF; n = 16) with a fructose enriched drink for 6 or 12 weeks. Bodyweight, fasting glycemia and systolic blood pressure were monitored. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinemia was measured concomitantly and enable us to calculate insulin resistance markers (HOMA-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia: ISI-gly). Blood chemistry analyses were performed. Results After six weeks of fructose supplementation, rats were not overweight but presented increased fasting glycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to control group. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were also increased without any change in renal function (theoretical creatinine clearance). After twelve weeks of fructose supplementation, FF rats had increased bodyweight and presented insulin resistance (higher HOMA-IR, lower ISI-gly). Rats also presented higher heart volume and lower ASAT/ALAT ratio (presumed liver lesion). Surprisingly, the Total Cholesterol/Triglycerides ratio was increased only after six weeks of fructose supplementation, predicting a higher LDL presence and thus a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This risk was no longer present after twelve weeks of a fructose enriched diet. Conclusion On young Wistar rats, six weeks of fructose supplementation is sufficient to induce signs of metabolic syndrome. After twelve weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats are insulin resistant. This model enabled us to study longitudinally the early development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26799836

  3. Evidences that maternal swimming exercise improves antioxidant defenses and induces mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain of young Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, T B; Longoni, A; Kudo, K Y; Stone, V; Rech, A; de Assis, A M; Scherer, E B S; da Cunha, M J; Wyse, A T S; Pettenuzzo, L F; Leipnitz, G; Matté, C

    2013-08-29

    Physical exercise during pregnancy has been considered beneficial to mother and child. Recent studies showed that maternal swimming improves memory in the offspring, increases hippocampal neurogenesis and levels of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on redox status and mitochondrial parameters in brain structures from the offspring. Adult female Wistar rats were submitted to five swimming sessions (30 min/day) prior to mating with adult male Wistar rats, and then trained during the pregnancy (five sessions of 30-min swimming/week). The litter was sacrificed when 7 days old, when cerebellum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were dissected. We evaluated the production of reactive species and antioxidant status, measuring the activities of superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants. We also investigated a potential mitochondrial biogenesis regarding mitochondrion mass and membrane potential, through cytometric approaches. Our results showed that maternal swimming exercise promoted an increase in reactive species levels in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus, demonstrated by an increase in dichlorofluorescein oxidation. Mitochondrial superoxide was reduced in cerebellum and parietal cortex, while nitrite levels were increased in cerebellum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Antioxidant status was improved in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. SOD activity was increased in parietal cortex, and was not altered in the remaining brain structures. CAT and GPx activities, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant potential, were increased in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus of rats whose mothers were exercised. Finally, we observed an increased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, suggesting mitochondriogenesis, in cerebellum and parietal cortex of pups subjected to

  4. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  5. Hepatic and renal toxicological evaluations of an industrial ovotoxic chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide, in both sexes of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abolaji, Amos Olalekan; Toloyai, Pere-Ebi; Odeleye, Titilope Deborah; Akinduro, Susan; Teixeira Rocha, Joao Batista; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

    2016-07-01

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is an industrial occupational health hazard chemical because it induces ovotoxicity in rodents. The current study investigated the impacts of VCD on selected hepatic and renal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in both sexes of Wistar rats. Thus, male and female rats were randomly distributed into four groups of ten rats per group, and dosed orally with VCD for 28days. The control male and female groups of rats received corn oil only, while each of the three remaining groups of both sexes of rats received VCD (100, 250 and 500mg/kg BW) respectively. Thereafter, biomarkers of hepatic and renal oxidative damage, inflammation and immunohistochemical expressions of iNOS, COX-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were evaluated. The results revealed that VCD increased markers of liver and kidney functions, oxidative damage and inflammation, and disrupted the antioxidant homeostasis of the rats (p<0.05). Lastly, VCD enhanced the immunohistochemical expressions of iNOS, COX-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the liver of the rats. Thus, our data imply that VCD induced toxicity in the liver and kidney of rats via the combined impacts of oxidative damage and inflammation. PMID:27258136

  6. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats. PMID:27047060

  7. Palatal shelf elevation in the Wistar rat fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, M W

    1978-01-01

    Palatogenesis in the Wistar rat fetus was studied macroscopically, microscopically, ultrastructurally and experimentally between days 13 and 19. The developmental ages of the fetuses were calculated from the smear age of the litter adjusted for individual variations in crown-rump lengths. Palatal shelf elevation occurs at day 16.4 +/- 0.1. Experimentally induced shelf elevation in freshly delivered fetuses was sluggish at day 14, but by day 16.3 it occurred in less than 1 second. Both shelf elevation and shelf fusion begin anteriorly where the shelves show a marked convexity of their margins, and proceed posteriorly. The extreme posterior part of each shelf (future soft palate) is horizontal from the beginning. The matrix of the shelf mesenchyme (especially in the region of the anterior convexities) shows an increasing accumulation of mucopolysaccharides from day 14 to day 16.3 and becomes increasingly oedematous. The shelf attachment to the main maxillary process is progressively undercut by epithelial invagination, producing a fulcrum for shelf elevation. The maxillary and palatine osteogenic blastemata are present at the base of the shelf prior to elevation and rapidly invade the shelves after the event. The elevated palatal shelves fuse with the nasal septum anteriorly, but posteriorly the palate is not attached to the septum. The posterior septum at first has a free lower edge, but then it develops lateral flanges which fuse with corresponding bulges on the lateral nasal walls. In this way two sphenoethmoidal recesses are formed above the fused flanges, while a common nasal passage is formed above the palate, roofed anteriorly by the septal flanges and posteriorly by the cranial base. The space needed to create (simultaneous with shelf elevation) the common nasal passage is made available by flattening of the tongue and protrusion of its tip out of the oral cavity--this protrusion being facilitated by the sloping bulge of the primary palate and nasal septum

  8. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  9. Reversal of Lead-Induced Acute Toxicity by Lipoic Acid with Nutritional Supplements in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sangeeta; Sharma, Yamini; Shrivastava, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a pleiotropic toxicant. The potential role of oxidative stress injury that is associated with Pb poisoning suggests that antioxidants may enhance the efficacy of treatment designed to mitigate Pb-induced toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the comparative ameliorative potential of lipoic acid (LA) alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Pb acetate (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 3 d. After 24 h of the last toxicant dose, LA (100 mg/kg, orally [po]) alone or in conjuction with Ca (50 mg/kg, po) and Zn (10 mg/kg, po) was administered for 3 d. Significant alterations in the concentration of urea, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione as well as alterations in enzyme activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase were observed following acute Pb exposure. These findings were also supported by elevated mean DNA damage and Pb body burden in blood and soft tissues compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Three d posttreatment with LA along with Zn and Ca could significantly restore the biochemical parameters and Pb body burden to near-normal status through antioxidant activity or by preventing bioaccumulation of Pb within the blood and tissues of experimental rats. PMID:27481494

  10. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  11. Transcriptional profile of diurnon-induces toxicity on the urinary bladder of male wistar rats to inform mode of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. Th...

  12. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  13. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITE DACT ON HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS ACTIVATION IN ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that a single administration of atrazine (ATR), a chloro-s-triazine herbicide that is used extensively throughout the USA and world, is able to induce a dose-dependent increase in plasma ACTH, with maximal concentrations observed at 15 mi...

  14. Differential expression of the phthalate syndrome in male Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats after in utero DEHP exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone and insulin-like three hormones resulting in malformations of androgen- and insulin-like three-dependent tissues. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that gubernacular lesions would...

  15. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of the multidrug herbomineral formulation in male Wistar rats against rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S.; Shah, Praboth V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunological and inflammatory mechanisms, which may play a role in a number of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ancient ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest or prevent these disorders. Objective: Rheuma off gold (RG) is a herbomineral formulation recommended by ayurvedic medical practitioners for treatment of RA. This study was carried out to lend scientific evidence to the efficacy claim for RG in the management of RA in folklore medicine. Materials and Methods: Arthritis was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant. Treatment with formulation 100 mg/kg and dexamethasone 2 mg/kg was given to rats intragastrically once a day from day 1 to day 21 and after which estimation of physical, biochemical, and hematological parameters were carried out. Results: Treatment of formulation to adjuvant induced arthritic animal showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement in physical parameters like arthritic index, paw edema, paw thickness as well as reduction of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein, serum rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The treatment also produced statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in hemoglobin percent and improvement in splenomegaly and thymus index. In the histopathological examination, ameliorative effect of formulation was observed in hyperplasia of synovium, pannus formation, and destruction of the joint space. Conclusion: The results obtained in experiments indicated that the formulation significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced arthritis which was comparable to dexamethasone and had preferable anti-inflammatory effect without significant side effect. Thus, the formulation may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of chronic inflammation and arthritis. PMID:23930040

  17. Effect of a peri-juvenile exposure to Triclosan on serum androgens and thyroid hormone in the male Wistar rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent antibacterial and antifungal compound that is widely used in personal care products. Studies testing triclosan exposure in the bullfrog showed altered thyroid hormone homeostasis. More recently, triclosan has been s...

  18. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on Cyanide-induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, K F; Maduagwu, E N

    2014-12-29

    The protective effects of onion was assessed in the Kidney of rats following sub-acute exposure to cyanide. These effects were compared to those of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), a classical antidote of cyanide toxicity. The rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Group 1 was administered distilled water, Group 2,3,4, 5, and 6 were administered 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day, 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 300 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day, 600mg Na2S2O3/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Group 3, 4 and 5 were pre-administered with 300mg onion/kg bwt/day, 600mg onion/kg bwt/day and 600mg Na2S2O3 /kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Serum and urine creatinine and urea level were assessed as a measure of kidney function. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters were estimated in Kidney. Serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly higher in the cyanide treated rats compared with control. This was accompanied by significant reduction in the urine level of creatinine and urea. Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 reverse the situation in both the serum and urine. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats treated with cyanide (3.846±0.20μg/g) was significantly increased in the kidney relative to control (0.691±0.15μg/g). This was accompanied with a decreased in antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (2.0±0.09U/mg), Catalase (CAT) (0.014±0.001katf),Glutathione-S-Tranferase (GST) (0.015±0.009nMol/mg) and non-enzymatic antioxidant Reduced Glutathione (GSH) (4.006±0.09μg/ml) compared with control (4.8±0.13 U/mg, 0.047±0.001 katf, 0.022±0.0013 nMol/mg, 6.802±0.2 μg/ml respectively). Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 significantly increased these antioxidant enzymes and significantly decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde in the kidney. The results indicate that onion extract reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and increased antioxidant status of animals exposed to cyanide in a dose dependent manner.

  19. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. PMID:26318578

  20. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action. PMID:21713743

  1. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  2. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  3. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  4. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  5. Gender differences in Ca(2+) entry mechanisms of vasoconstriction in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Crews, J K; Murphy, J G; Khalil, R A

    1999-10-01

    We investigated whether putative vascular protection against hypertension in females reflects differences in the Ca(2+) mobilization mechanisms of vasoconstriction depending on the gender and the status of the gonads. Active stress and (45)Ca(2+) influx were measured in aortic strips isolated from intact and gonadectomized male and female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In aortic strips of intact male WKY incubated in normal Krebs' solution (2.5 mmol/L Ca(2+)), both phenylephrine (10(-5) mol/L) and membrane depolarization by 96 mmol/L KCl caused significant increases in active stress and (45)Ca(2+) influx. In intact female WKY, the phenylephrine- and KCl-induced stress and (45)Ca(2+) influx were significantly reduced. In Ca(2+)-free (2 mmol/L EGTA) Krebs' solution, stimulation of aortic strips with phenylephrine or caffeine (25 mmol/L) to induce Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores caused a transient increase in stress that was not significantly different between males and females. In SHR, the phenylephrine- and KCl-induced stress and (45)Ca(2+) influx were significantly greater than those in WKY in all groups of rats. The reduction in stress and Ca(2+) entry in intact females compared with intact males was greater in SHR than in WKY. The contractile responses and Ca(2+) entry in castrated male and ovariectomized female WKY or SHR were not significantly different from the respective responses in intact males. The contractile responses and Ca(2+) entry in ovariectomized female WKY or SHR with 17beta-estradiol implant were not significantly different from the respective responses in intact females. Thus, the phenylephrine- and depolarization-induced vascular reactivity and Ca(2+) entry in vascular smooth muscle are dependent on gender and on the presence or absence of functional female gonads. Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores is not affected by gender or gonadectomy. The gender-specific changes in vascular reactivity and

  6. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility.

