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Sample records for 8-year clinical study

  1. Drug Eruptions: An 8-year Study Including 106 Inpatients at a Dermatology Clinic in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Fatma; Dervis, Emine

    2012-05-01

    Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  2. Drug Eruptions: An 8-year Study Including 106 Inpatients at a Dermatology Clinic in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Fatma; Dervis, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously. PMID:22707770

  3. Spinopelvic Fixation of Sacroiliac Joint Fractures and Fracture-Dislocations: A Clinical 8 Years Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sobhan, Mohammad R.; Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J.; Vakili, Mahmood; Shirdel, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pelvic ring injuries and sacroiliac dislocations have significant impacts on patient’s quality of life. Several techniques have been described for posterior pelvic fixation. The current study has been designed to evaluate the spinopelvic method of fixation for sacroiliac fractures and fracture-dislocations. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2014, 14 patients with sacroiliac joint fractures, dislocation and fracture-dislocation were treated by Spinopelvic fixation at Shahid Sadoughi Training Hospital, Yazd, Iran. Patients were seen in follow up, on average, out to 32 months after surgery. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of injuries. A functional assessment of the patients was performed using Majeed’s score. Patient demographics, reduction quality, loss of fixation, outcomes and complications, return to activity, and screw hardware characteristics are described Results: The injury was unilateral in 11 (78.5%) patients and bilateral in 3 (21.5%). Associated injuries were present in all patients, including fractures, dislocation and abdominal injuries. Lower limb length discrepancy was less than 10 mm in all patients except two. Displacement, as a measure of quality of reduction was less than 5 mm in 13 patients. The mean Majeed score was 78/100. Wound infection and hardware failure were observed in 3 (21.4%) and 1 (7.1%) cases, respectively. In this study most patients (85%) return to work postoperatively. Conclusion: According to the findings, spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective technique for treatment of sacroiliac injuries. This method can obtain early partial to full weight bearing and possibly reduce the complications. PMID:27847854

  4. CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND SELF-REPORTED SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY: AN 8-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF A LANREOTIDE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Khairi, Shafaq; Sagvand, Babak Torabi; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne; Nachtigall, Lisa B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with acromegaly who remained on long-term lanreotide depot after completion of an open-label multicenter phase III clinical trial (SALSA: A Multi Center Open Label Study to Assess the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel), compare baseline and long-term follow-up symptoms scores, and correlate scores with individual longitudinal clinical outcomes. Records of all subjects previously enrolled at the Massachusetts General Hospital site of SALSA were reviewed. Those who remained on lanreotide were interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire that they had filled out in SALSA in 2007 regarding their current symptomatology and injection side effects, as well as to complete the Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire. Furthermore, clinical, biochemical, and radiographic data related to acromegaly and its comorbidities were tracked throughout follow-up. Six out of 7 patients chose to remain on lanreotide, and 5 of them continued lanreotide depot through last follow-up, for up to 8 years or in 1 case until death. In all cases, lanreotide remained well tolerated, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and pituitary imaging remained well controlled on stable doses. While comorbidities persisted or developed, the self-reported symptom score after up to 8 years of therapy showed a significant decrease in frequency or resolution in symptoms that were reported at baseline. This study shows a significant decrease in frequency or resolution in self-reported symptoms in well-controlled patients receiving long-term lanreotide therapy. AcroQoL = Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire GH = growth hormone GI = gastrointestinal IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor-1 SALSA = A Multi Center Open Label Study to Assess the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel.

  5. Fighting with Spirits: Migration Trauma, Acculturative Stress, and New Sibling Transition-A Clinical Case Study of an 8-Year-Old Girl with Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Bose, Ruma

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the impact of migration and acculturation processes on the cultural, personal identity, and mental health of children who immigrate to a Western, multicultural environment, and the challenges clinicians in such environments face, when confronted with non-Western idioms of distress and healing practices. We do that by presenting a challenging clinical case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with very disorganized behavior, which matches a culturally accepted construct of spirit possession, in the context of migration trauma, acculturative stress, and new sibling transition. We identify cultural conflict in school and bullying as major mediators between acculturative stress and mental distress. We also aim at identifying vulnerability, risk and protective factors, and the importance of cultural coping resources. We explore in depth the patient's cultural background and the family's belief system and culturally shaped narratives, in order to arrive at a cultural formulation, which focuses on the significance of idioms of distress in shaping psychopathology and influencing the personal and interpersonal course of trauma- and stress-related disorders. We also call attention to the finding that in children, idioms of distress may manifest themselves in a somatic manner. We argue, together with other researchers, that spirit possession deserves more interest as an idiom of distress and a culture-specific response to traumatizing events. We finally emphasize the importance of an anti-reductionist clinical stance, that is able to use different levels of understanding processes of distress and healing, and seeks to reconciliate cultural divides and integrate different explanatory frameworks and help-seeking practices.

  6. Molecular genetics study of deafness in Brazil: 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Andréa; Alexandrino, Fabiana; Christiani, Thalita Vitachi; Steiner, Carlos Eduardo; Cunha, José Luiz Rosemberis; Guerra, Andréa Trevas Maciel; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2007-07-15

    Hereditary hearing loss is a complex disorder that involves a large number of genes. In developed countries, 1 in 1,000 children is born with deafness severe enough to require special education services, and about 60% of the cases of isolated deafness have a genetic origin. Although more than 100 genes for hearing loss are known currently, only a few are routinely tested in the clinical practice. In this study, we present our findings from the molecular diagnostic screening of the GJB2 and GJB3 genes, del(GJB6-D13S1,830) and del(GJB6-D13S1,854) deletions in the GJB6 gene, Q829X mutation in the otoferlin gene (OTOF) and, the A1,555G and A7,445G mutations in the mitochondrial genome over an 8-year period. Mutations analysis in the previously mentioned genes and mutations was performed on 645 unrelated Brazilian patients with hearing loss who fell into two different testing groups. Different mutations in the GJB2 gene were responsible for most of cases studied, but deletions in the GJB6 gene as well as mitochondrial mutations were also found. While most cases of hearing loss in this country are due to environmental factors, the genetic etiology of deafness will increasingly be determined as more genetic tests become available.

  7. Evidence That Onset of Clinical Psychosis Is an Outcome of Progressively More Persistent Subclinical Psychotic Experiences: An 8-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, M.D.G.; Wichers, Marieke; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that developmental expression of psychometric risk in the form of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population is usually transitory but in some instances may become abnormally persistent and progress to a clinical psychotic state. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a general population sample of 845 adolescents, aged 14–17 years, in Munich, Germany (Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology Study). Expression of psychosis was assessed 4 times (T0–T3) over a period of 8.4 years. Transition from subclinical psychosis at T0–T2 to clinical psychosis in terms of impairment at T3 was examined as a function of the level of prior persistence of subclinical psychosis (present never, once, twice, or thrice). The more the subclinical psychosis persisted over the period T0–T2, the greater the risk of transition to clinical psychosis at T3 in a dose-response fashion (subclinical psychosis expression once over T0–T2: odds ratio [OR] = 1.5 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 0.6–3.7], posttest probability [PP] = 5%; twice: OR = 5.0 [95% CI = 1.6–15.9], PP = 16%; at all 3 measurements: OR = 9.9 [95% CI = 2.5–39.8], PP = 27%). Of all clinical psychosis at T3, more than a third (38.3%) was preceded by subclinical psychotic experiences at least once and a fifth (19.6%) at least twice. Consequently, a significant proportion of psychotic disorder may be conceptualized as the rare poor outcome of a common developmental phenotype characterized by persistence of psychometrically detectable subclinical psychotic experiences. This may be summarized descriptively as a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. PMID:19460881

  8. Transition of blaOXA-58-like to blaOXA-23-like in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in Southern China: An 8-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiyuan; He, Yi; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yuemei; Wu, Jinsong; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals has been increasing worldwide. This study aims to investigate the carbapenemase genes and the clonal relatedness among A. baumannii clinical isolates in a Chinese hospital. Methods Carbapenemase genes and the upstream locations of insertion sequences were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Results A total of 231 nonduplicate carbapenemase gene-harboring A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Shenzhen People’s Hospital, were investigated between 2002 and 2009. blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-40-like, and ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like were identified in 119, 107, 1, and 4 isolates, respectively. IS1008-ΔISAba3, ISAba3, and ISAba1 were detected upstream of the blaOXA-58-like gene in 69, 35, and 3 isolates, respectively. All blaOXA-23-like genes but one had an upstream insertion of ISAba1. blaOXA-58-like was the most common carbapenemase gene in A.baumannii before 2008, thereafter blaOXA-23-like became rapidly prevalent and replaced blaOXA-58-like in 2009. The majority of blaOXA-58-like-carrying isolates showed lower level of resistance to imipenem and meropenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml), compared with the majority of blaOXA-23-like-carrying isolates (MICs, 16 μg/ml to 64 μg/ml for both imipenem and meropenem). All 231 blaOXA carbapenemase gene-harboring isolates belonged to 14 PFGE types (A–N), and three dominant clones A, J, and H accounted for 43.3%, 42.0%, and 8.2% of the tested isolates, respectively. Clone A (sequence type ST92/ST208) with blaOXA-58-like was the most prevalent before 2008. Clone H (ST229) with blaOXA-23-like became striking between 2007 and 2008. Clone J (ST381) with blaOXA-23-like rapidly spread and replaced clones A and H in 2009. Conclusion This study is the first to

  9. Success and Survival Rates of Dental Implants Restored at an Undergraduate Dental Clinic: A 13-Year Retrospective Study with a Mean Follow-up of 5.8 Years.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Shahrzad S; Matthews, Debora C; Michuad, Pierre-Luc; Ghiabi, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and patient-based outcomes of dental implants placed at an undergraduate student dental clinic. A retrospective study was performed to determine the success and survival rates of dental implants placed at the undergraduate dental clinic at Dalhousie University between January 1999 and January 2012. Only patients with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were included. Clinical and radiographic assessments determined implant success and survival rates. Questionnaires recorded patients' satisfaction with esthetics, comfort, and ease of hygiene. Of the 352 patients (n = 591 implants) who received implants over 13 years, 165 patients completed the clinical and radiographic examinations. By the end of the study period, demographic information and implant characteristics were collected for 111 (n = 217 implants; 47.5% in the maxilla, 52.6% in the mandible) of these patients. Of those assessed clinically, 36.4% were males and 63.6% females, with a mean age of 56.1 ± 14.15 years (range, 17 to 86 years) at the time of implant placement. The mean follow-up period was 5.8 years (range, 1 to 13 years). The overall implant success and survival rates were 88.0% and 97.2%, respectively. No observable bone loss was evident in 88.0% of the surviving implants. There were no implant fractures. Most patients (91.2%) were very satisfied with the implant restoration appearance, 88.0% were very comfortable with the implant, 92.6% were very satisfied with their ability to chew, and 84.8% reported easy hygiene maintenance at the implant sites. Implant success and survival in an undergraduate student clinic were comparable to those reported in the literature. It seems that inexperienced students were able to provide restorations that were very satisfying to the patients.

  10. The role of alexithymia: An 8-year follow-up study of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti I; Karukivi, Max

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this 8-year follow-up study was to ascertain changes in alexithymia, depressiveness and pain situation in a sample of chronic pain patients and to explore the impact of alexithymia and depression on the outcome. Participants (n=83) were chronic non-malignant pain patients who completed self-report study questionnaires before their first visit to the pain clinic and again 8years later. Study variables consisted of pain intensity measured by the Visual Analogous Scale, the Pain Disability Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. The moderate improvement in the pain situation was estimated as a decrease of 30% or more in pain intensity or pain disability. In the whole sample there was a significant decrease in pain intensity, pain disability and depressiveness, but only some of the patients achieved moderate improvement in their pain situation. Alexithymia remained stable during the 8-year period. The alexithymic patients had poorer pain situation and more depressiveness both at baseline and at follow-up. Unfavorable outcome in the pain situation was connected with male gender and alexithymia at baseline but not with depressiveness. Alexithymia and depressiveness were closely related to each other and the connection strengthened during the follow-up period. Alexithymic depressive chronic pain patients represent a special, more disabled subgroup among chronic pain patients. The authors recommend screening for and identifying alexithymia and depression in chronic pain patients. Structural treatment protocols such as cognitive-behavioral therapy may benefit these patients. More research is needed to develop treatment interventions for alexithymic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in the American and Korean Population: An 8-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heeyoon; Shin, Yong Un; Siegel, Nicole H; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Sobrin, Lucia; Patel, Achal; Durand, Marlene L; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2016-07-26

    To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida species were the most common pathogens of EE in the Korean and the American patients, respectively. Endophthalmitis caused by fungi had a better visual prognosis than that caused by bacteria (p = 0.001). Vitrectomy was beneficial for eyes with EE due to virulent bacteria presenting with worse than counting finger vision. The predisposing conditions and responsible organisms for EE vary in different regions of the world. The visual prognosis was strongly influenced by the underlying pathogen.

  12. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  13. Speech characteristics of 8-year-old children: findings from a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical speech and 50 of these children served as controls. The remainder were categorised as using common clinical distortions only (CCD, n=582) or speech difficulties (SDiff, n=409). The samples from the CCD children were not analysed further. Speech samples from the SDiff and the control children were transcribed and analysed in terms of percentage consonants correct, error type and syllable structure. Findings were compared with those from children in the Shriberg et al. (1997) lifespan database (n=25). The 8-year-old children from ALSPAC in the SDiff and control groups achieved similar speech accuracy scores to the 8-year-old children in the lifespan database. The SDiff group had consistently lower scores than the ALSPAC control group, with the following measures most clearly differentiating the groups: single word task (percentage of substitutions and distortions), connected speech task (percentage of vowels correct (PVC), percentage of omission of singletons and entire clusters, and stress pattern matches), nonword repetition task (PVC, percentage of entire clusters omitted, percentage of distortions, and percentage of stress pattern matches). Connected speech and nonword samples provide useful supplementary data for identifying older children with atypical speech. The reader will recognize the methods used to identify speech characteristics in a large scale population study. They will describe how measures of speech accuracy in connected speech compare with the Shriberg et al. (1997) lifespan database. The reader will also recall information on how typically and atypically developing children differ on a range of measures

  14. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A.; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Methods: A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May–June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007–October 2014. Results: Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40–15.36, P < 0.05). Nightmare complaint alone did not predict the occurrence of suicide attempts, but the comorbidity of nightmares and insomnia was associated with the risk of suicide attempt over follow-up (adjusted HR = 11.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.68–73.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. Citation: Li SX, Lam SP, Zhang J, Yu MW, Chan JW, Chan CS, Espie CA, Freeman D, Mason O, Wing YK. Sleep disturbances and suicide risk in an 8-year longitudinal study of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1275–1282. PMID:27091530

  15. The Georges Pompidou University Hospital Clinical Data Warehouse: A 8-years follow-up experience.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Zapletal, Eric; Avillach, Paul; Mamzer, Marie-France; Burgun, Anita; Degoulet, Patrice

    2017-06-01

    When developed jointly with clinical information systems, clinical data warehouses (CDWs) facilitate the reuse of healthcare data and leverage clinical research. To describe both data access and use for clinical research, epidemiology and health service research of the "Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou" (HEGP) CDW. The CDW has been developed since 2008 using an i2b2 platform. It was made available to health professionals and researchers in October 2010. Procedures to access data have been implemented and different access levels have been distinguished according to the nature of queries. As of July 2016, the CDW contained the consolidated data of over 860,000 patients followed since the opening of the HEGP hospital in July 2000. These data correspond to more than 122 million clinical item values, 124 million biological item values, and 3.7 million free text reports. The ethics committee of the hospital evaluates all CDW projects that generate secondary data marts. Characteristics of the 74 research projects validated between January 2011 and December 2015 are described. The use of HEGP CDWs is a key facilitator for clinical research studies. It required however important methodological and organizational support efforts from a biomedical informatics department. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SLE disease patterns in a Danish population-based lupus cohort: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A; Junker, P

    2010-03-01

    In 1995 all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the county of Funen were retrieved from four separate and independent sources as part of an 8-year prospective study to determine the pattern of disease activity and damage accumulation in a community based lupus cohort of predominantly Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics SLICC scores were calculated. Flares were defined as modified - SLEDAI >or= 4. The annual flare rate in definite SLE (D-SLE) was 0.21 (95%CI 0.18-0.24) versus 0.03 (95%CI 0.01-0.07) in incomplete SLE (I-SLE). Forty-three per cent of the entire study population had no disease exacerbations. Infections requiring hospital admission and thrombocytopenia were significantly more frequent among patients with relapsing disease (p < 0.04-0.01). Patients with flares had slightly shorter disease duration and were younger at disease onset than patients with a quiescent course. The most recently diagnosed patients had the lowest annual rate of damage accrual. According to flare rate, two major subsets of almost equal size were identified - one having a long quiescent course, the other exhibiting relapses alternating with remissions. An increased risk of flares was associated with short disease duration and younger age at disease onset, infections requiring hospital admission and thrombocytopenia. Temporal damage increment was the lowest in the most recently diagnosed patients.

  17. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolescents, assessed annually over 8 years. Latent growth modeling indicated different developmental trajectories from early into late adolescence for the different anxiety disorder symptoms, with some symptoms decreasing and other symptoms increasing over time. Sex differences in developmental trajectories were found for some symptoms, but not all. Furthermore, latent class growth analysis identified a normal developmental profile (including a majority of adolescents reporting persistent low anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) and an at-risk developmental profile (including a minority of adolescents reporting persistent high anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) for all of the anxiety disorder symptom dimensions except panic disorder. Additional analyses longitudinally supported the validity of these normal and at-risk developmental profiles and suggested differential associations between different anxiety disorder symptom dimensions and developmental trajectories of substance use, parenting, and identity development. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of examining separate dimensions of anxiety disorder symptoms in contrast to a using a global, one-dimensional approach to anxiety.

