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Sample records for 8-year clinical study

  1. Cross-linked Compared with Historical Polyethylene in THA: An 8-year Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Bernd; Vencken, Wendy; Heyligers, Ide C.; Tonino, Alphons J.

    2008-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in THA. Increasing wear resistance of polyethylene (PE) occurs by increasing the cross-link density and early reports document low wear rates with such implants. To confirm longer-term reductions in wear we compared cross-linked polyethylene (irradiation in nitrogen, annealing) with historical polyethylene (irradiation in air) in a prospective, randomized clinical study involving 48 patients who underwent THAs with a minimum followup of 7 years (mean, 8 years; range, 7–9 years). The insert material was the only variable. The Harris hip score, radiographic signs of osteolysis, and polyethylene wear were recorded annually. Twenty-three historical and 17 moderately cross-linked polyethylene inserts were analyzed (five patients died, three were lost to followup). At 8 years, the wear rate was lower for cross-linked polyethylene (0.088 ± 0.03 mm/year) than for the historical polyethylene (0.142 ± 0.07 mm/year). This reduction (38%) did not diminish with time (33% at 5 years). Acetabular cyst formation was less frequent (39% versus 12%), affected fewer DeLee and Charnley zones (17% versus 4%), and was less severe for the cross-linked polyethylene. The only revision was for an aseptically loose cup in the historical polyethylene group. Moderately cross-linked polyethylene maintained its wear advantage with time and produced less osteolysis, showing no signs of aging at mid-term followup. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19030941

  2. Clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas: an 8-year retrospective study of 240 cases in Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwuneke, F N; Anyanechi, C E; Akpeh, J O; Chukwuka, A; Ekwueme, O C

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to summarise the clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas in eastern Nigeria. We organised a retrospective study of 240 patients who presented with ameloblastomas to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery units of five specialist hospitals in the eastern states of Nigeria over an eight-year period (2004-2011). We analysed the casenotes, and categorised the cases by site of tumour, age, sex, and time of presentation. There were 117 men (49%) (mean (SD) age 43 (6.2) years) and 123 women (51%) (mean (SD) age 32 (4.7) years), a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. The largest age group was 20-39 years (n=102, 43%), and the most common site was the anterior mandible (n=140, 58%). Most of the patients presented late. Our results show that the most common site of ameloblastomas in Eastern Nigeria is the anterior mandible and that women are affected more than men, which is at variance with the results of most other studies.

  3. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  4. Primary sleep disorders seen at a Neurology service-based sleep clinic in India: Patterns over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology service-based sleep

  5. [Cementless total hip arthroplasty--results of 8-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Wall, Andrzej; Dragan, Szymon

    2006-01-01

    The subjects of the clinical examinations were 382 patients who from 1994 to 1999 were treated with the method of total cementless arthroplasty. The observation time ranged from 3 to 8 years. In the examined group the secondary cause of degenerative changes was identified in 210 (55%) patients. In the remaining 172 cases (45%) the primary cause of degenerative changes in the hip was diagnosed. Four types of cementless endoprostheses, varied in their construction, structure of their surfaces and material they were made of, were used to carry out the postoperative treatment of the degenerative changes in the hip: Antega, Zweymüller SL PLUS (Endoprosthetic) or Alloclasic type of stem, GSS-CL and PM-Plasmapore. The findings of the clinical investigation made it possible to determine the probability of surviving of an endoprosthesis up to the 8th year after an operation depending on a type of implanted stem, which according to Kaplan-Meier's method, amounted to 0.9603. The results of Harris scale evaluation of the function of the operated joints demonstrated the existence of the relationship between the function and the course of bone osteointegration and growth process. The detailed analysis of the X-ray examinations, and especially of the roentgenometric ones, taking into account stability of the endoprosthesis stem enabled to distinguish two stages of the clinical and roentgenological changes: the early stage (up to 6 months after an operation) characterised by settling and micromotions of the stem and the late stage (starting 6-9 months after an operation) with slowly gradual increasing of the function and holding back of stem settling. PMID:17017478

  6. Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Retrospective Case Study With 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stobert, Julia R.; Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) who was initially misdiagnosed and treated for a hip flexor strain. Clinical Features A 36-year-old male patient presented with insidious onset of progressive anterior right hip and groin pain of 7 years' duration. He was diagnosed with a right-sided hip flexor muscle strain and was discharged from care 1 month later. The patient then returned to the office 8 years later for treatment of unrelated lower back pain. This time, the doctor of chiropractic learned that the patient was misdiagnosed years before. The patient's past radiographs in fact revealed FAI, including severe hip joint osteoarthritis on the right and mild osteoarthritis on the left. As a result, the patient had undergone right hip joint replacement surgery. Recent radiographs also revealed FAI in the contralateral hip. Intervention and Outcome After investigating for FAI, the doctor of chiropractic was able to identify through symptomatology, history, physical examination, and radiographs the presence of FAI in the patient's left hip. An “active surveillance” approach is being taken. Conclusion This case illustrates the importance of an increasing awareness of FAI, as doctors of chiropractic are frequently the primary contact for patients with this condition. PMID:26793042

  7. Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chan, Khee-Siang; Tseng, Kuei-Ling; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common in critical care; by contrast, a subtype called alcohol-associated lactic acidosis (AALA) is rarely encountered. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of AALA in critically ill patients and the second aim was to determine whether the survival was associated to the peak blood lactate concentration. An 8-year retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with AALA between January 2007 and December 2014 was considered in a tertiary care hospital. In total, 23 patients were analyzed and the median peak blood lactate level was 15.9 mmol/L. Only 2 patients (8.7%) presented peak blood lactate levels <10 mmol/L. In this study, 21 patients survived from ICU and hospital, the mortality rate was 8.7%. The result indicted the survival of AALA was not associated with peak blood lactate concentration although survivors still had a better lactate clearance rate per hour than non-survivors. Moreover, AALA patients with coexisting sepsis presenting higher lactate clearance rate and shorter lactate clearance time than those of AALA patients with solely sepsis-related lactic acidosis. PMID:27748410

  8. Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J

    2010-06-01

    Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed.

  9. Civic Engagement Patterns and Transitions over 8 Years: The AmeriCorps National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Flanagan, Constance; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to examine civic engagement transitions across 2 waves spanning 8 years in a sample of AmeriCorps participants and a comparison group (N = 1,344; 77% female). Latent indicators of civic engagement included volunteering, community participation, civic organizational involvement, local and national voting, civic…

  10. Relationships matter in personality development: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study across young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Neyer, Franz J; Lehnart, Judith

    2007-06-01

    Personality-relationship transactions were investigated in a general population sample of young German adults with three assessments over 8 years. Four general findings were obtained. First, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences in change. Second, bivariate latent growth models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with change in peer and family relationships. Third, forming a partner relationship for the first time moderated the maturation of personality. This finding was replicated over two subsequent time intervals with independent subgroups. Fourth, higher neuroticism and higher sociability predicted which of the singles began a partner relationship during the next 8 years. The results confirm that individual differences in personality development predict and result from life transitions and relationship experiences.

  11. Implementation of pay for performance in primary care: a qualitative study 8 years after introduction

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Helen; Matharu, Tatum; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lester, David; Foskett-Tharby, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Pay for performance is now a widely adopted quality improvement initiative in health care. One of the largest schemes in primary care internationally is the English Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). Aim To obtain a longer term perspective on the implementation of the QOF. Design and setting Qualitative study with 47 health professionals in 23 practices across England. Method Semi-structured interviews. Results Pay for performance is accepted as a routine part of primary care in England, with previous more individualistic and less structured ways of working seen as poor practice. The size of the QOF and the evidence-based nature of the indicators are regarded as key to its success. However, pay for performance may have had a negative impact on some aspects of medical professionalism, such as clinical autonomy, and led a significant minority of GPs to prioritise their own pay rather than patients’ best interests. A small minority of GPs tried to increase their clinical autonomy with further unintended consequences. Conclusion Pay for performance indicators are now welcomed by primary healthcare teams and GPs across generations. Almost all interviewees wanted to see a greater emphasis on involving front line practice teams in developing indicators. However, almost all GPs and practice managers described a sense of decreased clinical autonomy and loss of professionalism. Calibrating the appropriate level of clinical autonomy is critical if pay for performance schemes are to have maximal impact on patient care. PMID:23735412

  12. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  13. Civic engagement patterns and transitions over 8 years: the AmeriCorps national study.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Flanagan, Constance; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to examine civic engagement transitions across 2 waves spanning 8 years in a sample of AmeriCorps participants and a comparison group (N = 1,344; 77% female). Latent indicators of civic engagement included volunteering, community participation, civic organizational involvement, local and national voting, civic consciousness, and perceptions of civic knowledge. Three latent statuses were identified; inactive, voting involved, and highly committed. Consistent with life cycle theories of political engagement, the inactive status was most prevalent at Wave 1 and the voting-involved status most prevalent at Wave 4. AmeriCorps members were less involved in voting at Wave 1 but, among voters, were more likely to become highly committed by Wave 4. Compared with those who did not attend college, those who did had higher levels of civic engagement initially and over time. Young participants and Asian youths demonstrated lower levels of involvement initially compared with older participants or White youths. Findings suggest that national service programs geared toward young people who are not in college may hold promise for addressing gaps in civic engagement. PMID:21910528

  14. An Exploratory Study on the Junior Brixton Spatial Rule Attainment Test in 6- to 8-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senturk, Nilay; Yeniceri, Nur; Alp, I. Ercan; Altan-Atalay, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the Junior Brixton Test (JBT), an executive function (EF) measure for children, in comparison to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in a sample of 6- to 8-year-olds, all attending the first 2 years of elementary school. Factor analyses indicated two main domains in both measures, namely concept formation and cognitive…

  15. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  16. Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs: 8 years later.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Rachel M; Handal, Paul J; Brawer, Peter A; Ubinger, Megan

    2011-06-01

    This study was a follow up investigation of Brawer et al.'s (Prof Psychol Res Pr 33(2):203-206, 2002) survey of education and training of clinical psychologists in religion/spirituality. Directors of clinical training were surveyed to determine whether changes had occurred in the coverage of religion and spirituality through course work, research, supervision, and in the systematic coverage of the content area. Results indicated an increased coverage in the areas of supervision, dedicated courses, inclusion as part of another course, and research. There was no increase in systematic coverage, but significantly more programs provided at least some coverage. The current study also assesses other areas of incorporation as well as directors' opinions regarding the importance of religion/spirituality in the field of psychology.

  17. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  18. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  19. Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

  20. 8-Year Prospective Study of Depressive Symptoms and Change in Insulin from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. Methods Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001–2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline (adolescence) and eight years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants. Puberty was assessed using a validated protocol measuring sex steroids and physical changes. The primary outcome was change in fasting insulin. Analyses accounted for age, sex, race, parental education, baseline insulin, BMI z, puberty, and time to follow up. Results At baseline, depressive symptoms were correlated with insulin (rho = .13, p = .001). High baseline insulin predicted insulin change (B = −11.50, SE = 2.30, p< .001). Depressive symptoms also predicted insulin change, but only for pubertal adolescents (B = −.23, SE = .11, p = .038). This relationship was moderated by race (p < .047); depressive symptoms predicted insulin change only among pubertal black adolescents ( p= .030), not whites (p = .49), and in the direction opposite that hypothesized (Bblacks = −.51, SE = .23). Post-hoc analyses revealed pubertal black adolescents with high depressive symptoms had the highest baseline insulin, which stayed high across the follow up period. Conclusions Among pubertal black adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for sustained hyperinsulinemia from adolescence into adulthood. These youths may be particularly vulnerable for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26368574

  1. Fatalities due to methyl alcohol intoxication in Turkey: an 8-year study.

    PubMed

    Yayci, Nesime; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Turla, Ahmet; Koç, Sermet

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine methyl alcohol poisoning cases from the medico-legal point of view. The records of the Morgue Department of Council of the Forensic Medicine were reviewed retrospectively for all methyl alcohol poisonings for the period of 27.10.1992 and 30.05.2001. The victim's age, sex, death year, death place, methyl alcohol blood levels, the source of methyl alcohol, accompanying laboratory results and histopathologic tissue changes were recorded. The number of deaths due to the methyl alcohol poisoning was 271 during that period of time. Two hundred and forty-two of the (89.3%) total 271 methyl alcohol fatalities were men and 29 (10.7%) of were women. The largest age group was 36-40 years old, followed by 41-45. The methyl alcohol blood concentrations ranged widely from 50 to 755 mg for per 100 ml. There were 222 cases (81.9%) with the methyl alcohol blood concentrations over 100 mg/dl. Twenty-nine (10.7%) victims were poisoned through the consumption of cologne and three of them with alcoholic beverage named "Raki". Consumed products were not known in all other cases because of insufficient patient history and data. As a conclusion, regarding the distribution according to years, mortality due to methyl alcohol intoxication in our country have been proceeding on a certain level. In order to decrease the mortality due to methyl alcohol intoxication, some precautions should be developed that could prevent the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages illegally produced.

  2. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the

  3. [Significance of pregnancy and labor complications for the genesis of brain function disorders. Results of an epidemiologic study of 8-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Esser, G; Schmidt, M H

    1985-03-01

    An epidemiological and a clinical study were conducted to examine the importance of pregnancy and delivery complications in the genesis of cerebral dysfunction, the studies comprising a total of 495 children of 8 years of age. In the case definition of cerebral dysfunction, methodic improvements were used that had been demanded by those who had been critical of the clinical procedure. The results showed that clinical dysfunction is a risk factor for diseases in child psychiatry. There were no signs pointing to uniform psychopathological patterns (on the lines of a hyperkinetic syndrome) in children with cerebral dysfunction. There was no enhanced incidence of other diseases in the anamnesis of children with cerebral dysfunction. On the whole, the concept of cerebral dysfunction cannot be upheld at least to the extent presumed so far. A comparison between field study random samples and clinical study random samples showed that the classical postulates of the concept apply at most to a negligible minority only.

  4. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Willich, Stefan N

    2009-01-01

    Background An evaluation of homeopathic treatment and the outcomes in patients suffering from sinusitis for ≥12 weeks in a usual care situation. Methods Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ≥12 weeks duration) of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment. Results The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women), treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0%) had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline) of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40), 2.15 (2.38; 1.92), and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39), 0.35 (0.19; 0.52), 0.44 (0.23; 0.65) and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84), 0.71 (0.50; 0.92), 0.65 (0.39; 0.92), 0.74 (0.49; 1.00) at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65) and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00). Conclusion This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies. PMID:19635154

  5. Indicators of fetal growth do not independently predict blood pressure in 8-year-old Australians: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrie J; Blake, Kevin V; Doherty, Dorota; Kendall, Garth E; Newnham, John P; Landau, Louis I; Stanley, Fiona J

    2004-02-01

    Inverse associations between size at birth and blood pressure (BP) in later life are commonly statistically significant only after adjustment for current size, consistent with change in size as the determinant. Few studies have been prospective or have included a range of potential confounders. Using regression models, including maternal and demographic variables, we examined associations between size at birth and BP in Australian children followed from week 16 of gestation to the age of 8 years. BP measurements were available from 1417 children born after 37 weeks gestation without congenital abnormalities. In models adjusted only for sex, the birthweight (BW), birth length, ponderal index, head circumference, chest circumference, abdominal girth, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold, placental weight, or BW/placental weight ratio did not significantly predict SBP in 8-year-olds. With adjustment for current size, associations were inverse but not statistically significant (regression coefficients: BW, -1.11; 95% confidence limits [CL], -2.22, 0.01; birth length, -0.25; 95% CL, -0.52, 0.24) and remained nonsignificant after adjustment for confounders. Current weight, height, or body mass index significantly predicted SBP and DBP (P<0.001) with differences of 8/4 mm Hg between upper and lower quartiles; effects were similar in infants with lower and higher BW. These findings are consistent with postnatal change in size as the major determinant of BP in 8-year-olds and are important in the context of the worldwide "epidemic" of obesity in childhood as a likely precursor of increasing rates of hypertension in adults. PMID:14718353

  6. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  7. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  8. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  9. The effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology: an 8 year report of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Mäntysaari, Raimo; Pykäläinen, Aila; Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Laitala, Timo; Karikko, Jaana

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of early headgear (HG) treatment on craniofacial structures. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3 years). The children, who had a Class II tendency in occlusion and moderate crowding, were randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately. In the second group, which served as a control group, only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the first follow-up period of 2 years. During the 8 year follow-up, orthodontic therapy, including fixed appliances and possible extractions, was carried out when necessary. The results showed that the most evident difference between the groups was the wider and longer dental arches in the HG group, which could only partly be explained by the higher rate of extractions in the control group. For the cephalometric measurements, the most significant difference was in the maxillary plane orientation. The peer assessment rating (PAR) score, showing the general outcome of treatment, was at the same level in both groups at follow-up. The deficit of the early HG treatment was the longer mean total treatment time, resulting from the two-phase treatment.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (β = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (β = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (β = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ

  11. Childhood Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders among Boys: A Prospective Community-Based Follow-Up Study from Age 8 Years to Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…

  12. Health Risk Factor Modification Predicts Incidence of Diabetes in an Employee Population: Results of an 8-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rolando, Lori; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Elasy, Tom; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand risk factor modification effect on Type 2 Diabetes incidence in a workforce population. Methods Annual Health Risk Assessment (HRA) data (n=3125) in years 1 through 4 were used to predict diabetes development in years 5 through 8. Results Employees who reduced their BMI from ≥30 to < 30 decreased their chances of developing diabetes (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.93), while those who became obese increased their diabetes risk (OR 8.85, 95% CI 2.53 to 31.0). Conclusions Weight reduction observed over a long period can result in clinically important reductions in diabetes incidence. Workplace health promotion programs may prevent diabetes among workers by encouraging weight loss and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. PMID:23532193

  13. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  14. [Study of factors influencing hepatitis B immunization coverage in 1 to 8-years-old children in the Ouidah health district in Benin in 2007].

    PubMed

    Bossali, F; Paraiso, M; Bokossa, A; Fourn, L

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Africa. The estimated prevalence in Benin is between 5.2% and 8.3%. Since 1992, the WHO has recommended immunization of all children between 0 and 12-months-old all around the world. Benin has been vaccinating children from 0 to 11 months since 1999. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing hepatitis B immunization coverage in children from 1 to 8-years-old in the Ouidah health district. This descriptive and analytical cross sectional study was carried out from October 25 to 31, 2007. The primary study targets were children from 1 to 8 years. Secondary targets were mothers and healthcare workers. A three-degree cluster sampling technique was used. Hepatitis immunization coverage was 72.2% (95%CI, 65.4 - 78.3). The negative factor influencing coverage in children was age over 5 years reflecting the absence of catch-up sessions for untargeted children overlooked for hepatitis B immunization. The negative factor in mothers was age over 30 years pending multivariate analysis that was not performed in this study. Regarding healthcare workers, understaffing was noted at this level of the health system. Hepatitis B immunization coverage in untargeted children was lower than in children between 0 and 11 months. In 2007, hepatitis B immunization coverage in the Ouidah health district was lower in untargeted children than children of 0 to 11 months. This study showed that immunization coverage decreased with age, thus underlining the need for catch-up sessions to ensure hepatitis B immunization in high prevalence areas.

  15. A study on the incidence, microbiological analysis and investigations on the source of infection of postoperative infectious endophthalmitis in a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital: An 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Jambulingam, Malathi; Parameswaran, Suresh Kumar; Lysa, Sagar; Selvaraj, Margarita; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was the determination of the incidence of culture-proven postoperative endophthalmitis and probable sources of infection. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study on the microbiology, incidence and probable sources of infection in patients with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis carried out in a tertiary care eye hospital. Consecutive patients diagnosed with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis during the years 2000-2007 were investigated for the causative infective agent and possible sources of infection. The surgical data and microbiological data including the investigations performed to trace the source were recorded in a specific formatted form and were gathered and compiled for analysis. Results: Data of analysis showed that 98 (0.042%) out of 2,31,259 patients who underwent intra-ocular surgery developed infectious endophthalmitis. Among these, 70 (0.053%) occurred after cataract, 10 (0.5%) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and 18 (0.018%) following other types of intra-ocular surgeries. The predominant infectious agents isolated were bacteria (89.7%), with equal proportions of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Polymicrobial infection was noted in four and fungi in seven patients. Occurrence of postoperative endophthalmitis was sporadic and not related to any specific part of period in a year. Sources of infection were donor corneal rim in six post-PK patients and phaco probe in one who had postphacoemulsification endophthalmitis Conclusions: Overall incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis over an 8-year period was quite low. The sources of infection could be established in six post-PK endophthalmitis patients and in a postcataract surgery. PMID:20534919

  16. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  17. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  18. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  19. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  20. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  1. Efficacy of single and multi-metric fish-based indices in tracking anthropogenic pressures in estuaries: An 8-year case study.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Filipe; Nyitrai, Daniel; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-12-15

    Facing a generalized increase in water degradation, several programmes have been implemented for protecting and enhancing the water quality and associated wildlife, which rely on ecological indicators to assess the degree of deviation from a pristine state. Here, single (species number, Shannon-Wiener H', Pielou J') and multi-metric (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index, EFAI) community-based ecological quality measures were evaluated in a temperate estuary over an 8-year period (2005-2012), and established their relationships with an anthropogenic pressure index (API). Single metric indices were highly variable and neither concordant amongst themselves nor with the EFAI. The EFAI was the only index significantly correlated with the API, indicating that higher ecological quality was associated with lower anthropogenic pressure. Pressure scenarios were related with specific fish community composition, as a result of distinct food web complexity and nursery functioning of the estuary. Results were discussed in the scope of the implementation of water protection programmes.

  2. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of the Natural History of Threshold, Subthreshold, and Partial Eating Disorders from a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Shaw, Heather; Jaconis, Maryanne

    2010-01-01

    We examined the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent girls who completed annual diagnostic interviews over an 8-year period. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.6% and 0.6% for threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), 1.6% and 6.1% for threshold and subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), 1.0% and 4.6% for threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder (BED), and 4.4% for purging disorder (PD). Overall, 12% of adolescents experienced some form of eating disorder. Subthreshold BN and BED and threshold PD were associated with elevated treatment, impairment, and distress. Peak age of onset was 17-18 for BN and BED, and 18-20 for PD. Average episode duration in months was 3.9 for BN and BED, and 5.1 for PD. One-year recovery rates ranged from 91% to 96%. Relapse rates were 41% for BN, 33% for BED, and 5% for PD. For BN and BED subthreshold cases often progressed to threshold cases and diagnostic crossover was most likely for these disorders. Results suggest that subthreshold eating disorders are more prevalent than threshold eating disorders and are associated with marked impairment. PMID:19685955

  3. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  4. Medical and licit drug use in an urban/rural study population with a refugee background, 7-8 years into resettlement

    PubMed Central

    Johansson Blight, Karin; Persson, Jan-Olov; Ekblad, Solvig; Ekberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Research into medical and licit drug use in resettled refugee populations is scarce, despite the fact that mental health status often has been found to be poorer than in general populations. Hence the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-rated use of medicine and licit drugs among adults who came to Sweden from Bosnia-Herzegovina (1993/94) and who in 2001 were living in either an urban (low employment context) or a rural (high employment context) region (n=4185). Methods: Prevalence was estimated from a cross-sectional questionnaire distributed to a representative sample (n=650) in 2001 (63.5% response rate). Results: The study population estimates of usage of sedatives (26.5%), sleeping tablets (26.2%) and antidepressants (22.3%) did not differ by gender but did so by region, with a higher urban prevalence. The consumption of alcohol (5.1%) and cigarettes (41.0%) did not differ by region but men reported higher alcohol consumption than women. Conclusion: The high consumption of medicine (compared with general populations) raises the question of treatment efficiency and the need for public health attention and evaluation many years after resettlement. Factors to consider for further research with analytic prerequisites concern indications that regional differences may be influenced, not only by urban employment being lower but also by urban/rural differences in prescription rates and/or access to health care; moreover, there might have been a selection to the urban region of older people, with a more vulnerable family situation, and/or poorer mental health. Finally, the overall alcohol (low) and cigarettes (high) consumption in the study population followed prevalence patterns found in Bosnia-Herzegovina rather than in Sweden. PMID:19742286

  5. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40–80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function. PMID:27115487

  6. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy in an Elderly Population in Beijing, China, 1992–2000: An 8-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. Methods This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. Results The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Conclusions Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation. PMID:21747208

  7. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  8. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  9. Safety for Your Child: 8 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Your Child: 8 Years Ages & Stages ... rules. But your child can learn safety rules with your help and reminders. Your child now goes out more without you ...

  10. Validation of a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities in 6 to 8 year old Zimbabwean school children: a cross section study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of cognitive impairment among school children from developing communities is under reported due to lack of culturally appropriate screening tools. The objective of this study was to validate a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children Abilities (MSCA) in school children aged 6–8 years from varied backgrounds. Methods One hundred and one children aged 6–8 years attending mainstream classes were enrolled cross-sectionally from three schools: one rural and two urban. Two assessments were conducted on each child and the Short form MSCA was compared to an independent assessment by the educational psychologist. Results When comparing the results of the MSCA to local standard at -2SD, -1.5 SD and -1SD the sensitivity rates ranged from 17 to 50% with lower sensitivity at -2SD cut-off point. Specificity rates had less variation ranging from 95% to 100%. The number of children identified with cognitive impairment using -2SD, -1.5SD and -1SD below the mean for MSCA as a cut-off point were 3(3%), 7(7%) and 13(13%) respectively while the psychologist identified 18 (18%). The overall mean score on MSCA was 103 (SD 15). The rural children tended to score significantly lower marks compared to their peers from urban areas, mean (SD) 98(15) and 107(15) respectively, p=0.006. There was no difference in the mean (SD) scores between boys and girls, 103(17) and 103(15) respectively, p=0.995. Conclusion The culturally modified short form MSCA showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Prevalence of cognitive impairment among 6 to 8 year children was 3%. This figure is high when compared to developed communities. PMID:23190558

  11. Bilateral pseudogout 8 years after bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levi, Gabriel S; Sadr, Kamran; Scuderi, Giles R

    2012-11-01

    This article presents the clinical features of crystal arthropathy after knee replacement. The current literature on pseudogout and gout after both total and partial knee replacement is summarized. A case of bilateral pseudogout 8 years after initial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is used to highlight the clinical characteristics and treatment options for this underrecognized condition. Presentation mimicked a late septic joint arthroplasty with sudden onset of pain and effusion. The patient was treated successfully with an arthrotomy, debridement, synovectomy, polyethylene insert exchange, oral steroids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. There are no other reported cases of bilateral pseudogout after bilateral TKA.

  12. Adult intussusception: An 8 years institutional review

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Isaac Assam; Abudu, Emmanuel K.; Uduma, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Its diagnosis could be elusive based solely on clinical features because of protean presentation. Supplementary imaging allows for preoperative diagnosis, early institution of definitive management, and a better clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: Records of adults managed for intestinal obstruction by laparotomy in a surgical unit of a tertiary health facility were retrospectively examined. The subgroup having an intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception was extracted and analyzed. Data obtained included age, sex, and primary symptom at presentation. Presence of intestinal perforation, the histology of the lead point of resected tissues, and the final disposition of the patients were documented. Results: Four hundred and three patients underwent surgical management of intestinal obstruction. Eight patients (2%) had an intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception at laparotomy; four males and four females (male: female = 1:1). Abdominal pain was the presentation in 7 (87.5%) and anal protrusion in 1 (12.5%). Four patients (50%) had bowel perforation with peritonitis. Seven of the resected intestines had lead points which were benign. Two patients (25%) died from sepsis. Resection and anastomosis were done for all the patients. Conclusion: Intussusception in adults is uncommon but carries a high morbidity and mortality which can be reduced with a good clinical assessment, appropriate imaging, and early laparotomy. PMID:27630382

  13. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  14. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V.; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  15. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100215.htm CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - series—Check for responsiveness ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 out ...

  16. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  17. An 8-year assessment of maxillofacial prosthetic patients treated in a Department of Prosthetic Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L M; Essop, A R; Sukha, A K

    2001-04-01

    The Department of Prosthetic Dentistry at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, serves as a referral centre for maxillofacial prosthetic patients from the surrounding general hospitals and local private clinics. This places a time and financial constraint on the department. The aim of this study was to establish the number of new patients seen annually, the causative factors associated with the various types of defects, the treatment provided and the cost per patient in terms of clinical hours and prosthesis fees. The data were taken from the records of patients treated in the maxillofacial prosthetics clinic during an 8-year period, from January 1991 to December 1998. The total number of new patients was calculated and the data were collated according to the year in which treatment commenced. Results were tabulated according to the number of new cases in each group, the aetiology of the defects, prosthetic treatment provided and the costs in terms of clinical hours and prostheses. The results of this study indicate that there is a need for a specialised Maxillofacial Prosthetic Unit. Although the present fee schedule needs to be revised, there is still a need for a substantial amount of state subsidy.

  18. The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to 8 Years after High School: A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Marder, Camille; Nagle, Katherine; Shaver, Debra; Wei, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) funded by the National Center for Special Education Research at the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, provides a unique source of information to help in developing an understanding of the experiences of secondary school students with disabilities nationally as they…

  19. Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: An 8-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Hung, Peir-Haur; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The long-term survival of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who received interferon treatment has not been extensively evaluated.The HCV cohort was the ESRD patients with de novo HCV infection from 2004 to 2011; they were classified into treated and untreated groups according to interferon therapy records. Patients aged <20 years and those with a history of hepatitis B, kidney transplantation, or cancer were excluded. The control cohort included ESRD patients without HCV infection matched 4:1 to the HCV cohort by age, sex, and year of ESRD registration. We followed up all study participants until kidney transplantation, death, or the end of 2011, whichever came first. We assessed risk of all-cause mortality by using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariate.In the HCV cohort, 134 patients (6.01%) received interferon treatment. Compared with the uninfected control cohort, the treated group had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.99). The untreated group had a 2.62-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.24-5.55) of death compared with the treated group. For the HCV cohort without cirrhosis or hepatoma, the risk of death in the treated group was further markedly reduced (hazard ratio 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.68) compared with that in the control cohort.For ESRD patients with HCV infection, receiving interferon treatment is associated with a survival advantage. Such an advantage is more prominent in HCV patients without cirrhosis or hepatoma.

  20. Conjunctival fibrous histiocytoma in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Austen N; Samara, Wasim A; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A; Eagle, Ralph C

    2016-08-01

    An 8-year-old healthy boy underwent surgery for excision of a painless, enlarging vascularized conjunctival tumor. Histopathology disclosed a mass comprised of interweaving spindle cells and scattered histiocytes in a fibrous matrix, consistent with benign fibrous histiocytoma. This rare tumor can resemble several conditions, including scleritis/episcleritis, inflamed pterygium, juvenile xanthogranuloma, foreign body granuloma, solitary fibrous tumor, amelanotic melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  2. Balancing on a Slackline: 8-Year-Olds vs. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schärli, Andrea Melanie; Keller, Melanie; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Murer, Kurt; van de Langenberg, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Children are less stable than adults during static upright stance. We investigated whether the same holds true for a task that was novel for both children and adults and highly dynamic: single-legged stance on a slackline. We compared 8-year-olds with young adults and assessed the following outcome measures: time on the slackline, stability on the slackline (calculated from slackline reaction force), gaze movement, head-in-space rotation and translation, trunk-in-space rotation, and head-on-trunk rotation. Eight-year-olds fell off the slackline quicker and were generally less stable on the slackline than adults. Eight-year-olds also showed more head-in-space rotation and translation, and more gaze variability around a visual anchor point they were instructed to fixate. Trunk-in-space and head-on-trunk rotations did not differ between groups. The results imply that the lower postural stability of 8-year-olds compared to adults – as found in simple upright stance – holds true for dynamic, novel tasks in which adults lack the advantage of more practice. They also suggest that the lack of head and gaze stability constitutes an important limiting factor in children’s ability to master such tasks. PMID:23626583

  3. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  4. Are Clinical Studies for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page > Participate in Clinical Studies If you are thinking about participating in a Clinical Study at NIH, ... medical care and activities of daily living. In thinking about the risks of research, it is helpful ...

  5. Spherophakia in a Newfoundland family: 8 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G J; Bosanquet, R C

    1983-06-01

    In a family with eight siblings, five siblings have had spherophakia. One patient has died, but the other four have been followed up for 8 years. Two have undergone peripheral iridectomy because of steadily rising intraocular pressure. The operations were only partially successful in controlling the pressure. Whether associated with the Weill-Marchesani syndrome or not, spherophakia is difficult to manage. The lenticular myopia must be corrected (sometimes an additional reading correction is needed), and the intraocular pressure and visual field must be carefully monitored. The ability of the retinal circulation to withstand a high intraocular pressure for long periods may not be matched by a corresponding resilience of the drainage mechanism. Therefore, early peripheral iridectomy is probably advisable.

  6. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  7. Learn about Clinical Studies

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the care of future patients by providing information about the benefits and risks of therapeutic, preventative, or diagnostic products or interventions. Clinical trials provide the basis for the development and marketing of new drugs, biological products, and medical devices. ...

  8. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  9. Celebrating 8 Years at Mars: Repeated Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 September 2005 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) entered Mars orbit on 12 September 1997.

    Today, we celebrate the MGS's 8th anniversary!

    The 8 Earth years that MGS has been in orbit span portions of 5 martian years. One of the critical science activities that the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been engaged in for the past 8 years has been to document daily changes in the martian weather. Each day that MOC is operating, the red and blue wide angle cameras are used to build up a daily global map. These maps provide a record of the planet's changing meteorological conditions.

    One of the most exciting observations that the MOC wide angle cameras have made during these 8 years is that the red planet has very repeatable weather patterns. In light of weather-related problems and disruptions that occur every year on Earth, one can only imagine how nice it would be if our planet followed a similar, repeated pattern.

    The four pictures shown here provide an example of one of the weather phenomena that repeat each martian year. Each picture shows the north polar region of Mars during the northern summer season. Each picture is a composite of several images acquired at different visible wavelengths to give a color view of the planet. Each picture was taken about 1 Mars year apart, and each shows an annular (circular) cloud located over the same terrain each summer.

    The first picture, acquired in April 1999, is actually not from the MGS MOC instrument. It was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and was originally released by the Space Telescope Science Institute on 19 May 1999. The reason there is no MOC image for April 1999 is a product of the MGS spacecraft's 8-year history at Mars. MGS was certainly in orbit at the time, and it was taking data during the month of April. However, the camera did not obtain any images between 17 and 28 April because the spacecraft encountered, and then had to be recovered

  10. [INCIDENCE OF ACUTE URINARY RETENTION IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATIC ADENOMA AND 8-YEAR LONG TAMSULOSIN THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Davidov, M I; Lokshin, K L; Gorbunova, I S

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces results of an 8-year study estimating the risk of acute urinary retention in patients with stage I prostatic adenoma. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group consisted of 331 men was regularly taking Omnic (tamsulosin) 0.4 mg 1 time daily for 8 years as a means of medical therapy. The second group consisted of 334 patients treated with herbal preparations (Gentos, Tadenan or Speman). In the case of acute urinary retention patients were taken to the urological department to release urine from the urinary bladder by catheterization or by the surgical procedure. The incidence of acute urinary retention in group 1 ranged from 0.3 to 1.2% per year and, for a total of 8 years of follow-up was 6.45%. In the second group, it ranged from 1.8 to 7.3% per year, making a total of 36.2%. Therefore, the risk of acute urinary retention in patients receiving Omnic (tamsulosin) was reduced by 5.6 times in comparison with the group of patients treated with herbal medications. Thus, the need for surgery decreased from 27.8 to 6.3%. According to the results of an 8-year long tamsulosin was found as a safe and highly effective means to reduce the risk of acute urinary retention.

  11. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum.

  12. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum. PMID:12427301

  13. Predictors of Mortality Over 8 Years in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Laura N.; Karter, Andrew J.; Waitzfelder, Beth E.; Crosson, Jesse C.; Marrero, David G.; Mangione, Carol M.; Herman, William H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine demographic, socioeconomic, and biological risk factors for all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes over 8 years and to construct mortality prediction equations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Beginning in 2000, survey and medical record information was obtained from 8,334 participants in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. The National Death Index was searched annually to obtain data on deaths over an 8-year follow-up period (2000–2007). Predictors examined included age, sex, race, education, income, smoking, age at diagnosis of diabetes, duration and treatment of diabetes, BMI, complications, comorbidities, and medication use. RESULTS There were 1,616 (19%) deaths over the 8-year period. In the most parsimonious equation, the predictors of all-cause mortality included older age, male sex, white race, lower income, smoking, insulin treatment, nephropathy, history of dyslipidemia, higher LDL cholesterol, angina/myocardial infarction/other coronary disease/coronary angioplasty/bypass, congestive heart failure, aspirin, β-blocker, and diuretic use, and higher Charlson Index. CONCLUSIONS Risk of death can be predicted in people with type 2 diabetes using simple demographic, socioeconomic, and biological risk factors with fair reliability. Such prediction equations are essential for computer simulation models of diabetes progression and may, with further validation, be useful for patient management. PMID:22432119

  14. Changes in Finnish dental consonant articulation in cleft lip/palate children between 6 and 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, J; Ranta, R; Pulkkinen, J; Paaso, M; Haapanen, M L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify changes in the occurrence of misarticulations of dental consonants /r/, /s/ and /l/ between 6 and 8 years of age in cleft-affected Finnish children and to compare the effects of gender and to estimate if spacing due to changing of maxillary incisors could explain changes in articulation of these sounds. The subjects were 133 (47 girls, 86 boys) Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (n = 34), cleft lip/alveolus (n = 49), unilateral (n = 33), and bilateral (n = 17) cleft lip and palate. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between genders according to changes in articulation abilities by the age of 8 years. Eighty-one percent of the subjects with misarticulations at the age of 6 years still misarticulated at 8 years of age, and 16% of the subjects without misarticulations at the age of 6 years misarticulated at the age of 8 years; /s/ and /l/ misarticulations were eliminated more often than /r/ errors. New misarticulations were diagnosed at the age of 8 years in the same way in the groups with (14%) and without (16%) misarticulations at the age of 6 years. Dental arch spacing due to changing of maxillary incisors does not seem to explain new misarticulations of /r/, /s/ and /l/ sounds estimated at the age of 8 years.

  15. Complicated Varicella Infection at 8-year-old Boy with Pulmonary Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hadzovic–Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Lukovac, Enra; Mehanic, Snjezana; Ahmetspahic-Begic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Varicella or chickenpox is highly contagious, childhood infectious disease caused by primary infection with varicella – zoster virus from the herpes family of viruses. Usually it has a mild clinical course, rarely with described complication, mostly affecting respiratory tract and rarely the central nervous system. Case report The case present 8 year old boy hospitalized eighth day of disease with clinical pictures of varicella complication. Upon receipt tachydyspnea, high fever, tachycardia, hypotensive with positive findings on lung auscultation in the sense of pneumonia. Extremely high values of non-specific inflammatory parameters are implied on bacterial infection which is treated using triple antimicrobial therapy and antiviral. A detailed clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation is determined of clinical disease complication under a picture of MODS that required prolonged multidisciplinary treatment in ICU. Conclusion The disease had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of training completely without consequences but, with the detected congenital absence lower lobe of right lung and transposition of the brachiocephalic trunk. PMID:24493991

  16. Rapunzel Syndrome Causing Appendicitis in an 8-year-old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Shruti; Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Kusum

    2012-01-01

    Rapunzel syndrome is a rare type of presentation of trichobezoar, an extension of hair fibers into the small bowel and rarely beyond the ileocecal valve. Its clinical presentation is deceptive ranging from abdominal mass to symptoms of obstruction. We report a 8-year-old girl admitted with a history of abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for a period of 1 year. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of subacute intestinal obstruction. On laparotomy, trichobezoar was found in the stomach extending into small bowel and was removed. Appendix was inflammed hence it was also resected. Microscopic evidence of a hair shaft was seen in the appendix indicating appendicitis was due to luminal obstruction by hair concretions. PMID:23766615

  17. Recurrent "pneumonia" in left lower lobe lasting for 8 years: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong-Mei; Yao, Yan-Wen; Li, Qian; Liu, Chen-Yang; Li, Pei; Cao, E-Hong; Xiao, Xin-Wu; Su, Xin; Song, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a unique lung neoplasm with variable forms, such as single nodular, multifocal and lobar pneumonic types. The pneumonic type BAC is often difficult to differentiate from pneumonia. Here we present a case of 63-year-old Chinese male, who had recurrent cough, white sputum with pneumonic lesions in left lower lobe. He suffered from lung biopsies for three times, and finally diagnosed as high differentiated adenocarcinoma 8 years later. He was treated with four cycles of pemetrexed and cisplatin, and four cycles of docetaxel and nedaplatin. However, he did not achieve disease stabilization and is still under follow up. This case suggests that, pneumonic type adenocarcinoma may radiographically and clinically resemble infectious pneumonia. Lack of fever and leukocytosis, no response to antibiotics, air bronchogram, and accompanied nodules or patches in computed tomography (CT) scans should raise suspicion about the diagnosis of pneumonia. Lung biopsy might be the only means of ruling in a diagnosis of BAC. PMID:27413717

  18. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  19. Gingival Bleeding of a High-Flow Mandibular Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ferrés-Amat, Elvira; Prats-Armengol, Jordi; Maura-Solivellas, Isabel; Ferrés-Amat, Eduard; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Ferrés-Padró, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the head and neck region are uncommon. There are several types and they can have a wide range of clinical presentations. Depending on the blood flow through the AVM, the treatment may be challenging for the attending team and may lead to life-threatening hemorrhages. A clinical case report is presented. A 9-year-old girl, seen for gingival bleeding during oral hygiene, was found to have a high-flow AVM located within and around the mandible. Two-stage treatment consisted of intra-arterial embolization followed by intraoral injection of a sclerosing agent 8 weeks later. At the 8-year follow-up, imaging study showed no evidence of recurrent lesion inside or outside the bone. The final outcome is a correct occlusion with a symmetric facial result. This case shows that conservative treatment may be the first treatment option mostly in children. Arteriography and transcortical injection were enough to control the AVM. PMID:25893127

  20. Chiropractic Care of an 8-Year-Old Girl With Nonorganic, Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Instebø, Eigil; Lystad, Reidar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of an 8-year-old girl with nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis. Clinical Features An 8-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic clinic with persistent nighttime bedwetting. The patient experienced enuresis, on average, 7 nights per week. The patient presented with no other comorbidities or complaints, such as low back or pelvic pain. Intervention and Outcomes Chiropractic treatment included high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation of the left sacroiliac joint over 3 visits. Follow-up at 3 months revealed only 3 subsequent episodes of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusion This patient reported the resolution of nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis after receiving a series of side-posture chiropractic manipulations of the left sacroiliac joint. PMID:27069432

  1. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at 8 Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    School-age language outcomes for children in a longitudinal, randomized controlled study of foster care were examined. Even though children had different placement status at 8 years, children originally placed in Romanian foster care had higher sentence repetition accuracy and longer sentences at 8 years than children who originally lived in severely depriving institutional care. A larger number of foster children also showed written word identification ability. Children placed in foster care by 25 months had significant advantages in nonword repetition and word identification than children placed later. Children placed by 15 months performed equivalently to typical community peers on these measures. Children’s expressive language at 42 months was correlated with their 8-year sentence repetition, nonword repetition, and word identification. The results speak to the continuing adverse effects of early poor institutional care on later language development and to the key importance of age of placement in a more optimal environment. PMID:22584071

  2. Familial limb pain and migraine: 8-year follow-up of four generations

    PubMed Central

    Angus-Leppan, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Migraine limb pain may be under-recognized in adults and children. There is little information about familial forms of this disorder. Objectives To describe the clinical and inheritance patterns of familial migraine limb pain over four generations and to review the evidence for limb pain as a manifestation of migraine. Methods Prospective clinical and pedigree analysis with an 8-year follow-up of 27 family members. Results Eight members of the family had benign recurrent limb pain associated with headache in a dominant inheritance pattern. Limb pain occurred before, during or after the headache, with probable or definite migraine with aura, migraine without aura and lower-half headache. The limb pain fulfilled the International Headache Society criteria for aura in six patients and also occurred without headache in three. Four members of the family had recurrent abdominal pain and/or motion sickness in childhood. Conclusions This is the first report of dominant familial limb pain temporally associated with migraine headache, starting in adulthood or starting in childhood and continuing into adulthood. A search for a genetic marker is indicated. Limb pain should be included as a childhood periodic syndrome linked to migraine and recognized as part of the migraine spectrum in adults. PMID:26646786

  3. Infratentorial meningioma in an 8-year-old child as first sign of neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PubMed

    Stettner, G M; Rostasy, K M; Ludwig, H C; Merkler, D; Fahsold, R; Gärtner, J

    2007-02-01

    Meningiomas are rare intracranial tumors in pediatric patients. In contrast to meningiomas in adults, childhood ones have a poorer prognosis because of their high growth potential and tendency to recur. Meningiomas are often associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) which is an autosomal-dominant disorder. In contrast to adults who primarily present with symptoms due to vestibular tumors, the initial symptoms in children with NF2 are subtle skin tumors, posterior capsular cataracts, or neurological signs secondary to cranial nerve(s) schwannoma excluding vestibular nerve, and/or brainstem or spinal cord compression. Here we report on the clinical, radiological, and histological findings in an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed with an isolated infratentorial meningioma and a novel splice site mutation in the NF2 gene. The same mutation was detected in the boy's mother who suffered from hearing loss and tinnitus due to a bilateral vestibular schwannoma. Our patient demonstrates the need for molecular testing for NF2 gene mutations even in isolated childhood meningiomas although they do not fulfill the clinical criteria of NF2.