  7. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  8. Postnatal changes in the number of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in midbrain raphe nuclei of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Moriizumi, Tetsuji; Shimogawa, Yuji; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the developmental changes in serotonergic neurons in the subdivisions of the dorsal (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei before puberty, the extent of the nuclei and the number of serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive (ir) cells were measured in 5-, 15-, and 30-day-old rats and 8-week-old (adult) castrated male rats. The brains were fixed and 50 μm frozen sections prepared. After immunostaining for 5-HT, the number of 5-HT-ir cells in a 0.2 × 0.2 mm frame in the dorsal, ventral and lateral subdivisions of the DR (dDR, vDR and lDR, respectively) and MR were counted. Total numbers of 5-HT-ir cells counted in the frame of three sections in each rat were expressed as the number of cells per cubic millimeter (density). The results indicated that the densities of 5-HT-ir cells in the MR were almost the same in all age groups. On the other hand, among the subdivisions of the DR, the mean density of 5-HT-ir cells in 15-day-old rats was higher than that in the 5-day-old group in the lDR only. The area of the three sections of the DR and of the MR was also measured. The area of the DR in 15-day-old rats was found to be twice that in the 5-day-old rats, and differed from the area in 30-day-old rats and adults. There were no differences among the age groups in the areas of the MR. The results indicate that the expression of 5-HT in the lDR and extent of the DR increased to adult levels from days 5 to 15 after birth. In the dDR, vDR and MR, expression of 5-HT at postnatal day 5 was at adult levels already.

  9. Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment during gestation in WKY and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Ateret; Weller, Aron

    2012-08-01

    Effects of prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) were examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) "depressive- and anxious-like" rats and Wistar rats. During gestation, dams lived in standard cages or in EE cages. Their behavior during gestation and lactation was observed. On weaning day, they were tested in the forced swimming test, and corticosterone concentration was measured from their plasma. The offspring, reared in standard environment, were tested as juveniles or young adults in the elevated plus maze, open field and forced swimming tests. Corticosterone concentration in feces was analyzed. EE offspring showed more anxiety-like behaviors and less activity, compared to controls. Effects were more prominent in youth than in adulthood and in Wistar rats more than in WKY. EE lowered corticosterone concentration in young WKY rats' feces. EE induced changes in the dams' behavior during gestation and lactation. These changes in dams' behavior could be mediators of the effects on the offspring.

  10. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA) and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC) and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK), and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups), ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg), HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg), or HNK (1,590 mg/kg) for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP) reduction

  11. Ameliorative effect of ocimum sanctum on meloxicam induced toxicity in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mahaprabhu, R; Bhandarkar, A G; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S P; Kurkure, N V

    2011-07-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G(1) to G(6). Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G(2) and G(3) respectively for 28 days. Group G(4) and G(5) were fed with 1.2-mg/kg body weight and 2.4-mg/kg body weight of meloxicam along with 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum. Group G(1) serve as control while group G(6) was kept as treatment control and fed only aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum at 200 mg/kg body weight. Clinical finding showed mild diarrhea from 23(rd) day onwards in-group treated with 2.4-mg/kg body of meloxicam. Significant reduction of hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in both the group treated with 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4-mg/kg body wt. of meloxicam. Ocimum sanctum could restore the hemoglobin and PCV value in-group treated with meloxicam at low dose level. Serum alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and total bilirubin were found elevated in meloxicam treated groups and indicated hepatotoxic activity of meloxicam. Ocimum sanctum could reduce hepatotoxic activity of meloxicam in group G4 receiving meloxicam at lower dose rate along with Ocimum sanctum failed to regulate creatinine level in meloxicam treated groups. In meloxicam toxicity elevated Lipid peroxidation values was noticed in liver and kidneys, while superoxide dismutase and glutathione did not revealed any change. Stomach and intestine revealed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and ulcers. Perivascular necrosis with infiltration with inflammatory cells was evident in liver. Interstitial nephritis

  12. Wistar rats with high versus low rearing activity differ in radial maze performance.

    PubMed

    Görisch, Jutta; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2006-09-01

    Substantial work has shown that rats although identical in stock, sex, age, and housing conditions can differ considerably in terms of behavior and physiology. Such individual differences, which can be detected by specific behavioral screening tests, are rather stable, that is, they probably reflect a behavioral disposition or trait. Here, we asked whether and how such differences might affect performance in a task of spatial learning and memory, the radial maze. As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats into those with high versus low rearing activity (HRA/LRA rats). They were then tested in a plus-maze for possible differences in anxiety-related behavior. Finally, and most importantly, they were food deprived and underwent maze training using an 8-arm radial maze with four non-baited and four baited arms. One of these arms consistently contained a larger bait size than the other three. In the open field, HRA rats not only showed more rearing behavior, but also more locomotor activity than LRA rats. In the plus-maze, HRA rats again showed more locomotion, but did not differ in open arm time or percentage of open arm entries, that is, conventional measures of anxiety-related behavior. In the radial maze, HRA rats consistently needed less time to consume all pellets than LRA rats, which was due to faster locomotion on the arms and less time spent at the food pits (especially in baited arms) of HRA rats. During the initial days of training, they were also more efficient in obtaining all food pellets available. Furthermore, HRA rats visited more arms and made relatively less reference memory errors than LRA rats. This allowed them to forage food quickly, but was paralleled by more working memory errors than in LRA rats. In general, working memory errors were more frequent in the arm with the large bait size, but there were no indications that HRA and LRA rats responded differently

  13. The endocrine status of gossypol - treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Weinbauer, G F; Rovan, E; Frick, J; Adam, H

    1983-01-01

    Male adult Wistar rats were exposed daily or every other day to oral gossypol acetic acid (GAA) concentrations of 2.5-30 mg/kg for 10-20 weeks. Controls received the GAA-suspension medium or were left completely untreated. The serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and FSH as well as the weight of testis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, coagulating gland, and pituitary were determined. The accessory sex organs were prepared for light microscopy. Significant antifertility effect in these animals was achieved at GAA-dosage of 15 mg/kg and higher. GAA-administration neither altered the serum hormonal profiles nor the reproductive organ weights in comparison to the controls. Accordingly, light microscopical examination revealed no alterations in the histological picture of prostate, seminal vesicle and coagulating gland when compared with the controls. The results indicate that GAA does not interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult rats.

  14. Testicular toxicity of profenofos in matured male rats.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Gihan Gamal; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Alkelch, Alkelch M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the phosphorothoate insecticide profenofos on male specific gene expression on rat testis, 16-week-old Wistar rats were orally administered at dose of 17.8 mg/kg twice weekly for 65 days. Gene expression in the testes was monitored by DNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR, which revealed that genes related to steroidogenesis including cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and CYP11A1 were significantly increased. Besides the testes were histopathologicaly examined, which revealed testicular destruction and degeneration represented by a layer of columnar epithelium, oedematous changes surrounding the seminiferous tubules besides vacuolated spermatogonial cells and more elongated Leydig cells. These data suggest that profenofos considered as one of the male reproductive toxicants. Furthermore, we propose that the above three steroidogenic-related genes and the gene of acrosomal reaction as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity. PMID:17569032

  15. Resveratrol prevents oxidative damage and loss of sperm motility induced by long-term treatment with valproic acid in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Finamor, Isabela A; Glanzner, Werner G; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug widely use for the treatment of epilepsy in both children and adults. Evidence suggests that long-term use of VPA may lead to an impairment in the male reproductive function. Oxidative stress is considered to play a major role in VPA associated toxicity. In the present work, we demonstrated that the natural antioxidant compound resveratrol (RSV) can be use to prevent VPA oxidative damage. Wistar rats treated with VPA (400mgkg(-1)) by gavage for 28days showed decrease in sperm motility accompanied by increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. Additionally, VPA administration leaded to depletion of reduced glutathione and decrease in total antioxidant potential in testes and epididymides of Wistar rats. The co-administration of RSV (10mgkg(-1)) efficiently prevented VPA pro-oxidant effects. In summary, RSV was shown to protect the reproductive system from the damage induced by VPA. Altogether, our data strongly suggests that RSV administration might be a valuable strategy to minimize reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term VPA treatment.

  16. Teratogenic Effect of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on Nissl Substances of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Ekanem, Theresa B; Udoh, Paul B; Ekong, Moses B; Asuquo, Olaitan R; Akpantah, Amabe O; Nwakanma, Agnes O

    2013-01-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used for the treatment of insanity. The possible adverse effects of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of the plant on Nissl substances of albino Wistar rat fetuses were studied using 25 mature female Wistar rats. The animals were divided equally into 5 groups, labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A was the control, while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with the males overnight, and the sperm positive day was designated as day zero of pregnancy. Oral doses of 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the root bark extract were administered to groups B and C animals, respectively, while groups D and E animals received 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract, respectively, from day 7 to 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses brains extracted, and the cerebral cortices excised and routinely processed for Nissl substances using Cresyl fast violet staining method. Results showed reduced staining intensity of Nissl substances in the treated groups, especially those that received the root extract. Thus, the herbs may have adverse effects on protein synthesis within the cerebral cortex.

  17. Resveratrol prevents oxidative damage and loss of sperm motility induced by long-term treatment with valproic acid in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Finamor, Isabela A; Glanzner, Werner G; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug widely use for the treatment of epilepsy in both children and adults. Evidence suggests that long-term use of VPA may lead to an impairment in the male reproductive function. Oxidative stress is considered to play a major role in VPA associated toxicity. In the present work, we demonstrated that the natural antioxidant compound resveratrol (RSV) can be use to prevent VPA oxidative damage. Wistar rats treated with VPA (400mgkg(-1)) by gavage for 28days showed decrease in sperm motility accompanied by increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. Additionally, VPA administration leaded to depletion of reduced glutathione and decrease in total antioxidant potential in testes and epididymides of Wistar rats. The co-administration of RSV (10mgkg(-1)) efficiently prevented VPA pro-oxidant effects. In summary, RSV was shown to protect the reproductive system from the damage induced by VPA. Altogether, our data strongly suggests that RSV administration might be a valuable strategy to minimize reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term VPA treatment. PMID:27432062

  18. Protective effect of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) pre-treatment on cadmium-induced damages in adult Wistar testis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo Paula; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi

    2011-06-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is an Amazonian plant. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated to be due to the high polyphenol concentration. On the other hand, one of the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced cellular damage is free radical mediated, resulting in increased oxidative processes. This study investigated P. cupana's potential to attenuate cadmium-induced damages in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats were either pre-treated with 2 mg/g body weight (BW) of powdered P. cupana seed during 56 days and/or injected with cadmium chloride at a dose of 1.15 mg/kg BW. After cadmium exposition (48 h), testes samples were evaluated by histological and stereological analyses. Both groups exposed to cadmium presented evident morphological alterations relative to control animals. A few rodents showed massive cell death in the seminiferous epithelium and intertubular space, indicating that some animals are more sensitive to cadmium. Despite the alterations observed in both groups, pre-treatment with P. cupana was effective in attenuating morphological changes in Leydig cells, as well as reducing inflammatory response, relative to animals exclusively exposed to the metal. Animals treated only with P. cupana presented a significant increase in plasma testosterone levels and a significant increase in volumetric proportions of seminiferous tubules, which are indicative of spermatogenic stimulation.