  18. Pediatric Sleep Disorders and Special Educational Need at 8 Years: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Trupti; Xu, Linzhi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and behavioral sleep problems (BSPs) through 5 years of age and special educational need (SEN) at 8 years. METHODS: Parents in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported on children’s snoring, witnessed apnea, and mouth-breathing at 6, 18, 30, 42, and 57 months, from which SDB symptom trajectories, or clusters, were derived. BSPs were based on report of ≥5 of 7 sleep behaviors at each of the 18-, 30-, 42-, and 57-month questionnaires. Parent report of SEN (yes/no) at 8 years was available for 11 049 children with SDB data and 11 467 children with BSP data. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict SEN outcome by SDB cluster and by cumulative report of SEN. RESULTS: Controlling for 16 putative confounders, previous history of SDB and BSPs was significantly associated with an SEN. BSPs were associated with a 7% increased odds of SEN (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.15), for each ∼1-year interval at which a BSP was reported. SDB, overall, was associated with a near 40% increased odds of SEN (95% CI 1.18–1.62). Children in the worst symptom cluster were 60% more likely to have an SEN (95% CI 1.23–2.08). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based longitudinal study, history of either SDB or BSPs in the first 5 years of life was associated with increased likelihood of SEN at 8 years of age. Findings highlight the need for pediatric sleep disorder screening by early interventionists, early childhood educators, and health professionals. PMID:22945405

  19. Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Retrospective Case Study With 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stobert, Julia R.; Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) who was initially misdiagnosed and treated for a hip flexor strain. Clinical Features A 36-year-old male patient presented with insidious onset of progressive anterior right hip and groin pain of 7 years' duration. He was diagnosed with a right-sided hip flexor muscle strain and was discharged from care 1 month later. The patient then returned to the office 8 years later for treatment of unrelated lower back pain. This time, the doctor of chiropractic learned that the patient was misdiagnosed years before. The patient's past radiographs in fact revealed FAI, including severe hip joint osteoarthritis on the right and mild osteoarthritis on the left. As a result, the patient had undergone right hip joint replacement surgery. Recent radiographs also revealed FAI in the contralateral hip. Intervention and Outcome After investigating for FAI, the doctor of chiropractic was able to identify through symptomatology, history, physical examination, and radiographs the presence of FAI in the patient's left hip. An “active surveillance” approach is being taken. Conclusion This case illustrates the importance of an increasing awareness of FAI, as doctors of chiropractic are frequently the primary contact for patients with this condition. PMID:26793042

  20. An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    de Veer, Monique W; Gallup, Gordon G; Theall, Laura A; van den Bos, Ruud; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study of mirror self-recognition involving 92 chimpanzees, Povinelli et al. [Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (1993) 347] reported a peak in the proportion of animals exhibiting self-recognition in the adolescent/young adult sample (8-15 years), with 75% being classified as positive. In contrast, only 26% of the older animals (16-39 years) were classified as positive, suggesting a marked decline in self-recognition in middle to late adulthood. In the present study, all of the chimpanzees from the 8-15-year-old group in the Povinelli et al. study (n=12) were again tested for self-recognition, 8 years later. Using the same criteria, 67% of the animals were classified the same. Although a higher proportion of the adult animals in this study (50%) exhibited self-recognition than would be inferred on the basis of the previous study (25%), all changes in self-recognition status were in the negative direction. These results show that mirror self-recognition is a highly stable trait in many chimpanzees, but may be subject to decline with age. Connections with human research are briefly discussed.

  1. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  2. Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chan, Khee-Siang; Tseng, Kuei-Ling; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common in critical care; by contrast, a subtype called alcohol-associated lactic acidosis (AALA) is rarely encountered. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of AALA in critically ill patients and the second aim was to determine whether the survival was associated to the peak blood lactate concentration. An 8-year retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with AALA between January 2007 and December 2014 was considered in a tertiary care hospital. In total, 23 patients were analyzed and the median peak blood lactate level was 15.9 mmol/L. Only 2 patients (8.7%) presented peak blood lactate levels <10 mmol/L. In this study, 21 patients survived from ICU and hospital, the mortality rate was 8.7%. The result indicted the survival of AALA was not associated with peak blood lactate concentration although survivors still had a better lactate clearance rate per hour than non-survivors. Moreover, AALA patients with coexisting sepsis presenting higher lactate clearance rate and shorter lactate clearance time than those of AALA patients with solely sepsis-related lactic acidosis. PMID:27748410

  3. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Mark S.; James, Peter W.; Franco-Villoria, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Jones, Angela R.; Basterfield, Laura; Drewett, Robert F.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults. PMID:24089678

  4. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4-8-year old children: associations with temperament.

    PubMed

    Buss, Kristin A; Dennis, Tracy A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Sippel, Lauren M

    2011-04-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4-8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety.

  5. Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J

    2010-06-01

    Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed.

  6. Hearing impairment: a population study of age at diagnosis, severity, and language outcomes at 7–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wake, M; Poulakis, Z; Hughes, E; Carey-Sargeant, C; Rickards, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Better language outcomes are reported for preschool children with hearing impairment (HI) diagnosed very early, irrespective of severity. However, population studies of older children are required to substantiate longer term benefits of early detection. Aims: To study impact of age of diagnosis and severity of HI in a population cohort of 7–8 year old children. Methods: Eighty eight 7–8 year old children born in Victoria, who were (a) fitted with hearing aids for congenital HI by 4.5 years and (b) did not have intellectual or major physical disability were studied. Main outcome measures were Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Predictors were pure tone average (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) in better ear at diagnosis and age at diagnosis. Marginal (adjusted) means were estimated with general linear models. Results: Response rate was 67% (n = 89; 53 boys). Mean age at diagnosis was 21.6 months (SD 14.4); 21% had mild, 34% moderate, 21% severe, and 24% profound HI; mean non-verbal IQ was 104.6 (SD 16.7). Mean total CELF score was 76.7 (SD 21.4) and mean PPVT score 78.1 (SD 18.1). Age of diagnosis, adjusted for severity and IQ, did not contribute to language scores. In contrast, adjusted mean CELF and PPVT language scores fell sequentially with increasing severity of HI. Conclusions: More severe HI, but not later diagnosis, was strongly related to poorer language outcomes at 7–8 years. Further systematic study is needed to understand why children with hearing impairment have good or poor outcomes. PMID:15723906

  7. Prevalence of uninvestigated dyspepsia 8 years after a large waterborne outbreak of bacterial dysentery: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Alexander C; Thabane, Marroon; Collins, Stephen M; Moayyedi, Paul; Garg, Amit X; Clark, William F; Marshall, John K

    2010-05-01

    Symptoms of dyspepsia may occur following an episode of acute gastroenteritis, but data are conflicting. We assessed prevalence of uninvestigated dyspepsia in a cohort of individuals, some of whom were exposed to bacterial dysentery in May 2000, as well as risk factors for dyspepsia in exposed individuals. This was a cohort study conducted in the town of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Involved individuals were recruited into the Walkerton Health Study between 2002 and 2003 and were attending for annual assessment in 2008. Exposed individuals were subdivided into those with self-reported gastroenteritis, with acute illness unconfirmed by health records, and those with clinically confirmed gastroenteritis, with substantiation of acute illness by health record review. Presence of dyspepsia at 8 years, according to a broad definition (any symptom referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract), and the Rome II criteria, was compared between exposed and nonexposed individuals. Of 2597 subjects eligible, 1088 (41.9%) provided data for analysis, and 706 (64.9%) had reported acute gastroenteritis. Multivariate odd ratios for dyspepsia at 8 years in exposed individuals using a broad definition and the Rome II definition were 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.58-2.78) and 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.63-3.26), respectively. Prevalence of dyspepsia was higher in females; smokers; those with premorbid irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, or depression; and those reporting >7 days of diarrhea or abdominal cramps during the acute illness. Symptoms of dyspepsia 8 years after an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis were significantly more prevalent in exposed compared with nonexposed individuals. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An 8-year longitudinal study of overreaching in 114 elite female Chinese wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; He, Zihong; Zhao, Jiexiu; Tao, Dalang; Xu, Kuiyuan; Midgley, Adrian; McNaughton, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Successful training involves structured overload but must avoid the combination of excessive overload and inadequate recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), and overtraining syndrome in elite female wrestlers during their normal training and competition schedules and to explore the utility of blood markers for the early detection of overreaching. Classification of FOR, NFOR, and overtraining syndrome was based on the European Congress of Sports Medicine position statement. Case series. China Institute of Sport Science. Over an 8-year period, 114 wrestlers from the women's Asian wrestling team were monitored to help identify if and when they experienced FOR, NFOR, or overtraining syndrome. Creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol were measured throughout the period to identify whether wrestlers were outside the reference intervals (constructed from normal recovery data) during periods of overreaching and not overreaching. Among the 114 athletes, there were 13 (3.6%) instances of FOR, 23 (6.4%) instances of NFOR, and 2 (0.6%) instances of overtraining syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity for FOR was 38%, 15%, 45%, and 18% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity for NFOR was 29%, 33%, 26%, and 35% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Specificity was 79%, 88%, 90%, and 82% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Post hoc analysis showed no mean differences in creatine kinase (F = 0.5, P = .47), hemoglobin (F = 3.8, P = .052), testosterone (F = 0.2, P = .62), or cortisol (F = 0.04, P = .85) between monitoring periods when wrestlers were and were not diagnosed with FOR and NFOR. Coaches and sports scientists should not use single blood variables as markers of overreaching in elite female wrestlers.

  9. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Overreaching in 114 Elite Female Chinese Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; He, Zihong; Zhao, Jiexiu; Tao, Dalang; Xu, Kuiyuan; Midgley, Adrian; McNaughton, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Context: Successful training involves structured overload but must avoid the combination of excessive overload and inadequate recovery. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), and overtraining syndrome in elite female wrestlers during their normal training and competition schedules and to explore the utility of blood markers for the early detection of overreaching. Classification of FOR, NFOR, and overtraining syndrome was based on the European Congress of Sports Medicine position statement. Design: Case series. Setting: China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Over an 8-year period, 114 wrestlers from the women's Asian wrestling team were monitored to help identify if and when they experienced FOR, NFOR, or overtraining syndrome. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol were measured throughout the period to identify whether wrestlers were outside the reference intervals (constructed from normal recovery data) during periods of overreaching and not overreaching. Results: Among the 114 athletes, there were 13 (3.6%) instances of FOR, 23 (6.4%) instances of NFOR, and 2 (0.6%) instances of overtraining syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity for FOR was 38%, 15%, 45%, and 18% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity for NFOR was 29%, 33%, 26%, and 35% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Specificity was 79%, 88%, 90%, and 82% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Post hoc analysis showed no mean differences in creatine kinase (F = 0.5, P = .47), hemoglobin (F = 3.8, P = .052), testosterone (F = 0.2, P = .62), or cortisol (F = 0.04, P = .85) between monitoring periods when wrestlers were and were not diagnosed with FOR and NFOR. Conclusions: Coaches and sports scientists should not

  10. Severe malaria in Europe: an 8-year multi-centre observational study.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu; Malvy, Denis; Clerinx, Jan; Antinori, Spinello; Gjørup, Ida E; Gascon, Joaquím; Mørch, Kristine; Nicastri, Emanuele; Ramharter, Michael; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Visser, Leo; Rolling, Thierry; Zanger, Philipp; Calleri, Guido; Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Nielsen, Henrik; Just-Nübling, Gudrun; Neumayr, Andreas; Hachfeld, Anna; Schmid, Matthias L; Antonini, Pietro; Lingscheid, Tilman; Kern, Peter; Kapaun, Annette; da Cunha, José Saraiva; Pongratz, Peter; Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Schunk, Mirjam; Suttorp, Norbert; Hatz, Christoph; Zoller, Thomas

    2017-01-31

    Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (TropNet) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections were acquired in West Africa (109/185, 59%). The proportion of patients treated with intravenous artesunate increased from 27% in 2006 to 60% in 2013. Altogether, 56 different combinations of intravenous and oral drugs were used across 28 study centres. The risk of acute renal failure (36 vs 17% p = 0.04) or cerebral malaria (54 vs 20%, p = 0.001) was significantly higher in patients ≥60 years than in younger patients. Respiratory distress with the need for mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with the risk of death in the study population (13 vs 0%, p = 0.001). Post-artemisinin delayed haemolysis was reported in 19/70 (27%) patients treated with intravenous artesunate. The majority of patients with severe malaria in this study were tourists or migrants acquiring the infection in West Africa. Intravenous artesunate is increasingly used for treatment of severe malaria in many European treatment centres and can be given safely to European patients with severe malaria. Patients treated with intravenous artesunate should be followed up to detect and manage late

  11. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-06-01

    Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May-June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007-October 2014. Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40-15.36, P < 0.05). Nightmare complaint alone did not predict the occurrence of suicide attempts, but the comorbidity of nightmares and insomnia was associated with the risk of suicide attempt over follow-up (adjusted HR = 11.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.68-73.43, P < 0.05). Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Implementation of pay for performance in primary care: a qualitative study 8 years after introduction

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Helen; Matharu, Tatum; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lester, David; Foskett-Tharby, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Pay for performance is now a widely adopted quality improvement initiative in health care. One of the largest schemes in primary care internationally is the English Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). Aim To obtain a longer term perspective on the implementation of the QOF. Design and setting Qualitative study with 47 health professionals in 23 practices across England. Method Semi-structured interviews. Results Pay for performance is accepted as a routine part of primary care in England, with previous more individualistic and less structured ways of working seen as poor practice. The size of the QOF and the evidence-based nature of the indicators are regarded as key to its success. However, pay for performance may have had a negative impact on some aspects of medical professionalism, such as clinical autonomy, and led a significant minority of GPs to prioritise their own pay rather than patients’ best interests. A small minority of GPs tried to increase their clinical autonomy with further unintended consequences. Conclusion Pay for performance indicators are now welcomed by primary healthcare teams and GPs across generations. Almost all interviewees wanted to see a greater emphasis on involving front line practice teams in developing indicators. However, almost all GPs and practice managers described a sense of decreased clinical autonomy and loss of professionalism. Calibrating the appropriate level of clinical autonomy is critical if pay for performance schemes are to have maximal impact on patient care. PMID:23735412

  13. Civic engagement patterns and transitions over 8 years: the AmeriCorps national study.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Flanagan, Constance; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to examine civic engagement transitions across 2 waves spanning 8 years in a sample of AmeriCorps participants and a comparison group (N = 1,344; 77% female). Latent indicators of civic engagement included volunteering, community participation, civic organizational involvement, local and national voting, civic consciousness, and perceptions of civic knowledge. Three latent statuses were identified; inactive, voting involved, and highly committed. Consistent with life cycle theories of political engagement, the inactive status was most prevalent at Wave 1 and the voting-involved status most prevalent at Wave 4. AmeriCorps members were less involved in voting at Wave 1 but, among voters, were more likely to become highly committed by Wave 4. Compared with those who did not attend college, those who did had higher levels of civic engagement initially and over time. Young participants and Asian youths demonstrated lower levels of involvement initially compared with older participants or White youths. Findings suggest that national service programs geared toward young people who are not in college may hold promise for addressing gaps in civic engagement.

  14. Factors Associated with Reevaluation of the Stepwise Excavation Procedure: An 8-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Verdugo, Paula; Guzmán-Armstrong, Sandra; Cobb, Deborah; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek; Kolker, Justine L; Hernández, Marcela; Warren, J J

    2016-01-01

    Although the stepwise excavation procedure (SWP) has been shown to be an effective caries treatment technique, studies reporting its application outside of controlled clinical trials are limited. We performed a retrospective study from patient record data to assess the proportion of patients who had an SWP reevaluated within 18 months at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry (UICOD) between 2004 and 2012, and evaluated the association between different variables and this outcome. A total of 1,985 SWPs were performed in 1,326 patients, with 518 patients having had reevaluation within 18 months. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression modeling revealed strong associations between explanatory variables such as provider type, tooth type, patient age, number of recalls and the calendar year in which the SWP was done and reevaluation status. There was also evidence of association with dental insurance status. Other characteristics such as gender, distance traveled to the UICOD, number of surfaces treated and tooth arch did not show any significant association. In general, patients were more likely to have reevaluation when seen by faculty members or residents, the procedure was performed in molars/pre-molars, they were older, they had more recalls and were seen earlier in the study period. These results suggest that decisions to use SWP should consider patient demographics and treatment characteristics such as provider level, tooth type, patient age and number of recalls. The impact of treatment year may reflect program heterogeneity or temporal changes in external societal factors.

  15. Parkinson disease and musculoskeletal pain: an 8-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lien, Wei-Hung; Lien, Wei-Chih; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Wu, Shang-Te; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Ching-Ju

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) compared with a control group without the disease. The retrospective cohort study used a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) comprising information on 1 million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the entire population of Taiwan. A total of 490 patients aged 50 and above with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease were identified during a period from 2000 to 2005. Among them, 199 developed MSP after PD. The control group consisted of 1960 participants without PD over the study period randomly selected by matching PD cases according to the date of PD incidence, age, and sex. The study groups were then followed to the end of 2007. Musculoskeletal pain was the end point. The incidence rate ratios of MSP were higher in the PD group than in the control group, representing an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.58). PD was associated with a significantly elevated risk of MSP in all sex and age stratifications, with the highest hazard ratio noted for middle-aged male patients with PD, followed by older male patients with PD. This study showed that the PD may significantly increase the risk of developing MSP. The risk of developing MSP seems to be greatest for middle-aged male patients with PD. Clinicians should be more alert for MSP in patients with PD, and early intervention should be considered.

  16. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  17. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  18. On the Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Chinese Literacy Skills: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years.…

  19. On the Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Chinese Literacy Skills: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years.…

  20. Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates: an 8-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Rosito, G; Slagle, T

    2013-12-01

    Probiotic therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants in several international studies using various probiotic agents. The purpose of this study(*) is to describe our experience of using probiotic therapy in preventing NEC in infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to evaluate whether our records provide evidence of effectiveness for probiotic therapy. In a retrospective cohort study, the efficacy of probiotic therapy in preventing NEC in VLBW infants was investigated via chart review. A probiotic administration protocol using a three-strain (Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum) supplement was implemented in August 2007. Patients admitted to the NICU from August 2003 through July 2011 were screened. Primary outcomes are the morbidity and mortality of NEC. The secondary outcomes were severity of NEC and incidence of where infant feeds were stopped but NEC was not diagnosed (NEC scare). There was a significant increased baseline risk of NEC development in the probiotics group, including younger gestational age, higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and use of indomethacin. The incidence of NEC is similar between the control group (2·8%) and probiotics group (2·4%) (hazard ratio, 1·15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·42, 3·12). Mortality of NEC is also not statistically different. Incidence of NEC scare was decreased from 2·8% in control group to 1·4% in probiotics group, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0·38). Our findings suggest that probiotics are safe in NEC prevention in VLBW infants. We had no cases of infection related to the strains of bacteria used in our product. With the low incidence of NEC (2·8%) and NEC scare (2·8%) in our cohort, we do not have enough power to detect any change in outcome, particularly as our study was observational

  1. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  2. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  3. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, S; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Kerkhof, M; Hoekstra, M O; Gerritsen, J; Aalberse, R; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting results observed in cross-sectional studies. The study population consisted of 3115 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort study. Data on breast feeding and asthma (based on wheeze, dyspnoea and prescription of inhaled steroids) were collected by yearly questionnaires. At 8 years, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to airborne allergens and bronchial responsiveness were measured. Data were analysed by logistic regression and generalised estimating equations (GEEs), and stratified by maternal and paternal allergic status. 35% (n = 1081) of the children were breast fed for >16 weeks. At 8 years of age, 12.6% (n = 392) had asthma. Breast feeding (>16 weeks vs no breast feeding) was significantly associated with a lower asthma prevalence from 3 to 8 years of age, in children of both non-allergic and allergic mothers. The inverse association between breast feeding and sensitisation to airborne allergens at 8 years was non-significant. Breast feeding was not associated with bronchial hyper-responsiveness. No interaction between breast feeding and gender, maternal allergy or paternal allergy was observed in any of the associations. Breast feeding is associated with a lower asthma risk in children until 8 years of age without evidence of attenuation and regardless of the family history of allergy.