  4. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  5. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  6. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  7. Enterobius vermicularis infection among children aged 1-8 years in a rural area in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, G; Minudin, Y M

    1994-09-01

    The infection rate and relationship of enterobiasis with socio-economic status were determined in children aged 1-8 years, living in a rural area in Malaysia. Of the 178 subjects 40.4% were infected with Enterobius vermicularis. The distribution of enterobiasis among these children were analyzed in relation to age groups and sex. The rate of infection was significantly higher in older children (5-7 years). The association of enterobiasis with other factors studied such as number of persons per house, household income per months and mother's employment status were not significant. The sensitivity of three successive days anal swabs compared to a single swab was found to be statistically significant.

  8. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): an 8-year reevaluation of testicular function and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Potashnik, G.; Yanai-Inbar, I.

    1987-02-01

    The current study summarizes an 8-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance in 15 workers with dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Recovery of spermatogenesis was observed in four oligozoospermic and three azoospermic men whose plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was normal during the whole period. A marked increase in FSH and luteinizing hormone concentrations above the upper limit of normal was found in the azoospermic workers who did not recover. No significant changes in FSH concentrations were detected in both recovered and nonrecovered oligozoospermic men. Testosterone levels of all patients were normal at all times. Paternal exposure to DBCP was not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or spontaneous abortion.

  9. U.S. Premature Births Rise for 1st Time in 8 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... 161792.html U.S. Premature Births Rise for 1st Time in 8 Years March of Dimes' report finds ... United States increased in 2015 for the first time in eight years, and rates are especially high ...

  10. Clinical study of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Aher, K; Jaiswal, M

    1992-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for a sizeable proportion of infertility and ectopic recurrence. The possibility that a woman is experiencing an ectopic pregnancy must be considered when evaluating a woman, especially a sterilized woman, who has a possible pregnancy, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, or abnormal bleeding; studies have found that one in six pregnancies occurring after tubal sterilization are ectopic. The authors present a clinical study of 82 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Cases of ectopic pregnancy represent 0.99% of total obstetric admissions, of whom 69.51% were diagnosed as such on admission. 40.24% of the women were older than 30 years, while 34.14% were elderly beyond third parity. 70.73% of the women presented before missing their second period. Patients presented with multiple complaints, but the most common was abdominal pain reported by 61.70%. 78.04% were admitted with an acute abdomen, but shock was present in only 7.14% of cases. The main surgical treatment modality was salpingectomy among 59.75%. There was no maternal mortality through postoperative morbidity in the form of paralytic ileus, although fever did occur in some women.

  11. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, in an 8-year-old girl, complicated by deafness and kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Vesna D; Doronjski, Aleksandra R; Spasojevic, Slobodan D; Pavlovic, Vesna S; Nikolic, Marko M; Kovacevic, Branka B

    2009-08-01

    Based on case history and clinical and electrophysiological examinations, the authors report on a case of an 8-year-old girl who was diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The disease was complicated by deafness and kidney fibrosis. During treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, prompt improvement of neurological findings occurred. The improvement of hearing was poor. Because the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy has still not been clear, and on the grounds of several cases of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy conjoined with the kidney disease described in literature (glomerulopathy, interstitial nephritis), every patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy needs to undergo the urinalyses.

  12. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  13. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  14. Movement disorders in ischemic stroke: clinical study of 22 patients.

    PubMed

    D'Olhaberriague, L; Arboix, A; Martí-Vilalta, J L; Moral, A; Massons, J

    1995-12-01

    Movement disorders (bemichorea-hemiballismus, hemidystonia and isolated tremor) are an uncommon clinical manifestation in ischemic stroke (IS), and their anatomical basis is poorly understood. We analyzed the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of 22 consecutive patients who bad movement disorders associated with cerebral infarction (MDCI), studied at four institutions over 8 years. In one institution (from the La Alianza-Central Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry) nine patients with MDCI were identified among 1099 consecutive first ever stroke patients (0.8%) (908 with IS, 1%). Fifteen out of 22 patients (68%) had hemichorea-hemiballismus, five (23%) hemidystonia and two (9%) isolated tremor. MDCI were more often left sided (n = 15, 68%), being bilateral in one patient (4.5%). A lesion was found on neuroimaging (CT and/or MRI) in 15 patients (68%), in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (n = 8) and middle cerebral artery (six deep and one superficial). The most commonly involved structure was the thalamus (n = 8, 36.5%). IS subtypes were; presumed lacunar infarcts in 14 patients (64%), atherothrombotic infarcts in two patients (9%), cardioembolic infarcts in two patients (9%) and infarcts of unknown etiology in four patients (18%). Hemichorea-hemiballismus was the most common type of MDCI in our study, usually being the result of a thalamic infarction. The thalamus was the most frequently damaged structure underlying all types of MDCI. There was a striking propensity of MDCI which resulted from nondominant deep hemispheric small vessel infarctions.

  15. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used.

  16. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20-24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2-3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life.

  17. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP. PMID:17510670

  18. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used. PMID:24664098

  19. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  20. LDEF polymeric materials: 10 months versus 5.8 years of exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Chang, Alice C.

    1993-01-01

    The chemical characterization of several polymeric materials which received 10 months of exposure and 5.8 years of exposure on a Row 9 Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment (A0134) is reported. Specimens include fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) teflon film, polysulfone film, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy amd polysulfone matrix composites. The responses of these materials to the two LEO exposures are compared. The results of infrared, thermal, x-ray photoelectron, and scanning electron microscope analyses are reported. Solution property measurements of various molecular weight parameters are presented for the thermoplastic polysulfone materials. Molecular level effects attributable to exposure that were present in 10-month exposed specimens were not found in 5.8-year exposed specimens. This result suggests that increased atomic oxygen fluence toward the end of the LDEF mission may have eroded away selected environmentally induced changes in surface chemistry for 5.8-year exposure specimens.

  1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004). Conclusions The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  2. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  3. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  4. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  5. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (M<4.5) are realized in the close vicinity of the salt deposit. Local seismological network (LSN) is deployed in the region to monitor the local seismicity. It consists of 6 three component digital stations. A real-time data transfer from LSN stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) is implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  6. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  7. Choroidal neovascularisation as an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of cat-scratch disease in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latanza, L; Viscogliosi, F; Solimeo, A; Calabrò, F; De Angelis, V; De Rosa, P

    2015-10-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that appeared during the primary Bartonella henselae infection in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl was referred to our clinic complaining of a central scotoma in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral disc oedema and in the right eye neuroretinitis with macular star and CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The optical coherence tomography revealed the presence of macular serous retinal detachment. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgM and IgG titres for B. henselae. Cat-scratch disease was diagnosed, and an 8-week treatment with azithromycin was initiated. In addition, an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed in the right eye to treat the CNV. A month later, we decided to administer a systemic antibiotic again for an additional 5 months, due to the persistence of papillitis. Cat-scratch disease should be considered among the different causes of inflammatory CNV secondary to infectious uveitis. Our case was the first described in the literature in which a CNV appeared during the primary infection and not as a later complication. The combination of systemic antibiotic treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy was a successful choice because it allowed us to obtain the complete resolution of neuroretinitis, associated with the scarring of the choroidal neovascular membrane, with a final visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes.

  8. [Follow-up studies and clinical evaluation of model cast dentures with periodontal and periodonto-gingival support].

    PubMed

    Ebersbach, W; Lesche, M

    1977-11-01

    The authors examined 746 cast denture constructions with an average wearing time of 6 years to study the influence of cast denture constructions on caries increment. The mode of wear of the cast denture constructions had no influence on caries incidence, whereas effects exerted by the duration of wear and the presence of soft deposits could be detected. The evaluation of the functional performance of cast denture constructions showed that the clinical serviceability amounts to more than 8 years.

  9. [A Critical Condition of Clinical Studies in Japan -- A Battle of Clinical Study Groups].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The post-marketing clinical study groups have been losing their activity due to stop of financial support. As the result, clinical study groups cannot achieve any EBM for treatment guidelines. Financial supports should be restarted immediately not to extinguish the post-marketing clinical studies and study groups. PMID:27220798

  10. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  11. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  12. [Adaptive clinical study methodologies in drug development].

    PubMed

    Antal, János

    2015-11-29

    The evolution of drug development in human, clinical phase studies triggers the overview of those technologies and procedures which are labelled as adaptive clinical trials. The most relevant procedural and operational aspects will be discussed in this overview from points of view of clinico-methodological aspect.

  13. Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry S.

    A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

  14. Solitary parotid metastasis 8 years after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Faiz; Yedavalli, Nina; Loeffler, David; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common cancer, known for its aggressive behavior and ability to metastasize nearly every organ system in the body. While the cancer commonly spreads to a select few organs and metastasis usually develops within 5 years of diagnosis, there have been numerous case reports of atypical sites of metastasis and cases of relapse up to decades after treatment. We present a case a 65-year-old male who presented with right preauricular swelling 8 years after the initial diagnosis and right nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell cancer. We take a look at previous case reports with similar presentations. PMID:27609721

  15. Solitary parotid metastasis 8 years after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Faiz; Yedavalli, Nina; Loeffler, David; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common cancer, known for its aggressive behavior and ability to metastasize nearly every organ system in the body. While the cancer commonly spreads to a select few organs and metastasis usually develops within 5 years of diagnosis, there have been numerous case reports of atypical sites of metastasis and cases of relapse up to decades after treatment. We present a case a 65-year-old male who presented with right preauricular swelling 8 years after the initial diagnosis and right nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell cancer. We take a look at previous case reports with similar presentations. PMID:27609721

  16. Poststroke psychosis in an 8-year-old child with moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Gnanavel, Sundar

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric illnesses following cerebrovascular accidents has been a popular area of research in recent times. Though poststroke anxiety and mood disorders including depression have been reported often, reports of poststroke psychosis have been considerably rarer. This case report documents an even rarer occurrence of a psychotic disorder in an 8-year-old child with moyamoya disease following a cerebrovascular accident. The child was managed with low-dose atypical antipsychotic, risperidone and the psychotic symptoms eventually were under control around 3 weeks following the initiation of psychotropic medication.

  17. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  18. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  19. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  20. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

  1. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  2. [Organization, administration, and performance of clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Bachner, Mark; Steininger, Tanja; Gneist, Margit

    2008-01-01

    This contribution deals with all important organizational and administrative aspects of clinical studies in German speaking countries. All trials are to be executed in accordance with the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Guidelines. GCP applies to the process of designing, conducting, recording, and reporting of clinical studies. Compliance with GCP facilitates the mutual acceptance of resulting clinical data by the respective regulatory authorities worldwide. Before initiating a clinical study the investigator has to obtain written and dated approval from the responsible ethics committee, the competent authorities, and the hospital administration. The investigator's study file contains all essential study documents. One of the most important tasks of an investigator is to properly inform the prospective subjects and to obtain their informed consent. All relevant treatment-related information has to be recorded in the patient files. These source data are transferred to case report forms. During monitoring visits, audits, and inspections, source data verification will be performed routinely. Any adverse events (AEs) must be documented according to the CTCAE, the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All serious adverse events (SAEs) have to be reported to the sponsor immediately. At the end of the study a termination visit is performed, and all authorities are officially informed about the termination of the trial.

  3. The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Bladen, Catherine L.; Mayhew, Anna; James, Meredith; Bettinson, Karen; Moore, Ursula; Smith, Fiona E.; Rufibach, Laura; Cnaan, Avital; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana X.; Blamire, Andrew M.; Bravver, Elena; Carlier, Pierre G.; Day, John W.; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Eagle, Michelle; Grieben, Ulrike; Harms, Matthew; Jones, Kristi J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Mendell, Jerry R.; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Paradas, Carmen; Pegoraro, Elena; Pestronk, Alan; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Semplicini, Claudio; Spuler, Simone; Stojkovic, Tanya; Straub, Volker; Takeda, Shin'ich; Rocha, Carolina Tesi; Walter, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the baseline clinical and functional characteristics of an international cohort of 193 patients with dysferlinopathy. Methods: The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS) is an international multicenter study of this disease, evaluating patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy over 3 years. We present a cross-sectional analysis of 193 patients derived from their baseline clinical and functional assessments. Results: There is a high degree of variability in disease onset, pattern of weakness, and rate of progression. No factor, such as mutation class, protein expression, or age at onset, accounted for this variability. Among patients with clinical diagnoses of Miyoshi myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, clinical presentation and examination was not strikingly different. Respiratory impairment and cardiac dysfunction were observed in a minority of patients. A substantial delay in diagnosis was previously common but has been steadily reducing, suggesting increasing awareness of dysferlinopathies. Conclusions: These findings highlight crucial issues to be addressed for both optimizing clinical care and planning therapeutic trials in dysferlinopathy. This ongoing longitudinal study will provide an opportunity to further understand patterns and variability in disease progression and form the basis for trial design. PMID:27602406

  4. The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Bladen, Catherine L.; Mayhew, Anna; James, Meredith; Bettinson, Karen; Moore, Ursula; Smith, Fiona E.; Rufibach, Laura; Cnaan, Avital; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana X.; Blamire, Andrew M.; Bravver, Elena; Carlier, Pierre G.; Day, John W.; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Eagle, Michelle; Grieben, Ulrike; Harms, Matthew; Jones, Kristi J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Mendell, Jerry R.; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Paradas, Carmen; Pegoraro, Elena; Pestronk, Alan; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Semplicini, Claudio; Spuler, Simone; Stojkovic, Tanya; Straub, Volker; Takeda, Shin'ich; Rocha, Carolina Tesi; Walter, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the baseline clinical and functional characteristics of an international cohort of 193 patients with dysferlinopathy. Methods: The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS) is an international multicenter study of this disease, evaluating patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy over 3 years. We present a cross-sectional analysis of 193 patients derived from their baseline clinical and functional assessments. Results: There is a high degree of variability in disease onset, pattern of weakness, and rate of progression. No factor, such as mutation class, protein expression, or age at onset, accounted for this variability. Among patients with clinical diagnoses of Miyoshi myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, clinical presentation and examination was not strikingly different. Respiratory impairment and cardiac dysfunction were observed in a minority of patients. A substantial delay in diagnosis was previously common but has been steadily reducing, suggesting increasing awareness of dysferlinopathies. Conclusions: These findings highlight crucial issues to be addressed for both optimizing clinical care and planning therapeutic trials in dysferlinopathy. This ongoing longitudinal study will provide an opportunity to further understand patterns and variability in disease progression and form the basis for trial design.

  5. Seasonal variation and dynamics of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma, after 8 years of Cassini in orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn orbits the Sun with a period of nearly 29.5 years and has an obliquity of 26.73°. As a result, Saturn presents seasonal variations similar to Earth's, but with much longer seasons, as the tilt between the planet's spin axis and the solar wind vary (approximately sinusoidally) with time between solstices. Saturn was close to its equinox (tilt below 8.1°) during the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 flybys that took place between September 1979 and August 1981, so any seasonal effects would have been relatively hard to see in the limited data from these missions. More than 2 decades later, on July 4, 2004, Cassini began orbiting Saturn, returning a variety of in situ and remote measurements. During the last 8 years, Cassini covered a large part of the Saturnian system and offered the opportunity of sampling the planetary magnetosphere not just at different seasons, but also at seasonal phases that are symmetric to the Saturnian equinox (August 2009). In this talk, we focus on the seasonal effects seen in the magnetosphere of Saturn as the angle between the solar wind flow and the Saturn-Sun direction changes from +23.7° (northern hemisphere winter) at the arrival of Cassini, to -14.9° (northern hemisphere summer) on July 2012. Particle and magnetic field data taken from a extensive set of equatorial and high latitude orbits of Cassini, at various distances and local times, show that: (a) the plasma sheet of Saturn has the form of a magnetodisk, with an energy-dependent vertical structure, being thicker by a factor of ~2 in the energetic particle range than in the electron plasma, and (b) it exhibits intense dynamical behavior, evident in in-situ particle measurements but also in energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. The study of the pre-equinox high latitude orbits revealed that the night side plasma sheet was tilted northward beyond a radial distance of ~15 Rs (1Rs=60,258 km). As equinox approached, Cassini observed a clear decrease in the tilt of the

  6. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  7. The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Rebecca D; Myers, Taryn A; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    We tested the impact of exposure to dolls of different body types and wardrobes on girls' body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, 112 girls (6 to 8 years old) were randomized to one of four conditions: thin (Barbie™) or full-figured (Tracy™) dolls dressed in a swimsuit or modest clothing. In Study 2, a different cohort of girls (n=112) was exposed to one of four conditions containing unfamiliar dolls of different body size (thin vs. full-figured) and dress (modest vs. swimsuit). In both studies, girls who played with thin dolls experienced higher body size discrepancies than girls who played with full-figured dolls. Girls who played with full-figured dolls showed less body dissatisfaction after doll exposure compared to girls who played with thin dolls. Playing with unrealistically thin dolls may encourage motivation for a thinner shape in young girls.

  8. The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Rebecca D; Myers, Taryn A; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    We tested the impact of exposure to dolls of different body types and wardrobes on girls' body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, 112 girls (6 to 8 years old) were randomized to one of four conditions: thin (Barbie™) or full-figured (Tracy™) dolls dressed in a swimsuit or modest clothing. In Study 2, a different cohort of girls (n=112) was exposed to one of four conditions containing unfamiliar dolls of different body size (thin vs. full-figured) and dress (modest vs. swimsuit). In both studies, girls who played with thin dolls experienced higher body size discrepancies than girls who played with full-figured dolls. Girls who played with full-figured dolls showed less body dissatisfaction after doll exposure compared to girls who played with thin dolls. Playing with unrealistically thin dolls may encourage motivation for a thinner shape in young girls. PMID:27344610

  9. PPB | What is a Clinical Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study ‹an observational clinical research study‹is enrolling children with PPB and their families. In an observational study, investigators assess health outcomes in groups of participants according to a protocol or research plan.

  10. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be

  11. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    PubMed

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  12. Occlusal and oral health status of a group of 3-8-year-old South African black children.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, C E; Wiltshire, W A

    2000-05-01

    This study determined the oral health status of a group of 3-8-year-old South African black children, comprising a total of 214 children from the townships of Garankuwa, Shosanguwe, Mabopane, Hebron and Erasmus who attended a school in Akasia, Greater Pretoria Metropolitan Substructure. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft), oral hygiene status, dental IQ and malocclusion status were determined. The study found that the children's oral health status and occlusal status were unacceptable. The level of their dental IQ scores was low, their oral hygiene poor, and they were in urgent need of primary and secondary dental care. In addition they were in need of both preventive and interceptive orthodontic care. A national strategy to address primary dental health care is recommended. PMID:12608266

  13. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  14. Dietary Patterns and Their Socioeconomic and Behavioral Determinants in 6- to 8-Year-Old Portuguese Children.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D; Muc, M; Rodrigues, P R M; Pinto, A Mota; Padez, C

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to a healthier diet is declining, with children consuming more saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. Factors influencing this choice were studied using a cross-sectional study with children (6 to 8 years old) living in Coimbra. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors were obtained from the parents. Dietary patterns of 1,063 children were identified: Mediterranean (MedDiet), saturated fats (SFatDiet), and base of Portuguese diet (BPDiet). Their relationship with socioeconomic and behavioral determinants was analyzed. SES determined strongly the dietary choices with lower SES being associated with higher consumption of SFatDiet and higher SES with BPDiet. Worse diet quality was shown to coexist with other unhealthy behaviors. PMID:27398743

  15. Advances in clinical study of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies. PMID:23116307

  16. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    PubMed

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  17. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  18. An 8 Year Follow-Up of a Specialist Supported Employment Service for High-Ability Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Alcock, Jennifer; Burkin, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Few supported employment programmes have been specifically designed for people with autism, especially those who are more able. This study examines the outcome of a supported employment service (NAS Prospects) for adults with autism or Asperger syndrome (IQ 60+) over an 8 year period. Approximately 68 percent of clients found employment. Of the…

  19. What Is the Status of High School Athletes 8 Years after Their Senior Year? Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Scott, Leslie; Planty, Michael; Thompson, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the status of high school athletes 8 years after their senior year in high school. Using a representative sample of 10th-graders in 1990, who were seniors in 1992, from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), this Brief provides information on the 1990-1992 high school athletes' educational,…

  20. The NIDDK Central Repository at 8 years--ambition, revision, use and impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles F; Pan, Huaqin; Silk, Gregg W; Ardini, Mary-Anne; Bakalov, Vesselina; Bryant, Stephanie; Cantor, Susanna; Chang, Kung-yen; DeLatte, Michael; Eggers, Paul; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Lakshmikanthan, Sujatha; Levy, Joshua; Li, Sheping; Pratt, Joseph; Pugh, Norma; Qin, Ying; Rasooly, Rebekah; Ray, Helen; Richardson, Jean E; Riley, Amanda Flynn; Rogers, Susan M; Scheper, Charlotte; Tan, Sylvia; White, Stacie; Cooley, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repository makes data and biospecimens from NIDDK-funded research available to the broader scientific community. It thereby facilitates: the testing of new hypotheses without new data or biospecimen collection; pooling data across several studies to increase statistical power; and informative genetic analyses using the Repository's well-curated phenotypic data. This article describes the initial database plan for the Repository and its revision using a simpler model. Among the lessons learned were the trade-offs between the complexity of a database design and the costs in time and money of implementation; the importance of integrating consent documents into the basic design; the crucial need for linkage files that associate biospecimen IDs with the masked subject IDs used in deposited data sets; and the importance of standardized procedures to test the integrity data sets prior to distribution. The Repository is currently tracking 111 ongoing NIDDK-funded studies many of which include genotype data, and it houses over 5 million biospecimens of more than 25 types including serum, plasma, stool, urine, DNA, red blood cells, buffy coat and tissue. Repository resources have supported a range of biochemical, clinical, statistical and genetic research (188 external requests for clinical data and 31 for biospecimens have been approved or are pending). Genetic research has included GWAS, validation studies, development of methods to improve statistical power of GWAS and testing of new statistical methods for genetic research. We anticipate that the future impact of the Repository's resources on biomedical research will be enhanced by (i) cross-listing of Repository biospecimens in additional searchable databases and biobank catalogs; (ii) ongoing deployment of new applications for querying the contents of the Repository; and (iii) increased harmonization of procedures, data collection

  1. Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Giambra, L M; Camp, C J; Grodsky, A

    1992-03-01

    Giambra (1977-1978, 1979-1980) found that 2 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory measuring curiosity (i.e., information seeking) did not change across the adult life span, but 2 measuring stimulation seeking (i.e., boredom) for external stimulation need significantly decreased with age. In this study, these outcomes were replicated (1,356 men and 1,080 women 17 to 92 years old). In addition, a 6- to 8-year longitudinal repeat was obtained on 222 men and 124 women. Significant longitudinal declines were obtained for the stimulation-seeking measures. Furthermore, women showed an increase in impersonal-mechanical curiosity and a decline in interpersonal curiosity, though the amount of change was modest. Men were unchanged on both curiosity measures. Gender differences in longitudinal changes apparently reflected effects of socialization as well as tendencies toward displaying increased androgyny with advancing age. PMID:1558700

  2. The end-state comfort effect in 3- to 8-year-old children in two object manipulation tasks.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Birgit; Henning, Anne; Wunsch, Kathrin; Weigelt, Matthias; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare 3- to 8-year-old children's propensity to anticipate a comfortable hand posture at the end of a grasping movement (end-state comfort effect) between two different object manipulation tasks, the bar-transport task, and the overturned-glass task. In the bar-transport task, participants were asked to insert a vertically positioned bar into a small opening of a box. In the overturned-glass task, participants were asked to put an overturned-glass right-side-up on a coaster. Half of the participants experienced action effects (lights) as a consequence of their movements (AE groups), while the other half of the participants did not (No-AE groups). While there was no difference between the AE and No-AE groups, end-state comfort performance differed across age as well as between tasks. Results revealed a significant increase in end-state comfort performance in the bar-transport task from 13% in the 3-year-olds to 94% in the 8-year-olds. Interestingly, the number of children grasping the bar according to end-state comfort doubled from 3 to 4 years and from 4 to 5 years of age. In the overturned-glass task an increase in end-state comfort performance from already 63% in the 3-year-olds to 100% in the 8-year-olds was significant as well. When comparing end-state comfort performance across tasks, results showed that 3- and 4-year-old children were better at manipulating the glass as compared to manipulating the bar, most probably, because children are more familiar with manipulating glasses. Together, these results suggest that preschool years are an important period for the development of motor planning in which the familiarity with the object involved in the task plays a significant role in children's ability to plan their movements according to end-state comfort.

  3. Good clinical practices in phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Decousus, H; Perpoint, B; Mismetti, P; Ollagnier, M; Queneau, P

    1990-01-01

    In France, official guidelines for good clinical practices in clinical trials were issued in 1987. In December 1988, a law was passed that fixed the requirements for carrying out experiments in healthy subjects. It will be completed by official guidelines for the structures in which experiments on healthy subjects (and patients as well, when the investigation would not benefit the health of the patients) may be conducted. Hence a battery of recent legal instructions precisely state what good clinical practices are in the setting of phase I studies. Of particular importance are: subject recruitment and selection methods and procedures; specific competence of the investigator, in particular to interpret the pre-trial data; necessary and sufficient facilities to guarantee the subjects' safety; careful quality control to check all laboratory procedures; necessity of written standard operating procedures.

  4. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup.

  5. Weight change in the first two months of a lifestyle intervention predicts weight changes 8 years later

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jeffery, Robert; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between 1- and 2-month weight loss (WL) and 8-year WL among participants enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. Design & Methods 2290 Look AHEAD participants (BMI: 35.65±5.93kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes received an intensive behavioral WL intervention. Results 1 and 2-month WL were associated with yearly WL through Year 8 (p’s<0.0001). At Month 1, participants losing 2-4% and >4% had 1.62 (95% CI:1.32,1.98) and 2.79 (95% CI:2.21,3.52) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 and 1.28 (95% CI:1.05,1.58) and 1.77 (95% CI:1.40,2.24) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% at Year 8, compared to those losing <2% initially. At Month 2, a 3-6% WL resulted in greater odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=1.85; CI:1.48,2.32) and a >6% WL resulted in the greatest odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=3.85; CI:3.05,4.88) and Year 8 (OR=2.28; CI:1.81,2.89), compared to those losing <3%. Differences in adherence between WL categories were observed as early as Month 2. Conclusions 1 and 2-month WL was associated with 8-year WL. Future studies should examine whether alternative treatment strategies can be employed to improve treatment outcomes among those with low initial WL. PMID:26110890

  6. What Makes a Difference in Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction: An 8 Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Ki; Jung, Jae-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) was recently classified into EIB alone and EIB with asthma, based on the presence of concurrent asthma. Objective Differences between EIB alone and EIB with asthma have not been fully described. Methods We retrospectively reviewed who visited an allergy clinic for respiratory symptoms after exercise and underwent exercise bronchial provocation testing. More than a 15% decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline to the end of a 6 min free-running challenge test was interpreted as positive EIB. Results EIB was observed in 66.9% of the study subjects (89/133). EIB-positive subjects showed higher positivity to methacholine provocation testing (61.4% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001) compared with EIB-negative subjects. In addition, sputum eosinophilia was more frequently observed in EIB-positive subjects than in EIB-negative subjects (56% vs. 23.5%, p = 0.037). The temperature and relative humidity on exercise test day were significantly related with the EIB-positive rate. Positive EIB status was correlated with both temperature (p = 0.001) and relative humidity (p = 0.038) in the methacholine-negative EIB group while such a correlation was not observed in the methacholine-positive EIB group. In the methacholine-positive EIB group the time to reach a 15% decrease in FEV1 during exercise was significantly shorter than that in the methacholine-negative EIB group (3.2±0.7 min vs. 8.6±1.6 min, p = 0.004). Conclusions EIB alone may be a distinct clinical entity from EIB with asthma. Conditions such as temperature and humidity should be considered when performing exercise tests, especially in subjects with EIB alone. PMID:24498034

  7. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour of the vagina in an 8 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lin Yin; Hwang, Wei Sek; Wong, Adelina; Chan, Mei Yoke; Chui, Chan Hon

    2007-03-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with an unpredictable natural history. We present the first reported case of PEComa of the vagina diagnosed in an 8-year-old girl. This was initially diagnosed on biopsy as an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and the patient underwent 3 cycles of chemotherapy according to the Mesenchymal Malignant Tumour 1989 protocol. A repeat scan, however, revealed an increase in tumor size. Total resection was achieved via a transvaginal (vertical sleeve) partial vaginectomy. The resected tumor had the typical appearance of a PEComa. Immunostains showed positive staining of tumor cells for HMB45, neuron-specific enolase, and calponin but were negative for S100 protein, melaninA, chromogranin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, caldesmon, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1/3, and synaptophysin. Six months after surgery, she remains free of tumor and is on follow-up with regular local examinations under anesthesia and computed tomography scans. Our case highlights the importance of an accurate initial diagnosis, and we stress the importance of regular surveillance over a significant period. PMID:17336201

  8. Endovascular Management of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: An 8-year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gerassimidis, Thomas S.; Karkos, Christos D. Karamanos, Dimitrios G.; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O.; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios N.; Demiropoulos, Filippos P.; Malkotsis, Dimitrios P.; Kamparoudis, Apostolos G.

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to review our experience with the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). During an 8-year period, 69 patients with a RAAA presented to our department; 67 underwent assessment by computed axial tomography, and 2 died on arrival before any evaluation was possible. A total of 42 patients (63%) were suitable for stent-grafting, and all but 1 (c-arm failure) proceeded to endovascular repair. Of these, 27 underwent surgery with local anaesthesia; 3 did so under general anaesthesia; and a further 11 procedures were commenced with the patient under local anaesthesia and then converted to general anaesthesia. A total of 28 bifurcated and 14 aorto-uni-iliac stent-grafts were implanted. Aortic occlusion balloons were used in 2 (5%) patients. The in-hospital and the 30-day mortality rates were 36% and 41%, respectively. After surgery, 21 complications were encountered in 17 patients. Two patients required reintervention during their hospital stay (1 type I endoleak and 1 limb occlusion). During the follow-up (median 730 days [range 90 to 580 days]), the 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival probabilities were 53% (SE 7.9%) and 50% (SE 8.0%), respectively. Three reinterventions were necessary during follow-up (2 type I endoleaks and 1 graft occlusion). We conclude that endovascular treatment is feasible in the emergency setting, and the early experience is promising. Whether such an approach is superior to open surgery remains to be determined.

  9. Clinical Scores for Dyspnoea Severity in Children: A Prospective Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Hendriekje; Brand, Paul; Reimink, Roelien; Bekhof, Jolita

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute dyspnoeic children, assessment of dyspnoea severity and treatment response is frequently based on clinical dyspnoea scores. Our study aim was to validate five commonly used paediatric dyspnoea scores. Methods Fifty children aged 0–8 years with acute dyspnoea were clinically assessed before and after bronchodilator treatment, a subset of 27 children were videotaped and assessed twice by nine observers. The observers scored clinical signs necessary to calculate the Asthma Score (AS), Asthma Severity Score (ASS), Clinical Asthma Evaluation Score 2 (CAES-2), Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) and respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, decreased breath sounds (RAD). Results A total of 1120 observations were used to assess fourteen measurement properties within domains of validity, reliability and utility. All five dyspnoea scores showed overall poor results, scoring insufficiently on more than half of the quality criteria for measurement properties. The AS and PRAM were the most valid with good values on six and moderate values on three properties. Poor results were mainly due to insufficient measurement properties in the validity and reliability domains whereas utility properties were moderate to good in all scores. Conclusion This study shows that commonly used dyspnoea scores show insufficient validity and reliability to allow for clinical use without caution. PMID:27382963

  10. Arctic Cloud Fraction and Microphysical Characteristics from 8-year Space-based Lidar and Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Yeo, H.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, M. H.; Son, S. W.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic clouds are a key factor in determining the energy budget both at the top of the atmosphere and at the suface by modulating the long-wave and short-wave radiative fluxes, which affect the surface temperature and may effect on the growth or retreat of sea ice extent and thickness. In this work, we exmine three-dimensional geometric and microphysical properties of Arctic clouds mainly from 8-year space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). Cloud Frations (CFs) from CALIOP-CPR and MODIS show similar seasonal and inter-annual variations, but shows significant different in CF over the opened sea area (i.e., Barents and Kara Sea) and over the sea ice. High occurrences of cloud top height are found below 2 km. But comparably high presences of mid- and high-level clouds are also found, especially in winter-time. This suggests that both low- and high-level clouds over the Arctic may influence on the long-wave radiation budget both at the surface and top of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the top height of winter-time clouds looks consistent with tropopause height. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) over the Arctic shows high in summer and low in winter, which would be contrary to the seasonal/monthly variations of CF. High COD during summer can be explained by enhanced level of liquid cloud droplet number concentrations. The number concentration and effective radius (in parenthesis) of liquid cloud droplet during summner was in the range of about 30 to 80 cm-3 (about 6 ~ 16 mm).

  11. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood.

  12. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  13. [Depression and dementia: perspectives from clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Shoko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    In this review, we present an overview of clinical studies that addressed the relationship between depression and dementia or cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses have repeatedly shown an association between late-life depression (LLD) and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia; however, the findings of cohort studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies on the association between depression with a younger age of onset and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Regarding cognitive decline associated with LLD, several studies have reported an association between LLD and mild cognitive impairment, suggesting that depression itself can cause persistent cognitive impairment. Other studies have compared the cognitive profile between LLD and depression with a younger age of onset, but their results have been inconclusive, especially regarding the association between memory impairment and the age of onset of depression. LLD is associated with vascular change and white matter degeneration of the brain, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, several studies reported an association between gray matter change and LLD. Studies currently in progress employ functional brain imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography. Clinically, it is important to understand how subtypes of depression can be defined in terms of risk of developing dementia, and to devise effective treatments. One paper explored the possibility of detecting depression associated with AD by measuring the blood Aβ40/Aβ42 levels, and other studies have suggested that symptoms of apathy and loss of interest are associated with conversion of depression to AD. Unfortunately, current antidepressants may have limited efficacy on depression with dementia; therefore, further investigation for devising methods of predicting conversion of depression to dementia and

  14. Neurobiology of early life stress: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2002-04-01

    A burgeoning number of clinical studies have evaluated the immediate and long-term neurobiological effects of early developmental stress, eg, child abuse and neglect or parental loss, in the past years. This review summarizes and discusses the available findings from neuroendocrine (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other neuroendocrine axes), neurochemical (catecholamines, serotonin, other neurotransmitters), psychophysiological (autonomic function, startle reactivity, brain electrical activity) and neuroimaging studies (brain structure, function) conducted in children or adults with a history of early life stress, with or without psychiatric disorders. Early developmental stress in humans appears to be associated with neurobiological alterations that are similar to many findings in animal models of early life stress, and likely represent the biological basis of an enhanced risk for psychopathology. Clinical studies are now beginning to explore potentially differential neurobiological effects of different types of early life stress and the existence of critical developmental periods, which may be sensitive to the neurobiological effects of specific stressors. In addition, the role of a multitude of moderating and mediating factors in the determination of individual vulnerability or resilience to the neurobiological effects of early life stress should be addressed. Findings from such studies may ultimately help to prevent the deleterious neurobiological and psychopathological consequences in the unacceptably high number of children exposed to early life stress in modern society. PMID:11953939

  15. Physicochemical changes in sediments at Orplands Farm, Essex, UK following 8 years of managed realignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, K. L.; Cundy, A. B.; Davies-Hearn, S.; Hughes, R.; Turner, S.; MacLeod, C. L.

    2008-02-01

    Managed realignment (MR) is a 'soft' engineering technique that involves the deliberate landwards retreat of the existing line of coastal defence and subsequent tidal inundation of land. Managed realignment has been established worldwide for over 30 years and its goals may include habitat restoration, recovery of biodiversity and sustainable coastal defence. In southeast England in particular, an increasing number of MR sites (20-110 ha) have been commissioned in the last decade in response to increasing coastal habitat loss and sea-level rise. Following initial sea wall breaching and site flooding, monitoring of these sites is usually carried out for a period of 5 years and during this time changes in ecosystem structure can be easily observed. However, there is a poor understanding of the long-term effects of flooding on soil physicochemical parameters including sediment geochemistry and geochemical cycling, nutrient fluxes and soil maturation processes. Such physical and chemical changes may continue to take place over time-scales exceeding 5 years and therefore current monitoring practices may not be sufficient. This paper examines the changes in the physicochemical parameters of sediments in vertical core sections at the Orplands Farm MR site, Blackwater Estuary, Essex, 8 years after its flooding in 1995. Post-breach sediment accumulation rates at the site have been determined and a multi-proxy approach has been used to identify a pre-breach land surface. Soil development and the vertical distribution of saltmarsh plants following breaching have also been examined. The species saturation index approach has been used to provide an indication of the success of MR at this site. The pre-breach land surface was identified at 4-6 cm depth indicating a sediment accumulation rate ca. 0.75 cm a -1 since the site was breached in 1995. This sedimentation rate exceeds the regional sea-level rise of 0.1-0.3 cm a -1 and hence marsh development at the site is expected to

  16. Planning a study abroad clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Wright, Dolores J

    2010-05-01

    Not only is globalization expanding areas of human activity, it is also influencing the variety of educational offerings in universities. Therefore, globalization must be considered by nurse educators as they reevaluate ways of preparing nursing students to meet the health care needs of populations they currently serve and will care for in the future. Study abroad programs have been encouraged to be part of the college experience in the United States for more than 30 years; however, these programs have been relatively lacking in nursing education. Most of the study abroad programs described in the nursing literature are research-based or first-person accounts of an experience and provide little information about planning a study abroad program. This article describes a study abroad learning experience for senior nursing students and discusses the issues such as student selection, student safety, and available clinical experiences that need to be considered before undertaking such an endeavor. PMID:20143756

  17. Plantago ovata: Clinical study of overuse.

    PubMed

    Agha, Rukh-e-Nasreen; Saeed, Aftab; Nazar, Halima

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to undertake evidence-base study to evaluate clinical manifestation of the over-estimated use of herbal drug Plantago ovata and to compare it with placebo for the efficacy and adverse effects. The patients of both genders were included. Blood urea, creatinine, ALT, Serum B12, CP, ESR and liver function tests were performed. The data was statistically analyzed in both groups for differential symptomatology. In anorexia test verses control results showed that Plantago ovata husk and placebo showed the affected ratio as 81 percent and 50 percent, correspondingly. Whereas in clinical performance of heart burning, pain in epigastrium, low libido, body pain, dyspepsia, fever, burning sensation in palm and sole in test drug showed affected response as adverse effect 90%, 88% and as control drug, 36%, 29%, 22%, 25%, 38%, 30%, 33%, 57%, respectively. The results were highly marked in test drug i.e. in comparison with placebo. This is clearly evident from data analysis that effect observed in test arm is far more superior hence null hypothesis was rejected clearly. Similarly serological and biochemical reports study i.e. (ALT, Vit. B1 and Vit A) revealed that there is no hepatotoxic and neurotoxic effect found in both the drugs. PMID:27087080

  18. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found.

  19. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Eisenmann, Joey C; Froberg, Karsten; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing accuracy test was used to assess MP. PA was not correlated with %BF, but was significantly correlated with MP. The strongest correlations existed between %BF and MP. Low %BF/High PA had higher MP scores compared with High %BF/Low PA, and within the High %BF groups MP was higher in the High PA versus Low PA group. When comparing PA by %BF and MP groups, boys in the Low %BF/High MP had higher PA than both the Low %BF/Low MP and High %BF/Low MP groups. In girls, PA was highest in the High %BF/High MP group. This study highlights the complex interrelationships among PA, %BF, and MP in children and the need to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood.

  20. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.

  1. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  2. High Genetic Stability of the Begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Southern Spain Over an 8-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campos, S; Díaz, J A; Monci, F; Bejarano, E R; Reina, J; Navas-Castillo, J; Aranda, M A; Moriones, E

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT The evolution of the plant single-stranded DNA virus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) has been monitored for 8 years after its appearance in southern Spain. Variation within three genomic regions of 166 TYLCSV isolates collected from three locations was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. According to SSCP, the intergenic region (IR) was the most variable. Low genetic diversity was found within the population and geographical or temporal differences were not evident. Nucleotide sequences of specific genomic regions of haplotypes identified by SSCP indicated close relationships among them. Therefore, the Spanish TYLCSV population appears to represent a single, undifferentiated population. The analysis of IR sequences for a subsample of 76 randomly chosen isolates confirmed the limited genetic diversity revealed by the SSCP analysis. A tendency to a lineal increase in diversity over time was observed in Málaga and Almería subpopulations; however, no accumulation of mutations in single isolates was evident. Negative selection to variation seems to operate to conserve certain regions of the genome. Thus, the low genetic diversity found in the studied TYLCSV population might be the result of a founder effect with subsequent selection against less fit variants arising by mutation.

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of Suburethral and Transobturator Sling in 209 Cases with Stress Urinary Incontinence in 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Prakash; D’Costa, Sylvia; Shirkande, Preeti; Kumar, Shilpi; Patil, Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of suburethral and transobturator sling in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in 209 cases from 2002 to 2010. The criteria evaluated were success, failure, complications, operating time, ease of the procedure, availability and cost effectivity of the sling. Design and Setting: A retrospective comparative study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre for female urinary incontinence. Material and Methods: A total of 209 patients (females from 27 to 79 years of age) with proven stress urinary incontinence were treated by suburethral transvaginal tape (TVT) type of slings in 101 cases and transobturator Monarc type of sling in 108 cases at the National Institute of Endoscopic Surgery and Urinary Incontinence Center, Mumbai, India, from March 2002 to June 2010. The maximum follow up was for 8 years. Results: The TVT type of slings had higher complication rate like needle entering the bladder, retention of urine necessitating to cut the tape in the center and had a success rate of 94.5% compared to Monarc/Trivedi obturator tape (TrOT) type of sling with outside-in technique, which had a negligible complication (less than 1%), pain in groin or leg movement that reduced in 6 weeks and a success rate of 95%. Specially, the Indian design Trivedi’s stress urinary incontinence tape (TSUIT) and TrOT with reusable needles, the cost was only 15–20% of the international brands. PMID:22442522

  4. Molecular characterization of HCV in a Swedish county over 8 years (2002–2009) reveals distinct transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ederth, Josefine; Jern, Camilla; Norder, Helené; Magnius, Lars; Alm, Erik; Rognsvåg, Björg Kleverman; Sundin, Carl-Gustaf; Brytting, Mia; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern and data on its molecular epidemiology in Sweden is scarce. We carried out an 8-year population-based study of newly diagnosed HCV cases in one of Sweden's centrally situated counties, Södermanland (D-county). The aim was to characterize the HCV strains circulating, analyze their genetic relatedness to detect networks, and in combination with demographic data learn more about transmission. Methods Molecular analyses of serum samples from 91% (N=557) of all newly notified cases in D-county, 2002–2009, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis (NS5B gene, 300 bp) was linked to demographic data from the national surveillance database, SmiNet, to characterize D-county transmission clusters. The linear-by-linear association test (LBL) was used to analyze trends over time. Results The most prevalent subtypes were 1a (38%) and 3a (34%). Subtype 1a was most prevalent among cases transmitted via sexual contact, via contaminated blood, or blood products, while subtype 3a was most prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype 3a sequences formed more and larger transmission clusters (50% of the sequences clustered), while the 1a sequences formed smaller clusters (19% of the sequences clustered), possibly suggesting different epidemics. Conclusion We found different transmission patterns in D-county which may, from a public health perspective, have implications for how to control virus infections by targeted interventions. PMID:26854010

  5. A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the 8-year SABER/TIMED data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xiong, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, W.