  19. White adipose tissue re-growth after partial lipectomy in high fat diet induced obese wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Allain Amador; Habitante, Carlos Alexandre; Oyama, Lila Missae; Estadella, Débora; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of partial removal of epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues (partial lipectomy) on the triacylglycerol deposition of high fat diet induced obese rats were analyzed, aiming to challenge the hypothesized body fat regulatory system. Male 28-day-old wistar rats received a diet enriched with peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits during the experimental period. At the 90th day of life, rats were submitted to either lipectomy (L) or sham surgery. After 7 or 30 days, RET, EPI, liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), blood and carcass were obtained and analyzed. Seven days following surgery, liver lipogenesis rate and EPI relative weight were increased in L. After 30 days, L, RET and EPI presented increased lipogenesis, lipolysis and percentage of small area adipocytes. L rats also presented increased liver malic enzyme activity, BAT lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol and corticosterone serum levels. The partial removal of visceral fat pads affected the metabolism of high fat diet obese rats, which leads to excised tissue re-growth and possibly compensatory growth of non-excised depots at a later time.

  20. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  1. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake.

  2. Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Aluwong, Tagang; Ayo, Joseph O.; Kpukple, Alkali; Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27164129

  3. Protective effect of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) on hepatic steatosis and damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Feral; Gul, Mehmet; Ates, Burhan; Ozturk, I Cetin; Cetin, Asli; Vardi, Nigar; Otlu, Ali; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2009-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the protective effect of 10 % and 20 % apricot-containing feed on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic steatosis and damage. Adult male Wistar rats (n 42) were divided into six groups of seven each, as follows: control group; CCl4 group; CCl4+10 % apricot group; CCl4+20 % apricot group; 10 % apricot group; 20 % apricot group. All apricot groups were fed with 10 % or 20 % apricot-containing feed for 5 months. CCl4 injections were applied to the CCl4 groups at the dose of 1 mg/kg for 3 d at the end of 5 months. In the CCl4 group, vacuolated hepatocytes and hepatic necrosis were seen, especially in the centrilobular area. Hepatocytes showed an oedematous cytoplasmic matrix, large lipid globules and degenerated organelles. The area of liver injury was found significantly decreased with apricot feeding. Malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly changed in the CCl4 group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Apricot feeding decreased this oxidative stress and ameliorated histological damage. We concluded that apricot feeding had beneficial effects on CCl4-induced liver steatosis and damage probably due to its antioxidant nutrient (beta-carotene and vitamin) contents and high radical-scavenging capacity. Dietary intake of apricot can reduce the risk of liver steatosis and damage caused by free radicals.

  4. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, A; Yamamura, Y; Forno, E R; Mello, L E A M

    2002-06-01

    Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.

  5. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink.

  6. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  7. Protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amamou, Fouzia; Nemmiche, Saïd; Meziane, Radjaa Kaouthar; Didi, Amal; Yazit, Sidi Mohamed; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. It is accumulated particularly in liver and kidney. The present study examined the possible protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil consumption against Cd-induced damage on plasma lipids and stress biochemical parameters of rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each and treated orally with Cd (50 mg/l), olive oil and colocynth oil (4%) alone or in combination with cadmium for 8 weeks. It was shown that Cd exposure induced significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents in exposed groups of rats compared to control group while the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and vitamins (C, A and E) were significantly decreased. Co-treatment with olive oil or colocynth oil significantly improved the oxidative damage induced by Cd. The antioxidant potential in plasma and liver were markedly restored with a significant decline in MDA levels and activity of transaminases. In conclusion, these results suggest that olive oil or colocynth oil consumption could protect the rat liver against Cd-induced injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative stress. PMID:25617810

  8. Pegylated Interferon-α Modulates Liver Concentrations of Activin-A and Its Related Proteins in Normal Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Bassem; El-Shemi, Adel Galal; Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; Mahamid, Elaf Wael; Al-Qadi, Noha Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To measure the expression of activin βA-subunit, activin IIA and IIB receptors, Smad4, Smad7, and follistatin in the liver and the liver and serum concentrations of mature activin-A and follistatin in normal rat following treatment with pegylated interferon-α (Peg-INF-α) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and Methods. 40 male Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups: “control,” “Peg-only” receiving 4 injections of Peg-INF-α (6 µg/rat/week), “RBV-only” receiving ribavirin (4 mg/rat/day) orally, and “Peg & RBV” group receiving both drugs. The expression of candidate molecules in liver was measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. The concentrations of mature proteins in serum and liver homogenate samples were measured using ELISA. Results. Peg-INF-α  ± RBV altered the expression of all candidate molecules in the liver at the gene and protein levels (P < 0.05) and decreased activin-A and increased follistatin in serum and liver homogenates compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). There were also significant correlations between serum and liver activin-A and follistatin. Conclusion. Peg-INF-α modulates the hepatic production of activin-A and follistatin, which can be detected in serum. Further studies are needed to explore the role of Peg-INF-α on the production of activins and follistatin by the liver and immune cells. PMID:26236109

  9. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.

  10. Antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects of carvedilol and vitamin E protect against diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in diabetic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, M H; Salim, S U; Mosad, E; Al-Rifaay, A; Salama, H S; Hasan-Ali, H

    2015-02-01

    Carvedilol is a novel β-adrenoreceptor blocker, with antioxidant properties inhibiting lipid peroxidation and preventing the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Moreover, carvedilol was reported to enhance the expression of Bcl-2 gene, which has antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. There are few researches testing the protective effect of carvedilol on the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus in male Wistar albino rats. We investigated carvedilol, as well as vitamin E, administrated in healthy and diabetic rats for 6 weeks to compare their effects on biochemical parameters and the expression of Bcl-2 protein in both myocardial and renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The study showed that the diabetic rats not only had renal dysfunction and more myocardial damage, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2 protein. Carvedilol and vitamin E treatments were associated with better renal function and less myocardial damage, lower blood glucose, and lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant capacity, better serum lipids, and higher expression of Bcl-2 protein in diabetic rats. These results indicate that carvedilol and vitamin E treatments partly protect against myocardial and renal damage probably via their antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in diabetic rats.

  11. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  12. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  13. Exhumation of Wistar rats experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran: A pathological and toxicological study.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Rodrigues, Karina Borges Almeida; Gonçalves-Júnior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2016-06-01

    Exhumation is required for the investigation of suspicions deaths when a body is buried and is usually performed under court order. Exhumation of animals is not a routine practice in forensic pathology. In this study, 30 male 70-day-old Wistar rats were experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran. Toxicological, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. Groups of 3 animals (2 exposed and 1 control) were evaluated at 24h, 3days, 5days, 7days and 10days post-mortem. In histopathological examination, the brain, liver, lungs and kidneys were assessed, and for toxicological analysis, the gastric contents, liver, vitreous humor, skeletal muscle and larvae (when available) were collected. The pesticides were detected by HPLC and quantified in the analyzed matrices, and a possible delay in tissue putrefaction due to the pesticides was observed. This study has revealed that it is possible to exhume animals for investigations of possible poisoning by carbamates and has demonstrated that the exhumation of an animal in a suspected case of poisoning should not be ruled out. The increasing demand for investigations of suspicious animal deaths, e.g., in cases of poisoning, will likely lead to an increase in the use of this type of procedure in veterinary pathology. PMID:27020045

  14. Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Ayo, Joseph O; Kpukple, Alkali; Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10⁶ CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10⁶ CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27164129

  15. Pharmacokinetics of hERG Channel Blocking Voacangine in Wistar Rats Applying a Validated LC-ESI-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christina E; de Miranda Silva, Carolina; Grienke, Ulrike; Kratz, Jadel M; Carreño, Fernando; Zimmermann, Estevan Sonego; de Araújo, Bibiana Verlindo; Dalla Costa, Teresa; Rollinger, Judith M

    2016-07-01

    Herbal preparations from Voacanga africana are used in West and Central African folk medicine and are also becoming increasingly popular as a legal high in Europe. Recently, the main alkaloid voacangine was found to be a potent human ether-à-go-go-related gene channel blocker in vitro. Blockage of this channel might imply possible cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise voacangine in vivo to assess its pharmacokinetics and to estimate if further studies to investigate its cardiotoxic risk are required. Male Wistar rats received different doses of voacangine as a pure compound and as a hydro-ethanolic extract of V. africana root bark with a quantified amount of 9.71 % voacangine. For the obtained data, a simultaneous population pharmacokinetics model was successfully developed, comprising a two-compartment model for i. v. dosing and a one-compartmental model with two first-order absorption rates for oral dosing. The absolute bioavailability of voacangine was determined to be 11-13 %. Model analysis showed significant differences in the first absorption rate constant for voacangine administered as a pure compound and voacangine from the extract of V. africana. Taking into account the obtained low bioavailability of voacangine, its cardiotoxic risk might be neglectable in healthy consumers, but may have a serious impact in light of drug/drug interactions and impaired health conditions. PMID:27257769

  16. Acute effects of ketamine in the holeboard, the elevated-plus maze, and the social interaction test in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, J S; Nadal, R; Pallarés, M; Ferré, N

    1997-01-01

    Although noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists have shown an anxiolyticlike profile in several studies, such effects have not been observed consistently. Previous studies with ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, have employed only shock tests of anxiety based on conflict procedures. In the present experiment, the effect of an acute low dose of ketamine (7 mg/kg) was examined in adult male Wistar rats tested in three nonconflict tests: holeboard, social interaction, and elevated plus-maze paradigms. The results showed that ketamine decreased time spent in active social interaction and the number of rearings and central activity in the social interaction test. It also decreased the number of entries into the percentage of time spent in open arms and the total number of entries in the elevated plus-maze. No significant effect was observed in head dipping in the holeboard test, although the number of crossings did increase. These results suggest an anxiogeniclike effect of ketamine in contrast with results previously described for noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. These effects of ketamine are more similar to those described for stimulant drugs such as caffeine, cocaine, or amphetamine in anxiety tests.

  17. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA).

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea; Jacobsen, Helene; Miller, Andreas; Frenzel, Thomas; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Shu, Qingyao; Emami, Kaveh; Sudhakar, Duraialagraja; Gatehouse, Angharad; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Knudsen, Ib

    2007-03-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Male and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified or parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily GNA lectin intake of approximately 58 and 67mg/kg body weight for males and females, respectively. Prior to the animal study comprehensive analytical characterization of both rice materials was performed. The chemical analyses showed a number of statistically significant differences, with the majority being within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study a range of clinical, biological, immunological, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined. A number of significant differences were seen between groups fed the two diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able to distinguish whether the observed effects were due to the GNA lectin per se or to secondary changes in the GM rice.

  18. Assessment of the toxicity of cyclohexanone administered intravenously to Wistar and Gunn rats.

    PubMed

    Greener, Y; Martis, L; Indacochea-Redmond, N

    1982-09-01

    The toxicity of cyclohexanone, used as a solvent cement in polyvinyl chloride medical devices, was assessed in Wistar and Gunn rats. The Gunn rat was used because it has a negligible activity of UDP glucuronosyltransferase toward bilirubin and certain other aglycones. Cyclohexanone was administered iv for 28 consecutive days to Wistar and Gunn rats in two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg), using solutions containing 0.25 and 0.50 g per 100 ml, respectively, at a constant volume of 20 mg/kg. Saline (0.9% NaCl) was used as the control. Daily observations for signs of toxicity showed no adverse effects in Wistar or Gunn rats injected with either dose. Daily weight changes of control and test animals were similar. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed no treatment-related structural lesions. No adverse effects were noted when the data from the hemogram or clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated. Gross pathological and histopathologic assessment showed no alterations due to cyclohexanone treatment. Urinary excretions of total and glucuronide conjugates of cyclohexanol were similar for Wistar and Gunn rats; less than 1% was excreted as free cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. It is concluded that the Gunn rat is capable of forming glucuronides of cyclohexanol and that cyclohexanone at these doses has a negligible toxic potential.