  4. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  5. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  6. Interpersonal trauma exposure and cognitive development in children to age 8 years: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-11-01

    Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Children (N=206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient (IQ) scores were assessed at 24, 64 and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birth weight and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birth weight and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first 2 years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared with children not exposed to IPT in the first 2 years, exposed children scored one-half SD lower across cognitive assessments. IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first 2 years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood.

  7. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  8. 8-Year Prospective Study of Depressive Symptoms and Change in Insulin from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. Methods Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001–2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline (adolescence) and eight years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants. Puberty was assessed using a validated protocol measuring sex steroids and physical changes. The primary outcome was change in fasting insulin. Analyses accounted for age, sex, race, parental education, baseline insulin, BMI z, puberty, and time to follow up. Results At baseline, depressive symptoms were correlated with insulin (rho = .13, p = .001). High baseline insulin predicted insulin change (B = −11.50, SE = 2.30, p< .001). Depressive symptoms also predicted insulin change, but only for pubertal adolescents (B = −.23, SE = .11, p = .038). This relationship was moderated by race (p < .047); depressive symptoms predicted insulin change only among pubertal black adolescents ( p= .030), not whites (p = .49), and in the direction opposite that hypothesized (Bblacks = −.51, SE = .23). Post-hoc analyses revealed pubertal black adolescents with high depressive symptoms had the highest baseline insulin, which stayed high across the follow up period. Conclusions Among pubertal black adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for sustained hyperinsulinemia from adolescence into adulthood. These youths may be particularly vulnerable for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26368574

  9. Long-term quality of life after radical prostatectomy: 8-year longitudinal study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shunichi; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Haruo; Ito, Akihiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2014-12-01

    To assess long-term health-related quality of life in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. A total of 120 patients with at least 5 years of follow up after radical prostatectomy were included in the present study. Health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed using three questionnaires, the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey, the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index and the International Prostate Symptom Score. A total of 91 patients (73%) responded at a median follow-up time of 102 months (range 85-123 months). Among general health-related quality of life domains, mental and role composite summary score remained stable throughout the follow-up period. At the final survey, no significant differences were observed in any of the domains compared with the age-matched average score of the Japanese population. Although the slight decrease in urinary function scores and International Prostate Symptom Score beyond 5 years postoperatively compared with 5 years, the differences were not significant. The sexual function summary score showed a substantially lower score just after radical prostatectomy and remained at a deteriorated level (P < 0.001). Responders at the final survey were more likely to report favorable general, urinary and sexual outcomes at 60 months compared with non-responders. When taking age-related changes into account, general health-related quality of life seems to remain stable in the long term after radical prostatectomy: patients with favorable health-related quality of life outcomes during the first 5 years after radical prostatectomy maintain favorable outcomes thereafter. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the

  11. Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs: 8 years later.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Rachel M; Handal, Paul J; Brawer, Peter A; Ubinger, Megan

    2011-06-01

    This study was a follow up investigation of Brawer et al.'s (Prof Psychol Res Pr 33(2):203-206, 2002) survey of education and training of clinical psychologists in religion/spirituality. Directors of clinical training were surveyed to determine whether changes had occurred in the coverage of religion and spirituality through course work, research, supervision, and in the systematic coverage of the content area. Results indicated an increased coverage in the areas of supervision, dedicated courses, inclusion as part of another course, and research. There was no increase in systematic coverage, but significantly more programs provided at least some coverage. The current study also assesses other areas of incorporation as well as directors' opinions regarding the importance of religion/spirituality in the field of psychology.

  12. Kidney diseases associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): an 8-year observational study at a single center.

    PubMed

    Izzedine, Hassan; Escudier, Bernard; Lhomme, Catherine; Pautier, Patricia; Rouvier, Philippe; Gueutin, Victor; Baumelou, Alain; Derosa, Lisa; Bahleda, Rastilav; Hollebecque, Antoine; Sahali, Djillali; Soria, Jean Charles

    2014-11-01

    Expanded clinical experience with patients taking antiangiogenic compounds has come with increasing recognition of the renal adverse effects. Because renal histology is rarely sought in those patients, the renal consequences are underestimated. Antiangiogenic-treated-cancer patients, who had a renal biopsy for renal adverse effects from 2006 to 2013, were included in the current study. Clinical features and renal histologic findings were reviewed. Our cohort was 100 patients (58 women) with biopsy-proven kidney disease using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy with a mean age of 59.8 years (range, 20-85 yr). Patients were referred for proteinuria, hypertension, and/or renal insufficiency. Kidney biopsy was performed 6.87 ± 7.18 months after the beginning of treatment. Seventy-three patients experienced renal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and 27 patients had variable glomerulopathies, mainly minimal change disease and/or collapsing-like focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (MCN/cFSGS). MCN/cFSGS-like lesions developed mainly with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, whereas TMA complicated anti-VEGF ligand. Thirty-one percent of TMA patients had proteinuria up to 1 g/24 h. Half of TMA cases are exclusively renal localized. Pathologic TMA features are intraglomerular exclusively. MCN/cFSGS glomeruli displayed a high abundance of KI-67, but synaptopodin was not detected. Conversely, TMA glomeruli exhibited a normal abundance of synaptopodin-like control, whereas KI-67 was absent. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1-80 mo). Fifty-four patients died due to cancer progression. Hypertension and proteinuria resolved following drug discontinuation and antihypertensive agents. No patient developed severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Drug continuation or reintroduction resulted in a more severe recurrence of TMA in 3 out of 4 patients requiring maintenance of anti-VEGF agents despite renal TMA. In conclusion, TMA and MCN/cFSGS are the most

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma: Our 8-year clinical experience in a single French institute (2002–2009)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), its use as a standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative cutaneous melanoma remains controversial. We wished to evaluate our experience of SLNB for melanoma. Methods A single center observational cohort of 203 melanoma patients with a primary cutaneous melanoma (tumour thickness > 1 mm) and without clinical evidence of metastasis was investigated from 2002 to 2009. Head and neck melanoma were excluded. SLN was identified following preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe interrogation. Results The SLN identification rate was 97%. The SLN was tumor positive in 44 patients (22%). Positive SLN was significantly associated with primary tumor thickness and microscopic ulceration. The median follow-up was 39.5 (5–97) months. Disease progression was significantly more frequent in SLN positive patients (32% vs 13%, p = 0.002). Five-year DFS and OS of the entire cohort were 79.6% and 84.6%, respectively, with a statistical significant difference between SLN positive (58.7% and 69.7%) and SLN negative (85% and 90.3%) patients (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0096 respectively). Postoperative complications after SLNB were observed in 12% of patients. Conclusion Our data confirm previous studies and support the clinical usefulness of SLNB as a reliable and accurate staging method in patients with cutaneous melanoma. However, the benefit of additional CLND in patients with positive SLN remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23228015

  14. Stability of the Framingham Nutritional Risk Score and its component nutrients over 8 years: The Framingham Nutrition Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Newby, P.K.; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Campbell, Wei R.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Millen, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Background / Objectives Diet quality indices are increasingly used in nutrition epidemiology as dietary exposures in relation to health outcomes. However, literature on long-term stability of these indices is limited. We aimed to assess the stability of the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score (FNRS) and its component nutrients over 8 years as well as the validity of the follow-up FNRS. Subjects / Methods Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women and men (n=1 734) aged 22-76 years wwver 8 years. Individuals' nutrient intake and nutritional risk scores were assessed using 3-day dietary records administered at baseline (1984-1988) and at follow-up (1992-1996). Agreement between baseline and follow-up FNRS and nutrient intakes was evaluated using Bland-Altman method; stability was assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) and weighted Kappa statistics. The effect of diet quality (as assessed by the FNRS) on cardiometabolic risk factors was evaluated using ANCOVA. Results Modest changes from baseline (≤15%) were observed in nutrient intake. Stability coefficients for the FNRS (ICC: women=0.49; men=0.46; P<0.0001) and many nutrients (ICC ≥0.3) were moderate. Over half of women and men (58%) remained in the same or contiguous baseline and follow-up quartile of the FNRS and few (3-4%) shifted >1 quartile. The FNRS was directly associated with BMI in women (P<0.01) and HDL-cholesterol among both women (P<0.001) and men (P<0.01). Conclusion The FNRS and its constituent nutrients remained relatively stable over 8 years of follow-up. The stability of diet quality has implications for prospective epidemiological investigations. PMID:21970940

  15. Stability of the Framingham Nutritional Risk Score and its component nutrients over 8 years: the Framingham Nutrition Studies.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, R W; Newby, P K; Gona, P; Zhu, L; Campbell, W R; D'Agostino, R B; Millen, B E

    2012-03-01

    Diet quality indices are increasingly used in nutrition epidemiology as dietary exposures in relation to health outcomes. However, literature on the long-term stability of these indices is limited. We aimed to assess the stability of the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score (FNRS) and its component nutrients over 8 years, as well as the validity of the follow-up FNRS. Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women and men (n=1734) aged 22-76 years were evaluated over 8 years. Individuals' nutrient intake and nutritional risk scores were assessed using 3-day dietary records administered at baseline (1984-1988) and at follow-up (1992-1996). Agreement between baseline and follow-up FNRS and nutrient intakes was evaluated by Bland-Altman method; stability was assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) and weighted Kappa statistics. The effect of diet quality (as assessed by the FNRS) on cardiometabolic risk factors was evaluated using analysis of covariance. Modest changes from baseline (15%) were observed in nutrient intake. The stability coefficients for the FNRS (ICC: women, 0.49; men, 0.46; P<0.0001) and many nutrients (ICC 0.3) were moderate. Over half of the women and men (58%) remained in the same or contiguous baseline and follow-up quartile of the FNRS and few (3-4%) shifted >1 quartile. The FNRS was directly associated with body mass index in women (P<0.01) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among both women (P<0.001) and men (P<0.01). The FNRS and its constituent nutrients remained relatively stable over 8 years of follow-up. The stability of diet quality has implications for prospective epidemiological investigations.

  16. Prevalence of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders: an 8-year follow-up study in chronic schizophrenia inpatients.

    PubMed

    Parksepp, Madis; Ljubajev, Ülle; Täht, Karin; Janno, Sven

    2016-10-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drug use by schizophrenia patients in Estonia increased from 32% in 2004 to 61% in 2009. To assess the prevalence of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders in the Estonian institutionalized population of schizophrenia patients twice over a period of eight years, before and after introduction of atypical antipsychotic drugs using DSM-IV criteria. DSM-IV criteria and specific rating scales were used to evaluate the prevalence of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders among 72 patients who participated in the study in 2009 compared to 99 patients who participated in 2001. Despite increased use of atypical antipsychotics in the study population (up to 30% from 20%), the proportion of movement disorder-free population remained the same over 8 years - 38.9% in 2001 versus 38.4% in 2009. There were significant intra-individual fluctuations. Use of a typical antipsychotic resulted in an almost seven times higher risk of tardive dyskinesia after 8 years. Doses of antipsychotic drugs had no effect on the severity of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders. Unfortunately, in 18% of patients the switch of medication from typical to atypical did not change the overall prevalence of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders in the group. The long-term benefit of atypical antipsychotics requires further research in patients who are treated with antipsychotics for years.

  17. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  18. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  19. On the relationship between phonological awareness, morphological awareness and Chinese literacy skills: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-11-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years. Preliterate syllable awareness directly contributed to character reading and writing at age 11 years, while post-literate phonemic awareness predicted only character reading at age 11 years. In addition, preliterate syllable and morphological awareness at ages 4 to 6 years had indirect effects on character reading and writing, reading fluency, and reading comprehension at age 11 years, through post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years. Findings underscore the significant role of syllable awareness in Chinese character reading and writing, and the importance of morphological awareness in character-level processing and high-level literacy skills. More importantly, our results suggest the unique relation of syllable awareness and morphological awareness in Chinese as they focus on the same unit, which is also likely to map directly onto a character, the basic unit for high-level Chinese reading skills. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Changes in body composition over 8 years in a randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention: the look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Henry J; Bray, George A; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Walkup, Michael P; Heshka, Stanley; Hubbard, Van S; Hill, James; Kahn, Steven E; Nathan, David M; Schwartz, Anne V; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-03-01

    To determine the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention versus a comparison group on body composition in obese or overweight persons with type 2 diabetes at baseline and at 1, 4, and 8 years. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subset of 1019 Look AHEAD study volunteers randomized to intervention or comparison groups. The intervention was designed to achieve and maintain ≥7% weight loss through increased physical activity and reduced caloric intake. The comparison group received social support and diabetes education. At 1 year, the intervention group lost fat (5.6 ± 0.2 kg) and lean mass (2.3 ± 0.1 kg) but regained fat (∼100%) and lost lean mass between years 1 and 8. Between baseline and year 8, weight loss was greater in intervention versus comparison groups (4.0 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.4 kg); comparison group weight loss was mostly lean mass (2.1 ± 0.17 kg). Fat mass in the intervention group was lower than that of the comparison group at all post-baseline time points. Reduced fat mass may place the intervention group at a lower risk of obesity-linked sequelae, a hypothesis that can be tested by future studies of this cohort. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Local steroid injection for management of different types of acute idiopathic orbital inflammation: an 8-year study.

    PubMed

    El Nasser A Mohammad, Abd

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of local injection of steroid in treatment of acute idiopathic dacryoadenitis, myositis, and diffuse anterior orbital inflammation. This prospective noncomparative interventional case study included 47 patients with acute idiopathic orbital inflammation. The disease was acute idiopathic 1) dacryoadenitis in 31 patients, 2) myositis in 12 patients, and 3) anterior diffuse orbital inflammation in 4 patients. Betamethasone suspension of 2 to 4 ml (1 ml contains 2 mg betamethasone sodium phosphate and 5 mg betamethasone dipropionate) was injected inside the inflamed gland, around the inflamed muscle and periocular in the diffuse form. Postinjection cold compression was applied for 6 hours, and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were given for 2 weeks. Dramatic response was achieved within 7 days after injection in all cases. During the follow-up period up to 8 years, 2 patients (1 with myositis and 1 with diffuse orbital inflammation) had recurrence, which was improved by the second injection. The excellent long-term results achieved will shift the treatment of idiopathic orbital inflammation from oral steroid therapy with its hazards to a safer local injection therapy.

  2. Occupational allergy to bell pepper pollen in greenhouses in the Netherlands, an 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Patiwael, J A; Jong, N W; Burdorf, A; Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2010-11-01

    Pollen from bell pepper plants cultivated in greenhouses are known to cause occupational allergic disease. A cross-sectional study among 472 bell pepper employees in 1999 estimated prevalences for sensitization to bell pepper pollen of 28% and for work-related allergic symptoms of 54%. There is scarce information on the incidence of work-related allergy and its risk factors. Aims of the present study were to estimate the cumulative incidence of work-related symptoms and sensitization to bell pepper pollen, and to determine risk factors for the onset of these symptoms and sensitization. Bell pepper employees who participated in a cross-sectional survey in 1999 were asked to take part in a follow-up study in 2007. Information on demographic characteristics, job characteristics and allergic symptoms was gathered by means of a questionnaire. Furthermore, skin tests were performed with a.o. bell pepper pollen. In total, 280 of 472 employees were available for questionnaires and in 250 employees allergy tests were performed. During the 8-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of sensitization to bell pepper pollen was 9% and of work-related rhinitis 19%. Atopy [odds ratio (OR) 5.60] and smoking (OR 3.53) were significantly associated with development of rhinitis. The cumulative incidence of work-related asthma symptoms was 8%. Again atopy (OR 5.03) and smoking (OR 11.85) were significant risk factors. Cumulative incidences for sensitization to bell pepper pollen, work-related rhinitis and asthma symptoms were 9%, 19% and 8%, respectively. Atopy and smoking are risk factors for developing work-related symptoms among workers in bell pepper horticulture. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6-8 years of age - the PANIC study.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6-8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil-based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil-based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil-based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and health policy decision making.

  4. Trajectories of PTSD risk and resilience in World Trade Center responders: an 8-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, R H; Feder, A; Singh, R; Schechter, C B; Bromet, E J; Katz, C L; Reissman, D B; Ozbay, F; Sharma, V; Crane, M; Harrison, D; Herbert, R; Levin, S M; Luft, B J; Moline, J M; Stellman, J M; Udasin, I G; Landrigan, P J; Southwick, S M

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders. A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks. Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of

  5. Physical activity and change in quality of life during menopause -an 8-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives The aim of this study was to study the role of menopausal status and physical activity on quality of life. Methods A total of 1,165 Finnish women aged 45-64 years from a national representative population-based study were followed up for 8 years. Study participants completed the Health 2000 study questionnaire and follow-up questionnaire in 2008. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to measure the effect of menopausal status on global quality of life (QoL). Other variables included in the analyses were age, education, change of physical activity as assessed with metabolic equivalents, change of weight and hormone therapy (HRT) use. Results Peri- and postmenopausal women increased their physical activity (28% and 27%) during the eight-year follow up period slightly more often than premenopausal (18%) women (p = 0.070). Menopausal status was not significantly correlated with change of QoL. QoL of the most highly educated women was more likely to improve than among the less educated (eb = 1.28, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.51 p = 0.002). Women whose physical activity increased or remained stable had greater chances for improved QoL than women whose physical activity decreased (eb = 1.49, 95%CI 1.23 p < 0.001 to 1.80, eb = 1.46, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.73 p < 0.001 respectively). Women whose weight remained stable during follow-up also improved their QoL compared to women who gained weight (eb = 1.26, 95%CI 1.07 to 1.50 p > 0.01). Women who had never used HRT had 1.26 greater odds for improved QoL (95%CI 1.02 to 1.56 p = < 0.05). Conclusion Improvement of global QoL is correlated with stable or increased physical activity, stable weight and high education, but not with change in menopausal status. PMID:22269072

  6. Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaona; Ye, Ping; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei

    2016-05-18

    Epidemiological studies have disclosed an independent effect of triglycerides on coronary heart disease despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals with statin therapy. Arterial stiffness has been increasingly recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic disease. The association between triglycerides and arterial stiffness is not well characterized. We aimed to determine the relationship between triglycerides and arterial stiffness in a community-based longitudinal sample from Beijing, China. We related levels of plasma TGs to measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV] and carotid-radial PWV) in 1447 subjects (mean age, 61.3 years) from a community-based population in Beijing, China. After a median follow-up interval of 4.8 years, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TGs were independently associated with carotid-femoral PWV (β = 0.747, P < 0.001) and carotid-radial PWV (β = 0.367, P = 0.001). In the group older than 65 years, the association between baseline TG levels and follow-up carotid-femoral PWV (β = 1.094, P = 0.001) and carotid-radial PWV (β = 0.524, P = 0.002) were strengthened. In forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, every SD increase in TGδ was associated with a 1.296-increased likelihood of the presence of carotid-femoral PWVδII (OR [per SD increase in TGδ]: 1.296; 95% CI: 1.064 ~ 1.580; P = 0.010) in Model 2, whereas the relationship between TGδ and carotid-radial PWVδII disappeared. In addition, the relationship was strengthened between TGδ and the presence of carotid-femoral PWVδII (OR 1.526, 95% CI: 1.088-2.141, P = 0.014) in the group older than 65 years but not carotid-radial PWVδII. No association was noted in subjects younger than 65 years. Lower triglyceride levels were significantly associated with decreases in carotid-femoral PWV, indicating that achieving low TG levels may be an additional therapeutic