    2011-11-01

    From 8 years' SABER/TIMED temperature profiles between January 2002 and December 2009, we studied the activity of gravity waves in the stratosphere globally. Global distribution of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy was calculated from the temperature perturbations. Seasonal comparison of gravity wave potential energy Ep shows an annual variation in middle and high latitudes and a semiannual variation in the tropics. Around the equator, gravity wave interannual enhancements are identified just below the zonal wind zero (u = 0) contours corresponding to descending eastward shear phase of the QBO. Furthermore, we provide observation evidence to support the conclusion that the deep convection is a major source for the observed tropical gravity wave activity. The considerable longitude variations of largest potential energy around the equator are related not only to the specific topography and tropical convections but also to many other factors. We can infer that topography and tropical deep convection are the important sources of the gravity waves in the stratosphere, but the observed gravity waves in the tropical/subtropical stratosphere are strongly affected by winds with different QBO phases.

  6. A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the 8-year SABER/TIMED data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xiong, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, W.

    2012-11-01

    From 8 years' SABER/TIMED temperature profiles between January 2002 and December 2009, we studied the activity of gravity waves in the stratosphere globally. Global distribution of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy was calculated from the temperature perturbations. Seasonal comparison of gravity wave potential energy Ep shows an annual variation in middle and high latitudes and a semiannual variation in the tropics. Around the equator, gravity wave interannual enhancements are identified just below the zonal wind zero (u = 0) contours corresponding to descending eastward shear phase of the QBO. Furthermore, we provide observation evidence to support the conclusion that the deep convection is a major source for the observed tropical gravity wave activity. The considerable longitude variations of largest potential energy around the equator are related not only to the specific topography and tropical convections but also to many other factors. We can infer that topography and tropical deep convection are the important sources of the gravity waves in the stratosphere, but the observed gravity waves in the tropical/subtropical stratosphere are strongly affected by winds with different QBO phases.

  7. Prostatitis--clinical and bacterial studies.

    PubMed

    Chandiok, S; Fisk, P G; Riley, V C

    1992-01-01

    Forty men with clinical prostatitis were studied to determine the value of symptomatology and categorization and 30 (75%) were classified as having prostatitis on the basis of prostatic localization studies. Of these 3 (10%) had chronic bacterial prostatitis, 18 (60%) had chronic abacterial prostatitis, and 9 (30%) had prostatodynia. No patient had acute bacterial prostatitis. Although Enterobacteriaciae were isolated from the 3 men with chronic bacterial prostatitis, these bacteria along with Staphlococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Chlamydia trachomatis were isolated from a further 6 patients. The mean pH of the expressed prostatic secretion was measured for each group and was found to be 7.6 for those with chronic bacterial prostatitis, 7.1 for chronic abacterial prostatitis, 6.5 for prostatodynia, and 6.9 for those with urethritis suggesting that this test may be of value in the diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis.

  8. [The functional state of the cardiovascular system and the level of physical performance in 7-8-year-old children under conditions of aerotechnogenic pollution].

    PubMed

    Tuliakova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional state of the cardiovascular system and the level of physical performance in 7-8-year-old children living in the urban area where air pollution caused by heavy vehicle traffic is high. The cardiovascular system and physical performance were evaluated using the conventional methods in 7-8-year-old 1097 children: a control group included 652 children (363 boys and 289 girls) and a comparison group consisted of 445 persons (239 boys and 206 girls). Under aerotechnogenic pollution, diastolic and mean blood pressures were found to be higher in both groups; the maximum oxygen consumption was lower in the boys and the girls had a decreased heart rate following 4-minute exercise.

  9. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-08-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:24165457

  10. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  11. Clinical studies of styrene workers: initial findings.

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, W V; Lilis, R; Nicholson, W J; Anderson, H; Fischbein, A; Daum, S; Rom, W; Rice, C; Selikoff, I J

    1976-01-01

    Styrene monomer is a high volume chemical used chiefly in production of polystyrene. A clinical survey of 493 production workers was undertaken at the oldest and largest monomer production, polymerization, and extrusion facility in the U.S. Relative exposure durations and levels were obtained from occupational histories. Significant differences between the high and low exposure groups were found with regard to history of acute prenarcotic symptoms, acute lower respiratory symptoms, prevalence of FEV 1/FV less than 75 per cent, and elevated GCTP. Other liver function tests, chest x-ray, FVC less than 80 per cent, and hematological parameters showed no distinct pattern. A concomitant mortality study has been mounted and is in progress. PMID:1026403

  12. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree.

  13. Oncolysis by paramyxoviruses: preclinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Olga V; Guo, Zong S; Senin, Vyacheslav M; Senina, Anna V; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Chumakov, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate that a broad spectrum of human malignant cells can be killed by oncolytic paramyxoviruses, which include cells of ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal origin. In clinical trials, significant reduction in size or even complete elimination of primary tumors and established metastases are reported. Different routes of viral administration (intratumoral, intravenous, intradermal, intraperitoneal, or intrapleural), and single- versus multiple-dose administration schemes have been explored. The reported side effects are grade 1 and 2, with the most common among them being mild fever. Some advantages in using paramyxoviruses as oncolytic agents versus representatives of other viral families exist. The cytoplasmic replication results in a lack of host genome integration and recombination, which makes paramyxoviruses safer and more attractive candidates for widely used therapeutic oncolysis in comparison with retroviruses or some DNA viruses. The list of oncolytic paramyxovirus representatives includes attenuated measles virus (MV), mumps virus (MuV), low pathogenic Newcastle disease (NDV), and Sendai (SeV) viruses. Metastatic cancer cells frequently overexpress on their surface some molecules that can serve as receptors for MV, MuV, NDV, and SeV. This promotes specific viral attachment to the malignant cell, which is frequently followed by specific viral replication. The paramyxoviruses are capable of inducing efficient syncytium-mediated lyses of cancer cells and elicit strong immunomodulatory effects that dramatically enforce anticancer immune surveillance. In general, preclinical studies and phase 1–3 clinical trials yield very encouraging results and warrant continued research of oncolytic paramyxoviruses as a particularly valuable addition to the existing panel of cancer-fighting approaches. PMID:26640815

  14. A Right Middle Cerebral Artery Infarct After Frontal Eosinophilic Granuloma Resection in an 8-Year-Old Boy with Factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Ertugrul; Arslan, Erhan; Yazar, Ugur; Reis, Gokce Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Stroke in children is relatively uncommon. We describe an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the frontal bone. After excision of the EG, the postoperative course was eventful. The patient had an acute right middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and had been comatose with a diminished Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5. Urgent decompressive hemicraniectomy with duraplasty was performed. The postoperative course after the second operation was uneventful. Hematological tests revealed a diagnosis of factor V Leiden. The patient was discharged with left hemiparesis and GCS of 15. To the best of our knowledge, no such clinical picture of MCA infarction after EG excision has been described before. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inherited thrombophilias, such as factor V Leiden, if the postoperative clinical course worsens because of cerebral artery thrombosis. Also, decompressive hemicraniectomy could be life saving and should be performed urgently without any hesitation. PMID:26442559

  15. Comparing the effectiveness of a clinical registry and a clinical data warehouse for supporting clinical trial recruitment: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-11-13

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost.

  16. Treatment of Onychomycosis – a Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pajaziti, Laura; Vasili, Ermira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail unit. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the nail apparatus impose the need for long-term treatment to achieve complete cure. Goal: The main goal of this project is to study the effectiveness of several treatment protocols for onychomycosis based on Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO). Material and methods: The study included 133 patients with onychomycosis, diagnosed by KOH microscopy and culture. Based on disease severity, patients were grouped into groups with SCIO values: 6-9, and 12-16. These groups were randomly subdivided to 5 subgroups according to the given treatment protocols: fluconazole 150 mg 1x weekly, itraconazole continual therapy, itraconazole pulse therapy, terbinafine 250 mg/d, and terbinafine + ciclopirox 8% lacquer, respectively. The cure rate was evaluated at the end of 48 week. Results: The obtained cure rates according to the above mentioned protocols were: 92.30%, 81.81%, 83.33%, 90.90%, and 100%, respectively for groups of patients with SCIO values 6 – 9. Within patients with SCIO values 12-16, were achieved cure rates as follows: 78.57%, 78.57%, 75%, 80%, and 86.66%. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in cure rate between five treatment protocols applied in this study. In patients with high SCIO values is expected a decrease in cure rate. PMID:26261386

  17. Overview of ethical issues in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1978-01-01

    Research in human subjects should be conducted only if the rights and welfare of the participants are protected. Prospective study subjects must be given adequate information about all aspects of a study so that they can make a rationally exercised decision about participation; coercive techniques to solicit participants should not be used. Research in humans may be classified in one of three categories: A. Research on treatment of existing conditions; B. Research on preventive measures; and C. Research other than for treatment or prevention. Different concerns and aspects of informed consent assume particular importance in each category. In research on the treatment of existing conditions, untreated or placebo-treated control groups are rarely justified if the condition is irreversible. In research on preventive methods prospective subjects should be informed of the likelihood of receiving an ineffective treatment, if one or more placebo groups are included. A randomized clinical trial is usually the best design for studies of preventive methods. Nonrandomized designs, that are feasible and statistically valid, may be employed in order to avoid depriving some subjects from receiving effective preventive methods. In social or behavioral research, confidentiality of collected information and privacy of the subject are essential considerations.

  18. Uremic pruritus. Clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate clinical aspects of pruritus in maintenance hemodialysis patients and to evaluate factors of putative pathogenic importance. 60-65% of the patients in a maintenance hemodialysis program during a two-year period suffered from itching. Patients with pruritus tended to have been on dialysis treatment longer than those without pruritus (p = 0.05), otherwise there was no difference in clinical data or routine laboratory tests. Measurement of itch intensity continuously over one week in 28 patients using a computerized method showed that itching peaked at night after two days without dialysis, was relatively high during treatment and lowest during the day following dialysis. Our results suggest that the accumulation of pruritogens between dialysis sessions influences the intensity of itching. Most patients had "dry" skin. Recording of the stratum corneum water content by measurement of electrical capacitance, in 31 patients (19 with pruritus) and 12 controls, disclosed no significant difference between dialysis patients and controls, but a tendency that pruritic patients had a lower water content than the other subjects. In different body areas, there was a positive correlation in all groups between the clinical estimation of xerosis and hydration. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were significantly higher in dialysis patients with pruritus than in those without, but there was no correlation between the degree of symptoms and the PTH level. Indirect immunohistochemistry revealed no immunoreactivity for different parts of the PTH molecule in skin biopsies from uremic patients. Intradermal injections of PTH fragments did not evoke itching or other cutaneous reactions in patients or controls. Our results do not support PTH as a peripheral mediator of uremic itching. Flare reactions induced by intradermal histamine injections were significantly smaller in 26 dialysis patients (18 with pruritus) than in 9 healthy

  19. External Quality Assessment Scheme for reference laboratories - review of 8 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anja; Siekmann, Lothar; Weykamp, Cas; Geilenkeuser, Wolf Jochen; Dreazen, Orna; Middle, Jonathan; Schumann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We describe an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) intended for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine and supervised by the Scientific Division of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the responsible Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. The official EQAS website, RELA (www.dgkl-rfb.de:81), is open to interested parties. Information on all requirements for participation and results of surveys are published annually. As an additional feature, the identity of every participant in relation to the respective results is disclosed. The results of various groups of measurands (metabolites and substrates, enzymes, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobins, proteins, hormones, thyroid hormones, therapeutic drugs) are discussed in detail. The RELA system supports reference measurement laboratories preparing for accreditation according to ISO 17025 and ISO 15195. Participation in a scheme such as RELA is one of the requirements for listing of the services of a calibration laboratory by the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine.

  20. External Quality Assessment Scheme for reference laboratories - review of 8 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anja; Siekmann, Lothar; Weykamp, Cas; Geilenkeuser, Wolf Jochen; Dreazen, Orna; Middle, Jonathan; Schumann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We describe an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) intended for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine and supervised by the Scientific Division of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the responsible Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. The official EQAS website, RELA (www.dgkl-rfb.de:81), is open to interested parties. Information on all requirements for participation and results of surveys are published annually. As an additional feature, the identity of every participant in relation to the respective results is disclosed. The results of various groups of measurands (metabolites and substrates, enzymes, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobins, proteins, hormones, thyroid hormones, therapeutic drugs) are discussed in detail. The RELA system supports reference measurement laboratories preparing for accreditation according to ISO 17025 and ISO 15195. Participation in a scheme such as RELA is one of the requirements for listing of the services of a calibration laboratory by the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. PMID:23327864

  1. Statistical Issues in TBI Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Paul E.; Cellucci, Christopher J.; Keyser, David O.; Gilpin, Adele M. K.; Darmon, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The identification and longitudinal assessment of traumatic brain injury presents several challenges. Because these injuries can have subtle effects, efforts to find quantitative physiological measures that can be used to characterize traumatic brain injury are receiving increased attention. The results of this research must be considered with care. Six reasons for cautious assessment are outlined in this paper. None of the issues raised here are new. They are standard elements in the technical literature that describes the mathematical analysis of clinical data. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to these issues because they need to be considered when clinicians evaluate the usefulness of this research. In some instances these points are demonstrated by simulation studies of diagnostic processes. We take as an additional objective the explicit presentation of the mathematical methods used to reach these conclusions. This material is in the appendices. The following points are made: (1) A statistically significant separation of a clinical population from a control population does not ensure a successful diagnostic procedure. (2) Adding more variables to a diagnostic discrimination can, in some instances, actually reduce classification accuracy. (3) A high sensitivity and specificity in a TBI versus control population classification does not ensure diagnostic successes when the method is applied in a more general neuropsychiatric population. (4) Evaluation of treatment effectiveness must recognize that high variability is a pronounced characteristic of an injured central nervous system and that results can be confounded by either disease progression or spontaneous recovery. A large pre-treatment versus post-treatment effect size does not, of itself, establish a successful treatment. (5) A procedure for discriminating between treatment responders and non-responders requires, minimally, a two phase investigation. This procedure must include a mechanism to

  2. Erythroderma: A clinical study of 97 cases

    PubMed Central

    Akhyani, Maryam; Ghodsi, Zahra S; Toosi, Siavash; Dabbaghian, Hossein

    2005-01-01

    Background Erythroderma is a rare skin disorder that may be caused by a variety of underlying dermatoses, infections, systemic diseases and drugs. Methods We reviewed the clinical, laboratory and biopsy material of 97 patients diagnosed with erythroderma who were treated in our department over a 6-year period (1996 through 2002). Results The male-female ratio was 1.85:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.2 years. The most common causative factors were dermatoses (59.7%), followed by drug reactions (21.6%), malignancies (11.3%) and idiopathic causes (7.2%). Carbamazepine was the most common drug (57.1%). The best clinicopathologic correlation was found in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and pityriasis rubra pilaris related erythroderma. Apart from scaling and erythema that were present in all patients, pruritus was the most common finding (97.5%), followed by fever (33.6%), lymphadenopathy (21.3%), edema (14.4%) and hyperkeratosis (7.2%). Conclusion This study outlines that underlying etiologic factors of erythroderma may show geographic variations. Our series had a high percentage of erythroderma secondary to preexisting dermatoses and a low percentage of idiopathic cases. There was no HIV-infected patient among our series based on multiple serum antibody tests. The clinical features of erythroderma were identical, irrespective of the etiology. The onset of the disease was usually insidious except in drug-induced erythroderma, where it was acute. The group associated with the best prognosis was that related to drugs. PMID:15882451

  3. Changing attitudes toward needle biopsies of breast cancer in Shanghai: experience and current status over the past 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuang; Liu, Zhe-Bin; Ling, Hong; Chen, Jia-Jian; Shen, Ju-Ping; Yang, Wen-Tao; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic patterns in breast cancer have greatly changed over the past few decades, and core needle biopsy (CNB) has become a reliable procedure for detecting breast cancer without invasive surgery. To estimate the changing diagnostic patterns of breast cancer in urban Shanghai, 11,947 women with breast lesions detected by preoperative needle biopsy between January 1995 and December 2012 were selected from the Shanghai Cancer Data base, which integrates information from approximately 50% of breast cancer patients in Shanghai. The CNB procedure uses an automated prone unit, biopsy gun, and 14-gauge needles under freehand or ultrasound guidance and was performed by experienced radiologists and surgeons specializing in needle biopsies. Diagnosis and classification for each patient were independently evaluated by pathologists. Over the indicated 8-year period, biopsy type consisted of 11,947 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsies (UCNBs), 2,015 ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (UVABs), and 654 stereotactic X-ray-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (XVABs). For all the 11,947 women included in this study, image-guided needle biopsy was the initial diagnostic procedure. Approximately 81.0% of biopsied samples were histopathologically determined to be malignant lesions, 5.5% were determined to be high-risk lesions, and 13.5% were determined to be benign lesions. The number of patients choosing UCNB increased at the greatest rate, and UCNB has become a standard procedure for histodiagnosis because it is inexpensive, convenient, and accurate. The overall false-negative rate of CNB was 1.7%, and the specific false-negative rates for UCNB, UVAB, and XVAB, were 1.7%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. This study suggests that the use of preoperative needle biopsy as the initial breast cancer diagnostic procedure is acceptable in urban Shanghai. Preoperative needle biopsy is now a standard procedure in the Shanghai Cancer Center because it may reduce the number of surgeries

  4. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more

  5. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  6. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights,…

  7. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  8. Calcium-Enriched Mixture Pulpotomy of Primary Molar Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis. A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Fijan, Soleiman; Asgary, Saeed; Keikhaee, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of vital pulp therapy in primary teeth with irreversible pulpitis by using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement according to clinical and radiographic assessment. Participants and Methods: Fifty primary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis in 50 children aged 6-8 years underwent pulpotomy using CEM cement as the dressing material. Following pulpotomy, pain intensity was evaluated by use of a visual analog scale at 1 and 7 days from the treatment and in clinical appointments at 3, 6 and 12 months after baseline. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 6 and 12 months. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test. Results: A total of 42 children (mean age 7.26 ± 0.82 year) completed the study. After one day treatment 56 % of children reported complete relief of pain and after 7 days 62% reported the same. However, two children complained of increased pain 1 day after treatment. None of the children reported pain in the subsequent appointments. One child complained of tenderness in percussion after 6 months. Pulp canal obliteration was the most common change in the radiographic assessment. There was no significant difference between clinical (92.8%) and radiographic (90.4%) success (p=0.990). Conclusion: Pulpotomy using CEM cement could present a successful treatment in primary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:27326265

  9. Bioplastique at 6 years: clinical outcome studies.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Gregory, S R; Salisbury, A V

    1997-11-01

    Bioplastique is a biphasic polymer for the permanent augmentation of some soft tissues. It was developed in 1987, and clinical studies at this institution were begun in 1990. The combination of low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone and solid polymer particles allows the implantation of permanent polymer spheres through a small needle under local anesthesia. In this study 127 cases are reviewed of consecutive patients who have received Bioplastique for scar revision, wrinkles, and augmentation for soft-tissue defects at 6 years after application. All patients who had not been in for follow-up recently were contacted by mail and questioned on the permanence of augmentation and migration of particles. About 30 percent of the patients were unreachable and had their charts reviewed for permanence and migration of particles. In eight of these cases, Bioplastique was removed because of overcorrection, two of them may have had infection. Bioplastique has gained wide use throughout the world and although some complications have been reported, in general, it functions quite well when used in selected cases.

  10. Quality improvement study at Mission House Clinic.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Kelsey; Khan, Natasha

    2014-08-01

    Mission House Clinic is a We-Care clinic that provides medical care to low income, homeless, and uninsured individuals. The Prescription Assistance Program (PAP) was created to bridge the gap between pharmaceutical companies that provide free medication and the patients at Mission House Clinic. UNF Nursing students have been involved with the PAP program since 2006. Previously, the PAP has focused on patients with respiratory diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. More recently, the population has shifted towards patients with mental health needs. The purpose of this project was to enhance the effectiveness of the PAP at Mission House Clinic and to improve upon the methods used to identify the prescription needs of the clinic population. PMID:25072218

  11. Quality improvement study at Mission House Clinic.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Kelsey; Khan, Natasha

    2014-08-01

    Mission House Clinic is a We-Care clinic that provides medical care to low income, homeless, and uninsured individuals. The Prescription Assistance Program (PAP) was created to bridge the gap between pharmaceutical companies that provide free medication and the patients at Mission House Clinic. UNF Nursing students have been involved with the PAP program since 2006. Previously, the PAP has focused on patients with respiratory diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. More recently, the population has shifted towards patients with mental health needs. The purpose of this project was to enhance the effectiveness of the PAP at Mission House Clinic and to improve upon the methods used to identify the prescription needs of the clinic population.

  12. Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Case Report: Self-Documented Over 8 Years with the Author's Observations.

    PubMed

    Elsabbagh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus is an almost curable disease, but the results of management are still not encouraging owing to the deceptive nature of the disease and its sensitivity to treatment. This has made the management of the disease controversial. The following self-documented report clarifies this. I have reported my experience in a scientific manner so that my colleagues can understand thoroughly certain facts related to intracranial hypertension. Achieving the optimal adjustment of the valve is a real challenge. I describe in detail the adjustment criteria I discovered. I believe that the use of biofeedback waves are almost the best way to make a proper adjustment of the valve, that is, if waves come from this machine and show increased tension of the facial muscles (high spiky waves) the valve adjustment has to be reduced without risking overdrainage. I have been observing my symptoms in some detail, which led me to a better understanding of the clinical pictures related to cerebrospinal fluid changes. I hope that uncovering my story can help with further research and improve management in this important and interesting field.

  13. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  14. Growth faltering and recovery in children aged 1–8 years in four low- and middle-income countries: Young Lives

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Engle, Patrice; Georgiadis, Andreas; Penny, Mary E; Stein, Aryeh D

    2014-01-01

    Objective We characterized post-infancy child growth patterns and determined the incidence of becoming stunted and of recovery from stunting. Design Data came from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in four low- and middle-income countries. Setting We analysed length/height measurements for children at ages 1, 5 and 8 years. Subjects Children (n 7171) in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. Results Mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) at age 1 year ranged from −1·51 (Ethiopia) to −1·08 (Vietnam). From age 1 to 5 years, mean HAZ increased by 0·27 in Ethiopia (P<0·001) and decreased among the other cohorts (range: −0·19 (Peru) to −0·32 (India); all P<0·001). From 5 to 8 years, mean HAZ increased in all cohorts (range: 0·19 (India) to 0·38 (Peru); all P<0·001). Prevalence of stunting (HAZ<−2·0) at 1 year ranged from 21% (Vietnam) to 46% (Ethiopia). From age 1 to 5 years, stunting prevalence decreased by 15·1 percentage points in Ethiopia (P<0·001) and increased in the other cohorts (range: 3·0 percentage points (Vietnam) to 5·3 percentage points (India); all P≤0·001). From 5 to 8 years, stunting prevalence decreased in all cohorts (range: 5·0 percentage points (Vietnam) to 12·7 percentage points (Peru); all P<0·001). The incidence of becoming stunted between ages 1 to 5 years ranged from 11% (Vietnam) to 22% (India); between ages 5 to 8 years, it ranged from 3% (Peru) to 6% (India and Ethiopia). The incidence of recovery from stunting between ages 1 and 5 years ranged from 27% (Vietnam) to 53% (Ethiopia); between ages 5 and 8 years, it ranged from 30% (India) to 47% (Ethiopia). Conclusions We found substantial recovery from early stunting among children in four low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24477079

  15. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  16. Assessment of Relational Reasoning in Children Aged 4 to 8 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda

    This study examined the hypothesis that age-related increases in reasoning ability are associated with the ability to represent relations of increasing complexity, defined as the number of entities related. The study's purpose was to determine the extent to which this ability to process relations with three entities increased between ages 4 and 8…

  17. Hormones, nicotine, and cocaine: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K

    2010-06-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (2 min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine's sustained positive effects (<20 min), ratings of "high" and "rush" began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high-nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse and the implications for treatment of these addictive disorders are discussed.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea. Clinical and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1994-12-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardiocirculatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:7653280

  19. Clinical evaluation--difficulties experienced by sessional clinical teachers of nursing: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Duke, M

    1996-02-01

    Evaluation of nursing students in the clinical field requires the clinical teacher to make judgements regarding student progress in a number of areas. In this study concepts of role theory, oppressed group behaviour and the ethics of caring emerged and were used as conceptual frameworks to interpret the data relating to the evaluation of undergraduate students. The number of experienced faculty available for clinical teaching and evaluation has become inadequate and a large number of casual or sessional clinical teachers are employed to teach students in the clinical field. Despite the well documented problems associated with clinical teaching and the use of inexperienced clinical teachers, sessional clinical teachers are nevertheless expected to evaluate student success in meeting the clinical requirements of the nursing course, often resulting in disparate decisions for students. A phenomenological study was carried out using unstructured interviews and written clinical scenarios, to explore the evaluation process from the perspective of the sessional clinical teachers. Research findings indicate that although the sessional clinical teachers were skilled at identifying student problems, they were reluctant to make difficult evaluation decisions, due to low self-esteem, role conflict and their ethic of caring. It seems that gender socialization, patriarchal dominance and apprenticeship training had effected their confidence in their own decision making. The implications of such findings are of concern for the ongoing credibility and integrity of nursing courses, as clinical teachers have an influence on the nursing profession through the preparation of its practitioners.

  20. Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case…

  1. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  2. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Reading Development and Impairment from Ages 3 to 8 Years in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Lin; Pan, Jinger; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Lang; Tardif, Twila; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early prediction of reading disabilities in Chinese is important for early remediation efforts. In this 6-year longitudinal study, we investigated the early cognitive predictors of reading skill in a statistically representative sample of Chinese children from Beijing. Method: Two hundred sixty-one (261) native Chinese children were…

  4. Explaining Variability: Numerical Representations in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to examine relations between number representations and various sources of individual differences within early stages of development of number representations. The mental number line has been found to develop from a logarithmic to a more linear representation. Sources under investigation are counting skills and executive…

  5. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  6. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  7. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  8. Learning from 8 years of regional cyanobacteria observation in Brittany in view of sanitary survey improvement.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thomas, Olivier; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been more and more studied during the last decades with regard to environment and health issues. More recently the consequences of climate change reinforced the need for research in view of a better management of cyanobacteria blooms. In this context the exploitation of the water quality survey of 26 recreational lakes in Brittany (north western France) between 2004 and 2011 is reported in this paper in order to encompass spatial and interannual patterns of cyanobacteria development at a regional scale. Starting from weekly data principally acquired during summertime, the links between cyanobacteria cell densities, toxin occurrences and interannual meteorological factors can give insights on the potential evolution of cyanobacterial crisis in the future. This study is part of a project aiming at a better understanding of potentially toxic cyanobacteria crisis occurrences in recreational waters, in order to improve predictive monitoring routines.

  9. Interference between oculomotor and postural tasks in 7-8-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Doré Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Several studies in adults having observed the effect of eye movements on postural control provided contradictory results. In the present study, we explored the effect of various oculomotor tasks on postural control and the effect of different postural tasks on eye movements in eleven children (7.8 ± 0.5 years) and nine adults (30.4 ± 6.3 years). To vary the difficulty of the oculomotor task, three conditions were tested: fixation, prosaccades (reactive saccades made toward the target) and antisaccades (voluntary saccades made in the direction opposite to the visual target). To vary the difficulty of postural control, two postural tasks were tested: Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR). Postural difficulty did not affect oculomotor behavior, except by lengthening adults' latencies in the prosaccade task. For both groups, postural control was altered in the antisaccade task as compared to fixation and prosaccade tasks. Moreover, a ceiling effect was found in the more complex postural task. This study highlighted a cortical interference between oculomotor and postural control systems.

  10. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH-study

  11. [Single ventricle. II. Clinical study. Special studies and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Anselmi, G; Machado, I; Arteaga, M; Muñoz O, H; Espino Vela, J

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of 29 cases of single ventricle confirmed by autopsy, hemodynamic study, or both. It must be emphasized that the term single ventricle excludes whatever malformation which shows traces of an intraventricular septum. Thus conceived, the malformation has been seen to have different clinical courses, which only permit partial diagnosis that may suggest the possibility of "single ventricle". In live patients this can only be diagnosed with specialized studies. In outline, there exist 4 types of clinical hemodynamic behavior: 1) The type with marked increase of pulmonary flow, in which the single cavity vascular systems, pulmonary and aortic, had similar pressures. This type behaves, in a certain way, like large interventricular communications. 2) The type which behaves hemodynamically like a large hypertensive communication with delayed cyanosis of rapid evolution and with few manifestations of heart failure. 3) The third type also has pulmonary hypertension with delayed cyanosis. This differs from the preceeding in that there is a preferential flow in such a way that the venous blood proceeding from the right atrium empties into the aorta and the arterial blood from the left atrium empties into the pulmonary artery. 4) The fourth type is characterized by rapid cyanosis and from the anatomical point of view has stenosis or atresia of the pulmonary artery. An analysis was made of the varieties which within these four classes actually ocurred or cases which were present as theoretical possibilities: single ventricle with crossed great arteries; single ventricle with transposition of the great arteries; single ventricle with partial distortion of the great arteries; single ventricle with common trunc. A detailed analysis was made of the clinical, hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and radiological manifestations which are seen in these combinations and an anatomic-embriologic classification is proposed on the basis of the systematization of the 29 cases

  12. [Changing surgical therapy because of clinical studies?].

    PubMed

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Müller, J M

    2002-04-01

    The randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) is a powerful instrument to evaluate different therapeutic regimens. In a survey among 115 physicians visiting the 25th annual meeting of the Surgical Society of Berlin and Brandenburg, the RCT was judged to be very important when changes of therapeutic strategies are discussed. 90 % of all participants claimed to use data from RCTs in the clinical routine and 89 % would participate in such a trial. In official (e. g. discussions during coffee breaks at scientific meetings) or non-medical (e. g. non-scientific press or media) sources of information were assessed as irrelevant for decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. However, in contrast to this view laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced into clinical practice rapidly because patients informed by external (non-medical) sources preferred to be operated on with the "modern" technique. Clinical trials with a high level of evidence had no relevant influence on the rapid distribution of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Controversial discussions concerning the extent of lymphadenectomy with gastric resection for carcinoma demonstrate that the value of excellent clinical RCTs is low if their results challenge a stable paradigma of the surgical scientific society. To allow a rational judgement, new surgical technologies should undergo a scientific gradual evaluation in agreement with the principles of evidence based medicine. PMID:12085271

  13. [Changing surgical therapy because of clinical studies?].

    PubMed

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Müller, J M

    2002-04-01

    The randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) is a powerful instrument to evaluate different therapeutic regimens. In a survey among 115 physicians visiting the 25th annual meeting of the Surgical Society of Berlin and Brandenburg, the RCT was judged to be very important when changes of therapeutic strategies are discussed. 90 % of all participants claimed to use data from RCTs in the clinical routine and 89 % would participate in such a trial. In official (e. g. discussions during coffee breaks at scientific meetings) or non-medical (e. g. non-scientific press or media) sources of information were assessed as irrelevant for decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. However, in contrast to this view laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced into clinical practice rapidly because patients informed by external (non-medical) sources preferred to be operated on with the "modern" technique. Clinical trials with a high level of evidence had no relevant influence on the rapid distribution of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Controversial discussions concerning the extent of lymphadenectomy with gastric resection for carcinoma demonstrate that the value of excellent clinical RCTs is low if their results challenge a stable paradigma of the surgical scientific society. To allow a rational judgement, new surgical technologies should undergo a scientific gradual evaluation in agreement with the principles of evidence based medicine.

  14. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  15. [Clinical studies of pediatric malabsorption syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Takashi

    2006-11-01

    Multiple cases with various types of pediatric malabsorption syndromes were evaluated. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, pathophysiology, and histopathological descriptions of each patient were analyzed in an effort to clear the pathogenesis of the malabsorption syndromes and the treatments were undertaken. The cases studied, included one patient with cystic fibrosis, two with lactose intolerance with lactosuria (Durand type), one with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, two with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, one with Hartnup disease, one with congenital chroride diarrhea, one with acrodermatitis enteropathica, one with intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH), five with intractable diarrhea of early infancy and four with glycogenosis type Ia. Each case description and outcome is described below: 1. A 15-year-old Japanese boy with cystic fibrosis presented with severe symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bronchiectasis, pneumothorax and hemoptysis. His prognosis was poor. Analysis of the CFTR genes of this patient revealed a homozygous large deletion from intron 16 to 17b. 2. In the sibling case of Durand type lactose intolerance, the subjects'disaccaridase activity of the small bowel, including lactase, were within normal limits. The results of per oral and per intraduodenal lactose tolerance tests confirmed lactosuria in both. These observations suggested, not only an abnormal gastric condition, but also duodenal and intestinal mucosal abnormal permeability of lactose. 3. In the case of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, the subject had a lymphedematous right arm and hand, a grossly coarsened mucosal pattern of the upper gastrointestinal tract (identified via radiologic examination) and the presence of lymphangiectasia (confirmed via duodenal mucosal biopsy). The major laboratory findings were hypoalbuminemia, decreased immunoglobulin levels and lymphopenia resulting from loss of lymph fluid and protein into the gastro

  16. Vertebral augmentation by kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty: 8 years experience outcomes and complications

    PubMed Central

    Yaltirik, Kaan; Ashour, Ahmed M; Reis, Conner R; Özdoğan, Selçuk; Atalay, Başar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Context: Minimally invasive percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques; vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty have been treatment choices for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty regarding complications, correction of vertebral body height, kyphosis angle and pain relief assessment using visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records for 100 consecutive patients treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in our department database. Patients with osteoporotic compression fractures, traumatic compressions, and osteolytic vertebral lesions, including metastases, hemangiomas, and multiple myeloma, were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative VAS pain scores, percentages of vertebral compression and kyphotic angles were measured and compared as well as demographic characteristics and postoperative complications. Mobilization and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were treated by 110 procedures. 64 patients were operated on due to osteoporosis (72 procedures). Twelve patients were operated on because of metastasis (13 procedures), 8 patients were operated on because of multiple myeloma (9 procedures). Five patients had two surgeries, 1 patient had 3 surgeries, and 1 patient had 5 surgeries. The mean preoperative VAS was 74.05 ± 9.8. In total, 175 levels were treated, 46 levels by kyphoplasty and 129 by vertebroplasty. The mean postoperative VAS was 20.94 ± 11.8. Most of the patients were mobilized in the same day they of surgery. Mean LOS was 1.83 days. Six patients had nonsymptomatic leakage of polymethlymethacrylate, and patient had epidural hematoma, which was operated on performing hemi-laminectomy. Conclusions: Percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are both effective and safe minimally invasive procedures for the

  17. Vertebral augmentation by kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty: 8 years experience outcomes and complications

    PubMed Central

    Yaltirik, Kaan; Ashour, Ahmed M; Reis, Conner R; Özdoğan, Selçuk; Atalay, Başar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Context: Minimally invasive percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques; vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty have been treatment choices for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty regarding complications, correction of vertebral body height, kyphosis angle and pain relief assessment using visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records for 100 consecutive patients treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in our department database. Patients with osteoporotic compression fractures, traumatic compressions, and osteolytic vertebral lesions, including metastases, hemangiomas, and multiple myeloma, were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative VAS pain scores, percentages of vertebral compression and kyphotic angles were measured and compared as well as demographic characteristics and postoperative complications. Mobilization and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were treated by 110 procedures. 64 patients were operated on due to osteoporosis (72 procedures). Twelve patients were operated on because of metastasis (13 procedures), 8 patients were operated on because of multiple myeloma (9 procedures). Five patients had two surgeries, 1 patient had 3 surgeries, and 1 patient had 5 surgeries. The mean preoperative VAS was 74.05 ± 9.8. In total, 175 levels were treated, 46 levels by kyphoplasty and 129 by vertebroplasty. The mean postoperative VAS was 20.94 ± 11.8. Most of the patients were mobilized in the same day they of surgery. Mean LOS was 1.83 days. Six patients had nonsymptomatic leakage of polymethlymethacrylate, and patient had epidural hematoma, which was operated on performing hemi-laminectomy. Conclusions: Percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are both effective and safe minimally invasive procedures for the

  18. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  19. Pitavastatin: clinical effects from the LIVES Study.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Tamio

    2011-11-01

    Although clinical trials provide useful information on drug safety and efficacy, results do not always reflect those observed in the real world. The Japanese long-term prospective post-marketing surveillance LIVALO Effectiveness and Safety (LIVES) Study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of pitavastatin in clinical practice in ~20,000 patients. After 104 weeks, pitavastatin was associated with significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (29.1%) that largely occurred within 4 weeks of treatment initiation. In patients with abnormal triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline, pitavastatin reduced TG and increased HDL-C by 22.7% and 19.9%, respectively. Overall, 88.2% of the primary prevention low-risk patients attained their Japan Atherosclerosis Society LDL-C target, compared with 82.7% of intermediate-risk patients, 66.5% of high-risk patients and 50.3% of secondary prevention patients. Only 10.4% of pitavastatin-treated patients experienced adverse events (AEs), of which approximately 84% were mild and around 1% was severe. Increases in blood creatine phosphokinase (2.7%), alanine aminotransferase (1.8%), myalgia (1.1%), aspartate aminotransferase (1.5%) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (1.0%) were the most common AEs and only 7.4% of patients discontinued pitavastatin due to AEs. Regression analysis demonstrated that age was not a significant factor for the incidence of any AE or myopathy-associated events. A subanalysis of initial LIVES data focussing on the effects of pitavastatin on HDL-C levels showed that HDL-C was elevated by 5.9% in all patients and by 24.6% in those with low (studies have shown that other statins have inconsistent effects on HDL

  20. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  1. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  2. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  3. Neuropsychological Measures of Attention and Impulse Control among 8-Year-Old Children Exposed Prenatally to Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We previously reported associations between organochlorines and behaviors related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among boys and girls at 8 years of age using a teacher’s rating scale for a birth cohort in New Bedford, Massachusetts (USA). Objectives: Our goal was to corroborate these findings using neuropsychological measures of inattentive and impulsive behaviors. Methods: We investigated the association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) and attention and impulse control using a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and components of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III). Participants came from a prospective cohort of children born during 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford. Median (range) cord serum levels for the sum of four prevalent PCBs [congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180 (ΣPCB4)] and p,p´-DDE were 0.19 (0.01–2.59) and 0.31 (0–14.93) ng/g serum, respectively. Results: We detected associations between PCBs and neuropsychological deficits for 578 and 584 children with CPT and WISC-III measures, respectively, but only among boys. For example, boys with higher exposure to ΣPCB4 had a higher rate of CPT errors of omission [rate ratio for the exposure interquartile range (IQR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.27] and slower WISC-III Processing Speed (change in score for the IQR = –2.0; 95% CI: –3.5, –0.4). Weaker associations were found for p,p´-DDE. For girls, associations were in the opposite direction for the CPT and null for the WISC-III. Conclusions: These results support an association between organochlorines (mainly PCBs) and neuropsychological measures of attention among boys only. Sex-specific effects should be considered in studies of organochlorines and neurodevelopment. PMID:22357172

  4. [Epidemiological and clinical study of dental agenesis].

    PubMed

    Chimenti, C; Antenucci, F; Giannoni, M; Marci, M C; Santini, T

    1990-01-01

    This work realized thanks to exchange by IFMSA happened at Medical School Praga's invitation, describes two researchs. The first presents the casuistry of scholastic czechoslovak population; the second 87 cases with multiple teeth agenesis observed at Pedodontic's Clinical of Praga's Hospital Motol. The Authors, after describing the review of literature about epidemiology, etiopathogenetic, symptomatology and diagnosis aspects, present a personal contribution in accordance with existing literature.

  5. Prospective Clinical Study of Precision Oncology in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Davendra P S; Rini, Brian I; Khorana, Alok A; Dreicer, Robert; Abraham, Jame; Procop, Gary W; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Pennell, Nathan A; Stevenson, James P; Pelley, Robert; Estfan, Bassam; Shepard, Dale; Funchain, Pauline; Elson, Paul; Adelstein, David J; Bolwell, Brian J

    2015-11-09

    Systematic studies evaluating clinical benefit of tumor genomic profiling are lacking. We conducted a prospective study in 250 patients with select solid tumors at the Cleveland Clinic. Eligibility required histopathologic diagnosis, age of 18 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and written informed consent. Tumors were sequenced using FoundationOne (Cambridge, MA). Results were reviewed at the Cleveland Clinic Genomics Tumor Board. Outcomes included feasibility and clinical impact. Colorectal (25%), breast (18%), lung (13%), and pancreatobiliary (13%) cancers were the most common diagnoses. Median time from consent to result was 25 days (range = 3-140). Of 223 evaluable samples, 49% (n = 109) of patients were recommended a specific therapy, but only 11% (n = 24) received such therapy: 12 on clinical trials, nine off-label, three on-label. Lack of clinical trial access (n = 49) and clinical deterioration (n = 29) were the most common reasons for nonrecommendation/nonreceipt of genomics-driven therapy.

  6. Sports Neurology in Clinical Practice: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Tad

    2016-08-01

    With regard to persistent posttraumatic headache, there is legitimate concern that duration of symptoms may have an impact on the efficacy of future treatment attempts. Without neuropathologic confirmation, a clinical diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy cannot be made with a high degree of confidence. Sport-related headaches are challenging in a return-to-play context, because it is often unclear whether an athlete has an exacerbation of a primary headache disorder, has new-onset headache unrelated to trauma, or is in the recovery phase after concussion. Regular physical exercise may prove beneficial to multiple neurologic disease states. PMID:27445251

  7. 8 Years of ALPhA's Impacts / 45 Years of Developing Experimentalists with Few Resources: A Talk in Two Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Lowell

    In 2007, faculty with a shared interest in the health of advanced physics laboratory courses (those offered 'beyond the first year of college') created ALPhA, the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association. Over the past 8 years, ALPhA activities have involved faculty from a sizeable fraction of the physics departments in the United States. In the first part of this talk, I will overview ALPhA's efforts and its impact. In the second part of the talk I will discuss the advanced laboratory curricula at the University of Wisconsin - River Falls, which was developed over several decades using minimal resources for maximum impact. Supported by NSF Grant DUE-1122993.

  8. Children's Teleological Intuitions: What Kind of Explanations Do 7-8 Year Olds Give for the Features of Organisms, Artifacts and Natural Objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Pavlidi, Vasiliki; Papadopoulou, Maria; Palaiokrassa, Eirini

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown that children usually provide teleological explanations for the features of organisms from a very early age (3-4 years old). However, it is not clear if teleology is applied selectively for organisms, or if it is generally applied to other objects as well (artifacts and non-living natural objects). The present study examined whether 7-8 year old students provided teleological explanations for particular organisms, artifacts and natural objects. We investigated whether children's familiarity with these objects influenced the types of explanations they gave. Finally, we also investigated correlations between 'teleology' and 'usefulness' in children's explanations. The results indicate that 7-8 year olds are able to distinguish between living and non-living entities, as well as that they provide teleological explanations mostly for organisms and artifacts. This may have important implications for biological education, since teleological explanations in classrooms are likely to pose important conceptual obstacles to the development of a scientific understanding of evolution.