  19. Persistence of antibody after subcutaneous vaccination with Wistar RA27/3 rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hillary, I B

    1971-09-01

    After subcutaneous vaccination of rubella sero-negative children with Wistar RA 27/3 rubella vaccine, haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres were compared in sera taken 46 days and 2 years after vaccination. Antibody titres were well maintained in the absence of any known exposure to natural infection.

  20. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  1. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  2. [The effect of meclofenoxate on the growth, fertility and number of offspring in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Neumann, H J

    1985-01-01

    In experiments with rats concerning teratological aspects of meclofenoxate it was demonstrated that this drug reduces the teratogenicity in Wistar rats. Meclofenoxate leads in the fetuses of rats to a significant increase of the weight when the dams were treated prenatally with the ester. Besides, meclofenoxate causes in continuous series of generations an increase of fertility which results in a higher number of offsprings.

  3. Functional characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain.

    PubMed

    Umeoka, Eduardo H L; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Elias, Lucila L K; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2011-03-24

    The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is a genetic model of sound-induced reflex epilepsy which was selected starting from audiogenic seizures susceptible Wistar rats. Wistar resistant rats were used as WAR's control in this study. In the acute situation, audiogenic seizures (AS) in WARs mimic tonic-clonic seizures and, in the chronic protocol, mimic temporal lobe epilepsy. AS have been shown to evoke neuroendocrine responses; however, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the WAR has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responses to exogenous ACTH stimulation (8 ng/rat), fifteen minute restraint stress and circadian variation (8 am and 8 pm) under rest conditions in these animals through plasma measurements of ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. We also measured the body weight from birth to the 9th week of life and determined adrenal gland weight. We found that WARs are smaller than Wistar and presented a higher adrenal gland weight with a higher level of corticosterone release after intravenous ACTH injection. They also showed altered HPA axis circadian rhythms and responses to restraint stress. Our data indicate that, despite the lower body weight, WARs have increased adrenal gland weight associated with enhanced pituitary and adrenal responsiveness after HPA axis stimulation. Thus, we propose WARs as a model to study stress-epilepsy interactions and epilepsy-neuropsychiatry comorbidities.

  4. Are Wistar-Kyoto rats a genetic animal model of depression resistant to antidepressants?

    PubMed

    Lahmame, A; del Arco, C; Pazos, A; Yritia, M; Armario, A

    1997-10-22

    Wistar-Kyoto rats are reported to be very passive in the forced swimming test. In addition, they did not respond to acute administration of either desipramine or 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). In the present experiment, it was studied whether or not they respond to acute and chronic administration of imipramine and the possible relationship to down-regulation of beta-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Sprague-Dawley and Brown-Norway rats were included in the study as it has been previously demonstrated that the two strains respond to acute desipramine and 8-OH-DPAT administration. Whereas acute administration of imipramine (15 mg/kg, three times in a 24 h period) significantly increased struggling and reduced immobility in Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats, Wistar-Kyoto rats failed to respond to the drug. After chronic treatment with imipramine (13 days plus the acute imipramine treatment at the end of the treatment period), the three strains showed a positive response that was always significantly greater than the response to acute administration, but which was much lower in Wistar-Kyoto than in the other two strains. Down-regulation of both beta-adrenoceptors and 5-HT2 receptors was observed 24 h after the forced swimming test in acutely and chronically imipramine-treated rats of the three strains, except that in Sprague-Dawley rats beta-adrenoceptors did not change after acute imipramine. No significant decrease in 5-HT1 binding sites was observed in any strain. Acute imipramine administration caused a similar anorexia in Wistar-Kyoto as in the other strains and at least the same level of down-regulation of beta-adrenoceptors and 5-HT2 receptors. In addition, serum imipramine levels on the day after the last drug administration were higher in Wistar-Kyoto than in the other two strains. All these data suggest that the subsensitivity to imipramine observed in Wistar-Kyoto rats: (i) can not be primarily explained by pharmacokinetic

  5. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  6. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  7. Acute Sodium Arsenite-Induced Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ageratum conyzoides

    PubMed Central

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the ethanol leaf extract of A. conyzoides (EEAC) against hematological, serum biochemical and histological alterations induced by Sodium arsenite administration to Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group I received propylene glycol and Group II rats were given the (EEAC, 100 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 7 days. Group III were given a single oral dose of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 2.5 mg/kg b.w.). Animals in Group IV were pretreated with 100 mg/kg EEAC for 7 days followed by a single oral dose of sodium arsenite. Results: Arsenic exposure resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in values of packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) count, and elevation in total white blood cell (WBC) count with insignificant reductions in serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels. Alterations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase activities, as well as in serum levels of urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, were not statistically significant. EEAC significantly restored (P < 0.05) the PCV, Hb, RBC, and WBC as well as serum albumin, globulin, and total protein to normal values. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that EEAC possess strong potentials to protect against toxicities induced by sodium arsenite. SUMMARY Ageratum conyzoides produced significant reversal of the reduction in the erythrocytic indices (packed cell volume, red blood cell, and Hb) caused by sodium arseniteSodium arsenite-induced slight elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), correlating with the

  8. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, or total distance: a comparison of methods to equalize exercise volume in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Paes, L.S.; Borges, J.P.; Cunha, F.A.; Souza, M.G.C.; Cyrino, F.Z.G.A.; Bottino, D.A.; Bouskela, E.; Farinatti, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min). Exercise duration was calculated individually to elicit EE of 5 kcal in each session. No difference between groups was found for total running distance (MIC: 801±46, HIC: 734±42, HII: 885±64 m; P=0.13). Total EE measured by RER was systematically underestimated compared to values obtained from V̇O2 (HII: 4.5% and MIC: 6.2%, P<0.05). Total EE (calculated from V̇O2), and duration of HIC bouts (2.8 kcal and 30.8±2.2 min) were lower (P<0.0001) than in MIC (4.9 kcal and 64.7±1.8 min) and HII (4.7 kcal and 46.9±2.2 min). Predicted and actual values of total V̇O2, total EE, and duration of isocaloric sessions were similar in MIC and HII (P>0.05), which were both higher than in HIC (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the time to achieve a given EE in exercise bouts with different intensities did not correspond to the total distance. Therefore, the volume of aerobic exercise in protocols involving Wistar rats should be equalized using EE rather than total covered distance. PMID:27487418

  9. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, or total distance: a comparison of methods to equalize exercise volume in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paes, L S; Borges, J P; Cunha, F A; Souza, M G C; Cyrino, F Z G A; Bottino, D A; Bouskela, E; Farinatti, P

    2016-07-28

    This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min). Exercise duration was calculated individually to elicit EE of 5 kcal in each session. No difference between groups was found for total running distance (MIC: 801±46, HIC: 734±42, HII: 885±64 m; P=0.13). Total EE measured by RER was systematically underestimated compared to values obtained from V̇O2 (HII: 4.5% and MIC: 6.2%, P<0.05). Total EE (calculated from V̇O2), and duration of HIC bouts (2.8 kcal and 30.8±2.2 min) were lower (P<0.0001) than in MIC (4.9 kcal and 64.7±1.8 min) and HII (4.7 kcal and 46.9±2.2 min). Predicted and actual values of total V̇O2, total EE, and duration of isocaloric sessions were similar in MIC and HII (P>0.05), which were both higher than in HIC (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the time to achieve a given EE in exercise bouts with different intensities did not correspond to the total distance. Therefore, the volume of aerobic exercise in protocols involving Wistar rats should be equalized using EE rather than total covered distance. PMID:27487418

  10. Predictors of male microchimerism.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

  11. Predictors of male microchimerism.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed.

  12. Oral administration of fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics can influence the physiological condition of Wistar rats in a dose-sensitive and sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Miao, Junjie; Lang, Chunhui; Kang, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijie; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0.05). The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in both male and female rats (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between rats groups in body weight, food intake, food utilization rate, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that the fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics altered the nutritive status of the host animal and contributed to their health. However, such potent health-promoting effects could be deeply associated with the dose and sex specific. Therefore, different physiological targets and population characteristics should be managed with different combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:27200262

  13. Oral administration of fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics can influence the physiological condition of Wistar rats in a dose-sensitive and sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    MIAO, Junjie; LANG, Chunhui; KANG, Zhiyuan; ZHU, Hong; WANG, Shijie; LI, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0.05). The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in both male and female rats (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between rats groups in body weight, food intake, food utilization rate, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that the fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics altered the nutritive status of the host animal and contributed to their health. However, such potent health-promoting effects could be deeply associated with the dose and sex specific. Therefore, different physiological targets and population characteristics should be managed with different combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:27200262

  14. Genetically mediated resistance to naturally occurring aortic sclerosis in spontaneously hypertensive as against Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto breeder rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.; McMurtry, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female, normotensive, Sprague-Dawley (S-D), Wistar-Kyoto (WKy), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bred repeatedly until the females had given birth to and nursed 6 litters of pups. At the close of the 2nd, 4th and 6th breeding, breeder males and females, along with celibate males and females of equal age, were killed. S-D and WKy breeder rats manifested progressively increasing adiposity and high blood pressure with each successive breeding; breeder SHR showed mild exacerbation of their pre-existing high blood pressure. Adrenocortical hyperplasia and thymus-gland involution suggested increasing pituitary-adrenal activity in breeder rats. Circulating aldosterone levels decreased with repeated breeding in parallel with increased deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone secretion. The repeatedly bred normotensive rats manifested worsening aortic sclerosis as against little or no aortic sclerosis in the repeatedly bred SHR. Breeder SHR developed fibrinohyalin intimal lesions limited exclusively to the arterioles of the testis and ovary. Virgin rats did not develop any vascular disease. It is suggested that a diverse spectrum of adrenal steroids in breeder HSR combined with genetic direction control the morphogenesis of arterial disease in breeder SHR. Images Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7066185

  15. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  16. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  17. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  18. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  19. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  20. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  1. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia infection in males is an infection of the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the ... and passes through the penis). This type of chlamydia infection is passed from one person to another ...

  2. [Seasonal peculiarities of the ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) and Wistar rats circadian activity].

    PubMed

    Semenova, T P; Spiridonova, L A; Zakharova, N M

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels. It included not only at night, but morning time in spring, and daytime--in summer. The circadian differences between hibernators and non-hibernators were kept during all annual cycle at night time, but in daytime--only in spring and summer time.

  3. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    PubMed

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  4. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Changes in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in the Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) strain.

    PubMed

    Fazan, Rubens; de Oliveira, Mauro; Oliveira, José Antônio C; Salgado, Helio C; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated autonomic cardiovascular modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in a particular epileptic rat strain, Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). We studied spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity as well as reflex changes in HR evoked by phenylephrine/nitroprusside-induced changes in arterial pressure (AP). Atropine and propranolol were used to measure cardiac autonomic tone. AP and pulse interval (PI) variability analysis were performed in the time and frequency domains (FFT spectral analysis) to evaluate cardiovascular sympatovagal modulation in WARs. AP and HR were higher in WARs (109±2 mm Hg and 366±9 bpm) than in Wistar control rats (101±2 mm Hg and 326±10 bpm). The power of the low-frequency band of both AP and PI spectra, a marker of sympathetic modulation, was higher in WARs than in Wistar control rats. The high-frequency power of the PI spectra in normalized units, which is linked to cardiac vagal modulation, was lower in WARs. Both WARs and Wistar control rats had similar vagal tone (91±13 bpm vs 94±11 bpm, respectively), but sympathetic tone was higher in WARs (30±4 bpm vs 14±4 bpm). No differences were detected in the gain of evoked (1.32±0.1 ms/mm Hg vs 1.35±0.2 ms/mm Hg) or spontaneous (1.34±0.2 ms/mm Hg vs 2.04±0.2 ms/mm Hg) baroreflex sensitivity. The higher AP and HR and the autonomic imbalance (sympathetic predominance) in WARs might be associated with an increased risk of life-threatening cardiovascular events in this strain.