  7. Mental health and school dropout across educational levels and genders: a 4.8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Cathrine F; Bilgrav, Line; Frandsen, Louise Sjørslev; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Nielsen, Berit; Bøggild, Henrik

    2016-09-15

    Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout). Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16-29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students), the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8-year period (1(st) March 2010-31(th) December 2014). Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753) of the participants, 29 % (n = 468) in females and 19 % (n = 285) in males (p < 0.0001). The prevalence differed from 19 to 39 % across educational levels (p < 0.0001). Females had a statistically significantly higher adjusted risk of poor mental health than males (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.5-2.2). Among the students the lowest risk was found at the elementary level (OR = 1.3, CI = 0.8-2.3), while students in higher education had a statistically significantly higher risk (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.2-2.9). The lowest-educated non-students had the highest OR of poor mental health (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.1-5.4). Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124) of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0-3.2) and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-4.2). For males in higher education, poor mental health was a predictor of

  8. Injuries in women's international ice hockey: an 8-year study of the World Championship tournaments and Olympic Winter Games.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Tokola, Kari; Parkkari, Jari

    2016-11-01

    We report the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in women's international ice hockey championships. All injuries in the International Ice Hockey Federation World Women's Championship, World Women's under-18 Championship and Olympic Winter Games tournaments were analysed over an 8-year period using a strict injury definition, standardised reporting and team physician diagnosis. 168 injuries were recorded in 637 games over an 8-year period resulting in an injury rate (IR) of 6.4 per 1000 player-games and 22.0/1000 player-game hours. The IRs were 2.7/1000 player-games for the lower body, 1.4 for the upper body, 1.3 for the head and face and 0.9 for the spine and trunk. Contusion was the most common injury followed by a sprain. The most commonly injured site was the knee (48.6% of lower body injuries; IR 1.3/1000 player-games). The Medial collateral ligament sprain occurred in 37.1% and ACL rupture in 11.4% of knee injuries. A concussion (74.3%; IR 1.0/1000 player-games) was the most common head injury. The risk of injury to female ice hockey players at World Championship and Olympic tournaments was about half of that observed in the men's Championships. Full facial protection decreases the risk of lacerations and should be continued in all future female tournaments. More effective prevention strategies for knee, ankle and shoulder injuries are needed in women's ice hockey. Improved concussion education is necessary to promote more consistent diagnosis and return to play protocols. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Prognostic impact of isolated right ventricular dysfunction in sepsis and septic shock: an 8-year historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Kumar, Mukesh; Pandompatam, Govind; Sakhuja, Ankit; Kashyap, Rahul; Kashani, Kianoush; Gajic, Ognjen; Geske, Jeffrey B; Jentzer, Jacob C

    2017-09-07

    Echocardiographic myocardial dysfunction is reported commonly in sepsis and septic shock, but there are limited data on sepsis-related right ventricular dysfunction. This study sought to evaluate the association of right ventricular dysfunction with clinical outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Historical cohort study of adult patients admitted to all intensive care units at the Mayo Clinic from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2014 for severe sepsis and septic shock, who had an echocardiogram performed within 72 h of admission. Patients with prior heart failure, cor-pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension and valvular disease were excluded. Right ventricular dysfunction was defined by the American Society of Echocardiography criteria. Outcomes included 1-year survival, in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Right ventricular dysfunction was present in 214 (55%) of 388 patients who met the inclusion criteria-isolated right ventricular dysfunction was seen in 100 (47%) and combined right and left ventricular dysfunction in 114 (53%). The baseline characteristics were similar between cohorts except for the higher mechanical ventilation use in patients with isolated right ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiographic findings demonstrated lower right ventricular and tricuspid valve velocities in patients with right ventricular dysfunction and lower left ventricular ejection fraction and increased mitral E/e' ratios in patients with combined right and left ventricular dysfunction. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, illness severity, septic shock and use of mechanical ventilation, isolated right ventricular dysfunction was independently associated with worse 1-year survival-hazard ratio 1.6 [95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1; p = 0.002) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolated right ventricular dysfunction is seen commonly in sepsis and septic shock and is associated with worse long-term survival.

  10. Outcome of asbestos exposure (lung fibrosis and antinuclear antibodies) with respect to skin reactivity: an 8-year longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, A.; Garncarek, D.; Tomeczko, J.; Ciechanowski, G.; Bisikiewicz, R.

    1986-10-01

    Two hundred seventy asbestos workers were examined during an 8-year period. During this time five consecutive surveys were completed. Skin tests with streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD), tuberculin (PPD), and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were performed in the middle of this period. The results of these tests were related to X-ray chest film results and the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). In all surveys, except the first, X-ray films with small irregular opacities with a profusion greater than or equal to1/1 belonged more frequently to asbestos workers who did not respond to SK-SD or PHA. Thirty-one cases of asbestosis were diagnosed at that time, 23 of them became asbestotic after the skin tests were performed. Asbestotic cases contributed more frequently to the group with energy as compared to asbestos workers lacking asbestosis. Furthermore, asbestosis was correlated with lack of response to second strength of SK-SD in males and PHA in both sexes. Lack of response to these activators was predictive of asbestosis. Asbestos workers with ANA frequently displayed a lack of response to the first strength of SK-SD, PPD, and PHA. This was partly due to the presence of asbestotic cases in the group. However, low responders to all these activators were found frequently in the group with ANA independent of the presence of asbestosis.

  11. Ultrathin Skin Grafting in Resistant Stable Vitiligo: A Follow-up Study of 8 Years in 370 Patients.

    PubMed

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2017-02-01

    Ultrathin skin grafting (UTSG) is a tissue grafting technique used in resistant stable vitiligo. To assess long-term follow-up results achieved with UTSG in vitiligo. Over a span of 8 years, a total of 415 patients with stable vitiligo were treated with UTSG at the authors' institute. Retrospective analysis of results achieved in these patients was performed, and primary end points assessed included the extent and quality of repigmentation achieved and adverse effects from the procedure. Results were correlated with the site, morphological type of vitiligo, duration of stability, postprocedure treatment used, and the age and sex of the patient. Follow-up results were available with 554 lesions in 370 patients. Excellent response (≥90% repigmentation) was documented in 78.9% (437/554) lesions whereas 8.67% (48/554) lesions demonstrated poor results. Pigmentation was retained in >98% (112/114) cases over 4-year follow-up. The commonest adverse effect noted was "perigraft halo" in 12.3% (68/554) lesions. Site and morphological type of vitiligo as well as the postoperative use of phototherapy showed statistically significant correlation with response. Age and sex of the patient and duration of stability beyond 1 year did not influence the outcome. Ultrathin skin grafting provides long-term beneficial results in stable resistant vitiligo.

  12. Prevalence of sequelae in the permanent anterior teeth after trauma in their predecessors: a longitudinal study of 8 years.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo Jácomo, Diana Ribeiro; Campos, Vera

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sequelae in the permanent anterior teeth following trauma in their predecessors, and also to verify the existence of association between the sequelae in the permanent teeth and the type of injury in their predecessors according to the age group at the time of injury. This study was performed based on data from the records of 169 boys and 138 girls who received assistance at the dental clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro from March 1996 to December 2004. The sample was collected from 753 traumatized deciduous teeth of children aged 0-10 years. The number of boys and girls with dental trauma corresponded to 55.0% and 45.0%, respectively. The more affected age period was between 1 and 4 years (75.3%). The most common type of traumatic injury was the intrusion (29.3%), followed by avulsion (14.1%). Concerning permanent dentition, the most common developmental disturbances were discoloration of enamel and/or enamel hypoplasia (46.08%) and eruption disturbances (17.97%) due to the traumatic injury in their predecessors. It was not possible to find an association between the type of injury in primary teeth and sequelae in their successors in the studied age groups (P study concluded that discolorations of enamel and/or enamel hypoplasia (46.08%) were the most prevalent sequelae on the permanent dentition and that there was no significant statistical association between the occurrence of sequelae in the permanent teeth and the type of traumatic injury in their predecessors in the studied age groups.

  13. Incidence, risk factors and impact on outcomes of secondary infection in patients with septic shock: an 8-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang-ju; Li, Dong; Zhao, Qian; Song, Jia-xing; Chen, Xiao-rong; Hong, Guang-liang; Li, Meng-fang; Wu, Bing; Lu, Zhong-qiu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary infection in septic patients has received widespread attention, although clinical data are still lacking. The present study was performed on 476 patients with septic shock. Time trends for mortality were analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation test. Risk factors for secondary infection were investigated by binary logistic regression. The extended Cox model with time-varying covariates and hazard ratios (HR) was performed to determine the impact of secondary infection on mortality. Differences in hospital length of stay (LOS) between patients with and without secondary infection were calculated using a multistate model. Thirty-nine percent of septic shock patients who survived the early phase of the disease developed secondary infection. There was a statistically significant increased odds ratio for secondary infection in older patients and patients with a longer LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU), a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and endotracheal intubation. Secondary infection significantly reduced the rate of discharge (HR 5.607; CI95 3.612–8.704; P < 0.001) and was associated with an increased hospital LOS of 5.46 days. The present findings represent a direct description of secondary infection in septic shock patients and highlight the influence of this condition on septic shock outcomes. PMID:27924831

  14. Childhood Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders among Boys: A Prospective Community-Based Follow-Up Study from Age 8 Years to Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…

  15. Changes in Psychiatric Problems and Service Use among 8-Year-Old Children: A 16-Year Population-Based Time-Trend Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Santalahti, Paivi; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    A study comparing population samples from 1989, 1999 and 2005 were used to investigate changes in emotional and behavioral problems in 8-year-old children and their use and need of mental health services. Results show an increase in self-reported depressive symptoms among girls and a continuous increase in using of the services in which school…

  16. Childhood Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders among Boys: A Prospective Community-Based Follow-Up Study from Age 8 Years to Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…

  17. Epidemiological risk factors for adult dengue in Singapore: an 8-year nested test negative case control study.

    PubMed

    Yung, Chee Fu; Chan, Siew Pang; Thein, Tun Linn; Chai, Siaw Ching; Leo, Yee Sin

    2016-07-08

    Understanding changes in the ecology and epidemiology of dengue is important to ensure resource intensive control programmes are targeted effectively as well as to inform future dengue vaccination strategies. We analyzed data from a multicentre longitudinal prospective study of fever in adults using a nested test negative case control approach to identify epidemiological risk factors for dengue disease in Singapore. From April 2005 to February 2013, adult patients presenting with fever within 72 h at selected public primary healthcare clinics and a tertiary hospital in Singapore were recruited. Acute and convalescent blood samples were collected and used to diagnose dengue using both PCR and serology methods. A dengue case was defined as having a positive RT-PCR result for DENV OR evidence of serological conversion between acute and convalescent blood samples. Similarly, controls were chosen from patients in the cohort who tested negative for dengue using the same laboratory methods. The host epidemiological factors which increased the likelihood of dengue disease amongst adults in Singapore were those aged between 21 and 40 years old (2 fold increase) while in contrast, Malay ethnicity was protective (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.35 to 0.91) against dengue disease. Spatial factors which increased the odds of acquiring dengue was residing at a foreign workers dormitory or hostel (OR 3.25, 95 % CI 1.84 to 5.73) while individuals living in the North-West region of the country were less likely to get dengue (OR 0.50, 95%CI 0.29 to 0.86). Other factors such as gender, whether one primarily works indoors or outdoors, general dwelling type or floor, the type of transportation one uses to work, travel history, as well as self-reported history of mosquito bite or household dengue/fever were not useful in helping to inform a diagnosis of dengue. We have demonstrated a test negative study design to better understand the epidemiological risk factors of adult dengue over multiple

  18. Prevalence and Etiology of Traumatic Injuries to the Anterior Teeth among 5 to 8 Years Old School Children in Mathura City, India: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among the 5 to 8 years old children attending the schools in Mathura city. Study design: A total of 1657 children of the age groups: 5, 6, 7 and 8 years from 20 schools situated in various parts of Mathura city were included in this study, utilizing stratified cluster random sampling method. Results: The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth in 5 to 8 years old age group was found to be 2.7%. Males accounted for 3.1% whereas females accounted for 2.3%. Overall, males experienced more traumatic injuries than the females with male to female ratio of 1.8:1. The etiology of traumatic injuries was mostly due to falls, followed by bicycle accidents, collisions, violence and bike accidents in that order. How to cite this article: Gojanur S, Yeluri R, Munshi AK. Prevalence and Etiology of Traumatic Injuries to the Anterior Teeth among 5 to 8 Years Old School Children in Mathura City, India: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):172-175. PMID:26628850

  19. One year treatment effects of the eruption guidance appliance in 7- to 8-year-old children: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Myrlund, Rita; Dubland, Mari; Keski-Nisula, Katri; Kerosuo, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    The eruption guidance appliance (EGA) aims to correct sagittal and vertical occlusal relations concomitantly with alignment of the incisors. Few reports have been published on treatment effects with the EGA but no randomized studies have been available. The aim was to find out if 1 year active treatment time with EGA was sufficient for achieving normal occlusal relationships and dental alignment in 7- to 8-year-old children. Eligibility criteria for participants were: fully erupted upper central incisors, and Angle's Class I or Class II molar relationship combined with any of the following traits: deep bite, increased overjet ≥5mm, moderate anterior crowding with overjet ≥4mm. After screening of 148 children, 48 7- to 8-year-old children were recruited in the study. The participants were randomly assigned into a treatment group (N = 25) and a control group (N = 23). Children in the treatment group received treatment with the EGA for 1 year. The controls had no orthodontic treatment. Changes in overjet, overbite, Angle's Class, and crowding were used as primary outcome measures. Occlusal assessments were performed on dental casts obtained from all subjects at start of the study (T1) and after 1 year (T2). Lateral cephalograms were obtained from all subjects at T1 and from the treatment group at T2. All measurements on dental casts and cephalograms were carried out blinded. Forty-six children completed the study. Mean overjet and overbite decreased significantly in the treated subjects during 1 year, in contrast to a slight increase in the controls. Class II molar relationship decreased from 46 to 4 per cent in the treatment group, with no significant change in the control group. Mandibular anterior crowding decreased significantly in the treated subjects, while the controls showed a slight increase. In short term, the EGA seems to be effective in correcting increased overjet and overbite, Class II malocclusion, and lower anterior crowding in the early mixed

  20. Factors Associated With 8-Year Mortality in Older Patients With Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) Study.

    PubMed

    van der Holst, Helena M; van Uden, Ingeborg W M; Tuladhar, Anil M; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Norden, Anouk G W; Norris, David G; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Gait and cognition have been related to mortality in population-based studies. This association is possibly mediated by cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which has been associated with mortality as well. It is unknown which factors can predict mortality in individuals with SVD. Identification of high-risk patients may provide insight into factors that reflect their vital health status. To assess mortality in patients with cerebral SVD and identify potential clinical and/or imaging factors associated with mortality. A prospective, single-center cohort study was conducted. The present investigation is embedded in the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) study. Between January 17, 2006, and February 27, 2007, all participants underwent a cognitive and motor assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a diffusion tensor imaging sequence to assess microstructural integrity of the white matter. Participants were followed up until their death or November 24, 2014. Participants included 503 older adults with SVD noted on brain imaging. Data analysis was performed from November 26, 2014, to February 2, 2015. Eight-year all-cause mortality. Of 503 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [8.8] years; range, 50-85 years; 284 [56.5%] were male), 80 individuals (15.9%) died during a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.8 (1.5) years. In the final analysis, 494 (98.2%) were included, of whom 78 (15.8%) died. Gait speed, cognitive index, conventional MRI markers of SVD (white matter hyperintensity volume, brain volume, and lacunes), and diffusion measures of the white matter were associated with an 8-year risk of mortality independent of age, sex, and vascular risk factors. The prediction of mortality was determined using Cox proportional hazards models with backward stepwise selection and including age, sex, vascular risk factors, gait speed, cognitive index, MRI, and diffusion measures. Results are reported as hazard ratios

  1. Health risk factor modification predicts incidence of diabetes in an employee population: results of an 8-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Lori; Byrne, Daniel W; McGown, Paula W; Goetzel, Ron Z; Elasy, Tom A; Yarbrough, Mary I

    2013-04-01

    To understand risk factor modification effect on Type 2 diabetes incidence in a workforce population. Annual health risk assessment data (N = 3125) in years 1 through 4 were used to predict diabetes development in years 5 through 8. Employees who reduced their body mass index from 30 or more to less than 30 decreased their chances of developing diabetes (odds ratio = 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.05 to 0.93), while those who became obese increased their diabetes risk (odds ratio = 8.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 31.0). Weight reduction observed over a long period can result in clinically important reductions in diabetes incidence. Workplace health promotion programs may prevent diabetes among workers by encouraging weight loss and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits.

  2. Health Risk Factor Modification Predicts Incidence of Diabetes in an Employee Population: Results of an 8-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rolando, Lori; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Elasy, Tom; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand risk factor modification effect on Type 2 Diabetes incidence in a workforce population. Methods Annual Health Risk Assessment (HRA) data (n=3125) in years 1 through 4 were used to predict diabetes development in years 5 through 8. Results Employees who reduced their BMI from ≥30 to < 30 decreased their chances of developing diabetes (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.93), while those who became obese increased their diabetes risk (OR 8.85, 95% CI 2.53 to 31.0). Conclusions Weight reduction observed over a long period can result in clinically important reductions in diabetes incidence. Workplace health promotion programs may prevent diabetes among workers by encouraging weight loss and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. PMID:23532193

  3. Total hip replacements done without cement after acetabular fractures: a 4- to 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Huo, M H; Solberg, B D; Zatorski, L E; Keggi, K J

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-one patients (21 hips) underwent cementless total hip replacement surgeries for previous acetabular fractures. The mean age at the time of hip replacement was 52 years (range, 23-78 years). The mean follow-up was 65 months (range, 48-104 months). One hip required revision of the stem secondary to a periprosthetic femur fracture from a fall at 3 months after surgery. Good to excellent clinical rating was achieved and maintained in 19 hips. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated stable cup and stem fixation in 17 and 15 hips. Only 1 patient with radiographic loosening of the components was sufficiently symptomatic. The results in this series appeared slightly better than those reported previously in hip replacements done with cement at comparable medium-term follow-up. The mechanical failure rates remained high in this patient population: 19% for the cups and 29% for the stems.