  9. The ability of 6- to 8-year-old children to use motor imagery in a goal-directed pointing task.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that motor imagery ability develops gradually between 5 and 12 years of age, but ambiguity remains over the precise developmental course before 9 years. Hence, we determined the age-related differences in the use of motor imagery by children on the mental chronometry paradigm. In addition, we examined whether the use of motor imagery is related to cognitive and hand abilities. To this end, we compared duration of actual pointing and imagined pointing on a radial Fitts' task in 82 children (three age groups; 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds). In line with previous studies, we found an age-related increase in temporal congruence between actual and imagined pointing and compliance with Fitts' law. Importantly, however, we showed that only a limited number of 7- and 8-year-olds were actually using motor imagery to perform the imagined pointing task, whereas the 6-year-olds did not employ motor imagery to perform the task. The current results extend previous research by establishing that the age of onset to use motor imagery in the mental chronometry paradigm is not prior to 7 years. PMID:26163179

  10. Congenital myopathies: clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Thaha, Fazil; Gayathri, N; Nalini, A

    2011-01-01

    Congenital myopathies (CMs), a group of relatively non-progressive disorders presents with weakness and hypotonia of varying severity, morphologically recognized by specific structural abnormalities within the myofiber. This report presents the clinical and Histopathological features of 40 patients with CMs. Centronuclear myopathy was the commonest (40%) followed by congenital fiber type disproportion (37.5%). Other less common CMs included: myotubular myopathy (5%), nemaline myopathy (5%), central core disease (5%), multicore disease (2.5%) and congenital myopathy with tubular aggregate (5%). Immunolabeling to desmin corresponded to morphological changes within the myofibers while vimentin was negative in all the patients. There is no combined role of these proteins in the disease process. PMID:22234203

  11. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  12. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  13. Time scales of the European surface air temperature variability: The role of the 7-8 year cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Kravtsov, Sergey; Tsonis, Anastasios A.; Paluš, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature variability on different time scales exhibits recurring patterns and quasi-oscillatory phenomena. Climate oscillations with the period about 7-8 years have been observed in many instrumental records in Europe. Although these oscillations are weak if considering their amplitude, they might have nonnegligible influence on temperature variability on shorter time scales due to cross-scale interactions recently observed by Paluš (2014). In order to quantify the cross-scale influence, we propose a simple conditional mean approach which estimates the effect of the cycle with the period close to 8 years on the amplitude of the annual cycle in surface air temperature (SAT) in the range 0.7-1.4°C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7°C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect in the winter SATA means reaches 4-5°C in central European station and reanalysis data.

  14. [A clinical study of generalized amnesia].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of generalized amnesia were reported. Generalized amnesia caused by phenomena of genuinely psychogenic origin is a rare psychological disorder and spontaneous recovery from amnesia in a comparatively short period of time is one of the characteristics of this disorder. Three of the cases in this report developed amnesia which was prolonged in comparison with previously reported cases. A comparison between these six cases and previously reported cases of amnesia elucidated the general characteristics of this disorder, differential diagnosis from other disorders, the development of a new identity during the amnestic period, amnesia as an alternative to suicide, factors related to prolonged amnesia, and its treatment. Although differential diagnosis from other disorders, especially from malingering, is sometimes difficult, the patient's attitude toward amnesia, the development of the clinical course of amnesia, the premorbid personal history, and interpersonal relationships should be carefully observed and evaluated in order to differentiate generalized amnesia from malingering. During the amnestic period it was observed that three of the cases believed that they had names of other persons, and two of them recalled personal histories completely different from their own. Previously, such phenomena have been mainly discussed from the view-point of pseudologia fantastica or malingering in Japan. The author discusses how a new identity could be developed in cases of generalized amnesia. According to Abeles, et al., generalized amnesia can sometimes serve as psychological suicide. The author emphasizes that the patient's suicidal risk should be evaluated carefully, even if he or she does not seem highly suicidal superficially. Excessive haste to recover from amnesia may heighten the suicidal risk or help develop a distorted personal identity. The principle for the treatment is to exclude an unnecessary therapeutic manipulation and maintain a consistent and

  15. An Overview of Clinical Studies on Fiber Post Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dikbas, Idil; Tanalp, Jale

    2013-01-01

    Intraradicular posts are useful adjuncts in the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. These systems have undergone a significant evolution in recent years, and fiber-reinforced systems have started to be incorporated into routine clinical care more frequently. Despite the high number of laboratory studies pertaining to the characteristics of fiber posts, clinical studies evaluating their general success rates are rather limited. Since clinical investigations are reliable means to achieve information about the general behavior pattern of materials or techniques, assessment of this data will be beneficial to have a better understanding of fiber-reinforced intraradicular post systems. The purpose of this paper was to make a summary of clinical studies regarding various fiber posts. A PubMed search was conducted and articles dating back to 1990 were retrieved. The paper provides an overview of clinical studies on fiber posts specifically in the last decade as well as commentary analysis. PMID:24250255

  16. Changes in dental caries and oral hygiene among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren in different regions of Lithuania 1983-2009.

    PubMed

    Matulaitiene, Zivilė Kristina; Zemaitiene, Migle; Zemgulyte, Sandra; Milciuviene, Simona

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the changes of the dental caries prevalence and severity of 7 to 8 year old schoolchildren in six Lithuanian regions over the past 26 years (1983-2009) and to propose recommendations based on the results of the study. The study is based on the analysis of data, containing 576 cases of children examined in 1983 and comparison with data containing 531 cases added in 2009. The studies were conducted in the same six regions of Lithuania among the children from 7 to 8 years of age. For the study of children the WHO oral assessment methodology was used (WHO Basic methods 1997). Severity of dental caries was described by df-t and DMF-T index. The average of individual df-t and DMF-T indices was calculated for all subjects and sorted by gender. Oral hygiene status was evaluated by applying the simplified Green-Vermilion index-OHI-S (1964) The prevalence of primary dental caries among the children 7 to 8 years of age was 92.4% in 1983 and 88.7% (p=0.43) in 2009. The prevalence of permanent dental caries decreased from 49.6% in 1983 to 29.7% (p<0.001) in 2009. Mean df-t score decreased from 4.9±3.4 in 1983 to 4.1±2.7 in 2009 and DMF-T index decreased from 1.1±1.7 in 1983 to 0.5±1.0 in 2009 (p<0.001). The OHI-S index was not significantly different during 1983-2009. In the period of last 26 years a tendency towards the decrease in the prevalence and severity of dental caries was observed. That could be related to the frequent using of the toothpastes with fluoride, as well as implementation of the caries prevention program with sealants among the children of that age. The poor oral hygiene and comparatively high caries prevalence in schoolchildren show that it is still necessary to improve preventive measures in Lithuania.

  17. Selecting control interventions for clinical outcome studies.

    PubMed

    Barkauskas, Violet H; Lusk, Sally L; Eakin, Brenda L

    2005-04-01

    In the current research environment the design and management of control groups is becoming more complex. The selection of a control group design is dependent on study goals, presence and quality of existing interventions, urgency of the problem or issue being addressed by the intervention, and factors related to the study site. The purpose of the presentation is to identify various approaches to the design of control groups in experimental studies and to identify their strengths, limitations, and applications. A case study exemplifies the issues associated with control group selection and design.

  18. MESHING MOLECULAR SEQUENCES AND CLINICAL TRIALS: A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Elizabeth S.; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2009-01-01

    The centralized and public availability of molecular sequence and clinical trial data presents an opportunity to identify potentially valuable linkages across the bench-to-bedside “T1” translational barrier. In this study, we sought to leverage keyword metadata (Medical Subject Heading [MeSH] descriptors) to infer relationships between molecular sequences and clinical trials, as indexed by GenBank and ClinicalTrials.gov. The results of this feasibility study found that approximately 30% of sequences in GenBank could be linked to trials and over 90% of trials in ClinicalTrials.gov could be linked to sequences through MeSH descriptors. In a cursory evaluation, we were able to consistently identify meaningful linkages between molecular sequences and clinical trials. Based on our findings, there may be promise in subsequent studies aiming to identify linkages across the T1 translational barrier using existing large repositories. PMID:19850150

  19. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  20. Congenital Rubella: Clinical and Related Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menser, Margaret A.

    1977-01-01

    Briefly described are four studies currently being undertaken in Australia to determine the effectiveness of vaccination in the prevention of rubella and to examine the relationship between rubella and diabetes. (CL)

  1. Case Study: Learner Physiotherapists' Perceptions of Clinical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Duncan; Naylor, Sandra

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in the United Kingdom to discover what processes learner physiotherapists experience in clinical education and whether their experience is comparable to that of other students in medical professions. The need for feedback is addressed, and the role of the clinical educator is discussed. A form for student assessment is…

  2. Evaluation systems for clinical governance development: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Lack of scientific and confirmed researches and expert knowledge about evaluation systems for clinical governance development in Iran have made studies on different evaluation systems for clinical governance development a necessity. These studies must provide applied strategies to design criteria of implementing clinical governance for hospital's accreditation. This is a descriptive and comparative study on development of clinical governance models all over the world. Data have been gathered by reviewing related articles. Models have been studied in comprehensive review method. The evaluated models of clinical governance development were Australian, NHS, SPOCK and OPTIGOV. The final aspects extracted from these models were Responsiveness, Policies and Strategies, Organizational Structure, Allocating Resources, Education and Occupational Development, Performance Evaluation, External Evaluation, Patient Oriented Approach, Risk Management, Personnel's Participation, Information Technology, Human Resources, Research and Development, Evidence Based Medicine, Clinical Audit, Health Technology Assessment and Quality. These results are applicable for completing the present criteria which evaluating clinical governance application and provide practical framework to evaluate country's hospital on the basis of clinical governance elements.

  3. Comparative effect of thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen on primary dysmenorrhea: A triple-blind clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Salmalian, Hajar; Saghebi, Roshanak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Bijani, Ali; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Fereshte; Bekhradi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common medical problems in gynecology causing several problems in the personal and social life of women. This study was conducted to compare the effect of thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea Methods: This clinical study was conducted on 84 students of Babol University of Medical Sciences with primary dysmenorrhea. The students were randomly assigned to three groups receiving thymus vulgaris, ibuprofen and placebo. In all three groups, with the beginning of pain, 200 mg capsules and 25 drops of essential oil were given every 6 hours for two consecutive cycles. Pain intensity used the visual scale before and one hour after each dose for 48 hour after starting medication. The data were collected and analyzed. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (www.irct.ir) with registration number ID: IRCT201101245683N1 Results: The mean age of participants was 20.5±1.8 years. Both thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen were effective to reduce the pain severity of dysmenorrhea. Before treatment, the mean pain intensity in thymus vulgaris, ibuprofen and placebo groups were 6.57±2.02, 5.30±2.23 and 6.18±1.78, respectively and after treatment decreased to 1.21±1.06, 1.48±1.62 and 3.54±2.26, respectively. Reduction of pain severity was not statistically significant between the two medications, however it was significant for each drug compared with placebo (p<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that thymus vulgaris as well as ibuprofen can be effective in reducing the severity of pain and spasm in primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24778782

  4. A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087

  5. Relationships of objectively measured physical activity and sleep with BMI and academic outcomes in 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Susan Ann

    2013-05-01

    Current guidelines in place for sleep and physical activity in childhood are the result of data collected in the form of self-reports. Exact measurement of activity dimensions and sleep characteristics are essential. The purpose of clearly established parameters is for the intent of verifying health outcomes and evaluating interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationships between the objective dimensions of physical activity, sleep, weight status, academic achievement, and academic behavior. This cross-sectional correlational descriptive design examined the activity and sleep patterns continuously for 24 hours/7 days with triaxial accelerometers in a low income African American sample of 8-year-olds. A qualitative component gathered additional identifiers. This sample was overweight/obese, inactive, and sleep-deprived. Moderate-vigorous activity was correlated with reading scores. Confirmed in this research was the association between sleep duration, physical activity intensities, and academics. Positive health outcomes in children are endorsed by an energy balance.

  6. Acute chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy treated with intracorporeal left ventricular assist device in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martin; Dave, Hitendu; Lemme, Frithjof; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Romanchenko, Olga; Heineking, Bea; Hofmann, Michael; Bürki, Chrstoph; Stiasny, Brian; Hübler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of ventricular assist devices (VADs) leading to miniaturization has made intracorporeal implantation in children feasible. Ventricular assist device therapy for anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (CMP) in adults has been reported. We report the case of an 8-year-old child (body surface area 0.97 m) presenting with anthracycline-induced CMP being successfully treated with an intracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a bridge to candidacy/recovery. We present our institutional algorithm, which advises intracorporeal LVAD implantation for long-term ventricular assist, in children with a body surface area >0.6 m. Advantages are better mobilization and the possibility to discharge home, leading to enhanced quality of life.

  7. Seizures triggered by July 4th fireworks in an 8-year-old girl with perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Jared R; Golomb, Meredith R

    2011-05-01

    Warnings regarding fireworks displays as a possible seizure-producing stimulus have been around for several years, but there is a lack of well-documented cases. This case describes photic- and/or pattern-induced seizures that appeared to be triggered by July 4 fireworks. This 8-year-old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and known seizure disorder because of perinatal right middle cerebral artery stroke had a cluster of seizures within minutes of the onset of a professional fireworks display. The seizures stopped when the child's eyes were covered and she was taken away from the scene. The importance of photic- and pattern-induced seizures in children is discussed.

  8. Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty in an 8-year-old boy with leydig cell testicular tumor.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Bonito-Vítor, Artur; Campos, Miguel; Fontoura, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Leydig cell testicular tumors are very rare in children. They can present as gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty due to excess androgen secretion. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with isosexual precocity whose hormonal investigation showed luteinizing hormone-independent testosterone hypersecretion. Although no palpable mass was present, scrotal ultrasound revealed a testicular tumor. Testis-sparing tumor resection was performed and the histopathology analysis showed a Leydig cell tumor. After surgery the testosterone levels remained high and further examination showed gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, which is believed to be likely caused by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to a long-term exposition to sex steroids. He is currently being treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and the process of sexual precocity has until now been suppressed.

  9. Prevalence, persistence, and molecular characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in Norwegian poultry and poultry farmers 3 to 8 years after the ban on avoparcin.

    PubMed

    Sørum, M; Johnsen, P J; Aasnes, B; Rosvoll, T; Kruse, H; Sundsfjord, A; Simonsen, G S

    2006-01-01

    Environmental reservoirs of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) in Norway have been linked to former growth promoting use of the glycopeptide avoparcin in poultry production. We have examined the prevalence of fecal GRE in poultry and poultry farmers 3 to 8 years after the Norwegian avoparcin ban in 1995 and performed molecular analyses of the GRE population. Fecal samples from poultry farmers and their flocks on 29 previously avoparcin-exposed farms were collected on five occasions during the study period (1998 to 2003). All flocks (100%) were GRE positive in 1998. Throughout the study period, 78.5% of the poultry samples were GRE positive. Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREF) was isolated from 27.6% of the farmer samples in 1998 and from 27.8% of the samples collected between 1998 and 2003. The prevalence of fecal GRE in poultry declined significantly during the study period, but prevalence in samples from the farmers did not decline. PCR analysis revealed a specific Tn1546-plasmid junction fragment in 93.9% of E. faecium isolates. A putative postsegregation killing (PSK) system linked to Tn1546 was detected in 97.1% of the isolates examined. Multilocus sequence typing of glycopeptide-susceptible (n = 10) and -resistant (n = 10) E. faecium isolates from humans (n = 10) and poultry (n = 10) on two farms displayed 17 different sequence types. The study confirms the continuing persistence of a widespread common plasmid-mediated vanA-pRE25-PSK element within a heterogeneous GRE population on Norwegian poultry farms 8 years after the avoparcin ban. Moreover, it suggests an important role of PSK systems in the maintenance of antimicrobial resistance determinants in reservoirs without apparent antimicrobial selection. PMID:16391086

  10. Contributions of genetic studies to clinical psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Oda, N

    1991-12-01

    Recent twin and family studies have demonstrated a genetic factor in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, some cases of infantile autism, enuresis, specific reading disability, sleepwalking, night terrors, common fears and anxiety. Family studies have been used to elucidate the nosological relationship of psychiatric disorders; e.g. anorexia nervosa (to affective disorder), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and sleeptalking. Advances in biochemical genetics and in enzyme polymorphisms suggest that there are wide individual variations in the adverse effects of drugs and that dosage should be tailored to the individual patient. Recently molecular genetic methods have been introduced to psychiatry, but a major breakthrough in this field appears to be still years away.

  11. Emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with KPC-type carbapenemase in a teaching hospital: an 8-year study.

    PubMed

    García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment.

  12. Relation between aluminum concentrations in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease: an 8-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Virginie; Commenges, Daniel; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effect of aluminum and silica in drinking water on the risk of dementia and AD the authors analyzed data from a large prospective cohort (Paquid) including 3,777 subjects aged 65 years and over, living at home in 75 civil parishes in Gironde and Dordogne in southwestern France. The subjects were followed up for eight years with an active search for incident cases of dementia or AD. Mean exposure to aluminum and silica in drinking water was estimated in each area. We analyzed 2,698 non-demented subjects at baseline, and for whom components of drinking water and covariates were available. 253 incident cases of dementia including 182 AD were identified. The relative risk of dementia adjusted for age, gender, educational level, place of residence and wine consumption was 2.03 (95 percent CI 1.23–3.34) for subjects exposed to aluminum concentration greater than 0.1 mg/l. This result was confirmed for AD (adjusted relative risk=2.20, 95 percent CI 1.24–3.89). Inversely, the adjusted relative risk of dementia for subjects exposed to silica (≥ 11.25 mg/l) was 0.75 (95 percent CI 0.58–0.96). These findings support the hypothesis that aluminum in drinking water is a risk factor for AD. PMID:10901330

  13. A study of clinical and information management processes in the surgical pre-assessment clinic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing day-case surgery as the preferred hospital admission route for all eligible patients requires adequate preoperative assessment of patients in order to quickly distinguish those who will require minimum assessment and are suitable for day-case admission from those who will require more extensive management and will need to be admitted as inpatients. Methods As part of a study to elucidate clinical and information management processes within the patient surgical pathway in NHS Scotland, we conducted a total of 10 in-depth semi-structured interviews during 4 visits to the Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary surgical pre-assessment clinic. We modelled clinical processes using process-mapping techniques and analysed interview data using qualitative methods. We used Normalisation Process Theory as a conceptual framework to interpret the factors which were identified as facilitating or hindering information elucidation tasks and communication within the multi-disciplinary team. Results The pre-assessment clinic of Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary was opened in 2008 in response to clinical and workflow issues which had been identified with former patient management practices in the surgical pathway. The preoperative clinic now operates under well established processes and protocols. The use of a computerised system for managing preoperative documentation substantially transformed clinical practices and facilitates communication and information-sharing among the multi-disciplinary team. Conclusion Successful deployment and normalisation of innovative clinical and information management processes was possible because both local and national strategic priorities were synergistic and the system was developed collaboratively by the POA staff and the health-board IT team, resulting in a highly contextualised operationalisation of clinical and information management processes. Further concerted efforts from a range of stakeholders are required to fully

  14. [Common biostatistical errors in clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Zaugg, C E

    2003-02-01

    Roughly half to two third of all published biomedical studies that use statistical methods contain unacceptable errors. The present article points at common errors that may be avoided without requiring profound statistical knowledge. These errors mainly concern the minimal number of patients and sample size (statistical power), agreement between aim and conclusion, distribution of data as well as description of location and variability of data. An analysis of 150 papers in the New England Journal of Medicine and in Circulation demonstrates that these errors can also commonly be found in respected journals after statistical peer review. Editors of biomedical journals could reduce the problem by means of statistical guidelines.

  15. Review of clinical studies on clobazam

    PubMed Central

    Koeppen, D.

    1979-01-01

    1 Clobazam was compared with placebo and diazepam in 45 double-blind studies. 2 Clobazam dosage ranged from 5 mg daily (paediatric patients) to 120 mg daily (psychiatric inpatients). Usual daily dosage in out-patient therapy ranged from 20-30 mg clobazam. 3 Treatment duraton varied from a few days up to 3.5 years. The usual duration of treatment was 2-4 weeks. 4 Clobazam was shown to be an efficacious and well tolerated anxiolytic agent in various neurotic and psychosomatic disorders. 5 Dosages showing distinct anxiolytic effects in out-patient therapy did not impair psychomotor performance. PMID:35197

  16. Clinical cosmobiology: The Lithuanian study 1990 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu; Petrauskiene, Jadviga; Kalediene, Ramune; Abramson, Evgeny; Sulkes, Jacqueline

    1995-12-01

    The numbers of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), all accidents except vehicular, vehicular accidents and suicide (overall total, totals for men and women) per month for 36 months (1990 1992) in Lithuania were analysed in relation to: (1) month of the year (1 12); (2) geomagnetic activity; and (3) solar activity. A total of 122227 deaths (64490 men and 57737 women) was studied, and the results compared with those obtained in an earlier study in Israel, differing geographically and climatically from Lithuania. It was shown that the time of year, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity were related to the monthly death distribution, especially regarding death from IHD and suicide. Age and gender differences were apparent in the relationship between death distribution and physical environmental factors. At age >70 years, many of these relationships change. The monthly distribution of deaths from IHD and suicide are adversely correlated with solar activity and with each other. Differences are presumed in serotoninergic effects as caused by environmental influences.

  17. An 8 year follow-up of a specialist supported employment service for high-ability adults with autism or Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Patricia; Alcock, Jennifer; Burkin, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    Few supported employment programmes have been specifically designed for people with autism, especially those who are more able. This study examines the outcome of a supported employment service (NAS Prospects) for adults with autism or Asperger syndrome (IQ 60+) over an 8 year period. Approximately 68 percent of clients found employment. Of the 192 jobs, the majority were permanent contracts and most involved administrative, technical or computing work. Assessment of current clients indicates that IQ, language skills and educational attainments are high. However, work has also been found for those of lower abilities. Individuals supported by Prospects show a rise in salaries, contribute more tax and claim fewer benefits. Satisfaction with the scheme is high among clients, employers and support workers. Although the programme continues to incur a financial deficit, this has decreased. Moreover, there are many non-financial benefits, which are difficult to quantify. The importance of specialist employment support of this kind is discussed.

  18. Information transfer across the scales of climate variability: The effect of the 7-8 year cycle on the annual and interannual scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Milan; Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Kravtsov, Sergey; Tsonis, Anastasios

    2016-04-01

    Complexity of the climate system stems not only from the fact that it is variable over a huge range of spatial and temporal scales, but also from the nonlinear character of the climate system that leads to interactions of dynamics across scales. The dynamical processes on large time scales influence variability on shorter time scales. This nonlinear phenomenon of cross-scale causal interactions can be observed due to the recently introduced methodology [1] which starts with a wavelet decomposition of a multi-scale signal into quasi-oscillatory modes of a limited bandwidth, described using their instantaneous phases and amplitudes. Then their statistical associations are tested in order to search for interactions across time scales. An information-theoretic formulation of the generalized, nonlinear Granger causality [2] uncovers causal influence and information transfer from large-scale modes of climate variability with characteristic time scales from years to almost a decade to regional temperature variability on short time scales. In analyses of air temperature records from various European locations, a quasioscillatory phenomenon with the period around 7-8 years has been identified as the factor influencing variability of surface air temperature (SAT) on shorter time scales. Its influence on the amplitude of the SAT annual cycle was estimated in the range 0.7-1.4 °C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7 °C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect of the 7-8 year cycle was observed in the winter SATA means where it reaches 4-5 °C in central European station and reanalysis data [3]. This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) [2] M. Palus, M. Vejmelka, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056211 (2007) [3] N. Jajcay, J. Hlinka, S. Kravtsov, A. A. Tsonis, M. Palus, Time

  19. A multichannel time-domain brain oximeter for clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Caffini, Matteo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    We developed and optimized a multichannel dual-wavelength time-domain brain oximeter for functional studies in the clinical environment. The system, mounted on a 19"-rack, is interfaced with instrumentation for monitoring physiological parameters and for stimuli presentation.

  20. Dementia in Ageing Mental Defectives: A Clinical and Neuropathological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, A. H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study was aimed at establishing the prevalence and clinical features of the psychoses of senescence (senile, presenile, and cerebral arteriosclerotic dementias) in 155 mentally retarded patients over the age of 45. (SBH)

  1. [Clinical study results with the vaginal contraceptive preparation, traceptin].

    PubMed

    Chachava, K V; Chumburidze, B I; Bakradze, M M

    1980-03-01

    This article presents the results of a clinical study which used traceptin vaginally for contraception. Traceptin is a safe and convenient application agent with a contraceptive effectiveness rate of 94%. (Authors' modified) PMID:6990808

  2. [Evidence-based medicine and real world study in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling; Wu, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely applied in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion, and the real-world study (RWS) has gradually become an important way of clinical research in the world in recent years. It is worthy of our in-depth study and discussion that how to evaluate the advantages and limitations of EBM and RWS as well as their reasonable application in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion. The characteristics and difference between RWS and EBM, and the situation of acupuncture clinical research methods are discussed in this paper. It is proposed that we should understand the advantages of RWS in acupuncture clinical research, fully realize the limitations of EBM and RWS, recognize the complexity and particularity of RWS, and apply EBM and RWS into acupuncture clinical research. Meanwhile acupuncture clinical manipulation standardization should be further promoted, which is benefit to develop clinical study, improve clinical efficacy and promote the popularization of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  3. Eccrine spiradenoma: clinical and pathologic study of 49 tumors.

    PubMed

    Mambo, N C

    1983-10-01

    A clinical and pathologic study of 49 eccrine spiradenomas occurring in 46 patients is presented. The study showed that pain and/or tenderness are not such characteristic clinical features of this tumor as has previously been suggested; either or both were present in only 23% of the 35 patients with well-documented clinical histories. Some pathologic features, not previously documented in this tumor, were seen and included: cylindromatous foci, aggregates of stromal clear cells, clear cells lining ducts and ulceration of the overlying epidermis. Two tumors had undergone malignant transformation, but there were no recurrences in the 35 patients with adequate follow-up.

  4. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  5. Oral hybrid verrucous carcinoma: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Rao S, L M Chandrasekhara; Tantravahi, Uma Sankar; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Rao, T Subramaneshwar; Murthy, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Verrucous Carcinoma is an uncommon tumour wherein Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) is coexisting with conventional Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) within same maternal field. The heterogeneous nature, infrequency of occurrence and the difficulties associated with diagnosis and management of this tumor is discussed through a retrospective study. Patients of primary hybrid VC treated from Jan 2010 to May 2013 at a tertiary institute were analyzed on multivariate cox regression model. During the above mentioned period; 37 patients of hybrid VC were reported; 18(48.6 %) were male and 19(51.3 %) were female. Age ranged between 33 years to 78 years. Median follow up period was 32 months. T stage status and Stage grouping was not statistically significant for mortality (p value: 0.338). In the multivariate cox-regression model, the presence of second primary oral cancer was significantly associated with mortality, adjusted HR; 23.10 (95 % CI: 1.73, 307.65) (p = 0.017). Tumour staging is often unreliable in predicting prognosis of hybrid VC, occurrence of second primary oral cancer and recurrence appears to be significant factors effecting prognosis. PMID:25767335

  6. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  7. [Intakes for (day) clinical psychotherapy. A cohort study].

    PubMed

    Visser, H M; Dekker, J; Hartevelt-Bosma, L; Rijnierse, P; de Jonghe, F

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the type of patient who is referred for clinical psychotherapy. A descriptive, retrospective cohort study was performed involving 100 patients who attended a (day) clinic for personality, anxiety and eating disorders. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of these patients are described. Most of the patients had multiple disorders of a serious nature, displayed a high degree of functional impairment and were relatively treatment-resistant. Of the 70% who were diagnosed as requiring treatment, 79% agreed to have the treatment that was offered.

  8. Nursing Students' Clinical Experience With Death: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Heise, Barbara A; Gilpin, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Although debriefing in simulation settings is routine in nursing education, debriefing does not routinely take place in clinical settings with nursing students after a patient has died. This pilot study sought to explore nursing students' perceptions of their first experience with the death of a patient. Students reported emotional distress and feelings of inadequacy with regard to communicating with and supporting the family of the dying patient. Only half the students sampled reported debriefing by their clinical instructor or staff. Nurse educators must include debriefing and student support following a patient death in the clinical setting. PMID:27209870

  9. The Auckland skin clinic tinea pedis and erythrasma study.

    PubMed

    Allen, S; Christmas, T I; McKinney, W; Parr, D; Oliver, G F

    1990-08-22

    Three hundred consecutive patients attending the Auckland Hospital dermatology clinic were examined clinically and microbiologically for evidence of interdigital or plantar mycological or bacterial infection. One hundred and nine patients were shown by laboratory investigation to have an infection. Of these, only 89 displayed clinical signs of infection. Erythrasma, a desquamative condition caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum, was the commonest infection in this study. The commonest dermatophyte isolated was Trichophyton mentagrophytes var interdigitale. There was a significant rise in the incidence of both types of infection with age.

  10. Essential newborn care training activities: 8 years of experience in Eastern European, Caucasian and Central Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Uxa, Fabio; Bacci, Alberta; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Chiaffoni, Gian Paolo

    2006-02-01

    There is still an alarming gap in neonatal healthcare and outcome between Western and Eastern European countries and the former USSR countries in particular. Most of the causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity can be prevented or managed by simple cost-effective interventions aimed at improving quality of healthcare, health system organisation and family and community participation. Training of health professionals and health policy-makers in the field of essential neonatal care and breastfeeding promotion is one of the cornerstones of the World Health Organization (WHO) initiatives Making Pregnancy Safer (MPS) and Promoting Effective Perinatal Care (PEPC) - the latter specifically tailored to the European Region - aimed at ensuring safe pregnancy and childbirth through ensuring the availability, access and use of quality skilled care. After 8 years of experience of training in essential neonatal care, positive changes in planning for and delivering neonatal care are taking place, even in challenging contexts, and this model of intervention should be further implemented in the region.

  11. Cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in children 6-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Viitasalo, Anna; Soininen, Sonja; Laitinen, Tomi; Savonen, Kai; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in children. The participants were a population sample of 425 children (204 girls, 221 boys) aged 6-8 years. Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured from the beginning of pre-exercise rest to the end of recovery period. We provided reference values for peak workload and changes in HR and SBP during and after maximal exercise test in girls and boys. Girls had a lower cardiovascular fitness, indicated by peak workload per body weight [mean (2 s) 2.7 (0.9) vs. 3.1 (1.0) W · kg(-1), P < 0.001] and lean mass [mean (2 s) 3.5 (0.9) vs. 3.8 (1.0) W · kg(-1), P < 0.001] than boys. Plateau or decline in SBP close to the end of the test was found in about third of children and was considered a normal SBP response. Girls had a slower HR decrease within 2 min after the test than boys [mean (2 s) 53 (18) vs. 59 (22) beats · min(-1), P < 0.001]. The results are useful for physicians and exercise physiologists to evaluate cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to exercise in children and to detect children with low exercise tolerance or abnormal haemodynamic responses to exercise.

  12. Team clinical supervision in acute hospital wards: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Bev; Ockerby, Cherene M; Johnson, Susan; Smenda, Helen; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2013-03-01

    Clinical supervision provides a strategy to mitigate nurses' workplace stress and enhance retention, but the literature provides little guidance about its implementation beyond mental health nursing. This study explored the feasibility of implementing and evaluating ward-based team clinical supervision for general nurses on two separate wards at one public and one private hospital. Nurses completed the Work Environment Questionnaire pre- (n = 36) and postintervention (n = 27), and focus groups (n = 20) explored their perceptions of supervision. Staff were unfamiliar with clinical supervision, so information sessions were required. The questionnaire may not have been suitable to evaluate this type of intervention. Focus group findings revealed that team supervision improved communication, enhanced working relationships, and empowered nurses to challenge existing practices, which had a positive impact on their perceived stress. This study provides insights to guide implementation and evaluation of clinical supervision in acute settings. PMID:21531902

  13. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E; Neal, Charles R; Zuo, Yi Y

    2011-07-01

    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinical surfactants currently used throughout the world, i.e., Survanta, Curosurf, Infasurf and BLES. These modified-natural surfactants are further compared to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a synthetic model surfactant of DPPC:palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (7:3), and endogenous bovine natural surfactant. Atomic force microscopy reveals significant differences in the lateral structure and molecular organization of these surfactant preparations. These differences are discussed in terms of DPPC and cholesterol contents. We conclude that all animal-derived clinical surfactants assume a similar structure of multilayers of fluid phospholipids closely attached to an interfacial monolayer enriched in DPPC, at physiologically relevant surface pressures. This study provides the first comprehensive survey of the lateral structure of clinical surfactants at various surface pressures. It may have clinical implications on future application and development of surfactant preparations.

  14. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  15. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese hospital over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Fengzhi; Kang, Jianbang; Wang, Xinchun; Yin, Donghong; Dang, Wen; Duan, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive cocci are common causes of bloodstream and nosocomial infections, and their multi-drug resistance is an increasingly serious problem. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data about Gram-positive cocci from in-patients (January 2006 and December 2013) at the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China, were reviewed. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolated Gram-positive cocci was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2009 guidelines. The prevalence of drug resistance was determined, as well as correlation coefficients for various drugs between the resistance rate and year of sample collection. A total of 7789 Gram-positive cocci isolates were found, including 2576 (33%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 1477 (19%) Staphylococci aureus, 1343 (17%) Enterococcus faecalis, and 1139 (15%) Enterococcus faecium. The proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) were 31.5% (465/1477) and 61.6% (1587/2576), respectively. Among all isolates, MRS had much higher drug resistance rate than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococci (P<0.05). E. faecalis had a higher multi-drug resistance rate than E. faecium (P<0.01). Interestingly, MRSA resistance rates declined over the years, showing a negative correlation coefficient for all drugs, with significance for levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (P<0.05), but not sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (P=0.057) and gentamicin (P=0.186). These results indicated that Staphylococci were the predominant Gram-positive cocci isolated. There was a trend of decreasing MRSA in the population studied.

  16. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly. PMID:23380908

  17. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly.

  18. FTD and ALS--translating mouse studies into clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ittner, Lars M; Halliday, Glenda M; Kril, Jillian J; Götz, Jürgen; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-06-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are related neurodegenerative disorders, which are characterized by a rapid decline in cognitive and motor functions, and short survival. Although the clinical and neuropathological characterization of these diseases has progressed--in part--through animal studies of pathogenetic mechanisms, the translation of findings from rodent models to clinical practice has generally not been successful. This article discusses the gap between preclinical animal studies in mice and clinical trials in patients with FTD or ALS. We outline how to better design preclinical studies, and present strategies to improve mouse models to overcome the translational shortfall. This new approach could help identify drugs that are more likely to achieve a therapeutic benefit for patients.

  19. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region. PMID:25772530

  20. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region.

  1. Muscle pain: animal and human experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, P

    1993-10-01

    The search for the identification of the sensory apparatus encoding muscle pain sensation in humans is recounted. Basic neurophysiologic animal studies, leading to a description of slowly conducting afferent from muscle and definition of high threshold polymodal muscle nociceptors, and pioneer psychophysic human studies together with recent microneurographic experiments in humans are described. The phenomena of muscle pain broad localization and distant referral are discussed, and clinical implications are extrapolated to interpret muscle pain as a localizing sign of mononeuropathy or radiculopathy. The identification of human muscle nociceptors has defined the scientific standard to test emerging clinical descriptions having muscle pain as a symptom.

  2. Musculoskeletal clinic in general practice: study of one year's referrals.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Davies, P; Pietroni, P

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A musculoskeletal clinic, staffed by a general practitioner trained in osteopathy, medical acupuncture and intralesional injections, was set up in an inner London general practice in 1987. AIM. A retrospective study was undertaken of one year's referrals to the clinic in 1989-90 to determine how general practitioners were using the clinic in terms of problems referred; consultation patterns of patients attending the clinic and 12 months after initially being seen; and how access to the clinic influenced referrals to relevant hospital departments. METHOD. Day sheets were studied which recorded information on demographic characteristics of patients referred to the clinic and their problems, diagnoses made, duration of symptoms, number and range of treatments given, and recurrence of problems. Use of secondary referral sources was also examined. RESULTS. During the study year 154 of 3264 practice patients were referred to the musculoskeletal clinic, and attended a mean of 3.5 times each. Of all the attenders 64% were women and 52% were 30-54 years old. Eighty one patients (53%) presented with neck, back or sciatic pain. A specific traumatic, inflammatory or other pathological process could be ascribed to only 19% of patients. Regarding treatment, 88% of patients received osteopathic manual treatment or acupuncture, or a combination of these treatments and 4% received intralesional injections. Nine patients from the clinic (6%) were referred to an orthopaedic specialist during the year, two with acute back pain. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists by the practice as a whole were not significantly lower than the national average, although the practice made fewer referrals to physiotherapy and rheumatology departments than national figures would have predicted. Seventeen patients (11%) returned to the clinic with a recurrence of their main complaint within a year of their initial appointment; second courses of treatment were usually brief. CONCLUSION. The

  3. Radioguided localization of clinically occult breast lesions (ROLL): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medina-Franco, Heriberto; Abarca-Pérez, Leonardo; Ulloa-Gómez, José L; Romero, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Management of nonpalpable breast lesions requiring pathologic diagnosis has been with wire localization during the last few decades. Recently, radioguided localization (ROLL) became an alternative for this type of lesions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of this technique in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City. Consecutive patients requiring pathologic diagnosis from a nonpalpable breast lesion were included in the present study. On the same day of operation, all patients were injected with particles of human serum albumin. Localization of the lesion was performed in the operation theater with the aid of a hand-held gamma-probe. All lesions were identified in a control x-ray of the surgical specimen. Demographic, clinical, surgical and pathologic data were recorded. Forty patients with a mean age of 56.8 +/- 7.8 years were included. In 39 of the 40 patients (97.5%) the "hot spot" was identified easily. In all patients, the area of maximum radioactivity corresponded to the site of the lesion. Imaging confirmation of the lesion in the surgical specimen was done during the first excision in 37 patients (92.5%). In the remaining cases (7.5%), a wider excision was performed during the same procedure, finding the suspected lesion in all cases. Diagnosis of cancer was made in seven patients, (17.5%). There were no significant surgical complications. Our data suggest that ROLL offer a simple and reliable method to localize occult breast lesions, allowing complete removal of the lesion in 100% of the patients. Because of the small quantity of radioactivity, the procedure is safe for both patients and the medical staff, producing less discomfort in patients than wire localization.

  4. Clinical and topographical range of callosal infarction: a clinical and radiological correlation study.

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, M; Dumas, R

    1995-01-01

    A prospective clinical and radiological correlation study was performed to determine the frequency, and the clinical and radiological features of callosal infarction. From 1 January 1993 to the end of December 1993 282 cases of cerebral infarction seen in the Neurology service of the University Hospital of Dijon were studied prospectively. Eight cases with callosal ischaemic lesions were identified by CT and MRI. A callosal disconnection syndrome occurred in only five of eight patients, related to a single, large infarct or several infarctions in the anterior part of the corpus callosum. Clinical features were characterised by left ideomotor apraxia, construction apraxia, and left agraphia in all five cases. Alien hand was noted in only two cases. There were gait disorders in three cases with MRI features of multiple lacunes in a large part of the corpus callosum, and also the subcortical areas of both hemispheres. It is emphasised that callosal infarctions are not rare and that they contribute to the clinical features of strokes. As well as the classic incomplete callosal disconnection syndrome, these callosal ischaemic lesions may induce non-specific gait disorders. Images PMID:7673948

  5. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  6. Clinical Manifestation and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Infection in Malaysia: Case Study of a Community Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Rohan; Shanmuganathan, Indra Devi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestation of tuberculosis infection cases in Malaysia and to determine the individual risk factors for their occurrence. Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative research approach with use of descriptive statistical approach. The study setting was a community clinic which treats walk in patients who are mainly living and working in the surrounding areas. The study was conducted for a period of one year. All tuberculosis patients who sought treatment in the clinic during the time were included in this study. The total number of cases was 40. Data was collected from the medical records of the tuberculosis patients. The risk factors selected for investigation were demographic characteristics of age and sex, personal habits such as smoking, drug use and alcohol and presence of diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), diabetes mellitus, cancer, cyanotic heart disease, renal failure and steroid use. Results: Patients in the age group ranging from 41 to 50 years had the highest incidence of the infection. Smoking appears to be the most important risk factor for contracting followed by drug abuse, HIV+ infection and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: People with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and HIV that are high risk factors for TB should be screened for TB so that early detection and intervention is possible. Educational programs should be carried out to create awareness among the at risk groups. PMID:25946947

  7. The Emerging Microbe Project: Developing Clinical Care Plans Based on Pathogen Identification and Clinical Case Studies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Perry, Michael W; Doup, Dane't R

    2015-12-01

    For many students in the health sciences, including doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, basic and clinical sciences often appear detached from each other. In the infectious disease field, PharmD students additionally struggle with mastering the diversity of microorganisms and the corresponding therapies. The objective of this study was to design an interdisciplinary project that integrates fundamental microbiology with clinical research and decision-making skills. The Emerging Microbe Project guided students through the identification of a microorganism via genetic sequence analysis. The unknown microbe provided the basis for a patient case that asked the student to design a therapeutic treatment strategy for an infected patient. Outside of lecture, students had two weeks to identify the pathogen using nucleotide sequences, compose a microbiology report on the pathogen, and recommend an appropriate therapeutic treatment plan for the corresponding clinical case. We hypothesized that the students would develop a better understanding of the interplay between basic microbiology and infectious disease clinical practice, and that they would gain confidence and skill in independently selecting appropriate antimicrobial therapies for a new disease state. The exercise was conducted with PharmD students in their second professional year of pharmacy school in a required infectious disease course. Here, we demonstrate that the Emerging Microbe Project significantly improved student learning through two assessment strategies (assignment grades and exam questions), and increased student confidence in clinical infectious disease practice. This exercise could be modified for other health sciences students or undergraduates depending upon the level of clinical focus required of the course.

  8. A qualitative study of constructive clinical learning experiences.

    PubMed

    van der Hem-Stokroos, H H; Daelmans, H E M; van der Vleuten, C P M; Haarman, H J Th M; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of clinical education. A more educational structure is considered to be potentially beneficial. The following structured components were added to a surgical clerkship: logbooks, an observed student-patient encounter, individual appraisals, feedback on patient notes, and (case) presentations by students. The authors organized two focus-group sessions in which 19 students participated to explore their perceptions about effective clinical learning experiences and the newly introduced structured components. The analysis of the transcripts showed that observation and constructive feedback are key features of clinical training. The structured activities were appreciated and the results show the direction to be taken for further improvement. Learning experiences depended vastly on individual clinicians' educational qualities. Students experienced being on call, assisting in theatre and time for self-study as instructive elements. Recommended clerkship components are: active involvement of students, direct observation, selection of teachers, a positive learning environment and time for self-study. PMID:12745517

  9. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  10. Ambulance clinical placements – A pilot study of students' experience

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Cooper, Jennifer; Adams, Bridget; Alford, Kassie

    2008-01-01

    Background Undergraduate paramedic students undertake clinical placements in a variety of locations. These placements are considered an essential element for paramedic pre-employment education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests some students have not had positive experiences on their emergency ambulance placements. The objective of this study was to identify the type of experiences had by students during ambulance clinical placements and to provide feedback to the ambulance services. Methods In this pilot study we employed a cross-sectional study methodology, using a convenience sample of undergraduate paramedic students available in semester one of 2007 to ascertain the students' views on their reception by on-road paramedics and their overall experience on emergency ambulance clinical placements. Ethics approval was granted. Results There were 77 students who participated in the survey, 64% were females, with 92% of students < 25 years of age and 55% < 65 Kg in weight. There was a statistically significant difference in average height between the genders (Male 179 cm vs Female 168 cm, p < 0.001). Clinical instructors were available to 44% of students with 30% of students excluded from patient management. Thirty percent of students felt there was a lot of unproductive down time during the placement. Paramedics remarked to 40% of students that they doubted their ability to perform the physical role of a paramedic, of this group 36% were advised this more than once. Conclusion This study demonstrates that for a small group of students, emergency ambulance clinical placements were not a positive experience clinically or educationally. Some qualified paramedics doubt if a number of female students can perform the physical role of a paramedic. PMID:18400111

  11. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6–8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C. V.; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life. PMID:27727193

  12. Ant exclusion in citrus over an 8-year period reveals a pervasive yet changing effect of ants on a Mediterranean spider assemblage.