  6. Antiarthritic activity of a polyherbal formulation against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, R. Ramesh; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.; Gopala Krishna, S. V.; Kumar, M. Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including arthritis. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. Arthritis was induced in female Wistar rats using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the antiarthritic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The radiological examination was carried out before terminating the study. Results: Polyherbal formulation showed significant antiarthritic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of indomethacin. The antiarthritic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and hematological analysis. Conclusion: The polyherbal formulation showed signinicant antiarthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female Wistar rats. PMID:26229343

  7. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management.

  8. Differences in the estrous cycles of Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Souza, Ana Rosa Wakim; Firetto, Chiara; Pérez-Arana, Gonzalo; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; Prada-Oliveira, José Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Goto-Kakizaki rats are an important model of type 2 diabetes, but it is difficult to maintain and expand colonies of these rats because they exhibit poor fertility. In this work, we studied the estrous cycle of Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats to characterize differences that might underlie these reproductive difficulties. We monitored rats from weaning to vaginal opening to assess pubertal development, and we monitored the estrous cycle and basal glycemia of each rat for 20 days at 1 month of age and at 6 months of age. At an early age we found no differences between Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats with respect to the onset of puberty or the periodicity of the estrous cycle. However, at 6 months Goto-Kakizaki rats spent more time in proestrus and less time in estrus each cycle, compared to Wistar rats. This delay in proceeding from proestrus to estrus could reflect a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, accompanying progression of the diabetic condition. It might also cause anovulatory cycles, which could explain the reduced reproductive capacity of Goto-Kakizaki rats.

  9. Imaging of spontaneous ventriculomegaly and vascular malformations in Wistar rats: implications for preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L Christine; Williams, Rashida A; Lescher, Jacob D; Dean, Dana D; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not used, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70 (43.2%) of 162 Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were used to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesions, and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem microcomputed tomography and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging showed significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p < 0.05). These results could impact the interpretation, for example, of a pseudo-increase of axon integrity and a pseudo-decrease of myelin integrity, based on characteristics intrinsic to rats with ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurologic disease or injury in Wistar rats.

  10. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    PubMed Central

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  11. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-03-05

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

  12. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  13. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  14. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  15. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  16. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-01-01

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive analysis of these changes will allow us to better understand the mechanism of pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (10-12 week) were exposed to air, or ozone (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm) for 4 h and pulmonary injury and inflammation were assessed at 0-h or 20-h (n = 8/group). Lung gene expression profiling was assessed at 0-h (air and 1.0 ppm ozone, n = 3-4/group). At 20-h bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid protein and neutrophils increased at 1 ppm ozone. Numerous genes involved in acute inflammatory response were up-regulated along with changes in genes involved in cell adhesion and migration, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle control and cell growth. A number of NRF2 target genes were also induced after ozone exposure. Based on expression changes, Rela, SP1 and TP3-mediated signaling were identified to be mediating downstream changes. Remarkable changes in the processes of endocytosis provide the insight that ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation are likely initiated by changes in cell membrane components and receptors likely from oxidatively modified lung lining lipids and proteins. In conclusion, ozone-induced injury and inflammation are preceded by changes in gene targets for cell adhesion/migration, apoptosis, cell cycle control and growth regulated by Rela, SP1 and TP53, likely mediated by the process of endocytosis and altered steroid receptor signaling.

  17. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence. PMID:24785000

  18. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  19. High folate gestational and post-weaning diets alter hypothalamic feeding pathways by DNA methylation in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cho, Clara E; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Reza-López, Sandra A; Huot, Pedro S P; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-07-01

    Excess vitamins, especially folate, are consumed during pregnancy but later-life effects on the offspring are unknown. High multivitamin (10-fold AIN-93G, HV) gestational diets increase characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rat offspring. We hypothesized that folate, the vitamin active in DNA methylation, accounts for these effects through epigenetic modification of food intake regulatory genes. Male offspring of dams fed 10-fold folate (HFol) diet during pregnancy and weaned to recommended vitamin (RV) or HFol diets were compared with those born to RV dams and weaned to RV diet for 29 weeks. Food intake and body weight were highest in offspring of HFol dams fed the RV diet. In contrast, the HFol pup diet in offspring of HFol dams reduced food intake (7%, p = 0.02), body weight (9%, p = 0.03) and glucose response to a glucose load (21%, p = 0.02), and improved glucose response to an insulin load (20%, p = 0.009). HFol alone in either gestational or pup diet modified gene expression of feeding-related neuropeptides. Hypomethylation of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter occurred with the HFol pup diet. POMC-specific methylation was positively associated with glucose response to a glucose load (r = 0.7, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the obesogenic phenotype of offspring from dams fed the HFol gestational diet can be corrected by feeding them a HFol diet. Our work is novel in showing post-weaning epigenetic plasticity of the hypothalamus and that in utero programming by vitamin gestational diets can be modified by vitamin content of the pup diet. PMID:23803567

  20. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Berberis integerrima Bunge. root on carbon tetrachloride-induced testicular injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Fereshteh; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza; Ashraf, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue protective effect of compounds with antioxidant properties has been demonstrated. The alkaloids found in barberry root are considered as antioxidants. Objective: According to barberry protective effects in different tissues, in this study, the protective effect of Berberis integerrima Bge. root )MEBIR) was evaluated against CCl4-induced testicular damages in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: 40 mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1: Normal control, 2: Sham: received CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v; 1ml/kg bw), intraperitoneally, twice a week for 4 weeks, 3 and 4: Sham rats treated with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) for 28 days, 5: Sham rats treated with silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. After 28 days, serum testosterone level, absolute testis weight, catalase activity, malondialdehyde level, and histological parameters were investigated. Results: In the treated rats with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (50 mg/kg bw), there was a significant increase in the absolute testis weight, testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter (p<0.001), thickness of the epithelium, tubule differentiation index) p<0.001), spermiogenesis index (p<0.001), the activity of catalase, and a significant decrease in interstitial tissue thickness (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde level in comparison with CCl4-treated group. The effect of the MEBIR at dose of 500 mg/kg bw is more than that of the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg bw). Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that the protective effects of MEBIR is possibly due to antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds. PMID:27200428

  1. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  2. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux. PMID:26488416

  3. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  4. Protective effect of quercetin on nicotine-induced prooxidant and antioxidant imbalance and DNA damage in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Shanmugavelu; Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Menon, Venugopal P; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2008-01-14

    We have investigated the protective effect of quercetin (QN) against nicotine-induced prooxidant and antioxidant imbalance in circulation, lung, liver and kidney of experimental rats. The protective effect of QN was compared with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant. Male albino rats of Wistar stain were used for the experimental study. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks) and QN was given simultaneously by intragastric intubations for 22 weeks. The body weight gain of rats during experimental period was significantly decreased in nicotine treated group, whereas QN co-treated rats significantly increased in their body weight. The levels of lipid peroxidative indices viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides, and nitric oxide in circulation, lung, liver and kidney of nicotine-treated rats were increased significantly when compared to normal, which were brought down to near normal in QN co-treated group. Endogenous antioxidant status viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were found to be significantly decreased in circulation, lung, liver and kidney of nicotine-treated group, which were significantly increased in QN-administered groups. The extent of DNA damage (evaluated by comet assay) was significantly increased in circulatory blood of nicotine-treated rats, which was effectively brought down by QN treatment. The protective effect of QN against nicotine toxicity was comparable to that of NAC. Our data suggest that QN exerts its protective effect by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system and thus protects the DNA in experimental animals. PMID:18045763

  5. Diosmin protects against trichloroethylene-induced renal injury in Wistar rats: plausible role of p53, Bax and caspases.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muneeb U; Tahir, Mir; Quaiyoom Khan, Abdul; Khan, Rehan; Lateef, Abdul; Hamiza, Oday O; Ali, Farrah; Sultana, Sarwat

    2013-08-01

    Diosmin (DM) is a naturally occurring flavone and has been found to possess numerous therapeutic properties. In this study, we used DM as a protective agent against the nephrotoxic effects of the environmental toxicant trichloroethylene (TCE). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (I-V, n 6). Groups II, III and IV received an oral administration of TCE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for twenty consecutive days. The animals in groups II and III received an oral treatment of DM at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for twenty consecutive days, while groups I and V were given maize oil (5 ml/kg body weight and DM 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 20 d. The protective effects of DM on TCE-induced oxidative stress and caspase-dependent apoptosis were investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation (LPO), serum toxicity markers, alkaline unwinding assay, caspase-3, -7 and -9, Bax and p53 expression. Oral administration of TCE in rats enhanced renal LPO, depleted glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes, induced DNA strand breaks (P<0·001), modulated the expression of Bax and p53 protein and induced the expression of caspase-3, -7 and -9. Co-treatment with DM prevented oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes; furthermore, a significant dose-dependent decrease in DNA disintegration and kidney toxicity markers such as blood urea N, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase and kidney injury molecule-1 was observed. DM also effectively decreased the TCE-induced up-regulation of Bax and p53. Data from the present study establish the protective role of DM against TCE-induced renal damage.

  6. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI. PMID:18828807

  7. Cyclophosphamide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats: The Modulatory Role of Gallic Acid as a Hepatoprotective and Chemopreventive Phytochemical

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Olutayo Temidayo; Asenuga, Ebunoluwa Rachael; Akinleye, Akinrinde Stephen; Ogunsanwo, Rachael Omolola; Saba, Adebowale Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gallic acid (GA) is an endogenous plant phenol known to have antioxidant, free radical scavenging ability, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-fungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of GA on cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty rats were grouped into six groups of 10 rats per group. Group 1 received distilled water. Group 2 received CPA at 200 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneally on day 1. Groups 3 and 4 received a single dose of CPA (200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on day 1 and then were treated with GA at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, respectively. Rats in Groups 5 and 6 only received GA at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, respectively. GA was administered orally. Results: CPA induced hepatic damage as indicated by significant elevation (P < 0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, organ weight, and evidence by the histological study. CPA also induced hepatic oxidative stress as indicated by significant elevation (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, nitrite level, and the level of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase crashed in the CPA-treated group. GA enhanced the antioxidant defense system as indicated by significant elevation (P < 0.05) in GSH level, catalase activity, and GSH-S-transferase activity. Conclusions: Taken together, the result of this present study shows that GA has a protective effect on CPA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27076889

  8. Effects of chronic exercise on the endocannabinoid system in Wistar rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Gamelin, François-Xavier; Aucouturier, Julien; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Mazzarella, Enrico; Aveta, Teresa; Leriche, Melissa; Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Montel, Valérie; Bastide, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Heyman, Elsa

    2016-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated during obesity in tissues involved in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. We examined the effect of chronic exercise on the tissue levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and on the expression of genes coding for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively) in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues and in the soleus and extensor digitorim longus (EDL) muscles, in rats fed with standard or high-fat diet. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were placed on high-fat diet or standard diet (HFD and Ctl groups, respectively) during 12 weeks whereafter half of each group was submitted to an exercise training period of 12 weeks (HFD + training and Ctl + training). Tissue levels of eCBs were measured by LC-MS while expressions of genes coding for CB1 and CB2 receptors were investigated by qPCR. High-fat diet induced an increase in anandamide (AEA) levels in soleus and EDL (p < 0.02). In soleus of the HFD group, these changes were accompanied by elevated Cnr1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels (p < 0.05). In EDL, exercise training allowed to reduce significantly this diet-induced AEA increase (p < 0.005). 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels were decreased and increased by high-fat diet in SAT and EDL, respectively (p < 0.04), but not affected by exercise training. Unlike the HFD + training group, 2-AG levels in soleus were also decreased in the HFD group compared to Ctl (p < 0.04). The levels of eCBs and Cnr1 expression are altered in a tissue-specific manner following a high-fat diet, and chronic exercise reverses some of these alterations. PMID:26880264

  9. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  10. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  11. pH dependence of cadmium-contaminated drinking water on the development of cardiovascular injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Golghetto, Jair José; Estrella, Mariani Paulino Soriano; Alves, Juliana Apolônio; Garcia, Leonardo Alves

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of water pH in the genesis of cardiovascular injury caused by cadmium poisoning. For this study, 90 male Wistar rats were used, divided into six groups: A, 15 rats that received 400 mg/l cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water at a neutral pH of 7.0; B, 15 rats that received CdCl2 (400 mg/l) in drinking water at an acidic pH of 5.0; C, 15 rats that received CdCl2 (400 mg/l) in drinking water at a basic pH of 8.0; D, 15 rats that received water at an acidic pH of 5.0; E, 15 rats that received water at a basic pH of 8.0; and F, 15 rats that received water at a neutral pH of 7.0. All animals were euthanized after 6 months. We collected the heart and aorta from each rat for microscopic analysis. No microscopic changes were observed in the hearts. In the aorta, fatty streaks appeared in a large proportion of animals in groups A (50 %) and B (46 %), but fatty streaks appeared in a smaller minority of animals in groups C (15.3 %), D (0 %), E (7 %), and F (13.3 %) (p < 0.05). Cadmium exposure caused the development of fatty streaks in the aorta of animals and the exposure to this metal in basic pH decreased the formation of these lesions.