  4. Development and behaviour of low-birthweight term infants at 8 years in northeast Brazil: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Emond, Alan M; Lira, Pedro I C; Lima, Marilia C; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Ashworth, Ann

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the development and behaviour of low-birthweight (LBW) term infants compared with matched term infants of appropriate birthweight (ABW). Two parallel cohorts of LBW infants (1500-2499 g) and ABW controls (3000-3499 g) were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. At 8 y, 164 children were assessed using clinical and psychological tests. The LBW group had lower IQ scores than ABW children on the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children; differences were larger on the performance (5 points, p = 0.04) than the verbal scale (3 points, p = 0.11). LBW children had poorer dynamic balance (p = 0.03) and eye-hand coordination (p = 0.02), but better selective attention (p = 0.02). Hyperactivity and conduct problems were common in both groups, but fewer LBW children had peer problems (p = 0.04). After controlling for social background, IQ was not significantly associated with birthweight (p = 0.10). Significant determinants were maternal education, home stimulation and type of school attended. The effect of birthweight on coordination and selective attention remained significant. Birth head circumference and growth in head size in the first 6 mo had independent effects on IQ. After controlling for social background, LBW term infants did not differ from ABW infants in cognition at school age. Head circumference at birth and 6 mo was a better predictor than birthweight of IQ.

  5. Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2013-11-01

    Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

  6. Clinicopathological study of gall bladder carcinoma with special reference to gallstones: our 8-year experience from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, Nissar Hussain; Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid; Aggarwalla, Ramesh; Bhartia, Vishnu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Sumit; Debakshi, Sanjay; Baig, Sarfaraz Jalil; Pal, N K

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the commonest cancer of the biliary tree and the most frequent cause of death from biliary malignancies. The incidence of GBC shows prominent geographic, age, race, and gender-related differences and is 4-7 times higher in patients with gallstones. This prompted us to study the clinicopathological aspects of the disease and the incidence of gallstones in gallbladder carcinoma patients, in this part of India. In this, combined retrospective (Jan 2004-March 2010) and prospective study (April 2010-Dec 2011) of eight years, 198 patients of gallbladder carcinoma (50 males and 148 females), (range 28-82 years; mean 55 years) were studied. Most of the patients were poor and presented with abdominal pain and mass, with abnormal lab parameters. Gallstones were present in 86% of patients. Surgical exploration was performed in 130, with gallbladder resection in 60 (including 7 incidental GBC). Adenocarcinoma (87.7%) was the commonest histological type. The study indicates that GBC is common in our scenario. It is a disease of elderly females, has a strong association with gallstones and every cholecystectomy specimen should be examined histopathologically.

  7. More-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with low bone density: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L; Bliuc, D; Stanford, P; Eisman, J A; Center, J R

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between more-than-minimal-trauma fractures and bone density. This study demonstrated that more-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with lower bone density similar to that seen in minimal trauma fractures. Men and women over 50 years with a more-than-minimal-trauma fracture should be investigated to exclude low bone density. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of low bone density in men and women with more-than-minimal-trauma fractures. In an Australian hospital, 630 community-dwelling men and women, 20 years of age or older, sustained a fracture due to more-than-minimal-trauma (force greater than a fall from standing height but less than high trauma). We studied 349 individuals who agreed to have a bone mineral density (BMD) scan. These participants were compared with 472 men and women with minimal trauma fractures. Men and women with more-than-minimal-trauma fractures had significantly lower bone density than expected for their age, gender and weight (Z-scorespine = -0.4 SD, 95 % confidence interval (CI), -0.5 to -0.3; Z-scorehip = -0.5 SD, 95 % CI, -0.6 to -0.4). Almost 1 in 4 of those over 50 years of age had osteoporosis by BMD criteria. The independent predictors of low bone density (T-score <-2.0 SD) were age equal to or over 50 years (odds ratio (OR) = 5.97, 95 % CI, 3.34 to 10.65), low body weight <20 kg/m(2) (OR = 3.44, 95 % CI, 1.32 to 8.94), a prior minimal trauma fracture (OR = 2.76, 95 % CI, 1.17-6.52) and in those over 50 years of age, an osteoporosis-associated condition (OR = 4.51, 95 % CI, 1.69 to 12.06). Men and women with more-than-minimal-trauma fractures had similar bone density (Z-score) compared to those with minimal trauma fractures. Men and women over 50 years with a more-than-minimal-trauma fracture, especially those with low body weight, prior minimal trauma fracture or an osteoporosis-associated condition, should be

  8. Family socioeconomic status and nutrition habits of 7-8 year old children: cross-sectional Lithuanian COSI study.

    PubMed

    Petrauskienė, Aušra; Žaltauskė, Vilma; Albavičiūtė, Edita

    2015-04-23

    Nutritional habits are a useful way to characterize whole diets and they are also known to be influenced by a wide range of social and economic factors. The above factors in each country may have different effect on children's eating habits. In Lithuania the data of children nutrition in association with socio-economic status of family is poor. There are few studies done, where links between nutrition habits of children and socio-economic status of family was evaluated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate association among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socio-economic status in Lithuania. Data were obtained participating in the international study, which was performed in all ten districts of Lithuania. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010, using the protocol and methodology prepared by the experts from the WHO and countries participating in the Initiative. The data were collected by means of COSI standardized questionnaire, which was filled out by parents of selected first-formers'. In this paper a part of questions regarding children nutrition habits and parents' socio-economic status is presented. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0 software for Windows. Correlation among variables was evaluated by χ (2). Links among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socioeconomic status were determined using binary logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all tests p < 0.05 was considered significant. It was established that the majority (76%) of Lithuanian first-formers eat breakfast every day or 4-6 times a week. Significant differences were found between breakfast consumption and gender - girls eat breakfast less frequently than boys. Odds ratio of children daily breakfast consumption were 1.3 times higher in families where fathers' were older than 30 years comparing with younger fathers. Meanwhile mothers' age had significant influence just on children daily soft drinks

  9. Gestational exposure to phthalates and gender-related play behaviors in 8-year-old children: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Percy, Zana; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Khoury, Jane C; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-08-16

    Phthalates, used in a variety of consumer products, are a group of chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment, and their metabolites are detectable in most humans. Some phthalates have anti-androgenic properties; a prior study reported an association between gestational exposure to phthalates and reduced masculine behaviors in preschool boys. Concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites were measured in urine collected at 16 and 26 weeks' gestation from pregnant women enrolled in the HOME Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. Measures of gender-related play were collected at 8 years of age, including the Gender Identity Questionnaire (GIQ) completed by mothers, and the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI) completed by children. We examined these measures as continuous variables using both bivariate and multivariable approaches with adjustment for covariates. Additional analyses included logistic regression of GIQ and PPPSI scores dichotomized by sex at the lower 25th percentile, indicating the least typical behavior. Mothers' phthalate metabolite concentrations during pregnancy were similar to the reported national average among US women. All children scored within a typical range on both measures of gender-related play behavior. No statistically significant associations were found between averaged maternal phthalate metabolite concentrations and continuous PPPSI scores or any GIQ scores. For the dichotomized PPPSI; higher maternal monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations were associated with more typical play behaviors for females (OR = 0.70, CI = 0.51-0.97). In contrast, higher maternal mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) concentrations were associated with higher odds of membership in the least typical play behaviors group for males (OR = 1.69, CI = 1.00-2.86). In this sample of typically developing children, higher maternal urinary MEP concentrations during pregnancy were associated with more typical gender

  10. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  11. Comparison of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of malaria, dengue, and enteric fever in returning travelers: 8-year experience at a referral center in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-07-01

    Without specific symptoms, diagnosis of febrile illness in returning travelers is challenging. Dengue, malaria, and enteric fever are common causes of fever in returning travelers and timely and appropriate treatment is important. However, differentiation is difficult without specific diagnostic tests. A retrospective study was conducted at the National Centre for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM) from April 2005 to March 2013. Febrile travelers returning from overseas who were diagnosed with dengue, malaria, or enteric fever were included in this study. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were compared for each diagnosis. During the study period, 86 malaria, 85 dengue, and 31 enteric fever cases were identified. The mean age of the study cohort was 33.1 ± 12 years and 134 (66.3%) study participants were male. Asia was the most common area visited by returning travelers with fevers (89% of dengue, 18.6% of malaria, and 100% of enteric fever cases), followed by Africa (1.2% of dengue and 70.9% of malaria cases). Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were significantly different among each group with each diagnosis. Decision tree models revealed that returning from Africa and CRP levels < 10 mg/L were factors specific for diagnosis of malaria and dengue fever, respectively. Clinical manifestations, simple laboratory test results, and regions of travel are helpful to distinguish between dengue, malaria, and enteric fever in febrile returning travelers with non-specific symptoms.

  12. The relationship between antibiotic therapy in early childhood and the symptoms of allergy in children aged 6-8 years - the questionnaire study results.

    PubMed

    Raciborski, Filip; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Komorowski, Jarosław; Samel-Kowalik, Piotr; Białoszewski, Artur Z; Walkiewicz, Artur; Lusawa, Adam; Szymański, Jakub; Opoczyńska, Dagmara; Drużba, Michał; Borowicz, Jacek; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Kapalczynski, Wojciech J; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2012-09-01

    Studies based on the ISAAC questionnaire suggest a correlation between the use of antibiotics and the prevalence of asthma and allergy in children aged 6-7 years. The number of courses of antibiotic therapy is an important factor. To investigate the relationship between the use of antibiotics during the first years of life and the prevalence of allergy and asthma among children (aged 6-8 years) in the urban population of Poland. A survey-based study with a self-completed questionnaire. The respondents were parents of children aged 6-8 years living in Warszawa, Poland. 1461 completed questionnaires were collected. Asthma was declared in 4.3% of the children. Wheezing and/or sibilant rhonchi within 12 months before the study was observed in 13.5% of the cases. Asthma medication was taken by 21.8% of the children. Allergic rhinitis was declared in 18.7% of the children. Problems with sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion not associated with cold or fever were observed in 40.7% of the children. The analysis of the odds ratios between the use of antibiotics and the symptoms of allergic diseases revealed a clear correlation. The highest odds ratio was observed between the completion of over three courses of antibiotic therapy prior to the age of 12 months and the declaration of one of the following: asthma (OR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.6-12.01), wheezing and/or sibilant rhonchi (OR = 4.68, 95% CI: 3.01-7.27) and taking medicines for breathlessness (OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.42-7.68). There is a direct relationship between antibiotic use in the first 3 years of life and asthma and allergy symptoms in children aged 6-8 years old.

  13. Educational and social competencies at 8 years in children with threshold retinopathy of prematurity in the CRYO-ROP multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Msall, Michael E; Phelps, Dale L; Hardy, Robert J; Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Tremont, Michelle R

    2004-04-01

    To describe the educational status and special education services at 8 years among children who had threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A prospective study was conducted of a cohort of children who had birth weight of <1251 g and threshold ROP in the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity multicenter study. At age 5.5 years, visual status, functional skills, and social information were obtained. At 8 years, special education classes, developmental disabilities, rehabilitation therapies, and academic and social competencies were determined by questionnaire. Visual status was considered favorable/unfavorable on the basis of the better eye. Of 255 survivors, 216 (85%) were evaluated at both 5.5 and 8 years. Major impairments were significantly more prevalent in children with unfavorable versus favorable visual status: cerebral palsy (39% vs 16%), developmental disability (57% vs 22%), autism (9% vs 1%), and epilepsy (23% vs 3%). Special education services (63% vs 27%), below-grade-level academic performance (84% vs 48%), and school-based rehabilitation services were significantly less common in children with favorable visual status. Favorable visual status, favorable functional ratings at 5.5 years, markers of higher socioeconomic status, and nonblack race were associated with significantly lower rates of both special education placement and below-grade-level academic performance at age 8. On multivariate logistic regression, only favorable visual status and functional status remained significant predictors for decreasing special education placement. Threshold ROP is associated with high rates of developmental, educational, and social challenges in middle childhood; preserved vision was associated with a clear advantage, with more than half of the children with favorable visual status performing at grade level.

  14. Heterogeneity of humoral immune abnormalities in children with Nijmegen breakage syndrome: an 8-year follow-up study in a single centre

    PubMed Central

    Gregorek, H; Chrzanowska, K H; Michałkiewicz, J; Syczewska, M; Madaliński, K

    2002-01-01

    During an 8-year period of observation, defects of immune responses were characterized and monitored in 40 of 50 Polish children with Nijmegen breakage syndrome referred to the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw. The following parameters were determined at diagnosis: (1) concentrations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA; (2) concentrations of IgG subclasses; and (3) lymphocyte subpopulations. In addition, naturally acquired specific antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in 20 patients with a history of recurrent respiratory infections. During follow-up, total serum immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses were monitored systematically in 17 patients who did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody response was measured after vaccination of 20 children against HBV. We found that the immune deficiency in NBS is profound, highly variable, with a tendency to progress over time. Systematic monitoring of the humoral response, despite good clinical condition, is essential for early medical intervention. PMID:12390322

  15. Heterogeneity of humoral immune abnormalities in children with Nijmegen breakage syndrome: an 8-year follow-up study in a single centre.

    PubMed

    Gregorek, H; Chrzanowska, K H; Michałkiewicz, J; Syczewska, M; Madaliński, K

    2002-11-01

    During an 8-year period of observation, defects of immune responses were characterized and monitored in 40 of 50 Polish children with Nijmegen breakage syndrome referred to the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw. The following parameters were determined at diagnosis: (1) concentrations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA; (2) concentrations of IgG subclasses; and (3) lymphocyte subpopulations. In addition, naturally acquired specific antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in 20 patients with a history of recurrent respiratory infections. During follow-up, total serum immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses were monitored systematically in 17 patients who did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody response was measured after vaccination of 20 children against HBV. We found that the immune deficiency in NBS is profound, highly variable, with a tendency to progress over time. Systematic monitoring of the humoral response, despite good clinical condition, is essential for early medical intervention.

  16. A 5- to 8-year randomized study on the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: anterior cervical decompression and fusion plus physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Engquist, Markus; Löfgren, Håkan; Öberg, Birgitta; Holtz, Anders; Peolsson, Anneli; Söderlund, Anne; Vavruch, Ludek; Lind, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the 5- to 8-year outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) combined with a structured physiotherapy program as compared with that following the same physiotherapy program alone in patients with cervical radiculopathy. No previous prospective randomized studies with a follow-up of more than 2 years have compared outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical intervention for cervical radiculopathy. METHODS Fifty-nine patients were randomized to ACDF surgery with postoperative physiotherapy (30 patients) or to structured physiotherapy alone (29 patients). The physiotherapy program included general and specific exercises as well as pain coping strategies. Outcome measures included neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), neck and arm pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), health state (EQ-5D questionnaire), and a patient global assessment. Patients were followed up for 5-8 years. RESULTS After 5-8 years, the NDI was reduced by a mean score% of 21 (95% CI 14-28) in the surgical group and 11% (95% CI 4%-18%) in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.03). Neck pain was reduced by a mean score of 39 mm (95% CI 26-53 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-30 mm; p = 0.01), and arm pain was reduced by a mean score of 33 mm (95% CI 18-49 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-32 mm; p = 0.1), respectively. The EQ-5D had a mean respective increase of 0.29 (95% CI 0.13-0.45) compared with 0.14 (95% CI 0.01-0.27; p = 0.12). Ninety-three percent of patients in the surgical group rated their symptoms as "better" or "much better" compared with 62% in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.005). Both treatment groups experienced significant improvement over baseline for all outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective randomized study of 5- to 8-year outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment in patients with cervical radiculopathy, ACDF combined with physiotherapy reduced neck disability and neck pain more effectively than

  17. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts using saliva and plaque as microbial risk indicators in 3-8 year old children. A cross Sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Deep-Singh-Nanda, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of the relative amounts of mutans streptococcus in both saliva and plaque and to study its correlation with dental caries in children. Study Design: The study comprised of 60 children aged 3-8 years divided into 2 groups (30 children in each): Group A- Children with more than 4 carious teeth and Group B- Children without caries. Saliva and plaque was collected from children of both the groups with the help of Dentocult SM strip test kit (Orion Diagnostic). Following incubation, mutans streptococcus scores (from 0 to 3) in each individual was evaluated and compared between both the groups. Results: On comparing the two groups, mean ± SD of saliva score and plaque score was 2.40 ± 0.675 and 2.40 ± 0.621 respectively in group A, whereas it was 0.60 ± 0.498 and 0.83 ± 0.531 in children of group B showing a significant correlation (p = < 0.001) between mutans streptococci scores in both saliva and plaque and dental caries experience. Conclusions: There is a direct and strong co-relation between the salivary and plaque mutans streptococcus counts and caries activity in children aged 3-8 years. Key words:Mutans streptococci, dentocult, dental caries. PMID:25810821

  18. Comparison of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of malaria, dengue, and enteric fever in returning travelers: 8-year experience at a referral center in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-04-01

    Without specific symptoms, diagnosis of febrile illness in returning travelers is challenging. Dengue, malaria, and enteric fever are common causes of fever in returning travelers and timely and appropriate treatment is important. However, differentiation is difficult without specific diagnostic tests. A retrospective study was conducted at the National Centre for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM) from April 2005 to March 2013. Febrile travelers returning from overseas who were diagnosed with dengue, malaria, or enteric fever were included in this study. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were compared for each diagnosis. During the study period, 86 malaria, 85 dengue, and 31 enteric fever cases were identified. The mean age of the study cohort was 33.1 ± 12 years and 134 (66.3%) study participants were male. Asia was the most common area visited by returning travelers with fevers (89% of dengue, 18.6% of malaria, and 100% of enteric fever cases), followed by Africa (1.2% of dengue and 70.9% of malaria cases). Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were significantly different among each group with each diagnosis. Decision tree models revealed that returning from Africa and CRP levels <10 mg/L were factors specific for diagnosis of malaria and dengue fever, respectively. Clinical manifestations, simple laboratory test results, and regions of travel are helpful to distinguish between dengue, malaria, and enteric fever in febrile returning travelers with non-specific symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can the impact of pelvic inflammatory disease on fertility be prevented? Epidemiology, clinical features and surgical treatment: evolution over 8 years.

    PubMed

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Franchi, Laura; Gizzo, Salvatore; Salvati, Maria Antonietta; Berretta, Roberto; Piantelli, Giovanni; Modena, Alberto Bacchi

    2013-01-01

    To assess the epidemiological features and the trend of care of patients diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and to assess most predictive parameters of severe disease, for which surgical management is warranted, in particular when surgery is certain to cause permanent infertility. The study population was divided into 3 groups: medical therapy only, conservative surgery, and destructive surgery (surgical procedures that impaired fertility). Data from the 3 groups were compared with respect to general and medical history data, clinical signs on admission, laboratory tests, and ultrasound findings. The p value was considered significant when < 0.05. The non-Italian women in the study appeared to be more at risk of developing PID and were overrepresented in the surgically treated groups. C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer values most likely correlated with disease severity. Ultrasound evidence of ovaritis generally led to medical therapy. Conversely, when sonography revealed pyosalpinx or tuboovarian abscesses, surgery was performed. Clinical presentation is fundamental in diagnostic counseling but should be supplemented with further laboratory tests to detect inflammation and sonograms. The latter, along with CRP and D-dimer assays, may represent useful parameters to consider when planning patient management because they appear indicative of the need for surgical treatment.