    PubMed

    Mestre, L; Piñol, J; Barrientos, J A; Espadaler, X

    2013-09-01

    Ants and spiders are ubiquitous generalist predators that exert top-down control on herbivore populations. Research shows that intraguild interactions between ants and spiders can negatively affect spider populations, but there is a lack of long-term research documenting the strength of such interactions and the potentially different effects of ants on the diverse array of species in a spider assemblage. Similarly, the suitability of family-level surrogates for finding patterns revealed by species-level data (taxonomic sufficiency) has almost never been tested in spider assemblages. We present a long-term study in which we tested the impact of ants on the spider assemblage of a Mediterranean citrus grove by performing sequential 1-year experimental exclusions on tree canopies for 8 years. We found that ants had a widespread influence on the spider assemblage, although the effect was only evident in the last 5 years of the study. During those years, ants negatively affected many spiders, and effects were especially strong for sedentary spiders. Analyses at the family level also detected assemblage differences between treatments, but they concealed the different responses to ant exclusion shown by some related spider species. Our findings show that the effects of experimental manipulations in ecology can vary greatly over time and highlight the need for long-term studies to document species interactions.

  13. Effectiveness of different tooth brushing techniques on the removal of dental plaque in 6–8 year old children of Gulbarga

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Smita P.; Patil, Prashant B.; Kashetty, Meena V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the respective effectiveness of the horizontal scrub, Fones, and modified Bass methods demonstrated on the cast to individual child within the classroom setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 healthy children studying in 1st and 2nd grades in the age range of 6-8 years were randomly selected from various schools of Gulbarga district, Karnataka, India. They were equally divided into three groups. Children in each group were demonstrated only one of the three brushing techniques, viz. horizontal scrub technique to group A, Fones technique to group B, and modified Bass technique to group C, using a cast model. All the children were re-examined and reviewed after 24 h and plaque index was re-assessed to obtain the follow-up data. The results were compared with the baseline data, and statistical analysis was carried out using paired t-test and intergroup comparison was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in plaque score was seen in modified Bass technique followed by horizontal scrub technique and the least efficacy was seen in Fones technique. Conclusion: This study showed that modified Bass technique was the most effective brushing technique in children. PMID:25254196

  14. Recommendations for planning pilot studies in clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charity G; Carter, Rickey E; Nietert, Paul J; Stewart, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Advances in clinical and translation science are facilitated by building on prior knowledge gained through experimentation and observation. In the context of drug development, preclinical studies are followed by a progression of phase I through phase IV clinical trials. At each step, the study design and statistical strategies are framed around research questions that are prerequisites for the next phase. In other types of biomedical research, pilot studies are used for gathering preliminary support for the next research step. However, the phrase "pilot study" is liberally applied to projects with little or no funding, characteristic of studies with poorly developed research proposals, and usually conducted with no detailed thought of the subsequent study. In this article, we present a rigorous definition of a pilot study, offer recommendations for the design, analysis and sample size justification of pilot studies in clinical and translational research, and emphasize the important role that well-designed pilot studies play in the advancement of science and scientific careers. PMID:22029804

  15. [The research protocol II: study designs in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In clinical research that takes place in health-care areas, most of the studies are performed with human beings as research subjects. The main objectives of these studies are to know the characteristics of one or more groups, the behavior of human diseases, the etiology or causes of diseases, to identify the best diagnostic tools, or to establish the best treatment for a condition or disease in particular. Additionally, some studies are classified as basic bio-medical research; in these investigations, the subjects of study are laboratory animals, tissues, cells, or molecules. In general terms, the objectives of these studies are to understand the physiology, pathogenesis, or biological mechanisms that could explain functions or alterations in one or more systems or body organs. This article will only address clinical research designs.

  16. Sports Medicine. Clinical Rotation. Instructor's Packet and Student Study Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    The materials in this packet are for a course designed to provide individualized classroom study for a specific area of clinical rotation--sports medicine. The instructor's manual describes the learning objectives together with a list of reference materials that should be provided for completion of the student worksheets, and lists suggested…

  17. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs.

  18. Experiencing Virtual Patients in Clinical Learning: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelbring, Samuel; Dastmalchi, Maryam; Hult, Hakan; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2011-01-01

    Computerised virtual patients (VPs) are increasingly being used in medical education. With more use of this technology, there is a need to increase the knowledge of students' experiences with VPs. The aim of the study was to elicit the nature of virtual patients in a clinical setting, taking the students' experience as a point of departure.…

  19. Clinical Teaching by Video-Enhanced Study Club Discussion Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglass B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's "study club" method of teaching operative dentistry involves a four-hour clinical operating session and an hour-long discussion immediately following. Videotape recordings of the operative procedures are used successfully in the discussion period to enhance observation and recall. (MSE)

  20. Therapists' Use of DBT: A Survey Study of Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiorgio, Kimberly E.; Glass, Carol R.; Arnkoff, Diane B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how therapists conduct Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) individual psychotherapy with clients, focusing on clinical factors that could account for decisions regarding modifications of DBT (e.g., client diagnosis, therapist theoretical orientation, and intensity of DBT training). Additionally, the study…

  1. Analgesia in Amphibians: Preclinical Studies and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Preclinical studies of analgesia in amphibians or recommendations for clinical use of analgesics in amphibian species are extremely limited. This article briefly reviews the issues surrounding the use of analgesics in amphibians starting with common definitions of pain and analgesia when applied to non-human animals. Nociceptive and endogenous opioid systems in amphibians are reviewed and results of preclinical research on opioid and non-opioid analgesics summarized. Recommended opioid and non-opioid analgesics are summarized and practical recommendations made for their clinical use. PMID:21074701

  2. Musculoskeletal demands on flamenco dancers: a clinical and biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Bejjani, F J; Halpern, N; Pio, A; Dominguez, R; Voloshin, A; Frankel, V H

    1988-04-01

    The flamenco dancer acts on the floor like a drummer. The percussive footwork and vibration patterns created during dancing impose unusual demands on the musculoskeletal system. This study investigated the clinical and biomechanical aspects of this task. Using the electrodynogram and skin-mounted accelerometers, foot pressures as well as hip and knee vibrations were recorded in 10 female dancers after a thorough clinical evaluation. A health questionnaire was also distributed to 29 dancers. Foot pressures and acceleration data reveal the percussive nature of the dance. Some clinical findings, like calluses, are related to pressure distribution. Urogenital disorders, as well as back and neck pain, may be related to the vibrations generated by the flamenco dance form. The hip joint seems to absorb most of the impacts. "Vibration-pressure" diagrams are suggested as a useful tool for evaluating a dancer's biomechanical behavior, as well as the effect of floors and footwear on this behavior. PMID:3366430

  3. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  4. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  5. Parasitological and clinical studies on human scabies in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, M A; el Okbi, L M; el Sayed, M M; el Okbi, S M; el Deeb, H K

    1993-12-01

    This study is a parasitological and clinical study on human scabies. This study was carried out on 100 patients attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals, including 54 males and 46 females. All patients were subjected to detailed history taking, complete dermatological examination including Skin Scraping Test and Burrow Ink Test. Younger patients attended the dermatology clinic earlier than older patients, who usually delayed their visits until complications occurred. Scratching, erythematous papules and secondary infected lesions were the commonest lesions. The hands, wrist and external genitalia were the most frequently affected sites while the feet, ankles, knees and back were the least affected. Burrows could only be detected in 40% of patients. The most frequent sites were the web spaces, external genitalia, and finger sides. Burrow Ink Test was positive among 85% of patients with burrows while mites could be identified by Skin Scraping Test in 55% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations in the parasitologically positive patients were itching, burrows, and papules, and the most frequent sites were the web spaces, and the finger sides. Multiple sites affection was the characteristic feature among the preschool age children who represented 14% of cases.

  6. Ethical considerations of study participants in dental caries clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1976-03-01

    During the past 30 years there has been increasing concern for ethical considerations that pertain to the conduct of human biomedical research. Consequently, many national and international medical and dental organizations and agencies have developed regulations, policies or ethical guidelines for the protection of human subjects who take part in clinical investigations. In the United States, more than 500 research institutions have established permanent committees to review research in humans conducted by their institutions. Members of these committees must represent a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and concerns. Prospective study subjects must be able to make an informed decision on whether to participate in any study, without any element of force, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion. Obtaining informed consent for studies of children, the mentally infirm, and persons with restricted civil freedom presents special problems. Ethical considerations also raise questions on appropriate designs for clinical studies, e.g. use of untreated controls. Dental studies, particularly those testing caries-preventive agents, raise special questions of design, informed consent, ethical procedures and the use of diagnostic radiographs. The director of a clinical study is responsible for the conduct of all personnel connected with the investigation.

  7. Higher Weight Status of Only and Last-Born Children: Maternal Feeding and Child Eating Behaviors as Underlying Processes among 4-8 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Rana H.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behaviors, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  8. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  9. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. PMID:27203569

  10. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change. PMID:18603656

  11. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention.

  12. Electrochemotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment: pre-clinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Leongito, Maddalena; Granata, Vincenza; Barbieri, Antonio; del Vecchio, Vitale; Falco, Michela; Nasto, Aurelio; Albino, Vittorio; Piccirillo, Mauro; Palaia, Raffaele; Amore, Alfonso; Giacomo, Raimondo di; Lastoria, Secondo; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Fusco, Roberta; Petrillo, Antonella; Izzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is currently one of the deadliest cancers with high mortality rate. This disease leads to an aggressive local invasion and early metastases, and is poorly responsive to treatment with chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy. Radical resection is still the only curative treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it is generally accepted that a multimodality strategy is necessary for its management. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for local treatment. Conclusions Chemotherapeutic resistance in pancreatic cancer is associated to a low penetration of drugs into tumour cells due to the presence of fibrotic stroma surrounding cells. In order to increase the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumour cells, electrochemotherapy can be used for treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma leading to an increased tumour response rate. This review will summarize the published papers reported in literature on the efficacy and safety of electrochemotherapy in pre-clinical and clinical studies on pancreatic cancer. PMID:27069445

  13. Human transcriptome array for high-throughput clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihong; Seok, Junhee; Mindrinos, Michael N; Schweitzer, Anthony C; Jiang, Hui; Wilhelmy, Julie; Clark, Tyson A; Kapur, Karen; Xing, Yi; Faham, Malek; Storey, John D; Moldawer, Lyle L; Maier, Ronald V; Tompkins, Ronald G; Wong, Wing Hung; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2011-03-01

    A 6.9 million-feature oligonucleotide array of the human transcriptome [Glue Grant human transcriptome (GG-H array)] has been developed for high-throughput and cost-effective analyses in clinical studies. This array allows comprehensive examination of gene expression and genome-wide identification of alternative splicing as well as detection of coding SNPs and noncoding transcripts. The performance of the array was examined and compared with mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) results over multiple independent replicates of liver and muscle samples. Compared with RNA-Seq of 46 million uniquely mappable reads per replicate, the GG-H array is highly reproducible in estimating gene and exon abundance. Although both platforms detect similar expression changes at the gene level, the GG-H array is more sensitive at the exon level. Deeper sequencing is required to adequately cover low-abundance transcripts. The array has been implemented in a multicenter clinical program and has generated high-quality, reproducible data. Considering the clinical trial requirements of cost, sample availability, and throughput, the GG-H array has a wide range of applications. An emerging approach for large-scale clinical genomic studies is to first use RNA-Seq to the sufficient depth for the discovery of transcriptome elements relevant to the disease process followed by high-throughput and reliable screening of these elements on thousands of patient samples using custom-designed arrays.

  14. Human transcriptome array for high-throughput clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihong; Seok, Junhee; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Jiang, Hui; Wilhelmy, Julie; Clark, Tyson A.; Kapur, Karen; Xing, Yi; Faham, Malek; Storey, John D.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Maier, Ronald V.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Wong, Wing Hung; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Toner, Mehmet; Warren, H. Shaw; Schoenfeld, David A.; Rahme, Laurence; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Hayden, Douglas; Mason, Philip; Fagan, Shawn; Yu, Yong-Ming; Cobb, J. Perren; Remick, Daniel G.; Mannick, John A.; Lederer, James A.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; West, Michael A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Smith, Richard; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun; Tibshirani, Rob; Lowry, Stephen; Calvano, Steven; Chaudry, Irshad; Cohen, Mitchell; Moore, Ernest E.; Johnson, Jeffrey; Baker, Henry V.; Efron, Philip A.; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Ochoa, Juan B.; Sperry, Jason L.; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.; De, Asit K.; Bankey, Paul E.; Herndon, David N.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Minei, Joseph P.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Hunt, John L.; Horton, Jureta; Cobb, J. Perren; Brownstein, Bernard; Freeman, Bradley; Nathens, Avery B.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Gibran, Nicole; Klein, Matthew; O'Keefe, Grant

    2011-01-01

    A 6.9 million-feature oligonucleotide array of the human transcriptome [Glue Grant human transcriptome (GG-H array)] has been developed for high-throughput and cost-effective analyses in clinical studies. This array allows comprehensive examination of gene expression and genome-wide identification of alternative splicing as well as detection of coding SNPs and noncoding transcripts. The performance of the array was examined and compared with mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) results over multiple independent replicates of liver and muscle samples. Compared with RNA-Seq of 46 million uniquely mappable reads per replicate, the GG-H array is highly reproducible in estimating gene and exon abundance. Although both platforms detect similar expression changes at the gene level, the GG-H array is more sensitive at the exon level. Deeper sequencing is required to adequately cover low-abundance transcripts. The array has been implemented in a multicenter clinical program and has generated high-quality, reproducible data. Considering the clinical trial requirements of cost, sample availability, and throughput, the GG-H array has a wide range of applications. An emerging approach for large-scale clinical genomic studies is to first use RNA-Seq to the sufficient depth for the discovery of transcriptome elements relevant to the disease process followed by high-throughput and reliable screening of these elements on thousands of patient samples using custom-designed arrays. PMID:21317363

  15. Clinical and microbiologic studies of genital ulcers in Kenyan women.

    PubMed

    Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; Nsanze, H; Karasira, P; MacLean, I W; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1985-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcers in women in tropical regions is poorly understood. Eighty-nine women, presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi (Kenya) with a primary complaint of genital ulcers, were evaluated prospectively in a clinical and laboratory study. A final etiologic diagnosis was possible for 60 (67%) of the women. Culture for Haemophilus ducreyi was positive for 43 women, eight had secondary syphilis with ulcerated condyloma latum, three had primary syphilis, one had both chancroid and syphilis, two had moniliasis, two had herpetic ulceration, and one had a traumatic ulcer. The clinical characteristics that best distinguished chancroid from secondary syphilis were ulcer excavation and a rough ulcer base. No etiologic diagnosis was established for 29 patients. However, the clinical and epidemiologic features of these patients suggested that they were similar if not identical to the patients with H. ducreyi culture-positive chancroid. Further studies are necessary to determine the etiology of ulcers in females in whom no pathogen was identified.

  16. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in parkinsonism--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rajput, A H; Rozdilsky, B; Rajput, A

    1991-08-01

    Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome (PS) is reasonably easy in most cases but the distinction between different variants of PS may be difficult in early cases. The correct diagnosis is not only important for counselling and management of patients but also in conducting pharmacological and epidemiological studies. There is very little critical literature on the pathological verification of the clinical diagnosis in PS. We report our 22 years experience to address that issue. Between 1968 and 1990, 65 PS patients came to autopsy. Complete data are available in 59 (M-50, F-19) cases. The initial diagnosis made by a qualified neurologist was idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) in 43 cases. Of those 28 (65%) had Lewy body pathology. After a mean duration of 12 years the final diagnosis was IPD in 41 cases which was confirmed in 31 (76%). The IPD could not be clinically distinguished from cases with severe substantia nigra neuronal loss without inclusions or from those with neurofibrillary tangle inclusions and neuronal loss at the anatomical sites typically involved in IPD. All progressive supra-nuclear palsy, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Jakob-Creutzfeldt's disease and the majority of the multiple system atrophy cases were diagnosed correctly during life. The correct clinical diagnosis in most non-IPD variants of PS was possible within 5 years of onset (range: 2 months to 18 years). We recommend that studies aimed at including only the IPD cases restrict the enrollment to those cases that have had PS motor manifestations for five years or longer duration. PMID:1913360

  17. Clinical risk factors for the development of consecutive exotropia: a comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Karakaya, Jale; Sener, Emin Cumhur; Sanac, Ali Sefik

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare a group of patients with consecutive exotropia with patients who had ≤10 prism diopters (PD) esotropia or no deviation postoperatively in terms of probable clinical risk factors for the development of consecutive exotropia. METHODS The study recruited fourteen patients who developed consecutive exodeviation during follow-up period after the correction of esotropia who were categorized as group 1 and thirty-one patients who had still ≤10 PD esotropia or no deviation at the final visit that were considered as group 2. Clinical risk factors leading the development of consecutive deviation were analyzed as the main outcome measures. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 4.57±3.11y in group 1 and 5.10±3.52y in group 2 (P=0.634). There was no significant difference of preoperative near and distant deviations among two groups (P=0.835, 0.928 respectively). The mean amount of medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection was similar in both groups (P=0.412, 0.648 respectively). Convergence insufficiency and neurological diseases were more frequent in group 1 (P=0.007, 0.045). Accompanying neurological disease was found to be as a significant factor increasing the risk of the development of consecutive exotropia significantly [odds ratios (OR): 5.75 (1.04-31.93)]. CONCLUSION Accompanying neurological disease appears to be a significant clinical risk factor for the development of consecutive exodeviation during postoperative follow-up after the correction of esotropia. However, larger studies are needed in order to interpret the results to the clinical practice and to ascertain other concurrent risk factors. PMID:27366693

  18. Clinical Utility of Combinatorial Pharmacogenomics-Guided Antidepressant Therapy: Evidence from Three Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Altar, C Anthony; Carhart, Joseph; Allen, Josiah D; Hall-Flavin, Daniel; Winner, Joel; Dechairo, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    DNA of 258 patients with treatment-resistant depression was collected in three 8-10 week, two-arm, prospective clinical trials. Forty-four allelic variations were measured in genes for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6, CYPC19, and CYP1A2, the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), and the 5-HT2A receptor (HTR2A). The combinatorial pharmacogenomic (CPGx™) GeneSight test results were provided to clinicians to support medication changes from baseline (guided arm), or they were provided at the end of each study to clinicians of unguided patients who were treated as usual (TAU). TAU subjects who at baseline were prescribed medications genetically discordant for them showed only a 12% symptom improvement, far less than the 32.5% or 28.5% improvements of the TAU subjects on yellow-category ('use with caution'; p = 0.002) or green-category medications ('use as recommended'; p = 0.02), respectively. The odds of a clinical response were increased 2.3-fold among all GeneSight-guided compared to all TAU subjects (p = 0.004), and overall, the guided group had a 53% greater improvement in depressive symptoms (p = 0.0002), a 1.7-fold relative improvement in response (p = 0.01), and a number needed to treat for one clinical response above that seen in the TAU group of 6.07. PMID:27606312

  19. Clinical studies on angiostrongyliasis cantonensis among children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, K P; Chen, E R

    1991-12-01

    Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis is a disease commonly seen in Taiwan, especially in children during the summer rainy season. Most of the cases reported in other countries were adults and their clinical manifestations were different from children. Studies on special clinical characteristics of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis among 82 children in Taiwan were performed. Thirty-eight (46.3%) were male and 44 (53.7%) females, and 87% could be traced to a history of contact with the intermediate host, the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, which plays a major role in transmission. The incubation period (average: 13.2 days) was shorter in children than in adults (average: 16.5 days). In about one-third (30.5%) of the total cases, the clinical form was meningoencephalitis, which was higher than in adult cases seen in Thailand (5%). The most common clinical symptom was fever (91.5%), followed by vomiting and headache. The percentages of sixth and seventh cranial neuropathy associated with the disease were 19.5% and 11.0% respectively. Ophthalmologic fundoscopy showed that 25.0% with papilledema which was significantly higher than seen in adults (12%) in Thailand. Most of the cases in this study had peripheral leukocytosis (above 10,000/mm3) and eosinophilia (above 10%); the percentages were 82.9% and 84.1%, respectively. The worm recovery rate from cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture of 82 cases was 41.5%; 141 worms were collected from one female patient using a pumping method. In the recent 2 years, albendazole and levamisole were used clinically with good result.

  20. Dissociated vertical deviation-a clinical and laboratory study.

    PubMed Central

    Helveston, E M

    1980-01-01

    The previously reported nomenclature and clinical characteristics of dissociated vertical deviation have been recorded. The incidence and characteristics of DVD have been determined by evaluation of 1,000 consecutive strabismus or nystagmus patients, and with selected chart study carried out on the 111 DVD patients found in this series. Electro-oculographic studies of selected patients with DVD provided objective evidence of the speed and amplitude of the ocular movements in DVD. Bell phenomenon, strabismus sursoadductorius and the Bielschowsky phenomenon were recorded and compared to clinical findings of strabismus patients with DVD. The technique for the results of surgery for DVD were described. Dissociated vertical deviation was characterized as a component of the overall strabismus picture. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B PMID:7020216

  1. Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J

    Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students.

  2. [Clinical and microbiological study of adult periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Nogueira Moreira, A; Fernández Canigia, L; Furman, C; Chiappe, V; Marcantoni, M; Bianchini, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a microbiological evaluation of sites with and without clinical evidence of moderate and severe periodontitis and their correlation with clinical parameters. A total of 52 disease sites and 10 healthy sites were selected according to clinical criteria. The following clinical indexes were measured for all the sites: plaque index, gingival index, blood on probing, depth on probing and insertion level. Samples of subgingival plaque were collected for culture and for differential counts of microbial morphotypes. In disease sites the most frequently isolated were: Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (65%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (23%), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (23%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (10%) and Peptostreptococcus sp. (31%). The aerobic gram-positive microflora was predominant in healthy sites. Significant differences were observed in microbial morphotypes between healthy and disease sites: cocci 18.71% and 78.90%, motile rods 46.12% and 16.70%, total spirochetes 26.48% and 2.80%, respectively. The presence of motile rods, spirochetes and P. intermedia/nigrescens were the parameters with most sensitivity to suspect periodontal disease. There were significant differences in the subgingival microflora between healthy and disease sites in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis. PMID:11594003

  3. Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J

    Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students. PMID:22090156

  4. [Clinical and microbiological study of adult periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Nogueira Moreira, A; Fernández Canigia, L; Furman, C; Chiappe, V; Marcantoni, M; Bianchini, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a microbiological evaluation of sites with and without clinical evidence of moderate and severe periodontitis and their correlation with clinical parameters. A total of 52 disease sites and 10 healthy sites were selected according to clinical criteria. The following clinical indexes were measured for all the sites: plaque index, gingival index, blood on probing, depth on probing and insertion level. Samples of subgingival plaque were collected for culture and for differential counts of microbial morphotypes. In disease sites the most frequently isolated were: Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (65%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (23%), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (23%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (10%) and Peptostreptococcus sp. (31%). The aerobic gram-positive microflora was predominant in healthy sites. Significant differences were observed in microbial morphotypes between healthy and disease sites: cocci 18.71% and 78.90%, motile rods 46.12% and 16.70%, total spirochetes 26.48% and 2.80%, respectively. The presence of motile rods, spirochetes and P. intermedia/nigrescens were the parameters with most sensitivity to suspect periodontal disease. There were significant differences in the subgingival microflora between healthy and disease sites in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis.

  5. Pilot Study of a Clinical Pathway Implementation in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uña, Esther; López-Lara, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rectal cancer is a highly prevalent disease which needs a multidisciplinary approach to be treated. The absence of specific protocols implies a significant and unjustifiable variability among the different professionals involved in this disease. The purpose is to develop a clinical pathway based on the analysis process and aims to reduce this variability and to reduce unnecessary costs. Methods: We created a multidisciplinary team with contributors from every clinical area involved in the diagnosis and treatment in this disease. We held periodic meetings to agree on a protocol based on the best available clinical practice guidelines. Once we had agreed on the protocol, we implemented its use as a standard in our institution. Every patient older than 18 years who was diagnosed with rectal cancer was considered a candidate to be treated via the pathway. Results: We evaluated 48 patients during the course of this study. Every parameter measured was improved after the implementation of the pathway, except the proportion of patients with 12 nodes or more analysed. The perception that our patients had about this project was very good. Conclusions: Clinical pathways are needed to improve the quality of health care. This kind of project helps reduce hospital costs and optimizes the use of limited resources. On the other hand, unexplained variability is also reduced, with consequent benefits for the patients. PMID:21151842

  6. Evidence of clinical competence by simulation, a hermeneutical observational study.

    PubMed

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from theory to practise easier in nursing education through simulation is widely implemented all over the world, and there is research evidence of the positive effects of simulation. The pre-understanding for this study is based on a definition of clinical competence as encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and developing, and the hypothesis is that these categories should appear in simulated situations. The aim of the study was to explore the forms and expressions of clinical competence in simulated situations and furthermore to explore if and how clinical competence could be developed by simulation. An observational hermeneutic study with a hypothetic-deductive approach was used in 18 simulated situations with 39 bachelor degree nursing students. In the situations, the scenarios, the actors and the plots were described. The story told was "the way from suffering to health" in which three main plots emerged. The first was, doing as performing and knowing, which took the shape of knowing what to do, acting responsibly, using evidence and equipment, appearing confident and feeling comfortable, and sharing work and information with others. The second was, being as encountering the patient, which took the shape of being there for him/her and confirming by listening and answering. The third plot was becoming as maturing and developing which took the shape of learning in co-operation with other students. All the deductive categories, shapes and expressions appeared as dialectic patterns having their negative counterparts. The study showed that clinical competence can be made evident and developed by simulation and that the challenge is in encountering the patient and his/her suffering. PMID:26763209

  7. Evidenced-based review of clinical studies on endodontic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    The practice of endodontics requires excellence in diagnostic skills. The importance of this topic has been underscored by a recent 2008 AAE-sponsored symposium on endodontic diagnosis, which will be highlighted in a special issue of the Journal of Endodontics. In this minireview, we focus on recent clinical studies that emphasize different aspects related to the diagnosis of disorders of the pulp-dentin complex. PMID:19631854

  8. Neurophysiology versus clinical genetics in Rett syndrome: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Nicky; Smeets, Eric E; Julu, Peter; Witt-Engerström, Ingegerd; Pini, Giorgio; Bigoni, Stefania; Hansen, Stig; Apartopoulos, Flora; Delamont, Robert; van Roozendaal, Kees; Scusa, Maria F; Borelli, Paolo; Candel, Math; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have attempted to establish the genotype-phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome (RTT). Cardiorespiratory measurements provide robust objective data, to correlate with each of the different clinical phenotypes. It has important implications for the management and treatment of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to correlate the genotype with the quantitative cardiorespiratory data obtained by neurophysiological measurement combined with a clinical severity score. This international multicenter study was conducted in four European countries from 1999 to 2012. The study cohort consisted of a group of 132 well-defined RTT females aged between 2 and 43 years with extended clinical, molecular, and neurophysiological assessments. Diagnosis of RTT was based on the consensus criteria for RTT and molecular confirmation. Genotype-phenotype analyses of clinical features and cardiorespiratory data were performed after grouping mutations by the same type and localization or having the same putative biological effect on the MeCP2 protein, and subsequently on eight single recurrent mutations. A less severe phenotype was seen in females with CTS, p.R133C, and p.R294X mutations. Autonomic disturbances were present in all females, and not restricted to nor influenced by one specific group or any single recurrent mutation. The objective information from non-invasive neurophysiological evaluation of the disturbed central autonomic control is of great importance in helping to organize the lifelong care for females with RTT. Further research is needed to provide insights into the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, and to develop evidence-based management in RTT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Application of minimum clinically important difference in the clinical study of acupuncturej and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwen; Chen, Bo; Lv, Zhongxi; Guo, Yi; Guo, Yongming; Pan, Xingfang

    2016-03-01

    The current clinical efficacy evaluation system and evaluation methods of acupuncture have several limitations, and the application status is not optimistic. According to long-term observation, minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is consistent with the characteristics of clinical acupuncture, and has objective quanti- tative standard and wide applicability. Incorporating MCID into acupuncture clinical efficacy evaluation of tradition- al Chinese medicine can truly reflect the clinical effect of acupuncture and improve the disadvantages and shortcom- ings of acupuncture clinical evaluation, which could provide certain reference for building clinical efficacy evaluation system featured with TCM. PMID:27344843

  10. Evaluating outpatient transition clinics: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sattoe, Jane N T; Peeters, Mariëlle A C; Hilberink, Sander R; Ista, Erwin; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To support young people in their transition to adulthood and transfer to adult care, a number of interventions have been developed. One particularly important intervention is the transition clinic (TC), where paediatric and adult providers collaborate. TCs are often advocated as best practices in transition care for young people with chronic conditions, but little is known about TC models and effects. The proposed study aims to gain insight into the added value of a TC compared with usual care (without a TC). Methods and analysis We propose a mixed-methods study with a retrospective controlled design consisting of semistructured interviews among healthcare professionals, observations of consultations with young people, chart reviews of young people transferred 2–4 years prior to data collection and questionnaires among the young people included in the chart reviews. Qualitative data will be analysed through thematic analysis and results will provide insights into structures and daily routines of TCs, and experienced barriers and facilitators in transitional care. Quantitatively, within-group differences on clinical outcomes and healthcare use will be studied over the four measurement moments. Subsequently, comparisons will be made between intervention and control groups on all outcomes at all measurement moments. Primary outcomes are ‘no-show after transfer’ (process outcome) and ‘experiences and satisfaction with the transfer’ (patient-reported outcome). Secondary outcomes consider clinical outcomes, healthcare usage, self-management outcomes and perceived quality of care. Ethics The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus Medical Centre approved the study protocol (MEC-2014-246). Dissemination Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conferences. The study started in September 2014 and will continue until December 2016. The same study design will be used in a national study in 20 diabetes settings (2016

  11. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of LY 195448.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, J; Lewis, C; Adams, L; Setanoians, A; Bayssas, M; Boder, G G; Rankin, E M; Kaye, S B

    1989-01-01

    LY 195448 is a phenethanolamine that has shown anti-tumour activity in a range of murine tumour models, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Pre-clinical studies have indicated the absence of "standard" side effects such as myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity. The present phase I trial was carried out in nine patients at doses ranging up to 133 mg/m2. The major toxicities up to that dose were mild, reversible hypotension, tachycardia and tremor. No haematological or biochemical toxicity was observed. Murine pharmacokinetics were assessed at a dose level that was effective in experimental tumours and compared with human pharmacokinetic parameters derived from this study. The results indicated the clinical possibility of reaching peak drug levels associated with experimental activity. However, no responses were seen at the doses used. This study was terminated prior to its completion due to an unexplained loss of activity against murine tumours since September 1987. No significant loss of the in vitro anti-mitotic activity originally reported by Boder et al. [3] was observed. Possible reasons for the apparent loss of in vivo activity have been intensively investigated, but no cause has been determined. Therefore, clinical trials with LY 195448 have been discontinued.

  12. Endothelin receptor antagonists in clinical research--lessons learned from preclinical and clinical kidney studies.

    PubMed

    Reichetzeder, Christoph; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Hocher, Berthold

    2014-11-24

    Endothelin receptor antagonists (ETRAs) are approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and scleroderma-related digital ulcers. The efforts to approve this class of drugs for renal indications, however, failed so far. Preclinical studies were promising. Transgenic overexpression of ET-1 or ET-2 in rodents causes chronic renal failure. Blocking the ET system was effective in the treatment of renal failure in rodent models. However, various animal studies indicate that blocking the renal tubular ETAR and ETBR causes water and salt retention partially mediated via the epithelial sodium transporter in tubular cells. ETRAs were successfully tested clinically in renal indications in phase 2 trials for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. They showed efficacy in terms of reducing albumin excretion on top of guideline based background therapy (RAS blockade). However, these promising results could not be translated to successful phase III trials so far. The spectrum of serious adverse events was similar to other phase III trials using ETRAs. Potential underlying reasons for these failures and options to solve these issues are discussed. In addition preclinical and clinical studies suggest caution when addressing renal patient populations such as patients with hepatorenal syndrome, patients with any type of cystic kidney disease and patients at risk of contrast media induced nephropathy. The lessons learned in renal indications are also important for other potential promising indications of ETRAs like cancer and heart failure.

  13. Is the clinical course of HIV-1 changing? Cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Sinicco, A.; Fora, R.; Raiteri, R.; Sciandra, M.; Bechis, G.; Calvo, M. M.; Gioannini, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the clinical course of HIV infection has changed from 1985 to 1995. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Infectious disease clinic. SUBJECTS: 285 patients recruited from September 1985 to January 1995 with < or = 12 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive test result and with first follow up visit in the six months after seroconversion and at least 12 months' follow up. Patients were grouped according to the date of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to CD4 cell count of < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l, and clinical outcome defining AIDS; variation in cell count per day between consecutive visits, and ratio between this variation and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit. RESULTS: The groups were similar in age, number with acute primary HIV infection, CD4 cell count at intake, and cell count at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment; they differed in sex ratio, risk factors for HIV, probability of CD4 cell decline to < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l. and risk of developing AIDS. Acute infection, seroconversion after December 1989, and serum beta 2 microglobulin > 296 nmol/l were independent predictors of poor clinical course. The speed of CD4 cell decline, expressed as cell variation divided by the number of days between consecutive visits, increased with more recent seroconversion (P = 0.02). Ratio between the speed of CD4 cell decline and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit was also higher in the patients who seroconverted after December 1989. CONCLUSIONS: The faster disease progression and the higher speed of CD4 cell decline at early stages in the patients with recently acquired HIV infection suggest changes in the clinical course of HIV infection. PMID:9154026

  14. Xanthelasma Palpebrarum with Arcus Cornea: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya Ashok; Patel, Chaitali R; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D; Diwan, Nilofar Gulamsha; Jivani, Nidhi Bhimjibhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) is characterized by sharply demarcated yellowish flat plaques on upper and lower eyelids. It is commonly seen in women with a peak incidence at 30–50 years. It is also considered as the cutaneous marker of underlying atherosclerosis along with the disturbed lipid metabolism. XP and corneal arcus are associated with increased levels of serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical pattern of XP, its relationship with lipid profile and association with arcus cornea. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Department of Dermatology and Opthalmology, between August 2013 and January 2015. Patients with clinical diagnosis of XP who visited skin outpatient department and willing to undergo lipid profile test and eye examination were included in the study. Data regarding demographics, clinical findings, family history, and past history were noted along with the lipid profile details. Data of age-matched healthy controls were taken for comparison. The clinical profile of the participants was presented using frequency and proportions. Gender wise analysis comparing the lipid profile in cases with XP and without XP was done using independent sample t-test. Results: Total 49 patients of XP, 81.6% were females. Maximum, 35% patients were among 50–60 years of age and 69.4% were homemakers by occupation. The average lipid values were-cholesterol 210.57 mg%, triglyceride 123.06 mg%. LDL 142.79 mg% and VLDL 30.95 mg% among patients of XP. Arcus cornea was found in 20% cases of XP. Conclusions: Patients of XP requires proper investigation at the onset and regular follow-up thereafter for any altered lipid profile and early diagnosis of coronary artery disease. PMID:27293250

  15. Genetic studies in chronic kidney disease: interpretation and clinical applicability.

    PubMed

    Witasp, Anna; Nordfors, Louise; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Luttropp, Karin; Lindholm, Bengt; Schalling, Martin; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The tools of modern molecular biology are evolving rapidly, resulting in vastly more efficient approaches to illuminating human genetic variations and their effects on common multifactorial disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, candidate gene association studies and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have generated novel genetic variants in previously unrecognized biological pathways, highlighting disease mechanisms with a potential role in CKD etiology, morbidity and mortality. Nephrologists now need to find ways to make use of these advancements and meet the increasingly stringent requirements for valid study design, data handling and interpretation of genetic studies. Adding to our prior article in this journal, which introduced the basics of genotype-phenotype association studies in CKD, this second article focuses on how to ascertain robust and reproducible findings by applying adequate methodological and statistical approaches to genotype-phenotype studies in CKD populations. Moreover, this review will briefly discuss genotype-based risk prediction, pharmacotherapy, drug target identification and individualized treatment solutions, specifically highlighting potentially important findings in CKD patients. This increased knowledge will hopefully facilitate the exciting transition from conventional clinical medicine to gene-based medicine. However, before this can be accomplished, unsolved issues regarding the complex human genetic architecture as well technical and clinically oriented obstacles will have to be overcome. Additionally, new policies and standardized risk evaluations for genetic testing in the clinical setting will have to be established to guarantee that CKD patients are provided with high-quality genotype-guided counseling that will help to improve their poor outcomes.

  16. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Goomany, Anand; Timothy, Jake; Robson, Craig; Rao, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach. PMID:26933363

  17. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Goomany, Anand; Timothy, Jake; Robson, Craig; Rao, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach.

  18. Multiplex component-based allergen microarray in recent clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Patelis, A; Borres, M P; Kober, A; Berthold, M

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades component-resolved diagnostics either as singleplex or multiplex measurements has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing important information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate clinical applications of the multiplex microarray technique in the diagnosis and risk assessment of allergic patients, and its usefulness in studies of allergic diseases. The usefulness of ImmunoCAP ISAC has been validated in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy and anaphylaxis. ISAC provides a broad picture of a patient's sensitization profile from a single test, and provides information on specific and cross-reactive sensitizations that facilitate diagnosis, risk assessment, and disease management. Furthermore, it can reveal unexpected sensitizations which may explain anaphylaxis previously categorized as idiopathic and also display for the moment clinically non-relevant sensitizations. ISAC can facilitate a better selection of relevant allergens for immunotherapy compared with extract testing. Microarray technique can visualize the allergic march and molecular spreading in the preclinical stages of allergic diseases, and may indicate that the likelihood of developing symptomatic allergy is associated with specific profiles of sensitization to allergen components. ISAC is shown to be a useful tool in routine allergy diagnostics due to its ability to improve risk assessment, to better select relevant allergens for immunotherapy as well as detecting unknown sensitization. Multiplex component testing is especially suitable for patients with complex symptomatology. PMID:27196983

  19. Multiple Hypotheses Testing Procedures in Clinical Trials and Genomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    We review and compare multiple hypothesis testing procedures used in clinical trials and those in genomic studies. Clinical trials often employ global tests, which draw an overall conclusion for all the hypotheses, such as SUM test, Two-Step test, Approximate Likelihood Ratio test (ALRT), Intersection-Union Test (IUT), and MAX test. The SUM and Two-Step tests are most powerful under homogeneous treatment effects, while the ALRT and MAX test are robust in cases with non-homogeneous treatment effects. Furthermore, the ALRT is robust to unequal sample sizes in testing different hypotheses. In genomic studies, stepwise procedures are used to draw marker-specific conclusions and control family wise error rate (FWER) or false discovery rate (FDR). FDR refers to the percent of false positives among all significant results and is preferred over FWER in screening high-dimensional genomic markers due to its interpretability. In cases where correlations between test statistics cannot be ignored, Westfall-Young resampling method generates the joint distribution of P-values under the null and maintains their correlation structure. Finally, the GWAS data from a clinical trial searching for SNPs associated with nephropathy among Type 1 diabetic patients are used to illustrate various procedures. PMID:24350232

  20. Cancer therapy with phytochemicals: evidence from clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Azar; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the major causes of mortality in both developing and developed countries. At present, in spite of intensive interventions, a large number of patients suffer from poor prognosis. Therefore, the effort for finding new anticancer agents with better efficacy and lesser side effects has been continued. According to the traditional recommendations and experimental studies, numerous medicinal plants have been reported to have anticancer effect. Also antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of several phytochemicals have been shown in in vitro experiments or animal studies. However, only a small number have been tested in cancerous patients and limited evidence exists for their clinical effectiveness. Also, regarding some phytochemicals, only beneficial effects on cancer-related symptoms or on quality of life have been reported and no positive results exist for their antitumor actions. This review was focused on the phytochemicals whole beneficial effects on various types of cancer have been supported by clinical trials. Based on the literature review, curcumin, green tea, resveratrol and Viscum album were the satisfactory instances of clinical evidence for supporting their anticancer effects. The main findings of these phytochemicals were also summarized and discussed. PMID:25949949

  1. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  2. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish guidelines for the selenium supplementation in radiotherapy we assessed the benefits and risks of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Clinical studies on the use of selenium in radiotherapy were searched in the PubMed electronic database in January 2013. Sixteen clinical studies were identified among the 167 articles selected in the initial search. Ten articles were observational studies, and the other 6 articles reported studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in patients with cancer who underwent radiotherapy. The studies were conducted worldwide including European, American and Asian countries between 1987 and 2012. Plasma, serum or whole blood selenium levels were common parameters used to assess the effects of radiotherapy and the selenium supplementation status. Selenium supplementation improved the general conditions of the patients, improved their quality of life and reduced the side effects of radiotherapy. At the dose of selenium used in these studies (200–500 μg/day), selenium supplementation did not reduce the effectiveness of radiotherapy, and no toxicities were reported. Selenium supplementation may offer specific benefits for several types of cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. Because high-dose selenium and long-term supplementation may be unsafe due to selenium toxicity, more evidence-based information and additional research are needed to ensure the therapeutic benefits of selenium supplementation. PMID:24885670

  3. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  4. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  5. Clinical study of endemic cretinism in south Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Sankar, R; Pulger, T; Rai, B; Sankar, G; Gyatso, T R; Rai, B M

    1993-06-01

    One hundred individuals suffering from Endemic Cretinism were studied. There were 55 males and 45 females. 62% of the cretins had visible goitre. Thirty nine (62.9%) goitrous cretins had grade II goitre. Neurological cretinism was the predominant type encountered (99%) and Myxoedematous cretinism was seen in only one patient. The most salient neurological feature was deaf-mutism seen in 74%. Findings in the motor system were, apart from deaf-mutism, the most characteristic feature of the condition on clinical examination. 58% had exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and 31% had extensor plantar response. Squint was noticed in 29%. Familial aggregation was noticed and was striking. Endemic cretinism is a distinctive and easily identifiable clinical entity and is an important indicator of the severity of iodine deficiency in a community. PMID:8005966

  6. Chronic liver disease in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kudva, M V; Zawawi, M M

    1990-08-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical spectrum of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, and others with portal hypertension) in Kuala Lumpur. Eighty patients were diagnosed over a 6-year period. Twenty-two had biopsy proven cirrhosis while 58 others had portal hypertension with clinical and biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. The commonest aetiology was alcohol (36%), followed by the idiopathic variety and hepatitis B. The male to female ratio was 4.4:1. Indians had a high prevalence of alcohol-associated chronic liver disease. Overall, ascites was the commonest presentation. Eight patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was diagnosed in 13% of patients undergoing abdominal paracentesis. Gallstones were detected in 37% of patients who underwent ultrasonography. Diabetes mellitus and peptic ulcer disease were noted in 22% and 31% of patients respectively.

  7. [Clinical manifestations, complications and treatment of brucellosis: 45-patient study].

    PubMed

    Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported. PMID:18387752

  8. Clinical studies on kalmegh (andrographis paniculata nees) in infective hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chturvedi, G N; Tomar, G S; Tiwari, S K; Singh, K P

    1983-04-01

    Infective hepatitis ia an acute inflamatory condition of liver. It is usually manifested in the form of Jaundice. In this clinical study Kalmegh(Andrographis paniculata Nees) was given in the decoction form to the patients of infective hepitis. The results were assessed on the basis of clinical and biochemical parameters. A marked symptomatic improvement in majority of the cases was observed. A statistically highly significant decrease was noted in various liver function tests viz., serum bilirubin, thymol turbidity, alkaline phosphatase, S.G.O.T.; S.G.P.T. and serum globulin fraction of protein. Moreover it increased significantly total serum globulin fraction of protien. Moreover it increased significantly total serum protein level along with albumin fraction. On the total assessment 80% cases of this series were cured and 20% patients were relieved. Therefore, Kalmegh appears to be a useful remedy for the treatment of infective hepatitis.