  12. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L P; Iglesias, D; Nicola, F C; Steffens, D; Valentim, L; Witczak, A; Zanatta, G; Achaval, M; Pranke, P; Netto, C A

    2012-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10(6) cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10(6) cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  13. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the “adolescent phenotype” to be retained into adulthood. However, the “adolescent phenotype” has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the “adolescent phenotype” in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34–42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can “lock-in” all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more “disinhibited” and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence. PMID:24785000

  14. Anti-inflammatory, Antithrombotic and Cardiac Remodeling Preventive Effects of Eugenol in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hajji, Raouf; Derbali, Fatma; Gammoudi, Anis; Khabbabi, Gaddour; Ellefi, Hedi; Allouche, Noureddine; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiac remodeling properties of eugenol in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, control, iso [100 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously into rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days (6th and 7th day) to induce MI] and pretreated animals with clopidogrel (0.2 mg/kg) and eugenol (50 mg/kg) orally for 7 days and intoxicated with isoproterenol (Iso + Clop) and (Iso + EG) groups. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats showed notable changes in the ECG pattern, increase in heart weight index, deterioration in the hemodynamic function and rise in plasma level of troponin-T, CK-MB and LDH and ALT by 316, 74, 172 and 45 %, respectively, with histological myocardium necrosis and cells inflammatory infiltration. In addition, significant increases in plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as fibrinogen, α1, α2, β1, β2 and γ globulins with decrease level of albumin were observed in infarcted rats as compared to normal ones. Else, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in plasma, kidney and heart of the isoproterenol-induced rats was significantly increased by 34, 47 and 93 %, respectively, as compared to normal group. However, the administration of eugenol induced a clear improvement in cardiac biomarkers injury, reduced inflammatory mediators proteins, increased heart activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase with reduce in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content and inhibition of ventricular remodeling process through inhibition of ACE activity. Overall, eugenol evidences high preventive effects from cardiac remodeling process.

  15. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  16. Sucrose drinking reduces dorsal hypothalamic beta-endorphin levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Rockhold, R W

    1993-01-01

    The present study was performed to test whether drinking of a 10% sucrose solution would preferentially alter tissue content of beta-endorphin in dorsal and ventral hypothalamic fragments from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), as opposed to the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY). Changes were correlated with cardiovascular function and circulating catecholamine levels to assess the role of hypothalamic beta-endorphin, a putative mediator of sucrose-induced changes in cardiovascular sympathetic nervous tone. Male rats were trained to consume their total 24-h water intake in a single period between 0900-1100 h. Catheters were chronically implanted to sample blood and to record arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The experimental protocol consisted of a recording session, which included a 10-min drinking period wherein rats consumed 8 ml of either sucrose solution or deionized water. Rats were sacrificed and hypothalami removed for analysis of beta-endorphin content. Comparable increases in blood pressure were noted in SHR and WKY during drinking of either sucrose or water. Drinking-induced tachycardia was blunted in SHR drinking sucrose. Plasma norepinephrine was increased only in sucrose-drinking SHR. Plasma glucose levels were elevated in both SHR and WKY following drinking of sucrose, but not water. beta-Endorphin levels were reduced (p < 0.05) in dorsal, but not ventral, hypothalamic fragments only in SHR drinking sucrose. The sucrose-induced changes in beta-endorphin did not correlate with blood pressure responses. The results indicate an exaggerated stimulation of beta-endorphin release in the dorsal hypothalamus following sucrose ingestion in SHR.

  17. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  18. Influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants in Wistar rats submitted to repeated forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Fernanda; dos Santos, Juliano; Walber, Thais; Marcon, Juliana C; dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino de Oliveira, Cilene

    2015-04-01

    Repeated forced swimming test (rFST) may detect gradual effects of antidepressants in adult rats. Antidepressants, as enrichment, affected behavior and neurogenesis in rats. However, the influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants is unknown. Here, effects of antidepressants on rFST and hippocampal neurogenesis were investigated in rats under enriched conditions. Behaviors of male Wistar rats, housed from weaning in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE), were registered during rFST. The rFST consisted of 15min of swimming (pretest) followed by 5min of swimming in the first (test), seventh (retest 1) and fourteenth (retest 2) days after pretest. One hour before the test, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (1ml/kg), fluoxetine (2.5mg/kg) or imipramine (2.5 or 5mg/kg). These treatments were performed daily until the day of the retest 2. After retest 2, rats were euthanized for the identification of markers for neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Fluoxetine or imipramine decreased immobility in retests 1 and 2, as compared to saline. EE abolished these differences. In EE, fluoxetine or imipramine (5mg/kg) reduced immobility time in retest 2, as compared to the test. Independent of the housing conditions, fluoxetine and imipramine (5mg/kg) increased the ratio of immature neurons per progenitor cell in the hippocampus. In summary, antidepressants or enrichment counteracted the high immobility in rFST. Enrichment changed the effects of antidepressants in rFST depending on the type, and the dose of a substance but failed to change neurogenesis in control or antidepressant treated-rats. Effects of antidepressants and enrichment on rFST seemed neurogenesis-independent.

  19. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  20. High folate gestational and post-weaning diets alter hypothalamic feeding pathways by DNA methylation in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cho, Clara E; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Reza-López, Sandra A; Huot, Pedro S P; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-07-01

    Excess vitamins, especially folate, are consumed during pregnancy but later-life effects on the offspring are unknown. High multivitamin (10-fold AIN-93G, HV) gestational diets increase characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rat offspring. We hypothesized that folate, the vitamin active in DNA methylation, accounts for these effects through epigenetic modification of food intake regulatory genes. Male offspring of dams fed 10-fold folate (HFol) diet during pregnancy and weaned to recommended vitamin (RV) or HFol diets were compared with those born to RV dams and weaned to RV diet for 29 weeks. Food intake and body weight were highest in offspring of HFol dams fed the RV diet. In contrast, the HFol pup diet in offspring of HFol dams reduced food intake (7%, p = 0.02), body weight (9%, p = 0.03) and glucose response to a glucose load (21%, p = 0.02), and improved glucose response to an insulin load (20%, p = 0.009). HFol alone in either gestational or pup diet modified gene expression of feeding-related neuropeptides. Hypomethylation of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter occurred with the HFol pup diet. POMC-specific methylation was positively associated with glucose response to a glucose load (r = 0.7, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the obesogenic phenotype of offspring from dams fed the HFol gestational diet can be corrected by feeding them a HFol diet. Our work is novel in showing post-weaning epigenetic plasticity of the hypothalamus and that in utero programming by vitamin gestational diets can be modified by vitamin content of the pup diet.

  1. Osteopenia and Male Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, Kendall; Dobs, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    A 34-year-old male, with a history of chronic myelogenous lymphoma (CML) previously successfully treated 20 years earlier with chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, and donor lymphocyte infusion therapy, presented with fatigue and low serum testosterone level. Evaluation revealed male hypogonadism from primary testicular failure due to prior CML therapy in addition to osteopenia. The patient received supplementary calcium, vitamin D, and testosterone; improvement in serum testosterone level was noted in 6 weeks, along with increased energy level and good libido and erectile function. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan showed improvement in bone status. Male hypogonadism is associated with increased risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Supplemental testosterone therapy, because of its direct effect and its aromatization to estrogen, can improve bone density in these patients. PMID:16985910

  2. Strain differences in toxic effects of long-lasting isoflurane anaesthesia between Wistar rats and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, J M; Jilma, B

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if long-lasting (5 h) anaesthesia with isoflurane has different pharmacological effects in two different rat strains: Wistar and Sprague Dawley. The mean blood pressure was 34% higher in Sprague Dawley rats as compared to the Wistar rats (p = 0.04). In Wistar rats, the pH value decreased to 7.1, lactate increased by 53%, creatinine increased 2.7-fold, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase increased more than 4-fold and lactate dehydrogenase increased 9-fold (p < 0.05). There were no changes in laboratory parameters in Sprague Dawley rats. This indicates that the Wistar rats were more sensitive to a 5 h anaesthesia with isoflurane after a premedication with ketamin/xylazine in the described study design.

  3. Male contraceptives under trial.

    PubMed

    1975-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation held its 4th biological workshop in New Delhi on October 17-19, 1974. The topic of this meeting was "Agents affecting fertility in the male." 10 internationally known experts in the field of male reproductive physiology attended and each presented an up-to-the-minute account of their work in the field, followed by a full discussion. Much basic work was described, and the results of the latest human trials of male contraceptives were reported. Dr. F. Neumann of the Schering Company, Berlin, reported on clinical trials of the drug cyproterone acetate. This drug has been in the news for some time as a possible male contraceptive. It is found that small doses prevent sperm from maturing in the epididymis. This drug is already on the British market as Androcur. In large doses it is useful for curbing libido, and in this format it is used to control "sexual offenders." In the small doses at which it is useful as a contraceptive, the effects on libido are negligible, and the drug is at present undergoing human trials as a contraceptive agent. However, much work has still be done on, for example, long-term side effects. Another approach described by Dr. J. Frick from Innsbruck, Austria, is that of giving men a progestagen combined with testosterone. Whereas the progestagen has the effect of inhibiting sperm production in the testis, the testosterone compensates for androgen loss and maintains libido and male characteristics. Dr. Frick reported studies using 15 progestagen combinations, including a new drug provisionally titled R2323. The overall conclusion of the meeting was that there are still many problems to be solved, and it will be some years before a male contraceptive will be commercially available. PMID:12333962

  4. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters.

  5. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  6. Male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, E

    2010-01-01

    The principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis has been established over the last three decades. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Current clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel, DMPA, or nestorone. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. PMID:20839093

  7. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  8. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  9. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-21

    Sexual behavior between males is observed in many species, but the biological factors involved are poorly known. In mammals, manipulation of dopamine has revealed the role of this neuromodulator on male sexual behavior. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to manipulate the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male-male courtship behavior. Males with increased dopamine level showed enhanced propensity to court other males but did not change their courtship toward virgin females, general olfactory response, general gustatory response, or locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males.

  10. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-21

    Sexual behavior between males is observed in many species, but the biological factors involved are poorly known. In mammals, manipulation of dopamine has revealed the role of this neuromodulator on male sexual behavior. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to manipulate the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male-male courtship behavior. Males with increased dopamine level showed enhanced propensity to court other males but did not change their courtship toward virgin females, general olfactory response, general gustatory response, or locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males. PMID:18495888

  11. Male infertility: biomolecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Foresta, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    Male infertility is a problem that faces increasing interest, and the continuous development of assisted reproduction techniques solicits attempts to identify a precise diagnosis, in particular for idiopathic infertile couples and those undergoing assisted reproductive technique cycles. To date, diagnosis of male infertility is commonly based on standard semen analysis, but in many cases, this is not enough to detect any sperm abnormality. A better understanding of biomolecular issues and mechanism of damaged spermatogenesis and the refinement of the molecular techniques for sperm evaluation and selection are important advances that can lead to the optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic management of male and couple infertility. Faced with a growing number of new proposed techniques and diagnostic tests, it is fundamental to know which tests are already routinely used in the clinical practice and those that are likely to be used in the near future. This review focuses on the main molecular diagnostic techniques for male infertility and on newly developed methods that will probably be part of routine sperm analysis in the near future.