  20. Daptomycin in the Clinical Setting: 8-Year Experience with Gram-positive Bacterial Infections from the EU-CORE(SM) Registry.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, Armando; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, Panayiotis; Timerman, Artur; Sarma, Jayanta; José González Ramallo, Víctor; Bouylout, Kamel; Trostmann, Uwe; Pathan, Rashidkhan; Hamed, Kamal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and safety of daptomycin therapy in patients with serious Gram-positive infections. Patients were enrolled in the European Cubicin(®) Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE(SM)), a non-interventional, multicenter, observational registry. The real-world data were collected across 18 countries (Europe, Latin America, and Asia) for patients who had received at least one dose of daptomycin between January 2006 and April 2012. Two-year follow-up data were collected until 2014 for patients with endocarditis, intracardiac/intravascular device infection, osteomyelitis, or orthopedic device infection. A total of 6075 patients were enrolled. The most common primary infections were complicated skin and soft tissue infection (31.7%) and bacteremia (20.7%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently reported pathogen (42.9%; methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA], 23.2%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 28.5%). The most commonly prescribed dose of daptomycin was 6 mg/kg/day (43.6%), and the median duration of therapy was 11 (range 1-300) days. Overall clinical success rate was 80.5%, and was similar whether daptomycin was used as first-line (82.9%) or second-line (79.2%) therapy. Clinical success rates were high in patients with S. aureus (83.9%; MRSA 83.0%) and CoNS (including S. epidermidis, 82.5%) infections. The majority of patients with endocarditis or intracardiac/intravascular device infection (86.7%) or osteomyelitis/orthopedic device infection (85.9%) had a sustained response during the 2-year follow-up period. There were no new or unexpected safety findings. Results from real-world clinical experience showed that daptomycin is a valuable therapeutic option in the management of various difficult-to-treat Gram-positive infections. This study was funded by Novartis Pharma AG.

  1. A study on the incidence, microbiological analysis and investigations on the source of infection of postoperative infectious endophthalmitis in a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital: An 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Jambulingam, Malathi; Parameswaran, Suresh Kumar; Lysa, Sagar; Selvaraj, Margarita; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was the determination of the incidence of culture-proven postoperative endophthalmitis and probable sources of infection. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study on the microbiology, incidence and probable sources of infection in patients with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis carried out in a tertiary care eye hospital. Consecutive patients diagnosed with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis during the years 2000-2007 were investigated for the causative infective agent and possible sources of infection. The surgical data and microbiological data including the investigations performed to trace the source were recorded in a specific formatted form and were gathered and compiled for analysis. Results: Data of analysis showed that 98 (0.042%) out of 2,31,259 patients who underwent intra-ocular surgery developed infectious endophthalmitis. Among these, 70 (0.053%) occurred after cataract, 10 (0.5%) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and 18 (0.018%) following other types of intra-ocular surgeries. The predominant infectious agents isolated were bacteria (89.7%), with equal proportions of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Polymicrobial infection was noted in four and fungi in seven patients. Occurrence of postoperative endophthalmitis was sporadic and not related to any specific part of period in a year. Sources of infection were donor corneal rim in six post-PK patients and phaco probe in one who had postphacoemulsification endophthalmitis Conclusions: Overall incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis over an 8-year period was quite low. The sources of infection could be established in six post-PK endophthalmitis patients and in a postcataract surgery. PMID:20534919

  2. Neural correlates of belief- and desire-reasoning in 7- and 8-year-old children: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Lindsay C; Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Wellman, Henry M

    2012-09-01

    Theory of mind requires belief- and desire-understanding. Event-related brain potential (ERP) research on belief- and desire-reasoning in adults found mid-frontal activations for both desires and beliefs, and selective right-posterior activations only for beliefs. Developmentally, children understand desires before beliefs; thus, a critical question concerns whether neural specialization for belief-reasoning exists in childhood or develops later. Neural activity was recorded as 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 18) performed the same diverse-desires, diverse-beliefs, and physical control tasks used in a previous adult ERP study. Like adults, mid-frontal scalp activations were found for belief- and desire-reasoning. Moreover, analyses using correct trials alone yielded selective right-posterior activations for belief-reasoning. Results suggest developmental links between increasingly accurate understanding of complex mental states and neural specialization supporting this understanding. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effects of ParentCorps in Prekindergarten on Child Mental Health and Academic Performance: Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Through 8 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther J; Goldfeld, Keith; Petkova, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known. To examine whether ParentCorps delivered as an enhancement to prekindergarten programs in high-poverty urban schools leads to fewer mental health problems and increased academic performance in the early elementary school years. This is a 3-year follow-up study of a cluster randomized clinical trial of ParentCorps in public schools with prekindergarten programs in New York City. Ten elementary schools serving a primarily low-income, black student population were randomized in 2005, and 4 consecutive cohorts of prekindergarten students were enrolled from September 12, 2005, through December 31, 2008. We report follow-up for the 3 cohorts enrolled after the initial year of implementation. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. ParentCorps included professional development for prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers and a program for parents and prekindergarten students (13 two-hour group sessions delivered after school by teachers and mental health professionals). Annual teacher ratings of mental health problems and academic performance and standardized tests of academic achievement in kindergarten and second grade by testers masked to the intervention or control group randomization. A total of 1050 children (4 years old; 518 boys [49.3%] and 532 girls [50.7%]) in 99 prekindergarten classrooms participated in the trial (88.1% of the prekindergarten population), with 792 students enrolled from 2006 to 2008. Most families in the follow-up study (421 [69.6%]) were low income; 680 (85.9%) identified as non-Latino black, 78 (9.8%) as

  4. Clinical and Organizational Factors Related to the Reduction of Mechanical Restraint Application in an Acute Ward: An 8-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Miani, Fiorenza; Formicola, Vitantonio; Ferri, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of mechanical restraint use in an acute psychiatric ward and to analyze which variables may have significantly influenced the use of this procedure. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Servizio Psichiatrico di Diagnosi e Cura (SPDC) of Modena Centro. The following variables of our sample, represented by all restrained patients admitted from 1-1-2005 to 31-12-2012, were analyzed: age, gender, nationality, psychiatric diagnoses, organic comorbidity, state and duration of admission, motivation and duration of restraints, nursing shift and hospitalization day of restraint, number of patients admitted at the time of restraint and institutional changes during the observation period. The above variables were statistically compared with those of all other non-restrained patients admitted to our ward in the same period. Results: Mechanical restraints were primarily used as a safety procedure to manage aggressive behavior of male patients, during the first days of hospitalization and night shifts. Neurocognitive disorders, organic comorbidity, compulsory state and long duration of admission were statistically significantly related to the increase of restraint use (p<.001, multivariate logistic regression). Institutional changes, especially more restricted guidelines concerning restraint application, were statistically significantly related to restraint use reduction (p<.001, chi2 test, multivariate logistic regression). Conclusion: The data obtained highlight that mechanical restraint use was influenced not only by clinical factors, but mainly by staff and policy factors, which have permitted a gradual but significant reduction in the use of this procedure through a multidimensional approach. PMID:25320635

  5. Prevalence, Incidence, Impairment, and Course of the Proposed DSM-5 Eating Disorder Diagnoses in an 8-Year Prospective Community Study of Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We examined the prevalence, incidence, impairment, duration, and course for the proposed DSM-5 eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent females who completed annual diagnostic interviews over 8-years. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.8% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.6% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.0% for binge eating disorder (BED), 2.8% for atypical AN, 4.4% for subthreshold BN, 3.6% for subthreshold BED, 3.4% for purging disorder (PD); with a combined prevalence of 13.1% (5.2% had AN, BN, or BED; 11.5% had a Feeding and Eating Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified; FED-NEC). Peak age of onset was 19-20 for AN, 16-20 for BN, and 18-20 for BED, PD, and overall FED-NEC. Youth with these eating disorders typically reported greater functional impairment, distress, suicidality, mental health treatment, and unhealthy BMIs, though effect sizes were relatively smaller for atypical AN, subthreshold BN, and PD. Average episode duration in months ranged from 2.9 for BN to 11.2 for atypical AN. One-year remission rates ranged from 71% for atypical AN to 100% for BN, subthreshold BN, and BED. Recurrence rates ranged from 6% for PD to 33% for BED and subthrehold BED. Diagnostic progression from subthreshold to threshold eating disorders was higher for BN and BED (32% and 28%) than for AN (0%), suggesting some sort of escalation mechanism for binge eating. Diagnostic crossover was greatest from BED to BN. Results imply that the new DSM-5 eating disorder criteria capture clinically significant psychopathology and usefully assign eating disordered individuals to homogeneous diagnostic categories. PMID:23148784

  6. Does Preschool Physical Activity and Electronic Media Use Predict Later Social and Emotional Skills at 6 to 8 Years? A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Trina; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the associations of preschoolers' health behaviors with their later psychosocial wellbeing. This study investigates the association of 3- to 5-year-old children's physical activity and electronic media use with their later social-emotional skills (6-8 years). Data were collected in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (HAPPY) Study in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were a random subsample (n = 108) of the 567 children at follow-up. Physical activity was objectively measured using ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers; electronic media use (television viewing, sedentary electronic games and active electronic games) was parent proxy-reported. Social and emotional skills were child-reported using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version. Regression analyses controlled for sex, clustering by center of recruitment, and accelerometer wear time (for physical activity analyses). Sedentary electronic games were positively associated with intrapersonal and stress management skills and total emotional quotient. Computer/internet use was inversely associated with interpersonal, and positively associated with stress management, skills. Findings suggest that physical activity is not associated with children's psychosocial health while some types of electronic media use are. Future research should investigate the contexts in which preschoolers participate in these behaviors and potential causal mechanisms of associations.

  7. Childhood predictors of psychiatric disorders among boys: a prospective community-based follow-up study from age 8 years to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sourander, Andre; Multimäki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-08-01

    To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was based on the national military register between the years 1999 and 2004. According to the military register, 10.4% of men had a psychiatric disorder. All informant sources, parents, teachers, and the children themselves predicted early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Conduct symptoms at age 8 independently predicted substance abuse, antisocial personality, and psychotic disorders in early adulthood. Self-reported depressive symptoms, poor school performance, and living in a nonintact family had an independent predictive association with antisocial personality and depressive disorders. Parent-reported emotional symptoms and self-reported psychosomatic symptoms independently predicted anxiety disorders. About one third of those who had used services at age 8 had a psychiatric disorder in early adulthood. Among service users, conduct and hyperkinetic symptoms predicted psychiatric disorders in early adulthood. Efforts to prevent early adult psychiatric disturbance already present in childhood are emphasized. Active screening to detect children in need of early interventions in childhood to prevent negative development in early adulthood is justified.

  8. Laboratory and clinical predictors of 30-day survival for patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO): 8-Year experience at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Szymanski, James; Rodriguez, Daniel; Heo, Moonseong; Wolgast, Lucia R

    2017-08-01

    Survival of patients on ECMO has remained stable in every population. Laboratory values predictors of survival are required to improve patient care. Clinical Looking Glass software was used to assess Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) of patients at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center (2007-2014). Our population comprises of 166 adults and was divided in survivors and non-survivors, within 30days. Indications for ECMO were cardiac (65%), respiratory (25%) and infectious diseases (<10%). Eighty six patients (51.8%) survived the procedure. Gender, body weight, ejection fraction, diastolic blood pressure, and socio-economic status did not differ among survivors and non-survivors. In contrast, younger patients (45yo vs 55yo, p=0.0001) and higher systolic blood pressure (115mmHg vs 103mmHg, p=0.025) have favorable outcome. Univariate analysis shows that pre-cannulation values for creatinine (p=0.0003), chloride (p=0.009), bicarbonate (p=0.015) and pH (p=0.03) have prognostic value. Post-cannulation aPTT, pH, platelet and lymphocyte counts also have discriminative power. Notably, multiple logistic regressions for Multivariate Analysis identified chloride (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02-1.13; p=0.004), pH (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.89-5.9; p<0.0001) and aPTT (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.976-0.998; p=0.024) as independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. These results imply that pre-existing renal conditions and hemostatic dysregulation contribute to poor outcome. Finally, patients on VV-ECMO have increase odds of survival (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.06-3.34; p=0.029). Laboratory markers identified herein may guide the management of patients on ECMO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Crawford, Devan M; Walls, Melissa L; Gentzler, Kari C; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families.

  10. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  11. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children - An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Urvashi; Goswami, Mridula

    2017-02-01

    The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen's criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (p<0.05) after three and six months follow up. The difference in sealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (p<0.05). Combining air abrasion pretreatment with subsequent acid etching did not result in statistically significant difference in sealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion.

  12. Diet and risk of chronic diseases: results from the first 8 years of follow-up in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    PubMed

    von Ruesten, A; Feller, S; Bergmann, M M; Boeing, H

    2013-04-01

    There is still a need for scientific evidence about which foods characterize a healthy diet in terms of primary prevention of major chronic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to give a comprehensive overview on health-related foods, based on 8 years of follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. We used data from 23,531 participants of the EPIC-Potsdam study to analyse the associations between 45 single food groups and risk of major chronic diseases, namely, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes and cancer using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline using food-frequency questionnaires. Incident chronic diseases were determined by self-administered follow-up questionnaires and medically verified, based on inquiry to treating physicians, cancer registries or through death certificates. During follow-up, 363 incident CVD, 837 type 2 diabetes and 844 cancer cases were identified. Higher intakes of whole-grain bread, raw vegetables, coffee and cakes and cookies were found to be significantly associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases. Conversely, higher intakes of low-fat dairy, butter, red meat and sauce were associated with higher risks of chronic diseases. Overall, a healthy diet was characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain bread, raw vegetables and a low consumption of red meat and possibly butter, which is generally in line with previous findings. The paradoxical findings concerning the potential health benefit of coffee as well as cakes and cookies are interesting and should be investigated further.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Low, Andrea J; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Konate, Issouf; Kania, Dramane; Segondy, Michel; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) replication is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding and genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a cohort of women living with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in Burkina Faso. Participants were screened for cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA, GUD, cervicovaginal and systemic HIV-1 RNA, and reproductive tract infections every 3-6 months over 8 years. Associations with HSV-2 shedding and quantity were examined using random-effects logistic and linear regression, respectively. Of the 236 women with data on HSV-2 shedding, 151 took ART during the study period. Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 42% of women (99 of 236) in 8.2% of visits (151 of 1848). ART was associated with a reduction in the odds of HSV-2 shedding, which declined for each year of ART use (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], .59-.92). In the multivariable model, the impact of ART was primarily associated with suppression of systemic HIV-1 RNA (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, .15-.67). A reduction in the odds of GUD was also observed during ART, mainly in those with HIV-1 suppression (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, .25-1.11). ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Different sensitization profile for asthma, rhinitis, and eczema among 7-8-year-old children: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies.

    PubMed

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-04-01

    Sensitization to different airborne allergens in relation to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied. A cross-sectional study was performed among 7-8-year-old children living in northern Sweden. The ISAAC-questionnaire with additional questions were sent to the parents, and 3431 (97%) participated. Two-thirds of the children were invited to undergo a skin test with 10 common airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The prevalence rates of all three diseases were significantly higher among the children who were sensitized to any of the tested allergens. Among asthmatics, 40% were sensitized to cat, 34% to dog, 28% to horse, 23% to birch and 16% to timothy. The corresponding figures for rhinitis were: cat 49%, dog 33%, horse 37%, birch 46%, timothy 32%; and for eczema: cat 29%, dog 21%, horse 15%, birch 20%, and timothy 11%. Only a few children were sensitized to mites or moulds. The main risk factors for all three diseases were type-1 allergy and a family history of the disease. Independently from other risk factors, sensitization to dog (OR 2.4) and horse (OR 2.2) were significant risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to birch (OR 6.0), horse (OR 4.1), and timothy (OR 2.8) were significant risk factors for rhinitis, while birch (OR 2.4), dog (OR 2.0) and cat (OR 1.6) were significant risk factors for eczema. Despite a large over-lapping of the diseases the pattern of sensitization was different for asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Sensitization to cat was most common among all children, but sensitization to dog and horse was associated with the highest risk for asthma, and sensitization to birch showed the highest risk for rhinitis and eczema. The different risk factor pattern for the often coexisting diseases; asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, may indicate differences in the etiology.

  15. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    PubMed Central

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A.; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and

  16. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (p<0.05) after three and six months follow up. The difference in sealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (p<0.05). Conclusions Combining air abrasion pretreatment with subsequent acid etching did not result in statistically significant difference in sealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  17. Adolescent insanity revisited: course and outcome in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychoses in an 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Remberk, Barbara; Bażyńska, Anna Katarzyna; Krempa-Kowalewska, Anna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2014-07-01

    Despite inclusion of adolescent insanity-a concept proposed by Thomas Clouston in late XIX century-into the broader nosological entity of dementia praecox, the uniqueness of early psychosis is still discussed. The aim of the current study is the assessment of course and outcome in the large sample of early-onset psychosis subjects. Of 299 patients hospitalized in the period 1998-2008 in an adolescent psychiatry ward with schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis 158 completed a follow-up interview. Data concerning current diagnosis, further admissions, current treatment status and occupational and relationship outcome were analyzed after a mean of 8 years of follow-up. Mean age at the index admission and the follow-up was 16.6 ± 1.2 and 24.5 ± 3.0 years respectively. After the subsequent discharge almost all subjects (97%) at least briefly continued psychiatric treatment and 75% of patients had been readmitted. Overall diagnostic stability was 42%. For schizophrenia spectrum disorders and schizophrenia diagnostic stability was 72% and 78%, respectively. At the follow-up assessment 119 (77.3%) of the traced subjects declared current psychiatric treatment and 110 (73.3%) were receiving pharmacotherapy. Almost half of the subjects (48%) were employed or studying and more than a third (35.8%) remained in a stable relationship. Different distributions of baseline diagnoses were observed in males and females, and the latter showed a better outcome. Early-onset psychoses were characterized by limited diagnostic stability, a necessity for further treatment and hospitalizations and significant percentage of unfavorable functional outcomes. Baseline diagnosis of acute and transient psychotic disorders and female gender were associated with an overall better outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical relevance of Y-linked CNV screening in male infertility: new insights based on the 8-year experience of a diagnostic genetic laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lo Giacco, Deborah; Chianese, Chiara; Sánchez-Curbelo, Josvany; Bassas, Lluis; Ruiz, Patricia; Rajmil, Osvaldo; Sarquella, Joaquim; Vives, Alvaro; Ruiz-Castañé, Eduard; Oliva, Rafael; Ars, Elisabet; Krausz, Csilla

    2014-01-01

    AZF microdeletion screening is routinely performed in the diagnostic work-up for male infertility; however, some issues remain debated. In this study, we provide insights into the sperm concentration cutoff value for routine testing, the predictive value of AZFc deletion for testicular sperm retrieval and the Y-background contribution to the interpopulation variability of deletion frequencies. In the Spanish population, partial AZFc rearrangements have been poorly explored and no data exist on partial duplications. In our study, 27/806 (3.3%) patients carried complete AZF deletions. All were azoo/cryptozoospermic, except for one whose sperm concentration was 2 × 106/ml. In AZFc-deleted men, we observed a lower sperm recovery rate upon conventional TESE (9.1%) compared with the literature (60–80% with microTESE). Haplogroup E was the most represented among non-Spanish and hgr P among Spanish AZF deletion carriers. The analysis of AZFc partial rearrangements included 330 idiopathic infertile patients and 385 controls of Spanish origin. Gr/gr deletion, but not AZFc partial duplications, was significantly associated with spermatogenic impairment. Our data integrated with the literature suggest that: (1) routine AZF microdeletion testing could eventually include only men with ≤2 × 106/ml; (2) classical TESE is associated with low sperm recovery rate in azoospermic AZFc-deleted men, and therefore microTESE should be preferred; (3) Y background could partially explain the differences in deletion frequencies among populations. Finally, our data on gr/gr deletion further support the inclusion of this genetic test in the work-up of infertile men, whereas partial AZFc duplications do not represent a risk for spermatogenic failure in the Spanish population. PMID:24193344

  19. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  20. Electrophysiological assessment of glaucomatous visual dysfunction during treatment with cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline): a study of 8 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    In this study we assessed, by simultaneous recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and pattern-electroretinograms (PERGs), the effects cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) on retinal function and/or visual cortical responses in glaucoma patients. Thirty glaucoma patients were randomly divided into two age-matched groups: patients in group GC (15 patients) were treated with citicoline (1,000 mg/die intramuscularly) for 2 months; patients in group GP (15 patients) were treated with placebo for 2 months. After 4 months of wash-out (month 6), GC patients underwent a further 2-month period of citicoline treatment (months 7-8) followed by another 4-month period of wash-out (months 9-12). In GP patients the wash-out was extended for a further 6 months (months 7-12). During the following 13-96 months, GC patients received additional 2-month periods of treatment with citicoline (each period followed by 4 months of wash-out) for a total of 16 periods in 8 years. GP patients were also examined at months 24, 26, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96. In GC patients the first two treatments with citicoline induced a significant (p <0.01) improvement of VEP and PERG parameters with respect to pre-treatment conditions. VEPs and PERGs recorded in GC patients after the first wash-out revealed that, although there was a worsening trend, the electrophysiological improvement was still maintained with respect to baseline conditions. The additional periods of citicoline treatment in GC patients during the subsequent 13-96 months induced a greater (p <0.01) improvement of VEP and PERG parameters with respect to pre-treatment conditions and when compared to GP patients. Thus, we observed that citicoline significantly improves retinal and cortical bioelectrical responses in glaucoma patients, suggesting a potential use of this substance in the medical treatment of glaucoma, as a complement to hypotensive therapy.