  9. The SL autoantibody-antigen system: clinical and biochemical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, R M; Morgan, S H; Bunn, C C; Gainey, R C; Hughes, G R; Mathews, M B

    1986-01-01

    A recently described autoantibody, SL, was found in serum from 27 patients with autoimmune disease, including 20 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) where the frequently was 7%. Analysis of clinical, serological, and HLA data from 119 SLE patients showed no positive associations with anti-SL antibody apart from a higher frequency of non-infective fever. Most SL positive sera contained other precipitins, notably antibodies to Ro(SS-A) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA. Anti-SL IgG recognised a protein of 32 000 daltons without associated RNA. This polypeptide was distinguished from a similarly sized component of the Sm and RNP ribonucleoprotein particles by demonstrating different products of partial proteolysis. Although anti-SL antibody is of limited clinical importance, it occurs with twice the frequency of anti-SM antibody in white patients with SLE. Preliminary studies indicate that SL and the Japanese Ki system are identical. Images PMID:3487291

  10. Clinical characteristics of perinatal psychiatric patients: a chart review study.

    PubMed

    Battle, Cynthia L; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W; Pearlstein, Teri; Howard, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    Although postpartum depression and other perinatal disorders have been the subject of increased research attention, important questions remain regarding women who actively seek psychiatric treatment during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In this study, we examined clinical records of 500 perinatal psychiatric patients who received treatment in a psychiatric day hospital (N = 398) or outpatient behavioral health clinic (N = 102). Patients' presenting diagnoses, psychiatric history, treatment course, and depressive symptoms were recorded. The majority of women had major depression as their primary diagnosis, with an average Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of over 20. Many depressed patients were diagnosed with comorbid anxiety and substance abuse disorders. Although most women were willing to take psychotropic medications, a sizable minority were not, particularly those who were breast-feeding. For more than a third of the sample, the treatment sought while pregnant or postpartum represented their first contact with the mental health system. Treatment implications are discussed. PMID:16699387

  11. Clinical study of benign lesions in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuichi; Takahashi, Hiroomi; Inagi, Katsuhide; Nakayama, Meijin; Okamoto, Makito

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to investigate the detailed clinical features of benign oral diseases. A total of 792 patients with benign oral lesions were treated at Kitasato University Hospital over a 27-year period. Benign oral lesions were classified into nine groups as follows: epithelial proliferating lesions (n = 234); fibroma-like lesions (n = 150); cysts and cyst-like lesions of the minor salivary glands (n = 140); ranulas (n = 64); angiomas (n = 62); inflammation/ulcer/granulation lesions (n = 56); pyogenic granulomas (n = 44); pleomorphic adenomas (n = 23); and others (n = 19). The characteristics of all these benign oral lesions are summarized. We believe that these characteristics will be helpful for physicians in their daily clinical examinations.

  12. A clinical research analytics toolkit for cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiqin; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Zhang, Shuo; Xu, Linhao; Pan, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a clinical informatics toolkit that can assist physicians to conduct cohort studies effectively and efficiently. The toolkit has three key features: 1) support of procedures defined in epidemiology, 2) recommendation of statistical methods in data analysis, and 3) automatic generation of research reports. On one hand, our system can help physicians control research quality by leveraging the integrated knowledge of epidemiology and medical statistics; on the other hand, it can improve productivity by reducing the complexities for physicians during their cohort studies.

  13. Photodynamic therapy of port wine stain: preliminary clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Stuart

    1993-07-01

    The broad, long term objective of this work is the development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for application in the clinical management of patients with port wine stain (PWS). PDT involves the use of an exogenous drug which is concentrated in a targeted tissue. When irradiated at wavelengths specifically absorbed by the drug, selective destruction of the targeted tissue, without the production of heat, occurs. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate in human PWS patients that a photosensitizer, such as PHOTOFRINR, activated by red light at the appropriate therapeutic wavelength, can cause destruction of subsurface blood vessels in the skin with a high degree of specificity, and further study appears warranted.

  14. The Development of Norm-Based Coding and Race-Specific Face Prototypes: An Examination of 5- and 8-Year-Olds' Face Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Lindsey A.; Hatry, Alexandra J.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2011-01-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of…

  15. Why Won't My Torch Work? Physics for 4 to 8 Year Olds. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    Young children in Australia enter early childhood education settings eager to make sense of the world that surrounds them. Their interest in every day experiences is evident in the range of questions asked, many of which are scientific in nature. Intended as a resource for adults working with 4-to 8-year-old children, this booklet provides an…

  16. Increased Levels of Eotaxin and MCP-1 in Juvenile Dermatomyositis Median 16.8 Years after Disease Onset; Associations with Disease Activity, Duration and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Flatø, Berit; Vistnes, Maria; Christensen, Geir; Sjaastad, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cytokine profiles in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) after medium to long-term follow-up with matched controls, and to examine associations between cytokine levels and disease activity, disease duration and organ damage. Methods Fifty-four JDM patients were examined median 16.8 years (2–38) after disease onset (follow-up) and compared with 54 sex- and age-matched controls. Cytokine concentrations in serum were quantified by Luminex technology. In patients, disease activity score (DAS), myositis damage index (MDI) and other disease parameters were collected by chart review (early parameters) and clinical examination (follow-up). Results Serum levels of eotaxin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were elevated in JDM patients compared to controls (31.5%, 37.2% and 43.2% respectively, all p<0.05). Patients with active (n = 28), but not inactive disease (n = 26) had a higher level of MCP-1 than their respective controls. Levels of eotaxin and MCP-1 correlated with disease duration (r = 0.47 and r = 0.64, both p<0.001) and age in patients, but not with age in controls. At follow-up, MDI was associated with MCP-1(standardized β = 0.43, p = 0.002) after adjusting for disease duration and gender. High MDI 1 year post-diagnosis predicted high levels of eotaxin and MCP-1 at follow-up (standardized β = 0.24 and 0.29, both p<0.05) after adjusting for disease duration and gender. Conclusion Patients with JDM had higher eotaxin, MCP-1 and IP-10 than controls. High eotaxin and MCP-1 at follow-up was predicted by early disease parameters, and MCP-1 was associated with organ damage at follow-up, highlighting a role of these chemokines in JDM. PMID:24647150

  17. Clinical studies in orthodontics--an overview of NIDR-sponsored clinical orthodontic studies in the US.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    A number of clinical trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) use rigorous methods of data acquisition and analysis previously developed in fundamental biology and the physical sciences. The naive expectation that these trials would lead relatively rapidly to definitive answers concerning the therapeutic strategies and techniques under study is dispelled. This presentation focuses on delineating differences between the study of central tendencies and individual variation, more specifically on the strategy to study this variation: measure additional sources of variance within each patient at more timepoints and perhaps with greater precision. As rigorous orthodontic research is still in its infancy, the problem of defining the proper mix between prospective and retrospective trials is discussed. In view of the high costs of prospective clinical trials, many of the questions germane to orthodontics can be answered by well-conducted retrospective trials, assuming that properly randomized sampling procedures are employed. Definitive clinical trials are likely to require better theoretical constructs, better instrumentation, and better measures than now available. Reasons for concern are the restricted resources available and the fact that current mensurational approaches may not detect many of the individual differences. The task of constructing sharable databases and record bases stored in digital form and available either remotely from servers, or locally from CD-ROMs or optical disks, is crucial to the optimization of future investigations.

  18. [The evaluation of cefmetazole in clinical use. The study group of cefmetazole in clinical use].

    PubMed

    Si, C; Tian, G

    1996-10-01

    To study the clinical effect of cefmetazole (CMZ), we treated with CMZ 1,926 patients with various infections involving the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, liver and biliary tract, skin and soft tissue and others. The marked effect rate was 56.5%, and the effect rate 33.7%. The sensitivity test of CMZ was also performed in vitro. Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, staphylococcus epidermis, E. coli, S. typhi, B. salmonella, B. shigella, B. Klebsiella pneumoniae, B. proteus, etc. were sensitive to CMZ. Injecting CMZ can prevent the infection of operation. The study of the adverse reaction of CMZ showed, an adverse reaction rate of 4.2% (the gastrointestinal tract, allergy, kidney and nervous system). These results suggested that CMZ is an antibiotic of broad spectrum, high efficacy and low toxicity. It is effective in treating sensitive bacterial infection, unknown pathogenic infection and mixed bacterial infection, and preventing infection in surgery. PMID:9592326

  19. Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome with Precocious Puberty in an 8-Year-Old Boy due to a Large Unilateral Adrenal Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Muhammad Rajib; Alam, Md. Mashiul; Nabi, Junaid; Kibria, Mahzabin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing's syndrome are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Bilateral macronodular adrenocortical disease which is a component of the McCune-Albright syndrome is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a boy with Cushing's syndrome who presented with obesity and growth retardation. The child was hypertensive. The biochemical evaluation revealed that his serum cortisol levels were 25.80 μg/dL, with a concomitant plasma ACTH level of 10.0 pg/mL and nonsuppressed serum cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) to be 20.38 μg/dL. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a 8 × 6 × 5 cm left adrenal mass with internal calcifications. Following preoperative stabilization, laparotomy was carried out which revealed a lobulated left adrenal mass with intact capsule weighing 120 grams. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cortical neoplastic lesion, suggestive of adrenal adenoma; composed of large polygonal cells with centrally placed nuclei and prominent nucleoli without capsular and vascular invasion. On the seventh postoperative day, cortisol levels were within normal range indicating biochemical remission of Cushing's syndrome. On followup after three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement and had lost moderate amount of weight and adrenal imaging was found to be normal. PMID:23533838

  20. Safety of amisulpride (Solian): a review of 11 clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Coulouvrat, C; Dondey-Nouvel, L

    1999-07-01

    We assessed the overall safety profile of amisulpride based on the results from 11 clinical studies performed in patients suffering from schizophrenia with predominance of positive or negative symptoms. A total of 1933 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with amisulpride (n = 1247) or haloperidol (n = 309), risperidone (n = 113), flupentixol (n = 62) and placebo (n = 202). Safety data collection was performed using open reporting, UKU scales or specific extrapyramidal side-effect scales; electrocardiogram recording and vital signs examination; laboratory data collection. Amisulpride demonstrated a satisfactory global safety profile in the range of doses usually prescribed. The number of patients having at least one extrapyramidal side-effect was higher in haloperidol patients compared with both amisulpride and risperidone patients (50% versus 30% in the two latter groups). For endocrine events, a similar rate was observed between amisulpride and risperidone groups (4% versus 6%, respectively) versus 1% in the haloperidol group. Electrocardiogram results were satisfactory, confirmed by the absence of cardiovascular events. The overall laboratory safety profile of amisulpride did not show clinically relevant abnormalities in liver function tests nor haematological abnormalities. Our extensive clinical data confirm the satisfactory safety profile of amisulpride which is superior to standard reference compounds.

  1. [Quality of the clinical reports: observational study in Sassari].

    PubMed

    Virdis, A; Licheri, N; Ruiu, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the program of clinical risk management, and in particular in the phase of the "knowledge" of company reality, the work deals with the topic of the case history in Sassari' local health authority. A study is treated where, on a sample of about 400 cases history, four definite aspects are considered, in particular those that are regarded as the most important in the risk management and about medical responsability: 1) formal consent; 2) daily clinical allowance; 3) therapeutic card; 4) operating card. The results we got show the presence of a formal consent filled in correctly in 36 cases (9%), completed a daily allowance in 36 cases (9%), therapeutic card in 14 (3.5%) cases, operation card in 21 cases (19% su 116 surgical cases). These data, that have permitted to estimate the specific company reality as from pointed out critical states, show the necessity of working, with involvement of professional doctors, to build a history case model with clear and shared rules where you can clearly find the clinical path of a patient, where everything made is quoted and easily readable when necessary.

  2. Survival rate and neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely premature babies: an 8-year experience of an Italian single neonatal tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Uccella, Sara; De Carli, Agnese; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Schiavolin, Paola; Damiano, Giuseppe; Ghirardi, Beatrice; Maglioli Carpano, Francesca; Bassi, Laura; Gangi, Silvana; Picciolini, Odoardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Extremely preterm babies are at major risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, being the gestational age (GA) the main determinant for a good-quality survival. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental outcome in a population of extremely preterm babies admitted to a single neonatal tertiary care unit over an 8-year period. All babies born between 23+0 and 25+6 weeks of GA from January 2003 until December 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Perinatal and neonatal variables were recorded. Motor and cognitive development was assessed using the neurofunctional scale (NFS) and the Griffith's scales at 2 years. Fifty-five out of 122 infants survived to discharge. Survival rates doubled for each additional gestational week from 23 to 25: 16%, 38% and 74% at 23, 24 and 25 weeks GA respectively. Forty-six infants were evaluated at 2 years. A poor cognitive and motor outcome was observed in all babies born at 23 weeks. Griffith's general quotient (GQ) was ≥76 in 62% and ≥88 in 33% of babies born between 24 and 25 weeks. No severe motor disabilities were found in 81% of babies born between 24 and 25 weeks. Preterm premature rupture of membranes, absence of prenatal steroids, intrauterine growth restriction, male, lower GA and major brain abnormalities at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were significantly associated with worse NFS and lower mean GQ at 2 years of age. GA, gender and abnormal MRI findings remained significantly associated with impaired NFS at the multivariate analysis. Survival rates and neurodevelopmental outcome improved with each week of GA. These results are relevant for clinicians counselling families facing an unavoidable extremely preterm birth. PMID:26714779

  3. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial Part 2. Influence on plants.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Pruvot, Christelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Géraldine; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl(2)-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  4. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  5. 76 FR 73781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  6. 77 FR 31072 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of...

  7. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  8. 75 FR 28686 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  9. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  10. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  11. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Brugada Syndrome: Insights from Pre-clinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Liu, Tong; Li, Ka H. C.; Laxton, Victoria; Chan, Yin W. F.; Keung, Wendy; Li, Ronald A.; Yan, Bryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS), is a primary electrical disorder predisposing affected individuals to sudden cardiac death via the development of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF). Originally, BrS was linked to mutations in the SCN5A, which encodes for the cardiac Na+ channel. To date, variants in 19 genes have been implicated in this condition, with 11, 5, 3, and 1 genes affecting the Na+, K+, Ca2+, and funny currents, respectively. Diagnosis of BrS is based on ECG criteria of coved- or saddle-shaped ST segment elevation and/or T-wave inversion with or without drug challenge. Three hypotheses based on abnormal depolarization, abnormal repolarization, and current-load-mismatch have been put forward to explain the electrophysiological mechanisms responsible for BrS. Evidence from computational modeling, pre-clinical, and clinical studies illustrates that molecular abnormalities found in BrS lead to alterations in excitation wavelength (λ), which ultimately elevates arrhythmic risk. A major challenge for clinicians in managing this condition is the difficulty in predicting the subset of patients who will suffer from life-threatening VT/VF. Several repolarization risk markers have been used thus far, but these neglect the contributions of conduction abnormalities in the form of slowing and dispersion. Indices incorporating both repolarization and conduction and based on the concept of λ have recently been proposed. These may have better predictive values than the existing markers. PMID:27803673

  12. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets. PMID:10180003

  13. Developing Medicare competitive bidding: a study of clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, T J; Meadow, A

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets.

  14. Ocular lateropulsion in Wallenberg's syndrome: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Crevits, L; vander Eecken, H

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate the occurrence and clinical value of ocular lateropulsion in Wallenberg's syndrome, a prospective study was carried out. Lateropulsion of the horizontal and vertical refixation saccades was a rather regular finding, especially in complete Wallenberg's syndrome. Lateral ocular deviation after elimination of fixation was present in nearly all cases. The tonic lateral vector was always directed to the involved side. It is concluded that ocular lateropulsion is an easily elicited sign with a lateralizing value in lateral bulbar infarction. Further systematic search of ocular lateropulsion in other posterior fossa disorders is needed to determine its topographical significance.

  15. Clinical, biomechanical and histological study on oophorectomy induced menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bordinhon, Maristela; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical implications as well as biomechanical and histological changes and in bone tissue induced by ovariectomy in 64 rats. Methods: The rats were divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy or placebo, and subdivided into four subgroups, according to time postoperatively: three, six, nine and 12 months. The weight of the animals at the time of sacrifice was taken into consideration. The biomechanical study was performed on the right tibia, to the maximum load and stiffness coefficient. For the histological study we calculated the trabecular bone of the left tibia. Statistical analysis of body weight and mechanical properties was performed by variance analysis, complemented with Tukey's multiple comparison tests; and trabecular area, the non-parametric variance analysis. Results: Ovariectomy-induced menopause caused an increase in body weight, reduction of diaphyseal bone resistance at six months of hormone deprivation, but this effect is equalized over time by aging; bone stiffness was smaller in the ovariectomized group and reduction of bone mass occurred. Conclusion: The removal of the ovaries produced systemic alterations, characterized by metabolic changes that caused weight gain and changes in bone tissue, associated with alteration of the mechanical profile and reduced bone mass. Level of Evidence I, Clinical Study. PMID:25328434

  16. Core Practice Outcomes for Clinical Nurse Specialists: A Revalidation Study.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Janet S; Mayo, Ann M; Walker, Jane A; Urden, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Measuring outcomes of clinical nurse specialist (CNS) practice is essential for demonstrating accountability. Literature is limited with respect to the scope of reported CNS outcomes. The National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists' (NACNS) published listing of CNS outcomes could serve as an outcome measurement framework. Revalidation of these outcomes is an important step in creating a structured outcome measurement approach. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess CNSs' perceptions of the ongoing validity of NACNS published outcomes. A Web-based survey asked participants to describe, for each of 42 outcomes, the frequency of outcome accountability, importance to practice, and frequency of monitoring. Of the 427 surveys returned, 347 (81%) were included in analysis. Findings demonstrated concordance between identified outcomes and actual CNS practice. When job descriptions included the CNS outcomes, more CNSs reported using the outcomes in practice. Both accountability and importance predicted the monitoring of outcomes (p < .001). This study demonstrated the ongoing validity of NACNS outcomes. Nurse educators must ensure that CNS program curricula are based on the NACNS framework and that successful achievement of program outcomes are congruent with the framework. These outcomes have potential for use as a conceptual framework for guiding future CNS outcome investigations and ongoing monitoring systems. Finally, the findings of this study give voice to CNS practice and provide knowledge about expectations for practice outcomes. PMID:27424927

  17. Local cause of gingival overgrowth. Clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, Emma Cristina; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; MercuŢ, Veronica; Scrieciu, Monica; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Diaconu, Oana Andreea; Oprea, Bogdan; Pascu, Roxana Maria; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The overgrowth, depending on its extension, has multiple effects on the stomatognathic apparatus: functional disorders (impaired speech), difficulty in chewing and aesthetic problems but can cause significant psychological problems. We proposed this study, motivated by the relative increased frequency of the gum outgrowth, its multifactorial etiopathogeny, but especially from the point of view of the specialist practitioner, by the problems that this pathology raises not only for the functionality of the stomatognathic apparatus but also for the facial esthetics, and especially for future therapeutic attitudes needed to solve the existing pathology at this level. We conducted a clinical study and a histological one. For the clinical study, we selected 74 patients who experienced different degrees of gingival outgrowing associated with fillings, dental caries, fixed prostheses, mobile prostheses, orthodontic apparatus. Thirty gingival fragments from patients with gingival outgrowing were processed by paraffin-embedding histological technique and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The morphological results obtained provide the necessary support for understanding the possibility of developing a therapeutic strategy to prevent or minimize the gum outgrowth by administering antibiotic and anti-inflammatory medications associated with medications, which shall cause the apoptosis of the fibroblasts. PMID:27516015

  18. Clinical study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Gh Mohiuddin; Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Khursheed, Bilques

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious disease of tropical and semitropical areas of the world. The cold and harsh winter conditions of the Kashmir Valley do not favor the survival and growth of the Leishmania parasite or its vector, the sand fly, and the disease was until now practically unheard of in the Kashmir Valley. Aims: There has been a recent rise in the number of cases of CL in the Kashmir Valley. Against this background, the present study was taken up to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and management outcomes of CL in the Kashmir Valley, where it represents a new phenomenon. Materials and Methods: Patients with direct smear-confirmed CL were evaluated. For each patient, we noted age, gender, geographical origin, stays in endemic areas, clinical aspects, number, site and size of lesions, treatment, and outcome. All the infected patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate. The dose, route of administration, adverse effects, and the clinical response in each patient was noted down. Results: Eighteen patients, 11 males (61.12%) and 7 females (38.88%) were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 60 years (mean age 29.8). The majority of our patients (16, 88.9%) belonged to two hilly areas, Uri and Karnah. Duration of the disease ranged from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 18 months (mean duration 4.6 months). Lesions in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) were located on the face including the lip and nose. The size of lesions varied from 4 to about 50 mm (average 2-3 cm). Most of our patients (13, 73.3%) had only a single lesion and a few (5, 26.7%) had two or three lesions. The clinical type of lesion in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) was noduloulcerative, only two (11.1%) had nodular (nonulcerative) lesions. Sixteen patients; all with facial lesions were treated with intravenous sodium stibogluconate. A complete response was seen in 14 (87%), without any major adverse effect. Two adult patients with

  19. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  20. A clinical study of canine collagen type III glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Collagen type III glomerulopathy (Col3GP), also known as collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy, is a rare renal disease with unknown pathogenesis that occurs in animals and humans. We recently described a naturally occurring canine autosomal recessive model of Col3GP, and the aim of the present work was to study the clinical features of canine Col3GP and compare with the human phenotype. In humans two different clinical syndromes with different age at onset (child- or adulthood) have been observed. In children a more aggressive course with familial occurrence is described, characterized by progressively increasing proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and chronic renal failure. A markedly increased serum level of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) is considered a useful marker for the disease. Since Col3GP and concurrent hypocomplementemia have been observed in humans, we also aimed to investigate if hypocomplementemia was present in Col3GP affected dogs. A litter consisting of seven puppies, four Col3GP affected and three healthy unaffected, was observed from the day of birth until the affected puppies developed a mild or moderate renal azotemia. Results During the period of observation growth retardation, increasing blood pressure, progressive proteinuria, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia and increased serum PIIINP were observed in all the affected dogs. Hypocomplementemia was not detected. Affected dogs were euthanized between 109 and 144 days of age, and pathological examinations revealed ascites and massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III, consistent with Col3GP. Conclusions Dogs with Col3GP develop juvenile chronic renal failure, preceded by nephrotic syndrome, elevated serum PIIINP and hypertension, thus have similar clinical features as the juvenile Col3GP in humans. Further studies of this naturally occurring canine phenotype may provide more information on the pathogenesis and

  1. Executive Function Skills of 6-8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children's self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based…

  2. The Art of Teaching Children the Arts: Music, Dance and Poetry with Children Aged 2-8 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Olsson, Bengt; Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the theoretical framework of developmental pedagogy is presented as a tool in studying and developing children's knowing within the arts. The domains of art focused on are music, poetry and dance/aesthetic movement. Through empirical examples from a large-scale research project, we illustrate the tools of developmental pedagogy…

  3. Reading and Writing Performances of Children 7-8 Years of Age with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Shen, Miau-Lin; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) refers to a delay in motor development that does not have any known medical cause. Studies conducted in English speaking societies have found that children with DCD display a higher co-occurrence rate of learning difficulties (e.g., problems in reading and writing) than typically developing (TD) children.…

  4. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  5. [Algodystrophic syndrome in hemiplegia. Clinical and therapeutic study].

    PubMed

    Perrigot, M; Bergego, C; Hocini, A; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    1982-01-01

    The work here exposed is divided in two studies: clinical and therapeutical. 1--Clinical. The occurrence of shoulder hand syndrome has been studied in 130 patients with hemiplegia. Although the preventive treatment was correct in all cases, 90 of them developed neurodystrophy. It is shown that the appearance and the intensity of this syndrome can be predicted with some certainly as soon as three weeks after the onset of hemiplegia, since there is a statistically significant correlation with the aetiology and the existence of some associated factors. 2--Therapeutical. The efficacy of eight treatments (calcitonin, blocking agents, intravenous clomipramine, blocking agents, periarterial injections of local anaesthetics, local or general corticotherapy, physiotherapy, kinesitherapy), randomly given to the patients, was compared (90 patients and 130 treatments). Local corticotherapy was the most efficient treatment. Physiotherapy was less efficient but always well tolerated. All the other treatments were much less active. Kinesitherapy was however always necessary to prevent joint ankylosis. No correlation was found between the intensity of the shoulder hand syndrome and the efficacy of treatments.

  6. Malignant mesothelioma: a clinical study of 238 cases.

    PubMed

    Haber, Steven E; Haber, Jason M

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a diffuse tumor arising in the pleura, peritoneum, or other serosal surface and is closely associated with asbestos exposure. An estimated 2,500 to 3,000 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Although there are individual case reports and small series detailing the clinical aspects of mesothelioma, few studies examine a large series of patients with malignant mesothelioma from the clinical perspective. This study reports on the findings of 238 cases of malignant mesothelioma from a private consultative medical practice. Most cases had a history of occupational asbestos exposure. The mean latency was 48.5 yr, with women having a longer latency than men. The mean age at diagnosis was 70. Survival overall was poor (mean 8.8 months), but treatment was beneficial (mean 11.3 versus 6.4 months). Epithelioid histology conferred a survival advantage over sarcomatoid and responded better to treatment. Our data support an inverse relationship between asbestos dose and latency.

  7. StudySearch: a web-based application for posting and searching clinical research studies.

    PubMed

    Gonsenhauser, Blair; Hallarn, Rose; Carpenter, Daniel; Para, Michael F; Reider, Carson R

    2016-03-01

    Participant accrual into research studies is critical to advancing clinical and translational research to clinical care. Without sufficient recruitment, the purpose of any research study cannot be realized; yet, low recruitment and enrollment of participants persist. StudySearch is a web-based application designed to provide an easily readable, publicly accessible, and searchable listing of IRB-approved protocols that are accruing study participants. The Regulatory, Recruitment and Biomedical Informatics Cores of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) at The Ohio State University developed this research study posting platform. Postings include basic descriptive information: study title, purpose of the study, eligibility criteria and study personnel contact information. Language concerning benefits and/or inducements is not included; therefore, while IRB approval for a study to be listed on StudySearch is required, IRB approval of the posted language is not. Studies are listed by one of two methods; one automated and one manual: (1). Studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov are automatically downloaded once a month; or (2). Studies are submitted directly by researchers to the CCTS Regulatory Core staff. In either case, final language is a result of an iterative process between researchers and CCTS staff. Deployed in January 2011 at OSU, this application has grown to approximately 200 studies currently posted and 1500 unique visitors per month. Locally, StudySearch is part of the CCTS recruitment toolkit. Features continue to be modified to better accommodate user behaviors. Nationally, this open source application is available for use.

  8. Posterior shoulder pain and anterior instability: a preliminary clinical study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Borroni, Mario; Massazza, Giuseppe; Vinci, Enzo; Franceschi, Giorgio; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2008-02-01

    Different clinical tests have been suggested in the literature as significant indicators of anterior shoulder instability. Sometimes patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability may show some muscular guarding thus making the evaluation of specific clinical tests very difficult. These patients may also report a medical history with posterior shoulder pain that can be also elicited during some clinical manoeuvres. From September 2005 to September 2006 we prospectively studied patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior capsuloplasty. Shoulder clinical examination was performed including anterior shoulder instability tests (drawer, apprehension and relocation tests). Furthermore the exam was focused on the presence of scapular dyskinesia and posterior shoulder pain. The patients were also evaluated with ASES, Rowe, SST (Simple Shoulder Test), Constant and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) scoring system preoperatively and at the latest follow-up time. In the period of this study we observed 16 patients treated for anterior gleno-humeral arthroscopic stabilisation, who preoperatively complained also of a posterior scapular pain. The pain was referred at the level of lower trapezium and upper rhomboids tendon insertion on the medial border of the scapula. It was also reproducible upon local palpation by the examiner. Four of these patients also referred pain in the region of the insertion of the infraspinatus and teres minor. After arthroscopic stabilisation the shoulder was immobilised in a sling with the arm in the neutral rotation for a period of 4 weeks. A single physician supervised shoulder rehabilitation. After a mean time of 6.8 months of follow-up, all the shoulder scores were significantly improved and, moreover, at the same time the patients referred the disappearance of the posterior pain. Posterior scapular shoulder pain seems to be another complaint and sign that can be found in patients affected by anterior shoulder instability

  9. Ataxia telangiectasia in Chinese children. A clinical and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Wong, V; Yu, Y L; Chan-Lui, W Y; Woo, E; Yeung, C Y

    1987-01-01

    The clinical manifestations, immunological, chromosomal, and multimodal electrophysiological studies of five Chinese patients with ataxia telangiectasia are described. One died of hepatocellular carcinoma not associated with Hepatitis B-antigenaemia. Another died of respiratory failure. Two siblings are free of sinopulmonary infections although they are wheelchair bound. Computed tomography of the brain showed cerebellar atrophy in four cases. Nerve conduction studies showed evidence of axonal neuropathy in all cases with the earliest detection at six years. Electromyography showed mild denervation changes in two cases. Two patients had abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials and one had abnormal visual and brain stem auditory evoked potentials. The level of alpha foetal protein was elevated whereas the serum carcino-embryonic antigen was normal in all patients. PMID:3665286

  10. [Clinical study of maxillofacial fractures sustained during sports and games].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Hayashi, S; Suzuki, K; Uchide, N; Tomitsuka, K; Hirata, Y; Yoshimasu, H; Amagasa, T

    1992-09-01

    We performed a clinico-statistical study of the maxillofacial fracture due to sports during the period of 15 years between 1977 and 1991. Eighty-nine patients were seen with injuries resulting from 21 different sports. The incidence of the fracture was most common in rugby, followed by ski, baseball and soccer. Males were shown to be more prone to maxillofacial fracture than females (5.4:1) and the highest incidence of injuries involved the 20-29 age group followed by the 10-19 age group. The major parts of the fracture were the mandible and the alveolar process. Conservative therapy such as maxillomandibular fixation was usually performed and the clinical course was good. It was suggested that the prevention of the sports-related fracture and the time of returning to sports after the fracture will require further study.

  11. Clinical studies of a vegetarian food diet mixture.

    PubMed

    Carter, J P; Bonney, G; Molnar, I G; Garces, N; Lulseged, S; Habte, D; Ryan, J; Allen, D

    1989-05-01

    A vegetarian food mixture when incorporated into a commercially prepared diet can be used as a supplement or in a vegetarian protein-sparing modified fast. A modification of this diet was given to protein-energy deficient malnourished children in Ethiopia, and it reversed their biochemical defects. The soluble or gel-forming fiber in the mixture also gives the product a favorable glycemic index and reduces glycemic excursion as well as fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. This accounts for the improvements seen in glucose tolerance in type II diabetic patients. These results, however, were preceded by a study of the effects of the mixture in improving glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. A clinical study among New Orleans police officers also suggests that this mixture helps people, without much self-motivation, to lose weight. PMID:2746679

  12. Clinical studies of a vegetarian food diet mixture.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J. P.; Bonney, G.; Molnar, I. G.; Garces, N.; Lulseged, S.; Habte, D.; Ryan, J.; Allen, D.

    1989-01-01

    A vegetarian food mixture when incorporated into a commercially prepared diet can be used as a supplement or in a vegetarian protein-sparing modified fast. A modification of this diet was given to protein-energy deficient malnourished children in Ethiopia, and it reversed their biochemical defects. The soluble or gel-forming fiber in the mixture also gives the product a favorable glycemic index and reduces glycemic excursion as well as fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. This accounts for the improvements seen in glucose tolerance in type II diabetic patients. These results, however, were preceded by a study of the effects of the mixture in improving glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. A clinical study among New Orleans police officers also suggests that this mixture helps people, without much self-motivation, to lose weight. PMID:2746679

  13. Air pollution and asthma: clinical studies with sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Frampton, M.W.; Morrow, P.E. )

    1991-11-01

    Until recently, acid deposition has been widely considered a serious ecological problem but not a threat to human health. The controlled clinical study is an important approach in linking acidic aerosol inhalation with respiratory effects. Asthmatic patients represent a subpopulation most responsive to sulfuric acid aerosols. In a series of studies with asthmatic volunteers, several factors have been identified that may modulate the intensity of the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled acidic aerosols. We found (1) enhancement of the bronchoconstrictor response during exercise, (2) the more acidic aerosols provoke the greatest changes in lung function, and (3) mitigation of airway responses during sulfuric acid aerosol inhalation caused by high respiratory ammonia concentrations. Additional factors influencing responsiveness await identification.

  14. Bacterial keratitis: a prospective clinical and microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, F.; Bruttin, O.; Zografos, L.; Guex-Crosier, Y.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To define the clinical and microbiological profile of bacterial keratitis at the Jules Gonin Eye Hospital and to test the in vitro bacterial resistance.
METHODS—Patients presenting with bacterial keratitis were prospectively followed; clinical features (age, risk factors, visual acuity) and response to therapy were analysed. Bacteriological profile was determined and the sensitivity/resistance of isolated strains were tested towards 12 ocular antibiotics (NCCLS disc diffusion test).
RESULTS—85 consecutive patients (mean age 44.3 (SD 20.7) years) were prospectively enrolled from 1 March 1997 to 30 November 1998. The following risk factors were identified: contact lens wear, 36%; blepharitis, 21%; trauma, 20%; xerophthalmia, 15%; keratopathies, 8%; and eyelid abnormalities, 6%. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 40%; Staphylococcus aureus, 22%; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 8%; others Streptococcus species, 5%; Pseudomonas, 9%; Moraxella and Serratia marcescens, 5% each; Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Alcaligenes xyloxidans, Morganella morganii, and Haemophilus influenza, 1% each. 1-15% of strains were resistant to fluoroquinolones, 13-22% to aminoglycosides, 37% to cefazolin, 18% to chloramphenicol, 54% to polymyxin B, 51% to fusidic acid, and 45% to bacitracin. Five of the 85 patients (5.8%) had a poor clinical outcome with a visual loss of one or more lines of visual acuity.
CONCLUSION—Fluoroquinolones appear to be the therapy of choice for bacterial keratitis, but, based upon these in vitro studies, some strains may be resistant.

 PMID:11423460

  15. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Gontiya, Gauri; Galgali, Sushama R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL®) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm). Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4th, 6th, and 12th week. At 4th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4th, 6th, and 12th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6th and 12th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4th, 6th, and 12th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant. PMID:23055583

  16. Measles in suburban Khartoum: an epidemiological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Mustafa, O M; Mukhtar, M M; Saleh, E A; El Mubarak, H S; Abdallah, A; El-Hassan, A M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Groen, J; De Swart, R L; Zijlstra, E E

    2002-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 187 clinically diagnosed measles patients in Haj Yousif area, suburban Khartoum. Laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis in 141 (75%) of the cases, but demonstrated that in 46 (25%) patients the clinical symptoms were not caused by an acute measles virus (MV) infection. According to their vaccination card, 59% of the laboratory-confirmed measles cases had been vaccinated for measles. Compared with non-measles rash disease cases, confirmed measles cases more often had severe illness (P < 0.0001), were dehydrated (P=0.01) at presentation and less likely to recover without complications [OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.09, 0.39)]. There was no difference in death rate (P=0.20). Underweight [weight-for-age Z score (WAZ) studied were predictive of outcome. Mortality was higher in the severe measles group [OR 8.8 (95% CI 1.7, 85.2)]. In 11 of 141 confirmed measles cases serological evidence of a recent infection with another virus was found, most commonly varicella zoster virus and dengue virus; spotted fever and rubella were among the most frequent diagnoses in 17 of 47 cases of the non-measles cases.

  17. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  18. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  19. Reading and writing performances of children 7-8 years of age with developmental coordination disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Shen, Miau-Lin; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) refers to a delay in motor development that does not have any known medical cause. Studies conducted in English speaking societies have found that children with DCD display a higher co-occurrence rate of learning difficulties (e.g., problems in reading and writing) than typically developing (TD) children. The present study examined the reading and writing performance of school-aged children with DCD and TD children in Taiwan to determine whether reading and writing difficulties also co-occur with DCD in a non-English speaking society. The Chinese Reading Achievement Test and the Basic Reading and Writing Test were administered to 37 children with DCD (7.8 ± 0.6 years) and 93 TD children (8.0 ± 0.7 years). Children with DCD had significantly lower writing composite scores than TD children on the Basic Reading and Writing Test (105.9 ± 20.0 vs. 114.4 ± 19.9). However, there were no significant differences between children with DCD and TD children in their scores on the Chinese Reading Achievement Test and in their reading composite scores on the Basic Reading and Writing Test. These results contrasted interestingly with those obtained from English-speaking children: English-speaking DCD children showed poorer reading and poorer writing than English-speaking TD children. The possibility that the logographic nature of the Chinese script might have protected the DCD children against additional reading difficulty is discussed.

  20. The development of norm-based coding and race-specific face prototypes: an examination of 5- and 8-year-olds' face space.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Hatry, Alexandra J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2011-02-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of expanded, compressed, and undistorted Caucasian and Chinese faces. The method was validated with adults and then refined to test 8- and 5-year-olds. The 5-year-olds were also tested in a simple aftereffects paradigm. The current research provides the first evidence for simple attractiveness aftereffects in 5-year-olds and for race-contingent aftereffects in both 5- and 8-year-olds. Evidence that adults and 5-year-olds may possess only a weak prototype for Chinese children's faces suggests that Caucasian adults' prototype for Chinese adult faces does not generalize to child faces and that children's face space undergoes a period of increasing differentiation between 5 and 8 years of age.

  1. Clinical study of Manjishthadi Ghrita in vrana ropana.

    PubMed

    Baria, Jyoti; Gupta, S K; Bhuyan, C

    2011-01-01

    Healing of vrana (wound) is either primary or secondary by nature. Secondary healing requires more attention than primary healing. Basically, two things, shodhana (making free from undesirable healing factors) and ropana (closure of wound), are desirable for proper healing. Many drugs have been described in classics for healing, but none of them is capable of healing the wound individually. Hence, to fulfill the aim, manjishthadi ghrita was prepared with the help of 7 drugs having vrana ropana effects and was evaluated clinically for its healing properties in this study. It was used topically in postoperative wounds, mostly of ano-rectal cases, twice a day, for 21 days. The follow-up period was 1 month to observe the healing as well as vaikritapaham (reduced deformity) properties and any untoward effects of the drug. A randomized control clinical trial was done. Out of 45 patients, 24 patients in group A were treated with "Manjishthadi Ghrita" (treated group), while 21 patients in group B (standard group) treated with povidine iodine ointment. Better result was observed in the treated group in comparison to the standard group. No adverse effect was observed in any patient. Manjishthadi ghrita can be prescribed as a local healing agent for common wound. PMID:22131765

  2. Clinical studies on the mechanism for acupuncture stimulation of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Mo, X; Li, D; Pu, Y; Xi, G; Le, X; Fu, Z

    1993-06-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is commonly seen in gynecology clinic. It may cause infertility, amenia, functional uterine bleeding and a variety of complications. This research according to TCM theory records treating with acupuncture 34 patients suffering from ovulatory dysfunction. Changes in clinical symptoms and some relative targets are reported, plus findings in animal experiments. The effect of acupuncture in improving ovulation and the rationale are discussed. According to TCM theory concerning the generative and physiologic axis of women, this research involved the following points: Ganshu (UB 18), Shenshu (UB 23), Guanyuan (Ren 4), Zhongji (Ren 3), and Sanyinjiao (Sp 6). The reinforcement and reduction of acupuncture enables it to strengthen liver and kidney. Through the Chong and Ren channels it nourishes uterus to adjust the patient's axis function and recover ovulation. Treated on an average of 30 times, the patients' symptoms improved to varying degrees. The marked effective rate was 35.29%, the total effective rate being 82.35%. BBT, VS, CMS, and B ultrasonic picture all improved to some degree. The results also showed that acupuncture may adjust FSH, LH, and E2 in two directions and raise the progesterone level, bringing them to normal. The animal experiments confirmed this result. Results showed that acupuncture may adjust endocrine function of the generative and physiologic axis of women, thus stimulating ovulation. The results of this research will provide some scientific basis for treating and further studying this disorder.

  3. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  4. Repeating tests: different roles in research studies and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Monach, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    Researchers often decide whether to average multiple results in order to produce more precise data, and clinicians often decide whether to repeat a laboratory test in order to confirm its validity or to follow a trend. Some of the major sources of variation in laboratory tests (analytical imprecision, within-subject biological variation and between-subject variation) and the effects of averaging multiple results from the same sample or from the same person over time are discussed quantitatively in this article. This analysis leads to the surprising conclusion that the strategy of averaging multiple results is only necessary and effective in a limited range of research studies. In clinical practice, it may be important to repeat a test in order to eliminate the possibility of a rare type of error that has nothing to do analytical imprecision or within-subject variation, and for this reason, paradoxically, it may be most important to repeat tests with the highest sensitivity and/or specificity (i.e., ones that are critical for clinical decision-making).

  5. [Clinical studies and accepted therapies of advanced melanoma].