  12. Lycopene and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  13. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  14. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  15. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  16. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  17. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  18. The toxicity of 3-chloropropane-1,2-dipalmitate in Wistar rats and a metabonomics analysis of rat urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianshuang; Wang, Sen; Wang, Maoqing; Shi, Wenxiu; Du, Xiaoyan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-11-25

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol(3-MCPD) fatty acid esters can release free 3-MCPD in a certain condition. Free 3-MCPD is a well-known food contaminant and is toxicological well characterized, however, in contrast to free 3-MCPD, the toxicological characterization of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters is puzzling. In this study, toxicological and metabonomics studies of 3-chloropropane-1,2-dipalmitate(3-MCPD dipalmitate) were carried out based on an acute oral toxicity test, a 90-day feeding test and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis. The LD50 value of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was determined to be 1780 mg/kg body weight (bw) for Wistar rats. The results of the 90-day feeding test in male Wistar rats showed that 3-MCPD dipalmitate caused a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the high-dose group (267 mg/kg bw/day) compared to control rats. Renal tubular epithelium cell degeneration and renal tubular hyaline cast accumulation were the major histopathological changes in rats administered 3-MCPD dipalmitate. Urine samples obtained after the 90-day feeding test and analyzed by UPLC-MS showed that the differences in metabolic profiles between control and treated rats were clearly distinguished by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the chromatographic data. Five metabolite biomarkers which had earlier and significant variations had been identified, they were first considered to be the early, sensitive biomarkers in evaluating the effect of 3-MCPD dipalmitate exposure, and the possible mechanism of these biomarkers variation was elucidated. The combination of histopathological examination, clinical chemistry and metabolomics analyses in rats resulted in a systematic and comprehensive assessment of the long-term toxicity of 3-MCPD dipalmitate. PMID:24140137

  19. Behavioural profile of Wistar rats with unilateral striatal lesion by quinolinic acid (animal model of Huntington disease) post-injection of apomorphine and exposure to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Giorgetto, Carolina; Silva, Elaine Cristina Mazzei; Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We analysed the motor behaviour of Wistar rats after 7 days lesion in the left striatum, injected with apomorphine (APO) and stimulated by a continuous magnetic field of 3,200 Gauss. For the behaviour assessment, we utilised the activity cage test and the rotarod test. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, sham, sham magnetic, lesion, and stimulated South and North Poles. After the experiments, coronal sections of the striatum were taken and stained with Nissl for analysis of the lesion. In the activity cage test for distance (F = 3.19), time of activity (F = 5.46) and crossings (F = 3.31) in all groups, except for the North Pole-stimulated group, we observed a significant increase in these behaviours when compared to the control group. Considering the number of counterclockwise turns, we observed a significant increase in the lesion in the South and North Pole stimulation groups compared with the control group. Highlighting the minor number of counterclockwise turns observed in the North Pole-stimulated group in relation to the South Pole-stimulated and Lesion groups (F = 16.01). The rotarod test revealed a decrease in the time spent in this apparatus for the Lesion group when compared to all other groups (F = 5.46). The morphometric analysis showed a reduction in the number of neurons in the Lesion group in relation to all other groups (F = 5.13). Thus, the results suggest that the static magnetic field north and south promoted a distinct behavioural profile and morphological preservation after 7 days of lesion with quinolinic acid associated with APO. PMID:25665872

  20. Effect of Ambient Temperature on the Thermoregulatory and Locomotor Stimulant Effects of 4-Methylmethcathinone in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wright, M. Jerry; Angrish, Deepshikha; Aarde, Shawn M.; Barlow, Deborah J.; Buczynski, Matthew W.; Creehan, Kevin M.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Parsons, Loren H.; Houseknecht, Karen L.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The drug 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; aka, mephedrone, MMCAT, “plant food”, “bath salts”) is a recent addition to the list of popular recreational psychomotor-stimulant compounds. Relatively little information about this drug is available in the scientific literature, but popular media reports have driven recent drug control actions in the UK and several US States. Online user reports of subjective similarity to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) prompted the current investigation of the thermoregulatory and locomotor effects of 4-MMC. Male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored after subcutaneous administration of 4-MMC (1–10 mg/kg ) using an implantable radiotelemetry system under conditions of low (23°C) and high (27°C) ambient temperature. A reliable reduction of body temperature was produced by 4-MMC in Wistar rats at 23°C or 27°C with only minimal effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. Increased locomotor activity was observed after 4-MMC administration in both strains with significantly more activity produced in the Sprague-Dawley strain. The 10 mg/kg s.c. dose evoked greater increase in extracellular serotonin, compared with dopamine, in the nucleus accumbens. Follow-up studies confirmed that the degree of locomotor stimulation produced by 10 mg/kg 4-MMC was nearly identical to that produced by 1 mg/kg d-methamphetamine in each strain. Furthermore, hypothermia produced by the serotonin 1A/7 receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was similar in each strain. These results show that the cathinone analog 4-MMC exhibits thermoregulatory and locomotor properties that are distinct from those established for methamphetamine or MDMA in prior work, despite recent evidence of neuropharmacological similarity with MDMA. PMID:22952999

  1. Effect of ambient temperature on the thermoregulatory and locomotor stimulant effects of 4-methylmethcathinone in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wright, M Jerry; Angrish, Deepshikha; Aarde, Shawn M; Barlow, Deborah J; Buczynski, Matthew W; Creehan, Kevin M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Parsons, Loren H; Houseknecht, Karen L; Dickerson, Tobin J; Taffe, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The drug 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; aka, mephedrone, MMCAT, "plant food", "bath salts") is a recent addition to the list of popular recreational psychomotor-stimulant compounds. Relatively little information about this drug is available in the scientific literature, but popular media reports have driven recent drug control actions in the UK and several US States. Online user reports of subjective similarity to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") prompted the current investigation of the thermoregulatory and locomotor effects of 4-MMC. Male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored after subcutaneous administration of 4-MMC (1-10 mg/kg ) using an implantable radiotelemetry system under conditions of low (23°C) and high (27°C) ambient temperature. A reliable reduction of body temperature was produced by 4-MMC in Wistar rats at 23°C or 27°C with only minimal effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. Increased locomotor activity was observed after 4-MMC administration in both strains with significantly more activity produced in the Sprague-Dawley strain. The 10 mg/kg s.c. dose evoked greater increase in extracellular serotonin, compared with dopamine, in the nucleus accumbens. Follow-up studies confirmed that the degree of locomotor stimulation produced by 10 mg/kg 4-MMC was nearly identical to that produced by 1 mg/kg d-methamphetamine in each strain. Furthermore, hypothermia produced by the serotonin 1(A/7) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was similar in each strain. These results show that the cathinone analog 4-MMC exhibits thermoregulatory and locomotor properties that are distinct from those established for methamphetamine or MDMA in prior work, despite recent evidence of neuropharmacological similarity with MDMA.

  2. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions.

  3. Efficacy of Co-administration of Garlic Extract and Metformin for Prevention of Gentamicin–Renal Toxicity in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Baradaran, Azar; Merrikhi, Alireza; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Madihi, Yahya; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity has been related to oxidative stress. Garlic and metformin (MF) have anti-oxadant activity and therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative effects of garlic, MF and their combination on GM indeced tubular toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In a pre-clinical study, 70 male Wistar rats were randomly designated into 7 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group 1: Received saline for 20 days. Group 2: Were injected 100 mg/kg/d of GM intraperitoneally (ip), for 10 days and saline for 10 more days. Group 3: Received GM for 10 days then 20 mg/kg garlic ip for the next 10 days. Group 4: Received GM for 10 days and MF (100 mg/kg) orally for the next 10 days. Group 5: Received GM for 10 days and a combination of MF and garlic for the next 10 days (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Group 6: The same as group 5but with half-doses of MF and Garlic. Group 7: Received GM for 10 days together with a combination ofMF and garlic. On 20th day of the experiment the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured and compared in different groups. Results: GM injection significantly increased the serum BUN and Cr (P < 0.05). Administration of MF, garlic or their combination with or after injection of GM (high doses) could atenuate BUN and Cr. Conclusions: The results indicate that MF and garlic or their combination have curative and protective activity against GM nephrotoxicity. PMID:23626881

  4. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  5. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0 mg/kg/day BPA) and positive control with E2 at the dose of 100 μg/kg/day. The sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate were analyzed byCASA system, and the sperm abnormality rate was analyzed by improved Papanicolaou stained. The protein expression levels of Src/p-Src, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB/p-CREB were detected by Western bolt. The results showed that the body weight gain, testes weight, testis coefficient, sperm density, sperm activity, sperm survival rate and protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB decreased, but the sperm abnormality rate increased with increasing BPA concentrations. There were positive correlations between sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate with protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB, and negative correlations between sperm abnormality rate with the protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB. Results from the structural equation model demonstrated that BPA retained a significant negative effect to p-ERK, whereas p-ERK retained a significant positive effect to sperm quality and acted as the mediate variable. This study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 protein kinase on reproductive toxicity of BPA. The adverse effects of BPA on adult male sperm quality may be through the induction of the disruption of ERK signal pathway. However, additional

  6. Effects of prenatal stress on male offspring sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nancy; Mayer, Nora; Gauna, Héctor F

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stimulations have been shown to have long-term effects on at reproductive activity. We evaluated the influence of the prenatal stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in male offsprings from mothers with high number of offsprings per litter (HNL) and low number of offsprings per litter (LNL) after hypothesizing that the number of offsprings per litter may modify the effect of the prenatal stress on the HPG of adult offsprings. Pregnant Wistar rats were used for this study. Immobilization (IMO) stress was used, 30 min, 3 times per week, from the 5th to 21st day of pregnancy. The weight of adrenal and gonads, and the corticosterone (COR), testosterone (TES) and luteinizing hormone (LH) plasmatic levels were analyzed in the male offspring at 30, 45 and 70 days of age. The offspring males coming from LNL showed a decrease in testicle weight and TES levels, without changes in the plasmatic LH levels. However, the offspring of HNL showed a decrease of LH levels. It is possible to conclude that in LNL prenatal stress would produce alterations to gonadal level, while in HNL the effect of stress would be evident at pituitary level.

  7. Newborn male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male.

  8. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  9. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  10. Spermatids as male gametes.

    PubMed

    Ogura, A; Yanagimachi, R

    1995-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is becoming increasingly popular in human infertility clinics as an efficient method for the treatment of male infertility. It is proposed that spermatids can be used as substitutes for spermatozoa if men are unable to produce sperm in their testes. At least in the hamster and mouse, the nuclei of round spermatids were capable of participating in syngamy when incorporated into homologous mature oocytes either by microsurgical ICSI or electrofusion. Normal mouse offspring were born after after electrofusion of oocytes with round spermatids. When culture in vitro of spermatogonia and spermatocytes is perfected, then spermatids, transforming spermatids and spermatozoa will all be able to be used as male gametes. PMID:7480833

  11. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  12. Effects of early maternal separation on subsequent reproductive and behavioral outcomes in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, Karin J; Christianson, Nina; Siltumens, Aldis; Krzykowski, Julie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate effects of maternal separation on reproductive and behavioral outcomes, male Wistar rats were separated from their mothers daily for 3 hr (maternal separation; MS) or 0 hr (control) from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14. Timing of puberty, reproductive parameters, hormone levels, and aggressive behaviors in juvenile and adult rats were examined. Contrary to expectations, there was no effect of maternal separation on any measure of aggression. However, maternal separation altered peripubertal testosterone secretion and increased mean day of preputial separation. In addition, adult MS males demonstrated less total sexual behavior. There was no difference in sperm counts or testosterone levels at necropsy on PND 56 or in adulthood, but seminal vesicle weights were increased in adult MS rats. These results suggest that early life stress may influence hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development in males, at least during peripuberty.