  1. Lifestyles and socio-cultural factors among children aged 6-8 years from five Italian towns: the MAPEC_LIFE study cohort.

    PubMed

    Bagordo, Francesco; De Donno, Antonella; Grassi, Tiziana; Guido, Marcello; Devoti, Gabriele; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Feretti, Donatella; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Salvatori, Tania; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Casini, Beatrice; Bonetta, Sara; Carraro, Elisabetta; Schilirò, Tiziana; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2017-03-07

    Lifestyles profoundly determine the quality of an individual's health and life since his childhood. Many diseases in adulthood are avoidable if health-risk behaviors are identified and improved at an early stage of life. The aim of the present research was to characterize a cohort of children aged 6-8 years selected in order to perform an epidemiological molecular study (the MAPEC_LIFE study), investigate lifestyles of the children that could have effect on their health status, and assess possible association between lifestyles and socio-cultural factors. A questionnaire composed of 148 questions was administered in two different seasons to parents of children attending 18 primary schools in five Italian cities (Torino, Brescia, Pisa, Perugia and Lecce) to obtain information regarding the criteria for exclusion from the study, demographic, anthropometric and health information on the children, as well as some aspects on their lifestyles and parental characteristics. The results were analyzed in order to assess the frequency of specific conditions among the different seasons and cities and the association between lifestyles and socio-economic factors. The final cohort was composed of 1,164 children (50.9 boys, 95.4% born in Italy). Frequency of some factors appeared different in terms of the survey season (physical activity in the open air, the ways of cooking certain foods) and among the various cities (parents' level of education and rate of employment, sport, traffic near the home, type of heating, exposure to passive smoking, ways of cooking certain foods). Exposure to passive smoking and cooking fumes, obesity, residence in areas with heavy traffic, frequency of outdoor play and consumption of barbecued and fried foods were higher among children living in families with low educational and/or occupational level while children doing sports and consuming toasted bread were more frequent in families with high socio-economic level. The socio-economic level seems to

  2. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child’s cognitive performance at 6–8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Holding, Penny; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Meda, Nicolas; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Kashala-Abotnes, Esperance

    2017-01-01

    Background In Burkina Faso, it is not uncommon for mothers to drink alcohol, even during pregnancy. We aimed to study the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the child’s cognitive performance using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II) and the Children’s Category Test Level 1 (CCT-1) in rural Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of a community cluster-randomised Exclusive breastfeeding trial, and re-enrolled the children in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 518 children (268 boys and 250 girls) aged 6–8 years were assessed using the KABC-II and the CCT-1. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen’s d and conducted a linear regression analysis to examine the association. Results Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 18.5% (96/518). Children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorly for memory and spatial abilities tests from small effect size difference for ‘Atlantis’ (0.27) and ‘Triangle’ (0.29) to moderate effect size difference for ‘Number recall’ (0.72) compared to children whose mothers did not consume alcohol during pregnancy; the exposed children scored significantly higher errors with a small effect size (0.37) at problem solving (CCT-1) test compared to unexposed children. At unstandardized and standardized multivariable analysis, children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorer for memory-‘Atlantis’ (p = 0.03) and ‘Number recall’ (p = 0.0001), and spatial ability tests-‘Triangle’ (p = 0.03); they scored significantly higher errors at problem solving CCT-1 test (p = 0.002); all the results were adjusted for age, sex, schooling, stunting, father’s education, mother’s employment and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. No statistical association was found for visual abilities-‘Conceptual Thinking’,

  3. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-03-15

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p < 0.001), cheese (p = 0.001), and meat (p = 0.027). Satiety responsiveness was inversely associated with consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p < 0.001) and directly associated with consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs.

  4. Importance of physical health and health-behaviors in adolescence for risk of dropout from secondary education in young adulthood: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Svansdottir, Erla; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn A; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2015-11-24

    Education and health constitute two interlinked assets that are highly important to individuals. In Iceland, prevalence of dropout from secondary education poses a considerable problem. This 8-year prospective study assesses to what extent poor physical health and negative health-behaviors of Icelandic adolescents predict increased odds of dropout from secondary education. The sample included n = 201 Icelandic children who participated at age 15 (baseline) and again at age 23 (follow-up). Data included objective measurements of physical health and questionnaires assessing health-behaviors, education status, parental education, neighborhood characteristics, self-esteem, and depression. Independent t-tests and chi-square were used to assess differences in physical health and health-behaviors at follow-up stratified by education status. Ordinal regression models were conducted to assess whether physical health and health-behaviors at age 15 predicted increased odds of dropout from secondary education at age 23, independent of gender, parental education and psychological factors. At age 23, 78 % of girls and 71 % of boys had completed a secondary education. Completion of a secondary education was associated with significant health benefits, especially among women. Women without a secondary education had lower fitness, more somatic complaints, higher diastolic blood pressure, less sports participation, and poorer sleep, whilst men without a secondary education watched more television. In logistic regression models somatic complaints during adolescence were associated with 1.09 (95 % CI: 1.02-1.18) higher odds of dropout from secondary education in young adulthood, independent of covariates. Health-behaviors associated with higher dropout odds included smoking (3.67, 95 % CI: 1.50-9.00), alcohol drinking (2.57, 95 % CI: 1.15-5.75), and time spent watching television (1.27, 95 % CI:1.03-1.56), which were independent of most covariates. Finally, mother's higher

  5. Sleep breathing disorders and cognitive function in the elderly: an 8-year follow-up study. the proof-synapse cohort.

    PubMed

    Martin, Magali Saint; Sforza, Emilia; Roche, Frédéric; Barthélémy, Jean Claude; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Sleep breathing disorder (SBD) may be an important factor in age-related cognitive decline. In a cohort of healthy elderly subjects, we performed an 8-y longitudinal study to assess whether changes in cognitive function occur in untreated elderly patients with SBD and without dementia and the factors implicated in these changes. A population-based longitudinal study. Clinical research settings. A total of 559 participants of the PROOF study aged 67 y at the study entry and free from neurological disorders were examined. N/A. Abnormal breathing events were defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15. The raw cognitive data and averaged Z-scores for the attentional, executive, and memory functions were collected at the baseline and follow-up. At baseline, AHI > 15 was found in 54% of subjects with 18% having an AHI > 30. At follow-up, the presence of abnormal breathing events was associated with a slight but significant decline in the attentional domain (P = 0.01), which was more evident in the subjects with an AHI > 30 (P = 0.004). No significant changes over time were observed in the executive and memory functions. Several indices of chronic hypoxemia, defined either as a cumulative peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 90% or a minimal SpO2, accounted for portions of the variance in the decline in attention. All observed effects were small, accounting for 4-7% of variance in multivariate models. In healthy elderly subjects, various components of sleep breathing disorder at baseline were associated with small changes in selected cognitive functions specific to the attention domain after controlling for multiple comorbidities, such as sleepiness, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety, and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT 00759304 and NCT 00766584. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of the Natural History of Threshold, Subthreshold, and Partial Eating Disorders from a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Shaw, Heather; Jaconis, Maryanne

    2010-01-01

    We examined the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent girls who completed annual diagnostic interviews over an 8-year period. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.6% and 0.6% for threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), 1.6% and 6.1% for threshold and subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), 1.0% and 4.6% for threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder (BED), and 4.4% for purging disorder (PD). Overall, 12% of adolescents experienced some form of eating disorder. Subthreshold BN and BED and threshold PD were associated with elevated treatment, impairment, and distress. Peak age of onset was 17-18 for BN and BED, and 18-20 for PD. Average episode duration in months was 3.9 for BN and BED, and 5.1 for PD. One-year recovery rates ranged from 91% to 96%. Relapse rates were 41% for BN, 33% for BED, and 5% for PD. For BN and BED subthreshold cases often progressed to threshold cases and diagnostic crossover was most likely for these disorders. Results suggest that subthreshold eating disorders are more prevalent than threshold eating disorders and are associated with marked impairment. PMID:19685955

  7. Efficacy of single and multi-metric fish-based indices in tracking anthropogenic pressures in estuaries: An 8-year case study.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Filipe; Nyitrai, Daniel; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-12-15

    Facing a generalized increase in water degradation, several programmes have been implemented for protecting and enhancing the water quality and associated wildlife, which rely on ecological indicators to assess the degree of deviation from a pristine state. Here, single (species number, Shannon-Wiener H', Pielou J') and multi-metric (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index, EFAI) community-based ecological quality measures were evaluated in a temperate estuary over an 8-year period (2005-2012), and established their relationships with an anthropogenic pressure index (API). Single metric indices were highly variable and neither concordant amongst themselves nor with the EFAI. The EFAI was the only index significantly correlated with the API, indicating that higher ecological quality was associated with lower anthropogenic pressure. Pressure scenarios were related with specific fish community composition, as a result of distinct food web complexity and nursery functioning of the estuary. Results were discussed in the scope of the implementation of water protection programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of candidemia in epidemiology and risk factors among cancer patients in a cancer center of China: an 8-year case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Xia, Rui; Zhang, Qing; Bai, Changsen; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-03

    Candidemia is the worldwide life-threaten disease, especially in cancer patients. This study was aimed to identify and evaluate the risk factors of candidemia in cancer patients, which will prompt the improvement on current therapeutic strategies and prognosis. A retrospective, case-control study was conducted from inpatients of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, during 2006 to 2013. Analyses were performed between cancer patients with candidemia as study case, and patients with bacterial bloodstream infections as control. Each case was matched up with two controls, for gender and inpatient duration. Candida species, clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes were reviewed in details. Total number of 80 cases and 160 controls were enrolled and analyzed in this study. Candida albicans was identified as the most prevalent species and account for 55.0% candidemia, followed by Candida parapsilosis complex (21.3%), Candida tropicalis (8.8%), Candida glabrata complex (7.5%), Candida lusitaniae (3.8%), and Candida famata (3.8%). The crude mortality at 30-days of candidemia was up to 30.0%, which is significantly higher than bacterial bloodstream infections (p = 0.006). Logistical analysis demonstrated that total parenteral nutrition >5 days (p = 0.036), urinary catheter >2 days (p = 0.001), distant organ metastasis of cancer (p = 0.002) and gastrointestinal cancer (p = 0.042) were the independent risk factors for candidemia. Candidemia showed significant higher mortality than bacterial bloodstream infections, C. albicans was cited as the primary pathogen. Total parenteral nutrition, urinary catheter, distant organ metastasis of cancer and gastrointestinal cancer are independent predictors for candidemia, this findings provides potential therapeutic targets for improving the outcome.

  9. Management of rare diseases of the Head, Neck and Teeth: results of a French population-based prospective 8-year study.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lisa; Choquet, Rémy; Galliani, Eva; de Chalendar, Myriam; Messiaen, Claude; Ruel, Amélie; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Berdal, Ariane; Alberti, Corinne; De La Dure Molla, Muriel

    2017-05-19

    In the last ten years, national rare disease networks have been established in France, including national centres of expertise and regional ones, with storage of patient data in a bioinformatics tool. The aim was to contribute to the development and evaluation of health strategies to improve the management of patients with rare diseases. The objective of this study has been to provide the first national-level data concerning rare diseases of the head, neck and teeth and to assess the balance between demand and supply of care in France. Centres of expertise for rare diseases record a minimum data set on their clinical cases, using a list of rare Head, Neck and Teeth diseases established in 2006. The present analysis focuses on 2008 to 2015 data based on the Orphanet nomenclature. Each rare disease RD "case" was defined by status "affected" and by the degree of diagnostic certainty, encoded as: confirmed, probable or non-classifiable. Analysed parameters, presented with their 95% confidence intervals using a Poisson model, were the following: time and age at diagnosis, proportions of crude and standardized RD prevalence by age, gender and geographical site. The criteria studied were the proportions of patients in Paris Region and the "included cases geography", in which these proportions were projected onto the other French Regions, adjusting for local populations. In Paris Region, estimated prevalence of these diseases was 5.58 per 10,000 inhabitants (95% CI 4.3-7.1). At December 31st 2015, 11,342 patients were referenced in total in France, of whom 7294 were in Paris Region. More than 580 individual clinical entities (ORPHA code) were identified with their respective frequencies. Most abnormalities were diagnosed antenatally. Nearly 80% of patients recorded come to Paris hospitals to obtain either diagnosis, care or follow up. We observed that the rarer the disease, the more patients were referred to Paris hospitals. A health network covering a range of aspects of

  10. A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tamara R; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Plourde, Hugues; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2013-04-25

    -centered theory-based study permits for biochemical and physiological assessments. This trial will assess the effectiveness of the intervention at changing lifestyle behaviours by decreasing adiposity while enhancing lean and bone mass. If successful, the intervention proposed offers new insights for the management or treatment of childhood obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01290016.

  11. Suicidal Behavior During Lithium and Valproate Treatment: A Within-Individual 8-Year Prospective Study of 50,000 Patients With Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Sjölander, Arvid; Joas, Erik; Bergen, Sarah E; Runeson, Bo; Larsson, Henrik; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions regarding lithium's antisuicidal effect for bipolar disorder have been limited due to nonrepresentative subjects and potential confounding factors, including varying severity of illness. Findings regarding the effect of valproate, the most common alternative to lithium, are inconsistent for suicidal behavior. This study investigated the associations of these two drugs with the risk of suicide-related events, and possible differences between drugs, by using within-individual designs in a register-based longitudinal cohort. Through linkage of multiple Swedish national registers, 51,535 individuals with bipolar disorder were followed from 2005 to 2013 for treatment with lithium and valproate. Stratified Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios of suicide-related events during treated periods compared with untreated periods. For significant associations between medication and suicide-related events, the population attributable fraction was estimated to assess the public health impact for patients with bipolar disorder. During follow-up, 10,648 suicide-related events occurred. The incidence rate was significantly decreased by 14% during lithium treatment (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.95) but not during valproate treatment (hazard ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.89-1.15). The difference in hazard ratios of suicide-related events between lithium and valproate was statistically significant. Estimates of the population attributable fraction suggested that 12% (95% CI 4%-20%) of suicide-related events could have been avoided if patients had taken lithium during the entire follow-up. The results suggest that lithium should be considered for patients with bipolar disorder with suspected suicidal intentions, although risk for suicide is only one of the considerations when providing clinical care.

  12. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  13. Resistance patterns of nosocomial urinary tract infections in urology departments: 8-year results of the global prevalence of infections in urology study.

    PubMed

    Tandogdu, Zafer; Cek, Mete; Wagenlehner, Florian; Naber, Kurt; Tenke, Peter; van Ostrum, Edgar; Johansen, Truls Bjerklund

    2014-06-01

    To present the worldwide antibiotic resistance rates of uropathogens reported in nosocomial urinary tract infections (NAUTI) during the period of 2003-2010. Data from the Global Prevalence Study of Infections in Urology from the period of 2003-2010 were analyzed to evaluate the resistance rates of pathogens causing NAUTI. The web-based application was used to record data of investigators from urology departments participating in the study every year during the days allocated in November. Each center was allowed to enter data on a single day of the study. The point prevalence data was used to find differences among geographic regions and years by utilizing multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 19,756 patients were hospitalized during the study period, and in 1,866 of them, NAUTI was reported. Proof of infection was reported in 1,395 patients. Resistance rates of all antibiotics tested other than imipenem against the total bacterial spectrum were higher than 10 % in all regions. Resistance to almost all pathogens was lowest in North Europe, and there is no single year where an outbreak of resistance has been detected. The resistance rates of most of the uropathogens against the antibiotics tested did not show significant trends of increase or decrease with Asia exhibiting the highest rates in general. The only antibiotic tested with an overall resistance rate below 10 % was imipenem. Knowledge of regional and local resistance data and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary to optimize antibiotic therapy in urological patients with NAUTI.