    PubMed

    Liszkay, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the work is presentation of the available therapeutic results of the clinical trials with anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1 treatment, which are operating on the immune checkpoints registered in advanced melanoma, and the results of T-VEC vaccination (NCT00094653, NCT00324155, KEYNOTE-001, -002, -006, CheckMate-066, -037, -067, NCT00769704). With ipilimumab therapy, long-term survival can be achieved in the case of 20% of patients, with low (10%) therapeutic response, and grade 3-4 treatment related, predominantly autoimmune adverse events occurring in 10-15% of patients. Anti-PD-1 therapy proved more effective compared to ipilimumab, resulting in 21-40% therapeutic response, with 60-74% one-year survival rate and significantly less severe and frequent side effects. Progression-free survival achieved with ipilimumab/nivolumab combination was 11.5 months with grade 3-4 side effects occurring in 55% of patients. T-VEC therapy resulted in 26.4% objective response rate without a significant survival advantage. In the possession of the new immunotherapeutic possibilities, knowledge of the results of clinical studies is essential for the optimal complex therapy of melanoma. PMID:26934345

  6. Clinical predictive factors of sildenafil response: a penile hemodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Elhanbly, S M; Elkholy, A A-M; Alghobary, M; Abou Al-Ghar, M

    2015-03-01

    Phosphodiestrase-5 inhibitors are an important line of treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). To detect the clinical and hemodynamic predictors of sildenafil response, we conducted this study on 124 Egyptian men with ED. All patients were evaluated by thorough history and clinical assessment with measurement of the abridged international index of erectile function-5 (IIEF-5) score. All patients were then subjected to intracavernosal injection (ICI) of trimix and pharmaco-penile duplex ultrasonography (PPDU). Patients were then classified into sildenafil responders and non-responders after six consecutive doses of 100 mg sildenafil. On doing the binary logistic stepwise regression analysis, only ED duration, IIEF-5 score, and response to ICI were the significant independent predictors of sildenafil response. These three parameters together correctly predicted the sildenafil response by 81.5% (p value <0.001). With the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off value of ED duration was 2.5 years and it was 14 for the IIEF-5 score. These findings indicate that ED duration, the IIEF-5 score and response to ICI are more significant predictors of sildenafil response than the more expensive and time-consuming PPDU testing. PMID:25644869

  7. Palmoplantar Dermatoses- A Clinical Study of 300 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhar, Nadiga; Gejje, Somashekar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dermatoses affecting palms and soles are among the most difficult of all dermatological therapeutic problems. Many previous studies have focused on the specific diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses. However, none of them have included a comprehensive study of palmoplantar dermatoses. Aims: To study the epidemiological aspects like age distribution, sex distribution, the dermatoses affecting the palms & soles and the frequency of involvement of palms, soles or both palms & soles, in patient with palmoplantar dermatoses. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology between October 2011 to September 2013. First 300 cases attending the department of dermatology primarily with complaints pertaining to palms and soles were enrolled in the study. After taking consent a detailed history and clinical examination pertaining to the aim of the study was recorded and analysed, which included inspection of morphology and distribution of lesions and palpation of any swelling. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings, wet mounted with 10% potassium hydroxide was done for cases with scaly lesions. Those who had a pustule, gram staining was done. Patch testing using Indian Standard Battery Series was done for those cases of eczema. A sample for biopsy was taken when diagnosis could not be arrived clinically, and subjected to histopathological examination. Results In our study of 300 patients with palmoplantar dermatoses, 164 were females and 136 were males, the ratio observed being 1.2:1. The peak incidence was found in the age group 21-30 years, with 41 females (25%) and 35 males (25.7%). Most frequently affected individuals in this study were housewives (30%). The most common five diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses were palmoplantar psoriasis (20.7%), moniliasis (19%), palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (7%), keratolysis exfoliativa (6%) and pitted keratolysis (6%). Majority of patients had involvement of both palms and

  8. The cardiovascular polypill: clinical data and ongoing studies.

    PubMed

    Castellano, José M; Bueno, Héctor; Fuster, Valentín

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk modification in terms of comprehensive medical therapy (antithrombotic therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, antihypertensive medication) and lifestyle modification (healthy diet, regular exercise, weight loss, smoking cessation) is the cornerstone of secondary prevention. It is now clear that even in those undergoing PCI or bypass surgery, appropriate lifestyle modification and aggressive medical therapy are paramount for optimizing long-term outcomes. However, what has emerged from studies that examined the role of medical therapy in the context of coronary heart disease is that only ∼50% of the patients in these studies are achieving target treatment goals for blood pressure, lipid and glycemic control. Non-adherence is thought to be a very large contributor to this problem; across all health-care categories, non-adherence is estimated to account for $290 billion of annual health-care expenditure in the United States and €1.25 billion in European Union, with poor adherence to CVD medication accounting for 9% of all European CVD events. Socioeconomic factors may have a role in patients' discontinuing their medications, and a major initiative to combat this problem is the increasing focus on the polypill. The idea of combining numerous medications into a single tablet to reduce CV risk was first proposed more than a decade ago. This combined formulation not only significantly enhances patient convenience and adherence but also drives savings for the healthcare systems. Several randomized clinical trials have consistently demonstrated the effects of polypills on CV risk factors and adherence, and major trials are underway to study the effect on hard clinical outcomes. PMID:26747391

  9. Clinical and Dermoscopic Study of Pseudofolliculitis of the Beard Area

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Kuruvilla, Joel; Al Ojail, Heba Yousef; Quadri, Sayed A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pseudofolliculitis of the beard area is a very common dermatological problem in our geographical region. This could be partly because of the racial predilection as a large percentage of the population has curly hair and also may be due to local cultural customs, unlike the west do not encourage daily shaving of facial hair. Objectives: We aimed to mainly study the dermoscopic features of cases presenting with pseudofolliculitis. Secondary objectives included evaluating clinical patterns and possible etiological factors. Methods: Twenty-four consecutive male patients presenting to a University Health Center with a clinical diagnosis of pseudofolliculitis involving beard area were included in the study. Patient history with regards to shaving habits, patient hair type, morphological patterns of the skin lesions, and dermoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Majority of the patients had “curly” hair. Most of the patients had a usual shaving frequency of 2 or less per week. All the patients who were using razors mentioned that they tended to stretch the skin while shaving. The most common dermoscopic findings included - “Handle bar” sign showing curved hair attached to the skin on both ends, white areas indicate fibrosis and scaling, underlying linear bluish pigmentation (indicating the buried hair shaft), and linear vessels with occasional areas of hemorrhage. Conclusion: Dermoscopy can be a useful adjunct for diagnosis and patient counseling in pseudofolliculitis. Stretching the skin while using razors and growing the facial hair to a point where it has the length to curve might be important risk factors in the development of pseudofolliculitis. Limitations: The lack of histopathological correlation is the main limitation in our study. PMID:27127378

  10. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the “gold standard” in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, mean age=8±0.6  years). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient (0.86±0.06, min=0.74, max=0.96) and small Hausdorff distance (3.33±4.24, min=0.63, max=25.24) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms. PMID:26158067

  11. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-10-01

    Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the "gold standard" in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, [Formula: see text]). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and small Hausdorff distance ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms.

  12. An open multicenter comparative randomized clinical study on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaohui; Cen, John; Gibson, Elaine; Wang, Robin; Percival, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derivate from chitin, offers a promising alternative biomaterial for use in wound dressings. In this work, the safety and efficacy of a next-generation KA01 chitosan wound dressing in facilitating the healing of nonhealing chronic wounds was studied. This open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study was conducted at three medical centers in China. A total of 90 patients (45 in test group and 45 in control group) with unhealed chronic wounds including pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and wounds with minor infections, or at risk of infection, were treated with the next generation chitosan wound dressing as the test article or traditional vaseline gauze as a control. Baseline assessments were undertaken with the primary end point being wound area reduction. The secondary end points included pain reduction (using the NRS11 pain scale) at dressing change, wound exudate levels, wound depth and duration of the treatment. After 4 weeks treatment, the wound area reduction was significantly greater in the test group (65.97 ± 4.48%) than the control group (39.95 ± 4.48%). The average pain level in the test group was 1.12 ± 0.23 and 2.30 ± 0.23 in the control group. The wound depth was also lower in the test group 0.30 ± 0.48 cm than the control group 0.54 ± 0.86 cm. The level of exudate fell and the dressing could be removed integrally in both the test and control groups. The mean duration of the test group was 27.31 ± 5.37 days and control group 27.09 ± 6.44 days. No adverse events were reported in either group. In conclusion this open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study has provided compelling evidence that the next generation chitosan wound dressing can enhance wound progression towards healing by facilitating wound reepithelialization and reducing the patients pain level. Furthermore the dressing was shown to be clinically safe and effective in the management

  13. An open multicenter comparative randomized clinical study on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaohui; Cen, John; Gibson, Elaine; Wang, Robin; Percival, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derivate from chitin, offers a promising alternative biomaterial for use in wound dressings. In this work, the safety and efficacy of a next-generation KA01 chitosan wound dressing in facilitating the healing of nonhealing chronic wounds was studied. This open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study was conducted at three medical centers in China. A total of 90 patients (45 in test group and 45 in control group) with unhealed chronic wounds including pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and wounds with minor infections, or at risk of infection, were treated with the next generation chitosan wound dressing as the test article or traditional vaseline gauze as a control. Baseline assessments were undertaken with the primary end point being wound area reduction. The secondary end points included pain reduction (using the NRS11 pain scale) at dressing change, wound exudate levels, wound depth and duration of the treatment. After 4 weeks treatment, the wound area reduction was significantly greater in the test group (65.97 ± 4.48%) than the control group (39.95 ± 4.48%). The average pain level in the test group was 1.12 ± 0.23 and 2.30 ± 0.23 in the control group. The wound depth was also lower in the test group 0.30 ± 0.48 cm than the control group 0.54 ± 0.86 cm. The level of exudate fell and the dressing could be removed integrally in both the test and control groups. The mean duration of the test group was 27.31 ± 5.37 days and control group 27.09 ± 6.44 days. No adverse events were reported in either group. In conclusion this open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study has provided compelling evidence that the next generation chitosan wound dressing can enhance wound progression towards healing by facilitating wound reepithelialization and reducing the patients pain level. Furthermore the dressing was shown to be clinically safe and effective in the management

  14. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sarah M M; Garrioch, Colin F; Holub, Bruce J

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of essential fatty acid intakes, including (n-3) PUFA, are available in pediatric populations based on limited indirect approaches. Furthermore, recommended intakes for short- and long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA have emerged for this population. This study provides direct quantification of fatty acid intakes in children aged 4-8 y. Identical portions of all food and natural health products consumed over 3 d were collected. Duplicate samples were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by high performance capillary GLC. The results for 41 children [25 females, 16 males; 5.8 +/- 0.2 y (mean age +/- SEM)] showed daily energy intakes of 5879 +/- 211 kJ (mean +/- SEM) and (n-3) PUFA intakes in mg/d as follows: ALA, 1161 +/- 108; EPA, 38.4 +/- 9.3; DPA, 26.3 +/- 3.9; and DHA, 54.1 +/- 11.4. Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Institute of Medicine, 61% of the children met the adequate intake for ALA and 22% met the suggested adequate intake for DHA+EPA (10% of the adequate intake for ALA). These intakes were also compared with the recent Australia/New Zealand recommendations for children, where only 51% met the recommended intake for EPA+DPA+DHA. These results demonstrate a moderate shortfall in ALA intake in Canadian children and a nutrient gap for the LC (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, when comparing intakes for this population to suggested and recommended intakes.

  15. Executive Function Skills of 6 to 8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children’s self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based neuropsychological measure of EF skills. The sample included 74 children (37 females; M = 86.2 months) who participated in two assessments of working memory and inhibitory control: Knock-Tap (NEPSY: Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp, 1998), and participation in event-related potential (ERP) testing that included the Directional Stroop Test (Davidson, Cruess, Diamond, O’Craven, & Savoy, 1999). Three main findings emerged. First, children grouped as high versus low performing on the NEPSY Knock-Tap Task were found to performed differently on the more difficult conditions of the DST (the Incongruent and Mixed Conditions), suggesting that the Knock-Tap Task as a low-cost and easy to administer assessment of EF skills may be one way for teachers to identify students with poor inhibitory control skills. Second, children’s performance on the DST was strongly related to their ERP responses, adding to evidence that differences in behavioral performance on the DST as a measure of EF skills reflect corresponding differences in brain processing. Finally, differences in brain processing on the DST task also were found when the children were grouped based on Knock-Tap performance. Simple screening procedures can enable teachers to identify children whose distractibility, inattentiveness, or poor attention spans may interfere with classroom learning. PMID:20798857

  16. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  17. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  18. Progress of drug-loaded polymeric micelles into clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-09-28

    Targeting tumors with long-circulating nano-scaled carriers is a promising strategy for systemic cancer treatment. Compared with free small therapeutic agents, nanocarriers can selectively accumulate in solid tumors through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, which is characterized by leaky blood vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage in tumor tissues, and achieve superior therapeutic efficacy, while reducing side effects. In this way, drug-loaded polymeric micelles, i.e. self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymers consisting of a hydrophobic core as a drug reservoir and a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrophilic shell, have demonstrated outstanding features as tumor-targeted nanocarriers with high translational potential, and several micelle formulations are currently under clinical evaluation. This review summarizes recent efforts in the development of these polymeric micelles and their performance in human studies, as well as our recent progress in polymeric micelles for the delivery of nucleic acids and imaging. PMID:24993430

  19. Studies in the radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis and their clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, R.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    The radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis is a complex of cellular death and cellular functional impairments from radiation energy transfers. Four studies of irradiated patients and a data base from 536 patients with osteoradionecrosis revealed separate pathophysiologic conditions for osteoradionecrosis induced by early trauma, osteoradionecrosis induced by late trauma, and spontaneous osteoradionecrosis. A large body of data suggested useful clinical guidelines for the management of irradiated patients. The guidelines, in part, include a recommendation for deferring radiation treatment for 21 days after tissue wounding, if possible; a relative contraindication to wounding tissue during a radiation course; a recommendation for the use of hyperbaric oxygen before wounding; and a strong recommendation to provide comprehensive dental care to the irradiated patient.

  20. Shortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yu, Hongbin; Platnick, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Liu, Zhaoyan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DREs) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using 8 years (2007-2014) of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: southeastern (SE) Atlantic region, where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over the African Savanna; tropical northeastern (TNE) Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, respectively; and the northwestern (NW) Pacific, where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asian. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in the TNE Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m-2 (range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m-2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within the atmosphere are -0.15 W m-2 (range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m-2), and 0.17 W m-2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m-2), respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region, the JJA (July-August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m-2 (range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m-2) at TOA. All our DRE computations are publicly available1. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly caused by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, the uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval, and the ignorance of cloud and potential aerosol diurnal cycle. In situ and remotely sensed

  1. A prospective clinical study of patients with hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Eke, F; Nte, A

    1996-09-01

    In a clinical prospective 3-year study of 158 children aged 2 weeks to 14 years with hypernatraemic dehydration (serum sodium 150 mmol/l or more), infants predominated (61.4%). The 158 children with hypernatraemia accounted for 13.7% of all children admitted with gastroenteritis over the same period, and significant aetiological factors included the use of artificial feeds, differences between the children with hypernatraemia and those with normo- or hyponatraemia, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively; the use of breast milk, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively; nutritional status, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively; and clinical state of mild to moderate dehydration P < 0.001; P < 0.001, respectively; but not with patients considered severely dehydrated. There was also a significant difference between the presence of neurological features in hyper- and normonatraemic patients P < 0.001; in hyper- and hyponatraemic patients P < 0.05, and in mortality rate between hyper- and normonatraemic patients, P < 0.05 but not between hyper- and hyponatraemic patients. A history of refusal to feed or vomiting was obtained in 41 children (25.9%). The mean serum sodium was 155.5 mmol/l (range 150-189 mmol/l); mean serum urea 7.7 mmol/l (range 1-18.9 mmol/l). Hypernatraemic dehydration remains an important and serious complication of childhood gastroenteritis in our area of study. The use of artificial milk feeds is contributory, and well-nourished babies appear more at risk. We recommend more liberal water intake during gastroenteritis and the public should also be educated on and made more aware of this condition.

  2. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  3. Clinical study of 222 patients with pure motor stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; Padilla, I; Massons, J; García-Eroles, L; Comes, E; Targa, C

    2001-08-01

    The objective was to assess the frequency of pure motor stroke caused by different stroke subtypes and to compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome data of pure motor stroke with those of patients with other lacunar stroke as well as with those of patients with non-lacunar stroke. Data from 2000 patients with acute stroke (n=1761) or transient ischaemic attack (n=239) admitted consecutively to the department of neurology of an acute care 350 bed teaching hospital were prospectively collected in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry over a 10 year period. For the purpose of the study 222 (12.7%) patients with pure motor stroke were selected. The other study groups included 218 (12.3%) patients with other lacunar strokes and 1321 (75%) patients with non-lacunar stroke. In relation to stroke subtype, lacunar infarcts were found in 189 (85%) patients, whereas ischaemic lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts occurred in 23 (10.4%) patients (atherothrombotic stroke in 12, cardioembolic stroke in seven, infarction of undetermined origin in three, and infarction of unusual aetiology in one) and haemorrhagic lacunar syndromes in 10 (4.5%). Patients with pure motor stroke showed a better outcome than patients with non-lacunar stroke with a significantly lower number of complications and in hospital mortality rate, shorter duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of symptom free patients at hospital discharge. After multivariate analysis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, non-sudden stroke onset, internal capsule involvement, and pons topography seemed to be independent factors of pure motor stroke in patients with acute stroke. In conclusion, about one of every 10 patients with acute stroke had a pure motor stroke. Pure motor stroke was caused by a lacunar infarct in 85% of patients and by other stroke subtypes in 15%. Several clinical features are more frequent in patients with pure motor stroke than in patients

  4. Cystathionine γ-lyase: clinical, metabolic, genetic, and structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Jan P.; Hašek, Jindrich; Kožich, Viktor; Collard, Renata; Venezia, Sarah; Janošíková, Bohumila; Wang, Jian; Stabler, Sally P.; Allen, Robert H.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Finn, Christine T.; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hegele, Robert A.; Mudd, S. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    We report studies of six individuals with marked elevations of cystathionine in plasma and/or urine. Studies of CTH, the gene that encodes cystathionine γ-lyase, revealed the presence among these individuals of either homozygous or compound heterozygous forms of a novel large deletion, p.Gly57_Gln196del, two novel missense mutations, c.589C>T (p.Arg197Cys) and c.932C>T (p.Thr311Ile), and one previously reported alteration, c.200C>T (p.Thr67Ile). Another novel missense mutation, c.185G>T (p.Arg62His), was found in heterozygous form in three mildly hypercystathioninemic members of a Taiwanese family. In one severely hypercystathioninemic individual no CTH mutation was found. Brief clinical histories of the cystathioninemic/cystathioninuric patients are presented. Most of the novel mutations were expressed and the CTH activities of the mutant proteins determined. The crystal structure of the human enzyme, hCTH, and the evidence available as to the effects of the mutations in question, as well as those of the previously reported p.Gln240Glu, on protein structure, enzymatic activity, and responsiveness to vitamin B6 administration are discussed. Among healthy Czech controls, 9.3% were homozygous for CTH c.1208G>T (p.Ser403Ile), previously found homozygously in 7.5% of Canadians for whom plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) had been measured. Compared to wild-type homozygotes, among the 55 Czech c.1208G>T (p.Ser403Ile) homozygotes a greater level of plasma cystathionine was found only after methionine loading. Three of the four individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for inactivating CTH mutations had mild plasma tHcy elevations, perhaps indicating a cause-and-effect relationship. The experience with the present patients provides no evidence that severe loss of CTH activity is accompanied by adverse clinical effects. PMID:19428278

  5. Clinical Study on 136 Children with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Li; Yang, Feng-Bo; Lan, Lan; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zi-Fang; Rosenhall, Ulf; Yu, Lan; Hellstrom, Sten; Xue, Xi-Jun; Duan, Mao-Li; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing. However, the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood. This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics, audiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and prognostic factors. Results: Among the 136 patients (151 ears), 121 patients (121 ears, 80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL, and 15 patients (30 ears, 19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL. The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%, and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%. We found that initial degree of hearing loss, onset of treatment, tinnitus, the ascending type audiogram, gender, side of hearing loss, the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance. Age, ear fullness, and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery. Furthermore, the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts, 22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels, 65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 33.8% had high IgE antibody levels, and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies. Conclusions: CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss. Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery, while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus, gender, the ascending type audiogram, early treatment, identifiable ABR waves, and DPOAEs. Age, vertigo, and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery. Some serologic indicators

  6. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary

  7. Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional peripheral biofeedback has grade A evidence for effectively treating migraines. Two newer forms of neurobiofeedback, EEG biofeedback and hemoencephalography biofeedback were combined with thermal handwarming biofeedback to treat 37 migraineurs in a clinical outpatient setting. Methods 37 migraine patients underwent an average of 40 neurofeedback sessions combined with thermal biofeedback in an outpatient biofeedback clinic. All patients were on at least one type of medication for migraine; preventive, abortive or rescue. Patients kept daily headache diaries a minimum of two weeks prior to treatment and throughout treatment showing symptom frequency, severity, duration and medications used. Treatments were conducted an average of three times weekly over an average span of 6 months. Headache diaries were examined after treatment and a formal interview was conducted. After an average of 14.5 months following treatment, a formal interview was conducted in order to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results Of the 37 migraine patients treated, 26 patients or 70% experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of their headaches which was sustained on average 14.5 months after treatments were discontinued. Conclusions All combined neuro and biofeedback interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of migraines with clients using medication resulting in a more favorable outcome (70% experiencing at least a 50% reduction in headaches) than just medications alone (50% experience a 50% reduction) and that the effect size of our study involving three different types of biofeedback for migraine (1.09) was more robust than effect size of combined studies on thermal biofeedback alone for migraine (.5). These non-invasive interventions may show promise for treating treatment-refractory migraine and for preventing the progression from episodic to chronic migraine. PMID:20205867

  8. [Economic assessment, a field between clinical research and observational studies].

    PubMed

    Launois, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Health technology assessments propose to study the differential impact of health interventions in a complex care system which is characterised by the multitude of individual behaviours and the diverse nature of the institutions involved. Current systems for data collection lend themselves poorly to this rigorous analysis of efficacy of treatments in the actual situations where they are used. Randomised trials endeavour to neutralise any parasitic interference which could compromise testing for a causal relationship between the treatment administered and the result obtained. Their methodology which establishes the term ceteris paribus in the principle of good practice lends itself poorly to an analysis of individual behaviour. Observational studies are start from actual treatment situations to describe them as reliably as possible. By definition, however, these assume that the natural course of events is not deviated by any intervention. The absence of an experimental plan increases the likelihood of bias and makes it more difficult to test for causal relationships. They lend themselves poorly to testing for incremental efficacy. The two instruments to be preferred are decisional analysis and quasi-experimental studies. Decisional analysis help to avoid the problems of external validity associated with randomised clinical trials by associating parameters which are extracted from data obtained from everyday practice. Quasi-experimental studies or pragmatic trials are based on the reality of behaviour of the prescriber and his/her patients; their impact on efficacy, quality of life social costs of the disease and of treatments may be identified under normal conditions of use. PMID:12609811

  9. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  10. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants. PMID:27630494

  11. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome: a clinical genetic study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, K; Howell, R; Bottani, A; Ancliff, P; Brunner, H; Verschuuren-Bemel..., C; Vernon, E; Brown, K; Newbury-Ecob, R

    2002-01-01

    The thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterised by bilateral absence of the radii and a thrombocytopenia. The lower limbs, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and other systems may also be involved. Shaw and Oliver in 1959 were the first to describe this condition, but it was Hall et al in 1969 who reported the first major series of patients. Since then most reports have been based on single or small numbers of cases. We report the results of a clinical study looking at the phenotype of 34 patients with TAR syndrome. All cases had a documented thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia, 47% had lower limb anomalies, 47% cow's milk intolerance, 23% renal anomalies, and 15% cardiac anomalies. Congenital anomalies not previously described in association with TAR syndrome included facial capillary haemangiomata, intracranial vascular malformation, sensorineural hearing loss, and scoliosis. Karyotype analysis, chromosome breakage studies including premature centromeric separation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation studies looking for a deletion of chromosome 22q11 were undertaken. Two abnormal karyotypes were identified. PMID:12471199

  12. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  13. Management of Amavata with 'Amrita Ghrita': A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lekurwale, P S; Pandey, Kamlesh; Yadaiah, P

    2010-10-01

    Amavata is a disease caused due to the vitiation or aggravation of Vayu associated with Ama. Vitiated Vayu circulates the Ama all over the body through Dhamanies, takes shelter in the Shleshma Sthana (Amashaya, Sandhi, etc.), producing symptoms such as stiffness, swelling, and tenderness in small and big joints, making a person lame. The symptoms of Amavata are identical to rheumatism, which include rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever. It is observed that rheumatism is an autoimmune disorder, which is among the collagen disorders having strong and significant parlance with Amavata. Various drug trials were already carried out on Amavata, yet there is a lacuna in the management of Amavata. Hence, in the present clinical study, 28 patients were selected and kept on 'Amrita Ghrita'. All the patients were investigated for complete blood count (CBC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) titer, Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer, C-reactive protein (CRP) titer, platelet count, urine routine, and microscopic, before and after treatment. The collected data was distributed according to age, sex, and prakruti, and a t-test was applied for the clinical assessment of the subjective and objective parameters of 'Amrita Ghrita,' and it has shown significant reduction in the positivity of the RA titer (t > 5.09, at the 0.001% level), ASO titer (t > 4.08, at the 0.001% level), and CRP titer (t > 4.82, at the 0.001% level), and weight gain (t > 5.12, at the 0.001% level), as also an increase in Hb% (t >9.22, at the 0.001% level), and platelet count (t> 5.90, at the 0.001% level), and decrease in ESR (t > 9.70, at the 0.001% level). PMID:22048534

  14. A CLINICAL STUDY OF 125 PATIENTS WITH PHRYNODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Ragunatha, S; Kumar, V Jagannath; Murugesh, S B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phrynoderma is a type of follicular hyperkeratosis. Various nutritional deficiency disorders have been implicated in the etiology of phrynoderma. Aim: To determine clinical features of phrynoderma and its association with nutritional deficiency signs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 125 consecutive patients with phrynoderma attending the outpatient department (OPD) of dermatology was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In all patients, a detailed history was taken and cutaneous examination findings such as distribution, sites of involvement, morphology of the lesions, and signs of nutritional deficiencies were noted. Results: The proportion of patients with phrynoderma attending the OPD was 0.51%. There were 79 males and 46 females. Age of the patients was in the range of 3-26 years with a mean of 10 ± 4.3 years. The lesions were asymptomatic in 114 (91.2%) patients. The distribution of lesions was bilateral and symmetrical in 89 (71.2%) patients. The disease was localized (elbows, knees, extensor extremities, and/or buttocks) in 106 (84.8%) patients. The site of onset was elbows in 106 (84.8%) patients. The lesions were discrete, keratotic, follicular, pigmented or skin colored, acuminate papules in all patients. Signs of vitamin A and vitamin B-complex deficiency were present in 3.2% and 9.6% patients, respectively. Epidermal hyperkeratosis, follicular hyperkeratosis, and follicular plugging were present in the entire biopsy specimen. Conclusion: Phrynoderma is a disorder with distinctive clinical features and can be considered as a multifactorial disease involving multiple nutrients, local factors like pressure and friction, and environmental factors in the setting of increased nutritional demand. PMID:21965845

  15. Clinical study of lacunar infarcts in non-hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià; Altés, Eva; García-Eroles, Lluis; Massons, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Lacunar infarcts in non-hypertensive patients have been scantly assessed. The objective of this study was to determine clinical features of lacunar infarct in patients without hypertension (n = 91) in comparison with characteristics of lacunar infarcts occurring in patients with hypertension (n = 283) collected from a prospective hospital-based stroke registry in which 2000 patients with acute stroke are included. Predictors of lacunar infarct in patients without hypertension were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. The group of non-hypertensive patients with lacunar infarction showed a significantly higher frequency of male gender, age 85 years or older, history of atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes mellitus, and a significantly lower frequency of female gender and absence of limitation at hospital discharge than hypertensive patients with lacunar infarct. Differences between hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients in relation to frequency of the different lacunar syndromes were not observed. After multivariate analysis, age 85 years or older (odds ratio 3.13), diabetes (odds ratio 2.57), and male gender (odds ratio 1.99) seemed to be independent factors associated with lacunar infarct in patients without hypertension. Lacunar infarct in non-hypertensive patients showed some differential clinical features compared to the remaining lacunar infarctions because it occurred more frequently in male patients aged 85 years or older. In this group, diabetes was the most important modifiable risk factor. These results suggest an earlier effect of arteriopathy caused by hypertension favoring lacunar brain ischemia, whereas in non-hypertensive patients, arteriopathy responsible for small vessel disease would take a more prolonged time in causing lacunar infarction.

  16. StudySearch: a web-based application for posting and searching clinical research studies.

    PubMed

    Gonsenhauser, Blair; Hallarn, Rose; Carpenter, Daniel; Para, Michael F; Reider, Carson R

    2016-03-01

    Participant accrual into research studies is critical to advancing clinical and translational research to clinical care. Without sufficient recruitment, the purpose of any research study cannot be realized; yet, low recruitment and enrollment of participants persist. StudySearch is a web-based application designed to provide an easily readable, publicly accessible, and searchable listing of IRB-approved protocols that are accruing study participants. The Regulatory, Recruitment and Biomedical Informatics Cores of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) at The Ohio State University developed this research study posting platform. Postings include basic descriptive information: study title, purpose of the study, eligibility criteria and study personnel contact information. Language concerning benefits and/or inducements is not included; therefore, while IRB approval for a study to be listed on StudySearch is required, IRB approval of the posted language is not. Studies are listed by one of two methods; one automated and one manual: (1). Studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov are automatically downloaded once a month; or (2). Studies are submitted directly by researchers to the CCTS Regulatory Core staff. In either case, final language is a result of an iterative process between researchers and CCTS staff. Deployed in January 2011 at OSU, this application has grown to approximately 200 studies currently posted and 1500 unique visitors per month. Locally, StudySearch is part of the CCTS recruitment toolkit. Features continue to be modified to better accommodate user behaviors. Nationally, this open source application is available for use. PMID:26912012

  17. StudySearch: a web-based application for posting and searching clinical research studies

    PubMed Central

    Gonsenhauser, Blair; Hallarn, Rose; Carpenter, Daniel; Para, Michael F; Reider, Carson R

    2016-01-01

    Participant accrual into research studies is critical to advancing clinical and translational research to clinical care. Without sufficient recruitment, the purpose of any research study cannot be realized; yet, low recruitment and enrollment of participants persist. StudySearch is a web-based application designed to provide an easily readable, publicly accessible, and searchable listing of IRB-approved protocols that are accruing study participants. The Regulatory, Recruitment and Biomedical Informatics Cores of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) at The Ohio State University developed this research study posting platform. Postings include basic descriptive information: study title, purpose of the study, eligibility criteria and study personnel contact information. Language concerning benefits and/or inducements is not included; therefore, while IRB approval for a study to be listed on StudySearch is required, IRB approval of the posted language is not. Studies are listed by one of two methods; one automated and one manual: (1). Studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov are automatically downloaded once a month; or (2). Studies are submitted directly by researchers to the CCTS Regulatory Core staff. In either case, final language is a result of an iterative process between researchers and CCTS staff. Deployed in January 2011 at OSU, this application has grown to approximately 200 studies currently posted and 1500 unique visitors per month. Locally, StudySearch is part of the CCTS recruitment toolkit. Features continue to be modified to better accommodate user behaviors. Nationally, this open source application is available for use. PMID:26912012

  18. Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Edit; Vigh, Eva; Molnár, Valéria; Kenyeres, Péter; Fehér, Gergely; Késmárky, Gábor; Tóth, Kálmán; Garai, János

    2011-05-01

    The protective effects of plant polyphenol intake on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are widely acknowledged. Caffeine-free chicory coffee is a rich source of plant phenolics, including caffeic acid, which inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation, and also phenylpyruvate tautomerase enzymatic activity of the proinflammatory cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). To assess whether chicory coffee consumption might confer cardiovascular benefits a clinical intervention study was performed with 27 healthy volunteers, who consumed 300 mL chicory coffee every day for 1 week. The dietary intervention produced variable effects on platelet aggregation, depending on the inducer used for the aggregation test. Whole blood and plasma viscosity were both significantly decreased, along with serum MIF levels, after 1 week of chicory coffee consumption. Moreover, significant improvements were seen in red blood cell deformability. No changes in hematocrit, fibrinogen level or red blood cell counts were detected. The full spectrum of these effects is unlikely to be attributable to a single compound present in chicory coffee, nevertheless, the phenolics, including caffeic acid, are expected to play a substantial role. In conclusion, our study offers an encouraging starting-point to delineate the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds found in chicory coffee.

  19. [Chemoprevention of oral cancer--clinical and experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Szumiło, Justyna; Podlodowska, Justyna; Podlodowski, Wiktor; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-02-01

    Chemoprevention is one of the cancer prevention methods, applied for the oral squamous cell carcinoma and its main precursor lesions--leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Presently, the most extensive clinically studied group used in such cases are retinoids: vitamin A (retinol), 13-cis-retinic acid (isotretinoin), N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide) and precursor of vitamin A--beta-carotene. However, despite good short-time effectiveness, retinoids do not prevent recurrences of the lesions and insignificantly increase cancer-free survival. Moreover, they are also characterized by relatively high toxicity. Vitamin E, Bowman-Birkprotease inhibitor, Spirulina fusiformis and green tee extracts as well as traditional Chinese herbs known as ZengShengPing were also found as effective agents. Lack of activity was reported for cyclooxygenase inhibitors--ketorolac and celecoxib. More promising data was collected from animal experimental studies with chemically induced oral squamous cell carcinoma. Chemopreventive activity was revealed for various agents including plant-derived compounds like resveratrol, green and black tee polyphenols, as well as protocatechuic, ellagic and caffeic acids. PMID:22590920

  20. A clinical study of febrile myoclonus in children.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Sachiko; Nishigaki, Toshinori

    2004-08-01

    Fever is sometimes associated with chill, myoclonus, delirium and convulsion. We previously reported EEG findings of febrile delirium, when we found that 18% of patients showed febrile myoclonus simultaneously with febrile delirium. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical features of febrile myoclonus and to investigate the relation to febrile convulsion. Myoclonic episodes were studied in 11 patients, aged 8 months to 11 years. EEG was recorded in eight patients. In the past history, febrile convulsion was noted in two patients and one of them also had febrile delirium. The age range of patients with febrile myoclonus was similar to those developing febrile convulsion except for one case. The duration of febrile myoclonus was usually from several to 30 min, but was longer than 2 h in four patients. Seventy-three percent of patients showed fear, surprise and shouting. EEG was abnormal in four patients and spike components were found in two patients. Myoclonic jerks were seen during the EEG recording in two patients and EEG findings were not concordant with epileptic myoclonic attack. Ten patients were followed for 1-2 years, and none had afebrile seizures. Febrile myoclonus is a benign symptom associated with fever. Mood change, fear or surprise and shouting with myoclonic jerks may suggest action of cytokine on the hypothalamus induced by infection. Febrile myoclonus, delirium and convulsion were seen in one patient in his first 3 years of life. These three symptoms seem to appear in children depending on their predisposition. PMID:15165673

  1. Thermographic diagnostics to discriminate skin lesions: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringasci, Mirian Denise; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is responsible for about 13% of all causes of death in the world. Over 7 million people die annually of this disease. In most cases, the survival rates are greater when diagnosed in early stages. It is known that tumor lesions present a different temperature compared with the normal tissues. Some studies have been performed in an attempt to establish new diagnosis methods, targeting this temperature difference. In this study, we aim to investigate the use of a handheld thermographic camera to discriminate skin lesions. The patients presenting Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Actinic Keratosis, Pigmented Seborrheic Keratosis, Melanoma or Intradermal Nevus lesions have been investigated at the Skin Departament of Amaral Carvalho Hospital. Patients are selected by a dermatologist, and the lesion images are recorded using an infrared camera. The images are evaluated taken into account the temperature level, and differences into lesion areas, borders, and between altered and normal skin. The present results show that thermography may be an important tool for aiding in the clinical diagnostics of superficial skin lesions.

  2. Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Babita; Mehta, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of seed kernels of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Twenty patients of either sex with mild-to-moderate asthma were given finely powdered dried seed kernels in dose of 3 g for 3 weeks. The clinical efficacy with respect to symptoms and respiratory functions were assessed using a spirometer prior to and at the end of the treatment. Hematological parameters were not changed markedly by treatment with M. oleifera. However, the majority of patients showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb) values and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly reduced. Significant improvement was also observed in symptom score and severity of asthmatic attacks. Treatment with the drug for 3 weeks produced significant improvement in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and peak expiratory flow rate values by 32.97 ± 6.03%, 30.05 ± 8.12%, and 32.09 ± 11.75%, respectively, in asthmatic subjects. Improvement was also observed in % predicted values. None of the patients showed any adverse effects with M. oleifera. The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of M. oleifera seed kernel in patients of bronchial asthma. PMID:21264158

  3. National study of continuity clinic satisfaction in pediatric fellowship training

    PubMed Central

    Gangat, Mariam; Klein, Genna W; Cohen, Hillel W; Heptulla, Rubina A

    2013-01-01

    Background A national online survey was conducted to evaluate pediatric subspecialty fellow satisfaction regarding continuity clinic experience. Methods An anonymous online survey (SurveyMonkey™) was developed to evaluate demographics of the program, clinic organization, and patient and preceptor characteristics, and to compare fellow satisfaction when fellows were the primary providers with faculty supervision versus attending-run clinics assisted by fellows or a combination of the two models. Pediatric subspecialty fellows in a 3-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited program in the United States (excluding emergency medicine, neonatology, and critical care) were invited to participate. Results There were 644 respondents and nearly half (54%) of these had fellow-run clinics. Eighty-six percent of fellows responded that they would prefer to have their own continuity clinics. Higher satisfaction ratings on maintaining continuity of care, being perceived as the primary provider, and feeling that they had greater autonomy in patient management were associated with being part of a fellow-run clinic experience (all P < 0.001). Additionally, fellow-run clinics were associated with a feeling of increased involvement in designing a treatment plan based on their differential diagnosis (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations with patient or preceptor characteristics. Conclusion Fellow-run continuity clinics provide fellows with a greater sense of satisfaction and independence in management plans. PMID:24101886

  4. Regression of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung by Chinese herbal medicine: a case with an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L M; Xue, C C L; Li, C G

    2004-03-01

    A 51-year-old woman diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung (T2N2M0) by cytological tests and a CT scan has survived for 8 years. During this period of time, she had been treated with Chinese herbal medicine alone for 4 years. The herbal prescription consisted of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. These herbs have been reported to possess anti-tumour and immune enhancing effects. Therefore, it is suggested that the herbal treatment for this patient might have contributed to the complete regression of her lung carcinoma. Further research on the actions of these herbs is warranted. PMID:15165095

  5. Clinical study of 222 patients with pure motor stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, A; Padilla, I; Massons, J; Garcia-Eroles, L; Comes, E; Targa, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to assess the frequency of pure motor stroke caused by different stroke subtypes and to compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome data of pure motor stroke with those of patients with other lacunar stroke as well as with those of patients with non-lacunar stroke.
Data from 2000 patients with acute stroke (n=1761) or transient ischaemic attack (n=239) admitted consecutively to the department of neurology of an acute care 350 bed teaching hospital were prospectively collected in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry over a 10 year period. For the purpose of the study 222 (12.7%) patients with pure motor stroke were selected. The other study groups included 218 (12.3%) patients with other lacunar strokes and 1321 (75%) patients with non-lacunar stroke.
In relation to stroke subtype, lacunar infarcts were found in 189 (85%) patients, whereas ischaemic lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts occurred in 23 (10.4%) patients (atherothrombotic stroke in 12, cardioembolic stroke in seven, infarction of undetermined origin in three, and infarction of unusual aetiology in one) and haemorrhagic lacunar syndromes in 10 (4.5%). Patients with pure motor stroke showed a better outcome than patients with non-lacunar stroke with a significantly lower number of complications and in hospital mortality rate, shorter duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of symptom free patients at hospital discharge. After multivariate analysis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, non-sudden stroke onset, internal capsule involvement, and pons topography seemed to be independent factors of pure motor stroke in patients with acute stroke.
In conclusion, about one of every 10 patients with acute stroke had a pure motor stroke. Pure motor stroke was caused by a lacunar infarct in 85% of patients and by other stroke subtypes in 15%. Several clinical features are more frequent in patients with pure motor stroke than in

  6. An outpatient clinical study of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Yanartaş, Ömer; Özmen, Hülya Akar; Citak, Serhat; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Sünbül, Esra Aydin

    2014-05-01

    The relatively high prevalence of the diagnosis of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified is frequently considered to be disproportionate. The disproportionate rate of this diagnosis is thought to be related to nosologic and/or diagnostic issues in dissociative identity disorder. We sought to investigate and compare the symptom patterns of these two clinical entities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1314 participants who were screened with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ). Of the participants, 272 who scored above the cut-off points for the screening questionnaires (DES score>30 and/or SDQ score>40 points) were invited to complete a structured interview using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS); of this subsample, only 190 participants agreed to participate in the second phase of the study. The mean score for the DES was 18.55±17.23, and the mean score for the SDQ was 30.19±13.32. Of the 190 participants, 167 patients were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder (87.8%). We found that DD-NOS was the most prevalent category of dissociative disorder. There was a significantly larger percentage of patients in the DID group than in the DD-NOS group according to secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms. The secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms appeared to be more specific for DID, while no differences were detected between DID and DD-NOS based on most of the items on the SCL 90R. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the features that are similar and dissimilar between DD-NOS and DID. PMID:24461163

  7. An outpatient clinical study of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Yanartaş, Ömer; Özmen, Hülya Akar; Citak, Serhat; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Sünbül, Esra Aydin

    2014-05-01

    The relatively high prevalence of the diagnosis of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified is frequently considered to be disproportionate. The disproportionate rate of this diagnosis is thought to be related to nosologic and/or diagnostic issues in dissociative identity disorder. We sought to investigate and compare the symptom patterns of these two clinical entities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1314 participants who were screened with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ). Of the participants, 272 who scored above the cut-off points for the screening questionnaires (DES score>30 and/or SDQ score>40 points) were invited to complete a structured interview using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS); of this subsample, only 190 participants agreed to participate in the second phase of the study. The mean score for the DES was 18.55±17.23, and the mean score for the SDQ was 30.19±13.32. Of the 190 participants, 167 patients were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder (87.8%). We found that DD-NOS was the most prevalent category of dissociative disorder. There was a significantly larger percentage of patients in the DID group than in the DD-NOS group according to secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms. The secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms appeared to be more specific for DID, while no differences were detected between DID and DD-NOS based on most of the items on the SCL 90R. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the features that are similar and dissimilar between DD-NOS and DID.

  8. Enterococcal urinary tract infections in a university hospital: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Barros, Milton; Martinelli, Reinaldo; Rocha, Heonir

    2009-08-01

    Although urinary tract infections (UTI) represent the most common infection caused by enterococci, some aspects remain to be fully clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics present in UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. in patients followed up at the Prof. Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. All patients consecutively examined between 1997 and 2005, who received a diagnosis of UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. were included in the study. UTI was defined as the presence of > or = 10(5) colony-forming units per mL of urine. Standard microbiological techniques were used. During the study period, 6.2% of the urine cultures were positive for Enterococcus spp. The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years and 57% were male. At initial evaluation, 13% of the patients had complaints suggestive of UTI. Nineteen patients had a history consistent with obstructive uropathy and 26 with neurogenic bladder. At final evaluation, UTI was the diagnosis in 48 patients. In 36 patients (29%), the primary diagnosis was related to urogenital diseases, consisting of obstructive uropathy in 23 of these cases, while in 32 patients (25.8%) primary diagnosis was related to neurologic diseases, frequently neurogenic bladder. UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. is not infrequent, is usually associated with few or no symptoms and occurs in sick patients who have anatomical or functional obstructive uropathy associated or not with urinary tract catheterization or instrumentation. The diagnosis of enterococcal UTI may indicate a urinary tract abnormality yet to be diagnosed. PMID:20231994

  9. Long-term Clinical Course of Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Shigellosis: A 10-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lim, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A limited number of studies are available regarding the long-term natural history of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). We aimed to investigate the long-term clinical course of PI-IBS. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from a 2001 shigellosis outbreak in a Korean hospital with about 2000 employees. A cohort of 124 hospital employees who were infected by Shigella sonnei due to contaminated food in the cafeteria, and 105 sex- and age-matched, non-infected, controls were serially followed for their bowel symptoms by questionnaire surveys for 10 years. Results The Shigella-infected cohort showed significantly higher odds ratio for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at 1-year (11.90; 95% CI, 1.49–95.58) and 3-year (3.93; 95% CI, 1.20–12.86) follow-up, compared to their controls. However, corresponding odds ratio for PI-IBS was not significantly increased at 5-year (1.88; 95% CI, 0.64–5.54) and 8-year (1.87; 95% CI, 0.62–5.19) follow-up. At 10-year follow-up survey, the prevalence of IBS was similar for the Shigella-infected cohort and their controls (23.3% versus 19.7%, P = 0.703). Risk factors which were independently associated with PI-IBS among the Shigella-infected cohort included younger age, previous history of functional bowel disorder, and longer duration of diarrhea at baseline. Conclusions Patients who were infected by Shigella sonnei experienced significantly increased risk of IBS until 3 years after shigellosis, and modestly increased risk until 8 years, but showed similar risk of IBS with uninfected controls at 10 years post-infection. PI-IBS is quite a chronic disorder, and follows a long-term natural course. PMID:26908484

  10. The Application of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis in Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Parizad, Eskandar Gholami; Valizadeh, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a method applied in separating large segments of deoxyribonucleotide using an alternating and cross field. In a uniform magnetic field, components larger than 50kb pass a route through the gel and since the movement of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules are in a Zigzag form, separation of DNAs as bands carried out better via gel. PFGE in microbiology is a standard method which is used for typing of bacteria. It is also a very useful tool in epidemiological studies and gene mapping in microbes and mammalian cell, also motivated development of large-insert cloning system such as bacterial and yeast artifical chromosomes. In this method, close and similar species in terms of genetic patterns show alike profiles regarding DNA separation, and those ones which don’t have similarity or are less similar, reveal different separation profiles. So this feature can be used to determine the common species as the prevalence agent of a disease. PFGE can be utilized for monitoring and evaluating different micro-organisms in clinical samples and existing ones in soil and water. This method can also be a reliable and standard method in vaccine preparation. In recent decades, PFGE is highly regarded as a powerful tool in control, prevention and monitoring diseases in different populations. PMID:26894068

  11. [Study on factors concerning patients' anxiety in a dental clinic].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toru

    2009-06-01

    To clarify the extent to which patients feel anxious about dental treatment, anonymized data of a self-completed questionnaire obtained at a dental clinic in Saitama Prefecture were used for this study. The subjects were 278 patients older than 15 years of age and who had given informed consent The questionnaire contained 71 questions concerning the following seven characteristic factors: sense of hearing, sense of sight, sense of smell, sense of taste, sense of touch, sense of pain, and other situations. Each question was rated on a four-point scale. Exploratory factor analysis of the 262 answers was performed with the principal factor method and normalized varimax rotation. Six factors were extracted using the Kaiser Criterion and the Screeplot These factors were interpreted as follows: anxiety before treatment, unpleasantness of pain and bleeding, unpleasantness of smell and taste or feeling of the tongue, a sound or appliance that recalled pain, a meaningful sound such as talking by the dentist, and an unpleasant sound from an appliance. The senses of smell, taste and touch in the oral cavity were extracted as the same factor. The sense of hearing was divided into the factor of dissonance and the factor of anxiety recalled by sound in memory. However, no factor concerning the stimulation of sight was extracted. Therefore, the sense of sight might be related with the recognition method of the patient based on past experience and knowledge.