  13. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Talha; Awasthi, Akanksha; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2015-01-01

    To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA) in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%), and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg) (224.82 ± 7.01) and (912.25 ± 27.22) when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17) and (506.67 ± 21.39). HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes. PMID:25709965

  14. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated.

  15. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  16. Comparative Genome of GK and Wistar Rats Reveals Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guohui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Yunqin; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yixue

    2015-01-01

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and 2834 CNV deletion, 1796 protein affecting SNVs or indels) by comparative genome analysis and identified 192 potential T2D-associated genes. The genes with variants are further refined with prior knowledge and public resource including variant polymorphism of rat strains, protein-protein interactions and differential gene expression. Finally we have identified 15 genetic mutant genes which include seven known T2D related genes (Tnfrsf1b, Scg5, Fgb, Sell, Dpp4, Icam1, and Pkd2l1) and eight high-confidence new candidate genes (Ldlr, Ccl2, Erbb3, Akr1b1, Pik3c2a, Cd5, Eef2k, and Cpd). Our result reveals that the T2D phenotype may be caused by the accumulation of multiple variations in GK rat, and that the mutated genes may affect biological functions including adipocytokine signaling, glycerolipid metabolism, PPAR signaling, T cell receptor signaling and insulin signaling pathways. We present the genomic difference between two closely related rat strains (GK and Wistar) and narrow down the scope of susceptible loci. It also requires further experimental study to understand and validate the relationship between our candidate variants and T2D phenotype. Our findings highlight the importance of sequenced-based comparative genomics for investigating disease susceptibility loci in inbreeding animal models. PMID:26529237

  17. Male endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Zamip

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation for endocrine function is a pivotal part of the male infertility workup. Endocrine dysfunction may result from endogenous and exogenous sources. This article describes the traditional roles that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis plays in spermatogenesis and testicular dysfunction, as well as other insults that may contribute to hypospermatogenesis. Recent research into the role alternative hormonal axes play in spermatogenesis and promising new technologies that may correct inborn or acquired endocrinopathies leading to impaired sperm growth and maturation are discussed.

  18. Advances in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  19. [Urethrocele in males].

    PubMed

    el Mrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S

    1993-01-01

    Concerning one case of male urethral diverticulum, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. Long standing urethral catheter and urethroplasty are the more frequent etiologies of this affection. The diagnosis is clinical, based on the discovery of tumefaction on the urethral track which pression makes spring up urine through urethral meatus. The urethrogram confirms the diagnosis. Surgical approach consists on the resection of the diverticulum and urethrography in one or two stages, based on diverticular neck size and tissue vascularization. PMID:8163849

  20. Male Body Contouring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  1. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  2. [Effects of ketamine, imipramine, and their combination on depression-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats].

    PubMed

    Ye, Kui; Li, Qian-Qian; Jin, Xiao-Ju; Peng, Li-Chao

    2016-02-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ketamine, imipramine, and ketamine plus imipramine on chronic depression-like behaviors of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and underlying mechanism. Six-week-old Wistar rats were used as normal control. WKY rats, depression model animal, were injected intraperitoneally with ketamine (1 week, replaced with saline in 2(nd) week), imipramine (2 weeks), or ketamine in combination with imipramine. The depression-like behaviors were assessed by sucrose preference and forced swimming tests. Protein expressions of β form of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (βCaMKII) and membrane fraction of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) were measured in corresponding brain tissue with Western blot. The results showed that, compared with Wistar rats, WKY rats exhibited decreased sucrose preference and extended immobility time. Ketamine alone did not affect depression-like behaviors of WKY, whereas imipramine or its combination with ketamine could significantly decrease the immobility time. Compared with Wistar rats, WKY rats showed up-regulated levels of βCaMKII and membrane GluR1 protein expressions in habenula, and down-regulated level of membrane GluR1 protein expressions in the prefrontal cortex. Imipramine or its combination with ketamine could reverse these changes of protein expressions in WKY rats. There was no difference in reversing effect between imipramine and its combination with ketamine. Ketamine alone did not affect the βCaMKII and membrane GluR1 protein expressions in the habenula, but increased membrane GluR1 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats. These results suggest 2-week imipramine treatment significantly improves depressive behavior in WKY rats; however, the addition of ketamine in the first week fails to enhance the effect of imipramine. The underlying mechanisms of imipramine's anti-depressive effect may be associated with the down-regulation of βCaMKII and membrane Glu

  3. Spinal tumors induced by neonatal administration of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naito, M; Naito, Y; Ito, A

    1981-02-01

    The carcinogenic effect of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) administered by single neonatal injection (40 mg/kg) was examined in wistar rats. By 2 months after ENU administration, 30% of the examined animals had spinal cord tumors. After months all rats had neurogenic tumors, and the incidence of spinal tumor was as high as 86%. Spinal cord tumors were observed at all levels of the white matter of the spinal cord without any predilection site, though spinal root tumors were located exclusively on lumbosacral plexuses. Most of the spinal cord tumors were oligodedrogliomas or glioependymomas, whereas all the spinal root tumors were anaplastic schwannomas.

  4. [Circadian rhythm studies on the prenatal toxic effect of cyclophosphamide and centrophenoxine in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Neumann, H J; Hollnack, W; Hollnack, B; Frömmel, H

    1985-01-01

    According to the literature, centrophenoxine weakens the teratogenic effect of cyclophosphamide. Circadianrhythmic examinations were carried out on Wistar-rats at 4 different times daily during embryogenesis. The spectrum of deformities induced by cyclophosphamide showed significant differences according to the stage of development and the time of day. The protective effect of centrophenoxine has been demonstrated, but its ability to do so also showed daytime fluctuations. The most remarkable effect was obtained 14 d post coitum at one in the morning. The importance of circadianrhythmic examinations in experimental work is therefore stressed, and should be given some more attention.

  5. Modulatory effects of levamisole and garlic oil on the immune response of Wistar rats: Biochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Essam Hassan; Baiomy, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Levamisole (LEVA) and garlic are prevalent immunomodulators in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of LEVA and garlic oil (GO) alone or in combination on the immune response of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups: Control group, which was given ad libitum access to food and water; and groups 2‑4, which were orally administered LEVA [2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) every 2 days], GO, (5 ml/kg BW daily), or LEVA plus GO, respectively for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM levels were measured using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Serum cytokine levels, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total blood counts were measured automatically using a cell counter. Serum lysozyme enzymatic activity was determined by measuring the diameters of the zones of clearance relative to lysozyme. Immunohistochemical detection of CD4 and CD8 was carried out using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of IL‑4, IL‑5 and IL‑12 were measured in the leukocytes and thymus gland by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that LEVA increased serum levels of IFN‑γ, IL‑5 and TNF‑α cytokines, whereas co‑administration of LEVA and GO decreased the stimulatory action of LEVA alone. LEVA and GO alone increased the serum levels of IgG, IgM and total blood cell counts, and co‑administration of GO and LEVA inhibited the effects of LEVA. At the cellular level, in the spleen, LEVA increased immunoreactivity of CD4 and CD8, whereas co‑administration of GO with LEVA decreased this strong expression. At the molecular level, in leukocytes, LEVA upregulated the mRNA expression levels of IL‑2, IL‑4 and IL‑5, whereas GO alone downregulated mRNA expression. Co‑administration of

  6. Moderate Exercise during Pregnancy in Wistar Rats Alters Bone and Body Composition of the Adult Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Brielle V.; Blair, Hugh T.; Vickers, Mark H.; Dittmer, Keren E.; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Knight, Cameron G.; Firth, Elwyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  7. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  8. Repeated Water Avoidance Stress Alters Mucosal Mast Cell Counts, Interleukin-1β Levels with Sex Differences in the Distal Colon of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Ham, Min Hee; Lee, Hye Seung; Jo, Wonjun; Shim, Youngkwang; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study was aimed at evaluating differences in the effects of repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) on colonic movement, mucosal mast cell counts, cytokine levels, and visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats of both sexes. Methods Wistar rats were divided into stress and no-stress groups. Rats in the stress group were exposed to rWAS (1 hr/day) for 10 days. Mucosal mast cells were immunohistochemically stained with anti-mast cell tryptase antibody and counted. The colonic mucosal cytokine levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The VMR to CRD (visceral analgesia) was assessed by using a barostat and noninvasive manometry. Results The mean number of fecal pellets in the rWAS group increased significantly as compared with that in the no-stress group in both sexes. After adjustment for body weight, the female rats had a significantly higher pellet output than the male rats. The mucosal mast cell count of the female rWAS group was higher than that of the male rWAS group (13.0 ± 0.9 vs 8.8 ± 0.6; P < 0.001). The colonic mucosal interleukin-1β level was also higher only in the female rats of the rWAS group than in those of the no-stress group. On days 10 and 11, a decrease in VMR to CRD was observed at 40 and 60 mmHg in both sexes of the rWAS group, without a sex-based difference. Conclusions The colonic response to stress appeared to be more sensitive in the female rats than in the male rats. However, stress-induced visceral analgesia had no sex-related difference and the underlying mechanism needs to be further evaluated. PMID:27466288

  9. Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  10. Topographic distribution of the sand flea Tunga penetrans in Wistar rats and humans in two endemic areas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buckendahl, John; Heukelbach, Jörg; Witt, Lars; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Calheiros, Cláudia M L; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2012-07-01

    Tungiasis is a zoonosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in many resource-poor communities, in which various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs. Eighty laboratory-raised Wistar rats were exposed to T. penetrans in areas of intense transmission: a fishing village and an urban shantytown in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. The topographic distribution of lesions in Wistar rats was compared with the distribution of lesions in humans in the same area. Our results show that the topographic distribution of embedded sand fleas was almost identical in Wistar rats and humans and that lesions were confined to the feet. In humans, 76% of all lesions were located periungually, whereas in Wistar rats, 67% of lesions were located at the distal end of the digits (P = 0.73). Both had the majority of lesions at the toes and digits: 70.2% versus 65.7% (P = 0.79). The Wistar rat model mirrors human tungiasis in topographic distribution. PMID:22764302

  11. Topographic Distribution of the Sand Flea Tunga penetrans in Wistar Rats and Humans in Two Endemic Areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Buckendahl, John; Heukelbach, Jörg; Witt, Lars; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Calheiros, Cláudia M. L.; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Tungiasis is a zoonosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in many resource-poor communities, in which various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs. Eighty laboratory-raised Wistar rats were exposed to T. penetrans in areas of intense transmission: a fishing village and an urban shantytown in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. The topographic distribution of lesions in Wistar rats was compared with the distribution of lesions in humans in the same area. Our results show that the topographic distribution of embedded sand fleas was almost identical in Wistar rats and humans and that lesions were confined to the feet. In humans, 76% of all lesions were located periungually, whereas in Wistar rats, 67% of lesions were located at the distal end of the digits (P = 0.73). Both had the majority of lesions at the toes and digits: 70.2% versus 65.7% (P = 0.79). The Wistar rat model mirrors human tungiasis in topographic distribution. PMID:22764302

  12. Report: effects of Camellia sinensis L. (green tea) extract on the body and testicular weight changes in adult Wistar rate.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Muhammad Mazhar; Khatoon, Nasira; Azmi, Muhammad Arshad; Rajput, Muhammad Tariq; Zaidi, Syed Ijaz Hussain; Azmi, Muhammad Ahmed; Perveen, Rehana; Naqvi, Syed Naimul Hassan; Rashid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effects of oral administration of Camellia sinensis L. on the testicular and body weights of adult Wistar rats for short and long time periods. The adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). Every group had ten rats. Green tea extract 0.692% (w/v) was given to groups A and B on daily basis. The extracts were prepared fresh and giv