  12. [Clinical and electroencephalogram study of 5 children with hypothalamic hamartoma].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Eiko; Oguni, Hirokazu; Funatsuka, Makoto; Usugi, Tomoko; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kitami; Nagaki, Shigeru; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko; Yamane, Fumitaka; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2005-09-01

    We retrospectively studied 5 children with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) to elucidate the clinical, neuroimaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics of this disorder. In all cases, high resolution MRI scans demonstrated an intrahypothalamic mass protruding into the 3rd ventricle. An initial symptom was epileptic attack in 4 cases and precocious puberty in the remaining one. Gelastic seizures developed in 4 of 5 patients at ranging from 2 days to 11 years of age. The ictal EEGs during the gelastic seizures showed diffuse attenuation of background activity, followed by rhythmic slow discharges either diffusely or in the central area. Gamma-knife radiosurgery was performed on 2 cases whose seizures were resistant to available antiepileptic drugs. One of the 2 patients was responded significantly to this treatment, showing the disappearance of combined attacks and a marked reduction of the generalized spike-waves discharges. A more aggressive therapy, including gamma-knife radiosurgery and surgical treatment, should be considered for patients whose seizures are resistant to the medical treatment and causing deterioration of intelligence and behavioral problem.

  13. Acute isolated capsular stroke. A clinical study of 148 cases.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià; Martínez-Rebollar, María; Oliveres, Montserrat; García-Eroles, Luis; Massons, Joan; Targa, Cecilia

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess differential features between capsular stroke of ischemic and hemorrhagic origin, and to compare capsular strokes with all other (non-capsular) strokes. Data of 148 patients with isolated capsular stroke were collected from a prospective hospital-based stroke registry in which 2000 consecutive acute stroke patients were included. Isolated capsular stroke accounted for 8.4% of strokes included in the registry (8.4% of ischemic strokes and 10.5% of intracerebral hemorrhages). Capsular stroke of hemorrhagic origin (n = 24) was more severe than ischemic capsular stroke (n = 124) as determined by a significantly higher in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and lower number of patients free of functional deficit at discharge. After multivariate analysis, limb weakness, sudden onset, and sensory symptoms were independently associated with capsular hemorrhage, whereas pure motor hemiparesis appeared to be associated with capsular infarction. In summary, one of each 12 patients with acute ischemic stroke and one of each 10 patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage had an isolated capsular stroke. Lacunar syndrome was the most frequent clinical presentation being more common (particularly pure motor hemiparesis) in ischemic than in hemorrhagic capsular stroke. Capsular hemorrhage and capsular infarction showed identical risk factor profiles suggesting the same underlying vascular pathology for both conditions.

  14. Clinical study of 39 patients with atypical lacunar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; López-Grau, M; Casasnovas, C; García-Eroles, L; Massons, J; Balcells, M

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of atypical lacunar syndrome (ALS) based on data collected from a prospective acute stroke registry. In total, 2500 acute stroke patients were included in a hospital based prospective stroke registry over a 12 year period, of whom 39 were identified as having ALS and radiologically proven (by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) lacunes. ALS accounted for 1.8% of all acute stroke patients, 2.1% of acute ischaemic stroke, and 6.8% of lacunar syndromes. ALS included dysarthria facial paresis (n = 12) or isolate dysarthria (n = 9), isolated hemiataxia (n = 4), pure motor hemiparesis with transient internuclear ophthalmoplegia (n = 4), pure motor hemiparesis with transient subcortical aphasia (n = 3), unilateral (n = 2) or bilateral (n = 3) paramedian thalamic infarct syndrome, and hemichorea hemiballismus (n = 2). Atypical lacunar syndromes were due to small vessel disease in 96% of patients. Atherothrombotic infarction occurred in one patient and cardioembolic infarct in another, both presenting pure dysarthria. Outcome was good (in hospital mortality 0%, symptom free at discharge 28.2%). After multivariate analysis, the variables of speech disturbances, nausea/vomiting, ischaemic heart disease, and sensory symptoms were found to be significantly associated with ALS. In conclusion, atypical lacunar syndrome is an infrequent stroke subtype (one of each 14 lacunar strokes). ALS occurred in 6.8% of lacunar strokes. Isolated dysarthria or dysarthria facial paresis were the most frequent presenting forms. The prognosis of this infrequent non-classic lacunar syndrome is good.

  15. Validation of a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zetterman, Corey V; Sweitzer, Bobbie J; Webb, Brad; Barak-Bernhagen, Mary A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2011-01-01

    Patients scheduled for surgery at the Omaha VA Medical Center were evaluated preoperatively via telemedicine. Following the examination, patients filled out a 15 item, 5 point Likert scale questionnaire regarding their opinion of preoperative evaluation in a VTC format. Evaluations were performed under the direction of nationally recognized guidelines and recommendations of experts in the field of perioperative medicine and were overseen by a staff anesthesiologist from the Omaha VA Medical Center. No significant difficulties were encountered by the patient or the evaluator regarding the quality of the audio/visual capabilities of the VTC link and its ability to facilitate preoperative evaluation. 87.5% of patients felt that virtual evaluation would save them travel time; 87.5% felt virtual evaluation could save them money; 7.3% felt uncomfortable using the VTC link; 12.2% felt the virtual evaluation took longer than expected; 70.7% preferred to be evaluated via VTC link; 21.9% were undecided; 9.7% felt they would rather be evaluated face-to-face with 26.8% undecided; 85.0% felt that teleconsultation was as good as being seen at the Omaha surgical evaluation unit; 7.5% were undecided. Our study has shown that effective preoperative evaluation can be performed using a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic; patients are receptive to the VTC format and, in the majority of cases, prefer it to face-to-face evaluation.

  16. [Obstructive sleep apneas. A clinical and laboratory study].

    PubMed

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1993-10-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, cranio-facial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardio-circulatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:8285115

  17. Experimental and clinical studies on transmyocardial laser revascularzation (TMLR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masayoshi

    2005-07-01

    The number of patients with coronary artery disease has been increasing in Japan and several kinds of treatments have been performed to reduce their cardiovascular diseases. In patients with small branches, or diffuse stenotic lesions of the coronary arteries, on whom coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cannot be carried out, it has been hemodynamically demonstrated possible to supply arterial blood from the left ventricular cavity to the ischemic myocardium through laser channels. On the basis of excellent experimental studies using mongrel dogs, newly created laser channels 0.2 mm in diameter have been confirmed to be histologically patent even 3 years after transmyocardial revascularization(TMLR). Thus, this method could be applied as an alternative procedure of transmyocardial revascularization. First clinical procedure of TMLR alone was performed on 55 year-old male patient with severe angina pectoris who had undergone pericardiectomy 7 years ago. He had no candidate for percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass grafting, because his left venticle had severe adhesion to the left lung. Therefore, this method was finally carried out. He is getting well after this surgical intervention. This procedure should be recommended for the patient with end-stage coronary artery disease.

  18. [Clinical study on development of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease].

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Atsuyuki

    2004-12-01

    problem, most are still unidentified. STUDY OF MAC LUNG DISEASE TREATMENT: It was known that Mycobacterium kansasii lung disease is healed with a chemotherapy like analog of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, already in those days. However, the results of MAC lung disease chemotherapy were extremely poor. We tried to express a physicians experience quantitatively as follows, in 1987. The results of 8 weeks sputum culture on Ogawa egg medium were converted semi-quantitatively to CFU numbers based on "Japanese standard guideline of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inspection". We exhibit the ratio of post-treatment consecutive 6 months culture yield to pre-treatment culture yield as response rate, about 110 pulmonary MAC cases. Through this study, we clarify the followings. The results of chemotherapy do not correlate susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug regimen is more useful. Small extent of lesion is more responsive. Combination with aminoglycoside chemotherapy is more effective. These conclusions were almost same as the ATS guideline of 1990. New drugs such as, new macrolides and new quinolones appeared for pulmonary MAC treatment through the feedback from systemic MAC complicated AIDS treatments from the latter half of 90's. We measured the sensitive strain ratio at 2 mcg/ml of OFLX, CPFX, LVFX about 990 clinical isolates and could expect availability for M. kansasii or M. fortuitum, but these new quinolones are not enough effective for MAC. Also we examined MIC for various antimycobacterial agent by 50 MAC clinical isolates, and we could expect a certain availability of SPFX, GFLX, CPFX, CAM for MAC. The availability of clarithromycin (CAM) has been established through many randomized clinical trials for disseminated MAC complicated AIDS, but for pulmonary MAC, complete cure is still difficult if we use CAM including regimen. We performed surgical treatment for relatively young patients with localized lesions. We carry out the adaptation reference such

  19. Comparative hemolysis study of clinically available centrifugal pumps.

    PubMed

    Naito, K; Suenaga, E; Cao, Z L; Suda, H; Ueno, T; Natsuaki, M; Itoh, T

    1996-06-01

    Centrifugal pumps have become important devices for cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory assistance. Five types of centrifugal pumps are clinically available in Japan. To evaluate the blood trauma caused by centrifugal pumps, a comparative hemolysis study was performed under identical conditions. In vitro hemolysis test circuits were constructed to operate the BioMedicus BP-80 (Medtronic, BioMedicus), Sarns Delphin (Sarns/3M Healthcare), Isoflow (St. Jude Medical [SJM]), HPM-15 (Nikkiso), and Capiox CX-SP45 (Terumo). The hemolysis test loop consisted of two 1.5 m lengths of polyvinyl chloride tubing with a 3/8-inch internal diameter, a reservoir with a sampling port, and a pump head. All pumps were set to flow at 6 L/min against the total pressure head of 120 mm Hg. Experiments were conducted simultaneously for 6 h at room temperature (21 degrees C) with fresh bovine blood. Blood samples for plasma-free hemoglobin testing were taken, and the change in temperature at the pump outlet port was measured during the experiment. The mean pump rotational speeds were 1,570, 1,374, 1,438, 1,944, and 1,296 rpm, and the normalized indexes of hemolysis were 0.00070, 0.00745, 0.00096, 0.00066, 0.00090 g/100 L for the BP-80, Sarns, SJM, Nikkiso, and Terumo pumps, respectively. The change in temperature at the pump outlet port was the least for the Nikkiso pump (1.8 degrees C) and the most with the SJM pump (3.8 degrees C). This study showed that there is no relationship between the pump rotational speed (rpm) and the normalized index of hemolysis in 5 types of centrifugal pumps. The pump design and number of impellers could be more notable factors in blood damage.

  20. Morphofunctional and clinical study on mandibular alveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zaffe, Davide; Bertoldi, Carlo; Palumbo, Carla; Consolo, Ugo

    2002-10-01

    Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis (ADO) is a process which forms new alveolar bone to correct alveolar deformities in ridge height and width. This work aims (a). to verify the predictability of the augmentation of height of atrophic alveolar ridges using an extra-alveolar distraction device and (b). to study the bone processes in order to optimize implanto-prosthetic rehabilitation. ADO was performed on 10 patients with ridge deformities to obtain the required ridge augmentation. Clinical and radiological (OPT and CT with densitometric assay) evaluations were carried out during the following 12 weeks, before implant insertion. Biopsies at 40, 60 and 88 days were studied after general, specific and histochemical staining of slides; microradiographs were analyzed to evaluate the Trabecular Bone Volume. Forty days after the end of distraction, soft callus indicated the start of ossification. Sixty days after the end of distraction, the soft callus was largely converted into a network of trabecular woven bone; osteogenic activity was high and TBV was about 50%. Eighty-eight days after the end of distraction, the amount of bone appeared reduced, with a more ordered structure; bone formation activity and TBV also diminished, whereas osteoclast erosion was active. The densitometric assay shows values increasing from the end of distraction, particularly after implant insertion. Histological results show a regression in bone deposition processes 88 days after the end of distraction culminating in a virtual steady-state after a certain time. The results suggest that early implant insertion may be desirable to avoid bone loss due to mechanical unloading.

  1. Computerization of Procedural Requests and Reports of Clinical Laboratory Data: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nowlin, T.A.; Webster, G.Y.

    1983-01-01

    A case study describing the use of a computer system in handling clinical laboratory data is presented. Effective coordination between clinical laboratory personnel and the nursing staff is emphasized as being essential for success of the system. PMID:6864819

  2. 76 FR 19189 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  3. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Babu, Gkl; Sunny, R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop space maintainer was cemented. Patients were recalled at regular intervals over 12 months and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. The retention of the GFRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band-and-loop space maintainer, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  4. The innervated anterolateral thigh flap: anatomical study and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ribuffo, Diego; Cigna, Emanuele; Gargano, Francesco; Spalvieri, Cristina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2005-02-01

    During the past 20 years, the neural anatomy of many flaps has been investigated, although no extensive studies have been reported yet on the anterolateral thigh flap. The goal of this study was to describe the sensory territories of the nerves supplying the anterolateral thigh flap with dissections on fresh cadavers and with local anesthetic injections in living subjects. The sensate anterolateral thigh flap is typically described as innervated by the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. Two other well-known nerves, the superior perforator nerve and the median perforator nerve, which enter the flap at its medial border, might have a role in anterolateral thigh flap innervation. Twenty-nine anterolateral thigh flaps were elevated in 15 cadavers, and the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, the superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve were dissected. In the injection study, the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve in 16 thighs of eight subjects were sequentially blocked. The resulting sensory deficit from each injection was mapped on the skin and superimposed on the marked anterolateral thigh flap territory. The study shows that the sensate anterolateral thigh flap is basically innervated by all three nerves. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve was present in 29 of 29 thighs, whereas the superior perforator nerve was present in 25 of 29 and the median perforator nerve in 24 of 29 thighs. Furthermore, in the proximal half of the flap, the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve lies deep, whereas the superior perforator nerve and median perforator nerve lie more superficially. Whereas the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve innervates the entire flap, the superior perforator nerve innervates 25 percent of the flap and the median perforator nerve innervates 60 percent of the flap. Clinically, a small anterolateral thigh flap (7 x 5 cm) can be raised sparing the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve and using only the selective

  5. Clinical and radiological evaluation of zinc oxide-eugenol and Maisto's paste as obturating materials in infected primary teeth--nine months study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V V; Fernandes

    1996-06-01

    The present study, performed in-vivo, included 30 infected primary teeth in 26 children in the age group of 3-8 years. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two obturating materials, zinc oxide-eugenol and Maisto's paste, in infected primary teeth. 30 teeth were divided into two groups of 15 teeth. Teeth in Group I were obturated using zinc oxide-eugenol and those in Group II were obturated using Maisto's paste. On clinical evaluation, teeth obturated with Maisto's paste showed 100% success. Five teeth that were overfilled with Maisto's paste showed complete resorption of excess material within 3 months while the two teeth overfilled with zinc oxide-eugenol showed incomplete resorption of the excess material even after 9 months. Zinc oxide-eugenol treated cases showed only 26.7% bone regeneration while in case of Maisto's paste, it was 93%. Complete healing of the inter-radicular pathology was seen with Maisto's paste. However, the pathology was present in 40% of the zinc oxide-eugenol treated teeth even after 9 months. Maisto's paste was thus seen to be superior to zinc oxide-eugenol both in clinical as well as radiological evaluation, done over a period of 9 months in relation to bone regeneration, healing of inter-radicular pathology and resorption of excess material.

  6. Deodorants: a clinical provocation study in fragrance-sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Bruze, M; Andersen, K E; Frosch, P; Dreier, B; Lepoittevin, J P; White, I; Menné, T

    1998-10-01

    Deodorants are one of the most marketed types of cosmetics and are frequently reported as a cause of dermatitis, particularly among fragrance-sensitive persons. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of deodorants, which had previously caused axillary dermatitis in fragrance-mix-sensitive eczema patients, to provoke reactions on repeated open application tests on the upper arm and in the axillae, and to relate the findings to the content of fragrance-mix constituents in those deodorants. 14 eczema patients performed a 7-day use test with 1 or 2 deodorants that had caused a rash within the last 12 months. 2 applications per day were made in the axilla and simultaneously on a 25 cm2 area on the upper arm. A total of 20 deodorants were tested among the 14 patients. Afterwards, the deodorants were subjected to quantitative chemical analysis identifying constituents of the fragrance mix. 12/20 (60%) deodorants elicited eczema on use testing in the axilla. 8/12 deodorants were positive in the axilla on day (D) 7 and 4 both in the axilla and on the upper arm. 2 of the 4 developed a reaction in the axilla before it developed on the upper arm. Chemical analysis revealed that 18/19 deodorants contained between 1 and 6 of the fragrance-mix constituents, on average 3 being found. The mean concentration of fragrance-mix constituents was generally higher in the deodorants causing a positive use test, as compared with those giving a negative reaction, indicating that the differences between the deodorants in terms of elicitation potential were more related to quantitative aspects of allergen content than of a qualitative nature. It is recommended that deodorants are tested in the axilla in the case of a negative use test on the upper arm and a strong clinical suspicion.

  7. Clinical study of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium.

    PubMed

    Adachi, T; Hashiguchi, K; Arai, Y; Ohta, H

    2001-01-01

    We encountered 16 cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women during pregnancy and/or puerperium over the past 15 years at our perinatal center, representing 0.14% of all patients who delivered babies. The present study was undertaken to analyze the risk factors, clinical course and outcomes in these 16 cases. The ages of the patients varied from 29 to 39 years. Four women had pulmonary embolism (PE), 3 of which after caesarean section (C/S) at 35 to 40 weeks, and one case after ovarian cystectomy at 13 weeks of gestation. Twelve cases had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 4 of which during pregnancy, and the remaining 8 cases after C/S. Four patients who had DVT during a normal course of pregnancy had severe thrombophilia: antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, a history of thrombosis and antithrombin (AT) deficiency. They were treated with heparin with or without AT and had healthy babies via successful vaginal deliveries. The common risk factors in 3 cases of PE with C/S was prolonged bed rest due to threatened premature delivery with total placenta previa, uterine myoma and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Other risk factors were massive bleeding, and positive lupus anticoagulant. However, the case of the ovarian cystectomy had only one risk factor, which was obesity. This patient died but the remaining patients recovered with treatment. Because of the low incidence of thrombosis in the Japanese population, prophylactic anticoagulant therapy has not routinely been given to patients undergoing obstetrical operations. However, proper management including prophylactic anticoagulant therapy might be considered for risk patients, depending on the risk factors.

  8. Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor: clinical studies in Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Coulter, J B; Hendrickse, R G; Lamplugh, S M; Macfarlane, S B; Moody, J B; Omer, M I; Suliman, G I; Williams, T E

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin analysis of blood and urine by high performance liquid chromatography in 584 Sudanese children is reported. The results in 404 malnourished children comprising 141 kwashiorkor, 111 marasmic kwashiorkor and 152 with marasmus are compared with 180 age-matched controls and correlated with clinical findings. The aflatoxin detection rate and mean concentration were higher in serum of children with kwashiorkor than the other groups. The difference between the detection rate in kwashiorkor and controls was significant (p less than 0.05). The aflatoxin detection rate in urine was highest in the marasmic kwashiorkor group and the mean concentration was higher in the marasmic kwashiorkor and marasmic groups than in the kwashiorkor and control groups. There were important differences in the detection of certain aflatoxins between the groups. Aflatoxicol was detected in the sera of 16 (11.6%) kwashiorkor, in six (6.1%) marasmic kwashiorkor, but in none of the controls and only once in marasmus. These differences are highly significant (p less than 0.0001). The ratio of AFB1 to AFM1 was higher in the sera and urines of kwashiorkors than in controls, suggesting that the normal transformation of AFB1 to AFM1 may be impaired in kwashiorkor with consequent increase in transformation of AFB1 to aflatoxicol. The study therefore provides evidence of differences in the metabolism of aflatoxins in children with kwashiorkor compared with children with other forms of malnutrition and normally nourished children and confirms the association between aflatoxins and kwashiorkor contained in a preliminary report on this work.

  9. Clinical study of gossypol as a male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Z

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments conducted in the late 1960s and early 1970s in various institutes of China showed that the effective antifertility agent in crude cottonseed oil was gossypol. Gossypol is a yellow substance which occurs in various parts of the cotton plant; its chemical structure is naphthol phenol. At the Capital Hospital gossypol was tested on 172 volunteers selected from hospital employees and workers from a nearby factory. All of the volunteers were under age 50, married and healthy with at least 1 child. Examinations required before treatment were general physical examination, a blood and urine analysis, an electrocardiogram, serum potassium concentration and serum analysis. 2 stages of gossypol treatment were required in the clinical study: the initial stage, the loading period, is of about 60 days. A daily dose of 20 mg gossypol was given successively for 60 days causing the sperms to become immotile, reduced in number or totally absent. A sperm count below 4 million/ml semen was considered to indicate infertility. The dosage in the 2nd stage, the maintenance period, was reduced to 1/3 of the original dose to maintain infertility. The volunteers were followed up every 2-3 months. Fatigue, decrease of libido and impaired appetite were the 3 main complaints. Serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activities showed that the transient symptoms of fatigue and loss of appetite were not related to disturbance of liver function. The mechanism of hypokalemia induced by gossypol is probably of renal origin. Infertility induced by gossypol in contraceptive doses over a relatively short period of administration was reversed about 3 months after stopping treatment. Gossypol used as a male antifertility agent has been found to be very effective and relatively safe.

  10. Hamartomatous polyps - a clinical and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Jelsig, Anne Marie

    2016-08-01

    Hamartomatous polyps (HPs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are rare compared to other types of GI polyps, yet they are the most common type of polyp in children. The symptoms are usually rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, obstipation, anaemia, and/or small bowel obstruction. The polyps are typically removed concurrently with endoscopy when located in the colon, rectum, or stomach, whereas polyps in the small bowel are removed during push-enteroscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy, or by surgery. HPs can be classified as juvenile polyps or Peutz-Jeghers polyps based on their histopathological appearance. Patients with one or a few juvenile polyps are usually not offered clinical follow-up as the polyp(s) are considered not to harbour any malignant potential. Nevertheless, it is important to note that juvenile polyps and HPs are also found in patients with hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes (HPS). Patients with HPS have an increased risk of cancer, recurrences of polyps, and extraintestinal complications. The syndromes are important to diagnose, as patients should be offered surveillance from childhood or early adolescence. The syndromes include juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. Currently, the HPS diagnoses are based on clinical criteria and are often assisted with genetic testing as candidate genes have been described for each syndrome. This thesis is based on six scientific papers. The overall aim of the studies was to expand the knowledge on clinical course and molecular genetics in patients with HPs and HPS, and to investigate research participants' attitude towards the results of extensive genetic testing.   Paper I: In the first paper we investigated the occurrence, anatomic distribution, and other demographics of juvenile polyps in the colon and rectum in Denmark in 1995-2014. Based on the Danish Pathology Data Bank we found that 1772 patients had 2108 JPs examined in the period, and we

  11. Clinical Needs Finding: Developing the Virtual Experience, A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vaishali; Thompson, Megan; Altman, Stuart M; Taylor, Peter; Summers, Alexander; Goodwin, Kelsey; Louie, Angelique Y

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative program at the University of California, Davis for students to engage in clinical needs finding. Using a team-based approach, students participated in clinical rotations to observe firsthand the needs of clinicians at the university affiliated medical center. The teams were asked to develop documentary-style videos to capture key experiences that would allow future viewers to use the videos as “virtual” clinical rotations. This was conceived as a strategy to allow students in prohibitively large classes, or students in programs at institutions without associated medical or veterinary school programs, to experience clinical rotations and perform needs assessments. The students' perspectives on the experience as well as instructor analysis of best practices for this type of activity are presented and discussed. We found that the internship experience was valuable to the students participating, by not only introducing the practice of needs finding but for increasing the students' confidence in the practice of engineering design and their ability to work independently. The videos produced were of such high quality that instructors from other institutions have requested copies for instructional use. Virtual clinical rotations through video experiences may provide a reasonable substitute for students who do not have the ability to participate in rotations in person. PMID:23483373

  12. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy: A clinical, electrophysiological and pathological study from South India.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Satishchandra, P; Gayathri, N; Yasha, T C; Shankar, S K

    2007-01-15

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is a syndrome complex encompassing different diagnostic entities and often cause problems in diagnosis. We describe the clinical, electrophysiological and pathological features of 97 patients with the diagnosis of PME evaluated over 25 years. Case records of confirmed patients of Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL = 40), Lafora body disease (LBD = 38), Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF = 10), and probable Unverricht-Lundberg disease (ULD = 9) were reviewed. The mean age at onset in patients with NCL (n = 40) was 5.9+/-9.1 years (M:F:: 28:12). Subtypes of NCL were: late infantile (n = 19), infantile (n = 8), juvenile (n = 11) and adult (n = 2) NCL. EEG (n = 37) showed varying degree of diffuse slowing of background activity in 94.6% and epileptiform discharges in 81.1% of patients. Slow frequency photic stimulation evoked photo-convulsive response in 5 patients only. Giant SSEP was demonstrated in 7 and VEP study revealed a prolonged P100 (2) and absent waveform (7). Electrophysiological features of neuropathy were present in 3 patients. Presence of PAS and Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) positive, auto fluorescent (AF) ceroid material in brain tissue (n = 12) and electron microscopy of brain (n = 5), skin (n = 28) and muscle (n = 1) samples showing curvilinear and lamellar bodies established the diagnosis. Patients of LBD (mean age of onset at 14.4+/-3.9 years, M:F:: 24:14) with triad of PME symptoms were evaluated. EEG (n = 37) showed variable slowing of background activity in 94.6% and epileptiform discharges in 97.4%. Photosensitivity with fast frequency was observed only in 5 patients. CT (n = 32) and MRI (n = 4) revealed diffuse cortical atrophy. Giant SSEP was demonstrated in 24 patients of LBD while VEP study revealed a prolonged P100 (4) and absent waveform (8). Electrophysiological features of neuropathy were present in one patient. Diagnosis was established by the presence of PAS positive diastase resistant

  13. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed. PMID:16158797

  14. Studies on nursing risks and measures of clinical medication.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Bai, Jie; Huang, Jie

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the cause analysis of clinical medication nursing risks and propose relevant nursing measures, so as to control and reduce the clinical nursing risks and reach the physical and mental safety of patients and nurses. Clinical nursing risk events with 30 cases in TCM Hospital of Zhengzhou City from June 2010 to April 2012 were underwent statistical analyses. The risk of medication error ranked the first in the direct reasons of nursing risks, accounting for a higher ratio. Moreover, the reasons of nursing risks were also involved in nonstandard operation, disease observation and other relative factors. Nurses must fully understand the relative factors of medication nursing risks, regarding the patients as their own family and always permeating the consciousness of nursing risks into the working process. PMID:26525028

  15. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed.

  16. Clinical features of paediatric pulmonary hypertension: a registry study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rolf M F; Beghetti, Maurice; Humpl, Tilman; Raskob, Gary E; Ivy, D Dunbar; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; Bonnet, Damien; Schulze-Neick, Ingram; Barst, Robyn J

    2012-01-01

    occurred in 31% (57 of 182) of patients with IPAH or FPAH and in 18% (eight of 45) of those with repaired congenital heart disease; no children with unrepaired congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts had syncope. Despite severe pulmonary hypertension, functional class was I or II in 230 of 362 (64%) patients, which is consistent with preserved right-heart function. Interpretation TOPP identifies important clinical features specific to the care of paediatric pulmonary hypertension, which draw attention to the need for paediatric data rather than extrapolation from adult studies. Funding Actelion Pharmaceuticals. PMID:22240409

  17. Is aggressive gap arthroplasty essential in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis?-a prospective clinical study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Babu, Lokesh; Jain, Manoj Kumar; Ramesh, C; Vinayaka, N

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this three-year, prospective, follow-up study was to evaluate whether aggressive gap arthroplasty is essential in the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients were treated by the creation of a minimal gap of 5-8mm and insertion of an interpositional gap arthroplasty using the temporalis fascia. Eleven patients had unilateral coronoidectomy and 4 bilateral coronoidectomy based on Kaban's protocol. Preoperative assessment included recording of history, clinical and radiological examinations, personal variables, the aetiology of the ankylosis, the side affected, and any other relevant findings. Patients were assessed postoperatively by a surgeon unaware of the treatment given for a minimum of 3 years, which included measurement of the maximal incisal opening, presence of facial nerve paralysis, recurrence, and any other relevant findings. Of the 15 patients (17 joints), 12 had unilateral and three had bilateral involvement, with trauma being the most common cause. The patients were aged between 7 and 29 years (mean (SD) age 20 (8) years). Preoperative maximal incisal opening was 0-2mm in 8 cases and 2-9mm in 9. Postoperatively adequate mouth opening of 30-40mm was achieved in all cases, with no recurrence or relevant malocclusion during 3-year follow up. However, patients will be followed up for 10 years. Aggressive gap arthroplasty is not essential in the management of ankylosis of the TMJ. Minimal gap interpositional arthroplasty with complete removal of the mediolateral ankylotic mass is a feasible and effective method of preventing recurrence. PMID:23219020

  18. Fiber tracking of the frontal aslant tract and subcomponents of the arcuate fasciculus in 5-8-year-olds: Relation to speech and language function.

    PubMed

    Broce, Iris; Bernal, Byron; Altman, Nolan; Tremblay, Pascale; Dick, Anthony Steven

    2015-10-01

    Long association cortical fiber pathways support developing networks for speech and language, but we do not have a clear understanding of how they develop in early childhood. Using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) we tracked the frontal aslant tract (FAT), arcuate fasciculus (AF), and AF segments (anterior, long, posterior) in 19 typical 5-8-year-olds, an age range in which significant improvement in speech and language function occurs. While the microstructural properties of the FAT and the right AF did not show age-related differences over the age range we investigated, the left AF evidenced increasing fractional anisotropy with age. Microstructural properties of the AF in both hemispheres, however, predicted receptive and expressive language. Length of the left FAT also predicted receptive language, which provides initial suggestion that this pathway is important for language development. These findings have implications for models of language development and for models of the neurobiology of language more broadly.

  19. Total hip arthroplasty in a 6-month-old acetabulum fracture-dislocation of the hip: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif Mahmood; Bhatti, Anisuddin; Rasheed, Khurram

    2013-06-01

    Old unreduced acetabulum fracture-dislocation is common in developing countries due to various factors. Different options including arthrodesis, Girdlestone arthroplasty and total hip replacement (THR) are used for its treatment. THR with reconstruction of the acetabulum is recommended, but not much work has been reported so far in our country. Till date, arthrodesis in youngsters and resection arthroplasty in the elders has been the treatment of choice.THR, however, is being done by a few, but the experience has not been published. We are reporting a case of a middle-aged woman, who had a 6-month-old acetabulum dislocation of the hip with fracture of the posterior wall of the acetabulum. It was treated by THR and acetabulum reconstruction and had good functional result 8 years after the surgery.

  20. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  1. 78 FR 41198 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  2. 78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research...

  3. 78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and...

  4. 77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  5. Polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): clinical and aetiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, M E; Müller, H; Kaleta, E F

    1989-08-01

    In order to get insight into the aetiology of French Moult (FM) and Budgerigar Fledgling Disease (BFD), and to determine relationships between the two diseases, 298 budgerigars from 49 different breeding flocks were examined. From all birds with BFD and from several birds with FM, viruses were isolated which produced characteristic cytopathic changes in chicken embryo fibroblasts. They were insensitive to chloroform treatment, and their replication was inhibited in the presence of 5-iododeoxyuridine. One of these isolates, from a bird exhibiting clinical signs of BFD, was determined by biochemical and biophysical methods to be a polyomavirus (BFDV). Nestling budgerigars 3 to 10 days of age, were inoculated with this BFDV isolate. They developed an acute systemic disease with high mortality rates, similar to naturally occurring infections. In this regard, BFDV differs markedly from all the other polyomaviruses known until now which only cause clinically asymptomatic, persistent infections in their natural hosts. Most of the birds examined with clinical signs of BFD or FM exhibited low titers of antibodies neutralizing the BFDV isolate, whereas in clinically healthy birds from flocks that never had any problems with FM or BFD, no antibodies against BFDV could be detected. On account of the results of our experiments described here we suspect that FM might be a milder, more protracted form of a BFDV infection. PMID:2552708

  6. [Alagille's syndrome. Clinical and histo-pathologic study].

    PubMed

    Moreno Giménez, J C; del Rio Mapelli, L; Camacho Martinez, F

    1984-01-01

    Alagille 's syndrome, described in 1970, associates a chronic intrahepatic cholestasis (hypoplasia of the interlobulary biliary ducts), vertebral and visceral malformations, retarded physical, mental and sexual development and neonatal jaundice. A series of cutaneous manifestations are reviewed in their clinical, histological and ultrastructural aspects. Its relation with the zinc deficiency syndrome is discussed. PMID:6732121

  7. Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have adopted numerous (and sometimes conflicting) approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships. We review the historical development of these approaches and we advocate an approach to clinical neuropsychology that is informed by recent findings from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical assessment of executive and emotional processes associated with the frontal lobes of the human brain has yet to incorporate the numerous experimental neuroscience findings on this topic. We review both standard and newer techniques for assessment of frontal lobe functions, including control operations involved in language, memory, attention, emotions, self-regulation, and social functioning. Clinical and experimental research has converged to indicate the fractionation of frontal subprocesses and the initial mapping of these subprocesses to discrete frontal regions. One anatomical distinction consistent in the literature is that between dorsal and ventral functions, which can be considered cognitive and affective, respectively. The frontal lobes, in particular the frontal poles, are involved in uniquely human capacities, including self-awareness and mental time travel.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Resident Learning in Ambulatory Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Francovich, Chris; Hill, William; Gieselman, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of a large ethnographic database from observations of a resident teaching clinic revealed three important findings. The first finding was that breakdown, a situation where an "actor" (such as a person or the group) is not achieving expected effectiveness, was the most important category because of its frequency and explanatory…

  9. [The traumatized foot--clinical and radiological study].

    PubMed

    Brunner, U H; Blahs, U; Kenn, R W

    1991-03-01

    Thorough examination of the injured foot is the basis of a complete diagnosis and the foundation for successful therapy. Anatomical and biomechanical knowledge is a necessity to achieve this goal. The radiological diagnostic procedures include plain film, digital subtraction angiography, US, CT and MRI. Only the combination of clinical and radiological assessment will lead to optimal results.

  10. Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have adopted numerous (and sometimes conflicting) approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships. We review the historical development of these approaches and we advocate an approach to clinical neuropsychology that is informed by recent findings from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical assessment of executive and emotional processes associated with the frontal lobes of the human brain has yet to incorporate the numerous experimental neuroscience findings on this topic. We review both standard and newer techniques for assessment of frontal lobe functions, including control operations involved in language, memory, attention, emotions, self-regulation, and social functioning. Clinical and experimental research has converged to indicate the fractionation of frontal subprocesses and the initial mapping of these subprocesses to discrete frontal regions. One anatomical distinction consistent in the literature is that between dorsal and ventral functions, which can be considered cognitive and affective, respectively. The frontal lobes, in particular the frontal poles, are involved in uniquely human capacities, including self-awareness and mental time travel. PMID:11752491

  11. Mass spectrometry imaging for the proteomic study of clinical tissue.

    PubMed

    Cole, Laura M; Clench, Malcolm R

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, MALDI-MS imaging has been used by researchers to explore areas of proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics in samples of clinical origin for both targeted and global biomarker analysis. Numerous technological advancements in MS and clinical tissue MS imaging have been accomplished; hence, in this article we aim to critically discuss whether MS imaging has now in fact become a true champion of the 'Omics Era'. In order to assess the potential for it to be routinely used in the clinical setting, it is pertinent to discuss some of its limitations, and to examine how these have been addressed by researchers. The key limitations of the technique we will discuss in this viewpoint article are as follows: sample throughput; relevance to patients, the availability of validated/standardised techniques; and integration with conventional pathology and other medical imaging techniques. Good progress has been made over the last 5 years in overcoming these limitations that had previously restricted the use of this technology in the clinical setting. PMID:25620724

  12. Vulval Crohn's disease: a clinical study of 22 patients.

    PubMed

    Laftah, Zainab; Bailey, Clare; Zaheri, Shirin; Setterfield, Jane; Fuller, Lucinda Claire; Lewis, Fiona

    2015-04-01

    Vulval Crohn's disease [VCD] is a challenging condition that can occur without gastrointestinal Crohn's disease [GCD]. We reviewed the clinical features and effects of therapy in a cohort of 22 patients with VCD to determine whether the presence of GCD affected the clinical presentation and treatment response. Of these, 64% had GCD and 65% of these presented with GCD prior to VCD. Fissuring, ulceration, and scarring were more common in those with VCD alone. Potent and ultra-potent topical steroids showed benefit in most patients. There was no clear evidence of sustained remission with metronidazole. Azathioprine was the most commonly used oral immunosuppressive agent, with an efficacy of 57%. Patients with both VCD and GCD had a better clinical response compared with those with VCD alone [70% and 25%, respectively]. Infliximab and adalimumab were effective in 56% and 71% of patients, respectively. Excision of redundant tissue was helpful in four patients. The absence of GCD may delay the diagnosis in women who present with vulval symptoms alone. The more active clinical features in those with VCD alone may represent a more aggressive condition, or the severity of the cutaneous disease may have been reduced by immunosuppression taken for GCD. Several patients obtained sustained remission in their GCD with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha [anti-TNFα] agents while the VCD remained active.

  13. Factors Related to Postoperative Pain Trajectories following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Longitudinal Study of Patients Admitted to a Russian Orthopaedic Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Nikolai; Lindberg, Maren Falch; Gay, Caryl; Saraev, Alexander; Kuliaba, Taras; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Muniz, Konstantin; Lerdal, Anners

    2016-01-01

    This study explores sociodemographic, clinical, and surgical factors in relation to pain trajectories during the first 3 days following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 100 patients (mean age 63.5 ± 7.8 years and 93% female) consecutively admitted for uncomplicated primary TKA were prospectively included. Postoperative pain was assessed using pain diaries. Measures of preoperative pain, symptoms, daily functioning, quality of life, comorbidities, knee function, perioperative characteristics, and physical/biochemical parameters were also evaluated. All pain ratings decreased in the three days following surgery (p < .001) as well as the reported number of daily hours in moderate/severe pain (p < .001). Women reported more pain than men (p = .009). Pain trajectories did not differ by education, employment, cohabitation, or any patient clinical and biochemical characteristics but were significantly related to preoperative anxiety (p = .029). Patients reporting moderate/severe pain prior to surgery also reported more hours in moderate/severe pain on days 0–3 postoperatively (p = .029). Patients with surgeries longer than 90 min reported more hours of moderate/severe pain compared with patients who had shorter surgeries (p = .008), and similar results were observed for ratings of pain with activity (p = .012). In this sample, only female gender, higher levels of preoperative pain and anxiety, and longer surgical duration were associated with increased pain after TKA. PMID:26885390

  14. Application of ion chromatography in clinical studies and pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Rajmund

    2014-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a well-established regulatory method for analyzing anions and cations in environmental, food and many other samples. It offers an enormous range of possibilities for selecting stationary and mobile phases. Additionally, it usually helps to solve various separation problems, particularly when it is combined with different detection techniques. Ion chromatography can also be used to determine many ions and substances in clinical and pharmaceutical samples. It provides: availability of high capacity stationary phases and sensitive detectors; simple sample preparation; avoidance of hazardous chemicals; decreased sample volumes; flexible reaction options on a changing sample matrix to be analyzed; or the option to operate a fully-automated system. This paper provides a short review of the ion chromatography applications for determining different inorganic and organic substances in clinical and pharmaceutical samples.

  15. Clarifying Clinical Nurse Consultant work in Australia: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Cashin, Andrew; Stasa, Helen; Gullick, Janice; Conway, Rae; Cunich, Michelle; Buckley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Nurse Consultant role in Australia is an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Role (APRN). This role has been conceptualized from the discrete pillars of research, education, practice, system support and leadership, articulated in the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. This conceptualization has been manifested in job descriptions, workforce. planning and course design. This paper explored whether there was a more refined way of conceptualizing the unique 'value add' of the role. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was employed to explore the lived experience of the role. It was identified that the pillars of education, practice, leadership and research are interconnected and expressed in the system work of the Clinical Nurse Consultant. The findings have implications for education and workforce planning. PMID:26775527

  16. Representing clinical guidelines in UMl: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hederman, Lucy; Smutek, Daniel; Wade, Vincent; Knape, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Clinical guidelines can be represented using models, such as GLIF, specifically designed for healthcare guidelines. This paper demonstrates that they can also be modelled using a mainstream business modelling language such as UML. The paper presents a guideline in GLIF and as UML activity diagrams, and then presents a mapping of GLIF primitives to UML. The potential benefits of using a mainstream modelling language are outlined. These include availability of advanced modelling tools, transfer between modelling tools, and automation via business workflow technology.

  17. [Analysis on evaluation tool for literature quality in clinical study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhai, Wei; Tan, Ya-qin; Huang, Juan

    2014-09-01

    The tools used for the literature quality evaluation are introduced. The common evaluation tools that are publicly and extensively used for the evaluation of clinical trial literature quality in the world are analyzed, including Jadad scale, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system and the others. Additionally, the present development, updates and applications of these tools are involved in analysis.

  18. Studies of foetuses from cows clinically affected with bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Kono, Y; Sentsui, H; Arai, K; Irishio, W; Fujigaki, A

    1983-10-01

    Five foetuses at varying stages of gestation were recovered from cows showing clinical signs of infection with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). No pathological changes were found in the foetuses although BLV was isolated from 2 of these foetuses. No antibody to BLV could be detected by virus-neutralisation or immunodiffusion (ID) techniques in these two foetuses, although neutralising antibody alone was detected in one of the other 3 foetuses which were all negative for virus. PMID:6316629

  19. Study of Clinical Practical Model of Urinary System Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wu, Yuan-Yi; Fu, Wei-Jun; Jia, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Bing-Hong; Xu, Yong-De; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Shi, Jian-Guo; Tan, Hai-Song; Qian, Ye-Yong; Shi, Bin-Yi; Zhang, Chao-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to improve the clinical treatment level of urinary system injury, it is necessary to build up an animal model of urinary system wound, which is not only analogous to real clinical practice, but also simple and practical. Methods: We have developed the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator based on the first and the second producer. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge was selected by gradient powder loading experiments. The firearm fragment injuries were made to the bulbous urethra of 10 New Zealand male rabbits. One week preoperatively and 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, all the animals underwent urethroscopy and urethrography. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, two animals were randomly selected and killed, and the urethra was cut off for pathological examination. Results: The shooting distance of the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator is 2 cm. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge is 1 g of nitrocotton. All rabbits survived the procedures and stayed alive until they were killed. Injuries were limited to bulbous urethra and distal urethra. Round damaged areas, 1–1.5 cm in length, on the ventral wall were observed. Ureteroscopy results showed that canal diameter gradually shrank by over 50% in 9 rabbits. The rate of success was 90%. Urethrography result noted that a 1–1.3 cm stricture was formed at the bulbous urethra. Histology results of injured stricture urethra showed that fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia and hyaline degeneration caused further stricture in the canal. Conclusions: The third generation of firearm fragment wound generator imitates the bullet firing process and is more accurate and repeatable. The corresponding rabbit model of traumatic complex urethral stricture simulates the real complex clinical conditions. This animal model provides a standardized platform for clinical researches on treating traumatic injuries to the urinary system. PMID:25836614

  20. [Ethical problems in utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2011-03-01

    Ethical Committee in Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine published "Opinions of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine about utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for laboratory work, education and clinical studies" in 2002. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan established "Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Studies" in 2003, and amended the document in 2008. According to the guidelines, Ethical Committee in Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine revised the "Opinions of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine about utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for laboratory work, education and clinical studies" in 2010. Ethical problems in utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for clinical studies are discussed.