  14. Early treatment of imported falciparum malaria in the intermediate and intensive care unit setting: an 8-year single-center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schwake, Lukas; Streit, Judith Pamela; Edler, Lutz; Encke, Jens; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Junghanss, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Imported falciparum malaria is characterized by a broad spectrum of potentially life-threatening complications that may arise even after initiation of appropriate antimalarial drug therapy. Hence, at Heidelberg University Hospital, all patients with newly diagnosed falciparum malaria are initially treated in the intermediate care unit (IMC) or intensive care unit (ICU). The present study was undertaken to evaluate critically the benefit of this strategy, which includes daily consultation with senior specialists in tropical medicine. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the 14-bed combined IMC/ICU of a 1,685-bed university hospital. A cohort of 122 patients with imported falciparum malaria admitted from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2003 was included. Thirty-four patients (27.9%) developed complications, defined according to the current World Health Organization classification. Most patients (80.3%) studied did not take the recommended chemoprophylaxis against malaria. The majority of patients (89.3% [n = 109]) could be adequately treated in the IMC. Life-threatening complications requiring ICU support occurred in 13 patients (10.7%). All complications were successfully managed. Fifty-five patients (45.1%) fulfilling recently published criteria for outpatient treatment had an excellent therapeutic response and did not require ICU support. This retrospective evaluation demonstrated favourable therapeutic results in hospitalized patients with imported falciparum malaria. Both initial treatment in the medical IMC/ICU and close collaboration between intensivists and specialists in tropical medicine may improve disease outcome among affected patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. Early treatment of imported falciparum malaria in the intermediate and intensive care unit setting: an 8-year single-center retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, Lukas; Streit, Judith Pamela; Edler, Lutz; Encke, Jens; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Junghanss, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Imported falciparum malaria is characterized by a broad spectrum of potentially life-threatening complications that may arise even after initiation of appropriate antimalarial drug therapy. Hence, at Heidelberg University Hospital, all patients with newly diagnosed falciparum malaria are initially treated in the intermediate care unit (IMC) or intensive care unit (ICU). The present study was undertaken to evaluate critically the benefit of this strategy, which includes daily consultation with senior specialists in tropical medicine. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the 14-bed combined IMC/ICU of a 1,685-bed university hospital. A cohort of 122 patients with imported falciparum malaria admitted from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2003 was included. Results Thirty-four patients (27.9%) developed complications, defined according to the current World Health Organization classification. Most patients (80.3%) studied did not take the recommended chemoprophylaxis against malaria. The majority of patients (89.3% [n = 109]) could be adequately treated in the IMC. Life-threatening complications requiring ICU support occurred in 13 patients (10.7%). All complications were successfully managed. Fifty-five patients (45.1%) fulfilling recently published criteria for outpatient treatment had an excellent therapeutic response and did not require ICU support. Conclusion This retrospective evaluation demonstrated favourable therapeutic results in hospitalized patients with imported falciparum malaria. Both initial treatment in the medical IMC/ICU and close collaboration between intensivists and specialists in tropical medicine may improve disease outcome among affected patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:18294371

  16. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function.

  17. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  18. Late-Life Exercise and Difficulty with Activities of Daily Living: an 8-Year Nationwide Follow-up Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R; Gardiner, Paul A; Chen, Li-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have shown that low levels of exercise in later life are associated with the progression of difficulties with activities of daily living. However, few have assessed the independent effect of exercise components on difficulty in performing activities of daily living and explored whether the relationship between exercise and activities of daily living is reciprocal. This study aimed to examine, in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese, the independent effect of the frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise on difficulty with activities of daily living. A secondary objective was to explore the degree to which the relationship of late-life exercise with activities of daily living is bi-directional. Data from a fixed cohort (n = 1268, aged 70+) in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation models with multivariate adjustment were performed. Participants engaging in higher levels of exercise had less difficulty with subsequent activities of daily living. Among the components of exercise, only duration, especially 30 min or more per session, was associated with fewer difficulties with activities of daily living. The relationship between exercise and activities of daily living was reciprocal, although the influence of activities of daily living on subsequent exercise levels was weaker. Exercise in later life may be able to minimize the difficulties in activities of daily living and help maintain the mobility and independence of older adults.

  19. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy in an elderly population in Beijing, China, 1992-2000: an 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation.

  20. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy in an Elderly Population in Beijing, China, 1992–2000: An 8-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. Methods This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. Results The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Conclusions Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation. PMID:21747208

  1. Infliximab is the new kid on the block in Kawasaki disease: a single-centre study over 8 years from North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Sharma, Dhrubajyoti; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This was a single-centre study to evaluate the usefulness of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocker, infliximab (IFX), for treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD) in children in Northern Indian. The study was carried out in the Paediatric Allergy-Immunology Unit, Advanced Paediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. The study period was January 2007 to March 2015. Review of records of 23 children with KD who had received IFX was carried out. Median age at presentation was 2 years (range 2 months to 12 years). Indications for using IFX were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) resistance (12/23 patients); severe KD especially when coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) had developed in spite of IVIg (9/23 patients); retinal vasculitis in association with KD (1 patient) and economic reasons (1 patient). Twenty one (21/23) patients had received IVIg (2 g/kg) as first line therapy. A dose of IFX was 5-7 mg/kg given intravenously. Screening tests for tuberculosis (chest xray, Tuberculin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test) were not carried out prior to IFX infusion in any patient. Duration of follow-up was 0-20 months in 13 patients; 21-40 months in 5 patients and >40 months in 6 patients. Mean follow-up was 28.78±25.49 months, range 1-84 months. Eleven of 12 patients (11/12) who had IVIg resistance showed prompt resolution with IFX. Nineteen patients (19/23) in the cohort had CAAs. Of these, 12 showed improvement over mean follow-up of 28.78±25.49 months (range 1-84 months) and 4 showed normalisation. No adverse reactions were noted during infusion of IFX. On follow-up, none of these patients has developed tuberculosis or any other significant infection over a cummulative follow-up of 662 months. IFX can be considered as a useful adjunct in treatment of children with KD.

  2. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-07-01

    Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents.

  3. Prognostic factors in non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma: An 8-year retrospective single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xing-Shun; Bai, Ming; He, Chuang-Ye; Yin, Zhan-Xin; Guo, Wen-Gang; Niu, Jing; Wu, Fei-Fei; Han, Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcome of non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma and to determine the predictors for survival. METHODS: Between July 2002 and June 2010, we retrospectively enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of portal cavernoma without abdominal malignancy or liver cirrhosis. The primary endpoint of this observational study was death and cause of death. Independent predictors of survival were identified using the Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 64 patients were enrolled in the study. During a mean follow-up period of 18 ± 2.41 mo, 7 patients died. Causes of death were pulmonary embolism (n = 1), acute leukemia (n = 1), massive esophageal variceal hemorrhage (n = 1), progressive liver failure (n = 2), severe systemic infection secondary to multiple liver abscesses (n = 1) and accident (n = 1). The cumulative 6-, 12- and 36-mo survival rates were 94.9%, 86% and 86%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of ascites (HR = 10.729, 95%CI: 1.209-95.183, P = 0.033) and elevated white blood cell count (HR = 1.072, 95%CI: 1.014-1.133, P = 0.015) were independent prognostic factors of non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma. The cumulative 6-, 12- and 36-mo survival rates were significantly different between patients with and without ascites (90%, 61.5% and 61.5% vs 97.3%, 97.3% and 97.3%, respectively, P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: The presence of ascites and elevated white blood cell count were significantly associated with poor prognosis in non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma. PMID:24259977

  4. Assessment of implant cumulative survival rates in sites with different bone density and related prognostic factors: an 8-year retrospective study of 2,684 implants.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Zhao, Baohong; Deng, Chunfu; Shang, Dehao; Zhang, Chong

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was set to explore the influence of local bone density (BD) on implant cumulative survival rates (ICSRs) and to assess prognostic factors associated with implant failure at sites with different BD. Between January 2005 and December 2011, 2,684 implants were placed in 1,377 patients and included in the study. Implants at sites with different BD were divided into four groups (G1 to G4) according to the Lekholm and Zarb classification, corresponding to bone types 1 to 4. ICSRs and the reasons for failure in each group were evaluated. Factors related to the local distribution of BD were also analyzed. A number of predictive variables were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate prognostic factors and their influence on implant failure rates. In total, 45 implants were lost, resulting in ICSRs for G1 to G4 of 100%, 98.18%, 96.83%, and 92.25%, respectively. The main reasons for failure in each group were failed osseointegration and occlusal overloading. Low BD was associated with advanced age (> 50 years) and the posterior maxilla. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus and nonthreaded implants were significant factors in the high-BD group (G2), while advanced age, smoking, nonthreaded implants, and immediate loading were risk factors for the low-BD group (G3 and G4). BD is one of the most important factors influencing the long-term ICSR, which decreases with decreasing BD values. Accurate risk evaluation for sites with different BD before implantation will be beneficial to implant survival.

  5. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental “circumstance” with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development. PMID:28114381

  6. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Daniel; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental "circumstance" with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development.

  7. Elbow Flexion Contractures in Childhood in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions: A Longitudinal Study of 20 Neurosurgically Reconstructed Infants with 8-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Maaike J; van Ouwerkerk, Willem-Jan R; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; van Royen, Barend J

    2015-12-01

     Little knowledge exists on the development of elbow flexion contractures in children with obstetrical brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of several neuromuscular parameters in infants with OBPL regarding the later development of elbow flexion contractures.  Twenty infants with OBPL with insufficient signs of recovery in the first months of life who were neurosurgically reconstructed were included. At a mean age of 4.6 months, the following neuromuscular parameters were assessed: existence of flexion contractures, cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper arm muscles on MRI, Narakas classification, EMG results, and elbow muscle function using the Gilbert score. In childhood at follow-up at mean age of 7.7 years, we measured the amount of flexion contractures and the upper arm peak force (Newton). Statistical analysis is used to assess relations between these parameters.  Flexion contractures of greater than 10 degrees occurred in 55% of our patient group. The relation between the parameters in infancy and the flexion contractures in childhood is almost nonexistent. Only the Narakas classification was related to the development of flexion contractures in childhood (p = 0.006). Infant muscle CSA is related to childhood peak muscle force.  The role of infancy upper arm muscle hypotrophy/hypertrophy, reinnervation, and early elbow muscle function in the development of childhood elbow contractures remains unclear. In this cohort prediction of childhood flexion, contractures were not possible using infancy neuromuscular parameters. We suggest that contractures might be an adaptive process to optimize residual muscle function.

  8. Elbow Flexion Contractures in Childhood in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions: A Longitudinal Study of 20 Neurosurgically Reconstructed Infants with 8-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Maaike J.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem-Jan R.; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; van Royen, Barend J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  Little knowledge exists on the development of elbow flexion contractures in children with obstetrical brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of several neuromuscular parameters in infants with OBPL regarding the later development of elbow flexion contractures. Methods  Twenty infants with OBPL with insufficient signs of recovery in the first months of life who were neurosurgically reconstructed were included. At a mean age of 4.6 months, the following neuromuscular parameters were assessed: existence of flexion contractures, cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper arm muscles on MRI, Narakas classification, EMG results, and elbow muscle function using the Gilbert score. In childhood at follow-up at mean age of 7.7 years, we measured the amount of flexion contractures and the upper arm peak force (Newton). Statistical analysis is used to assess relations between these parameters. Results  Flexion contractures of greater than 10 degrees occurred in 55% of our patient group. The relation between the parameters in infancy and the flexion contractures in childhood is almost nonexistent. Only the Narakas classification was related to the development of flexion contractures in childhood (p = 0.006). Infant muscle CSA is related to childhood peak muscle force. Conclusion  The role of infancy upper arm muscle hypotrophy/hypertrophy, reinnervation, and early elbow muscle function in the development of childhood elbow contractures remains unclear. In this cohort prediction of childhood flexion, contractures were not possible using infancy neuromuscular parameters. We suggest that contractures might be an adaptive process to optimize residual muscle function. PMID:27917234

  9. Single-bundle patellar tendon versus non-anatomical double-bundle hamstrings ACL reconstruction: a prospective randomized study at 8-year minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zaffagnini, Stefano; Bruni, Danilo; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Lopomo, Nicola; Bignozzi, Simone; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subjective, objective and radiographic outcome of the lateralized single-bundle bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft with a non-anatomical double-bundle hamstring tendons autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique at long-term follow-up. Seventy-nine non-consecutive randomized patients (42 men; 37 women) with unilateral ACL insufficiency were prospectively evaluated, before and after ACL reconstruction by means of the above-mentioned techniques, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years (range 8-10 years; mean 8.6 years). In the double-bundle hamstrings technique, we used one tibial and one femoral tunnel combined with one "over-the-top" passage, cortical staple's fixation and we left intact hamstrings' tibial insertion. Patients were evaluated subjectively and objectively, using IKDC score, Tegner level, manual maximum displacement test with KT-2000™ arthrometer. Radiographic evaluation was performed according to IKDC grading system, and re-intervention rate for meniscal lesions was also recorded. The subjective and objective IKDC were similar in both groups while double-bundle hamstrings group showed significantly higher Tegner level (P = 0.0007), higher passive range of motion recovery (P = 0.0014), faster sport resumption (P = 0.0052), lower glide pivot-shift phenomenon (P = 0.0302) and lower re-intervention rate (P = 0.0116) compared with patellar tendon group. Radiographic evaluation showed significant lower objective degenerative changes in double-bundle hamstrings group at final follow-up (P = 0.0056). Although both techniques provide satisfactory results, double-bundle ACL reconstruction shows better functional results, with a faster return to sport activity, a lower re-operation rate and lower degenerative knee changes.

  10. Long-term benefit of primary prevention with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: an extended 8-year follow-up study of the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Ilan; Gillespie, John; Moss, Arthur J; Hall, W Jackson; Klein, Helmut; McNitt, Scott; Brown, Mary W; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech

    2010-09-28

    The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II) showed a significant 31 reduction in the risk of death with primary implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy during a median follow-up of 1.5 years. However, currently there are no data on the long-term efficacy of primary defibrillator therapy. MADIT-II enrolled 1232 patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction who were randomized to ICD and non-ICD medical therapy and were followed up through November 2001. For the present long-term study, we acquired posttrial mortality data through March 2009 for all study participants (median follow-up, 7.6 years). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to calculate the hazard ratio for ICD versus non-ICD therapy during long-term follow-up. At 8 years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of all-cause mortality was 49 among patients treated with an ICD compared with 62 among non-ICD patients (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that ICD therapy was associated with a significant long-term survival benefit (hazard ratio for 0- through 8-year mortality=0.66 [95 confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.78]; P<0.001). Treatment with an ICD was shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the risk of death during the early phase of the extended follow-up period (0 through 4 years: hazard ratio=0.61 [95 confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.76]; P<0.001) and with continued life-saving benefit during the late phase of follow-up (5 through 8 years: hazard ratio=0.74 [95 confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.96]; P=0.02). Our findings demonstrate a sustained 8-year survival benefit with primary ICD therapy in the MADIT-II population.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  12. Four Years Prospective Study of Natural History of Atopic Dermatitis Aged 7~8 Years at an Individual Level: A Community-Based Survey by Dermatologists' Skin Examination in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jee; Yun, Sook Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong Jin; Won, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The age-dependent change in atopic dermatitis (AD) at an individual level has mostly performed in a hospital-setting. Objective We evaluated the age-dependent change of AD symptoms at an individual level in a community-setting. Methods For the diagnostic accuracy, all participants of schoolchildren were received skin examination by dermatologists (twice a year for the same group), instead of questionnaire-based surveys. For this study, sequential check-ups of 273 elementary school children, aged 7~8 years, were performed for 4 years up to the age of 10~11 years. Results Among the 47 AD children, who had been diagnosed as having AD at the first-year check-up, spontaneous remission was detected in nine children during the follow-up periods (remission rate of 19.1%). As a consequence, the one-year AD prevalence was decreased by 5.9% in the elementary schoolchildren over four years. Unexpectedly, late onset (after 8 years of age) AD was observed in 21.7% of AD children. There was no statistically significant relationship between spontaneous remission and host factors including sex and family history of atopic diseases. Conclusion We observed that 19.1% of AD children in the age group of 7~11 years showed spontaneous remission based on skin examination by dermatologists. There might be an increase in the prevalence of late onset AD in Korea. PMID:27904266

  13. Utility of overnight pulse oximeter as a screening tool for sleep apnea to assess the 8-year risk of cardiovascular disease: Data from a large-scale bus driver cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Lin, Yu-Jen; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Wu, Trong-Neng; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2016-12-15

    Professional drivers' work under conditions predisposes them for development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the effect of SDB on CVD risk among professional drivers has never been investigated. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of overnight pulse oximeter as a sleep apnea screening tool to assess the 8-year risk of CVD events. The Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study (TBDCS) recruited 1014 professional drivers in Taiwan since 2005. The subjects completed questionnaire interview and overnight pulse oximeter survey. This cohort was linked to the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD). Researchers found 192 CVD cases from 2005 to 2012. Cox proportional hazards model was performed to estimate the hazard ratio for CVD. The statistical analysis was performed using SAS software in 2015. ODI4 and ODI3 levels increased the 8-year CVD risk, even adjusting for CVD risk factors (HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.78; p=0.022, and HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.90; p=0.033). ODI4 and ODI3 thresholds of 6.5 and 10events/h revealed differences of CVD risks (HR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.95; p=0.048, and HR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.03; p=0.041). Moreover, the ODI levels had an increased risk for hypertensive disease (not including essential hypertension). This study concludes that ODI for a sign of SDB is an independent predictor of elevated risk of CVD. Further research should be conducted regarding measures to prevent against SDB in order to reduce CVD risk in professional drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  15. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-Year Update

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Franziska J.; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the “Hispanic Paradox”). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  16. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities.

  17. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy versus treatment as usual for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young children aged 3 to 8 years: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Goodall, Benjamin; Chadwick, Isobel; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; McKinnon, Anna; Morant, Nicola; Schweizer, Susanne; Panesar, Inderpal; Humphrey, Ayla; Watson, Peter; Lafortune, Louise; Smith, Patrick; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2015-03-25

    Following horrific or life-threatening events approximately 10 to 15% of young children develop post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The symptoms of this disorder are distressing - nightmares, flashbacks, anger outbursts and disturbed play. These symptoms cause major disruption to a child's functioning and, if left untreated, can persist for many years. As yet, there are no established empirically-validated treatments for PTSD in young children. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TF-CBT) is a psychological intervention that is effective in treating the disorder in older children (8 to 12 years), adolescents and adults. This study examines TF-CBT adapted for children aged between 3 and 8 years. This protocol describes a two-arm exploratory randomised controlled trial comparing TF-CBT to treatment as usual (TAU) in children aged 3 to 8 years with a principal diagnosis of PTSD following a single-event discrete trauma. Using a half-crossover design, 44 participants will be randomly allocated to receive the intervention or to receive TAU. Those allocated to TAU will be offered TF-CBT at the end of the 'treatment' period (approximately 12 weeks) if still indicated. The primary outcome is PTSD diagnosis according to DSM-5 criteria for children 6 years and younger at post-treatment. Secondary outcomes include effects on co-morbid diagnoses and changes in emotion and trauma symptoms at each of the follow-up points (post-treatment, 3-months, 12-months). Additionally, broader efficacy will be considered with regard to treatment feasibility, acceptability and service utilisation. The key targets of the intervention are trauma memory, the interpretation of the meaning of the event, and the management of symptoms. This is the first European trial to examine the efficacy of TF-CBT in alleviating PTSD in very young children. As well as providing much-needed data on the utility of the intervention, this exploratory trial will also allow us to gather important information

  18. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007-2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Iorga, Magdalena; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08-1.35]), foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21-1.48]), episiotomy (1.27 [1.21-1.34]), uterine revision (1.15 [1.06-1.25]), APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21-1.67]), cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07-1.48]), and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25-1.62]); however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70-0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10-1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03-1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90-3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04-2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12-2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26-0.71), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), and 0.29 (0.20-0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  19. Residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions and the risk of wheezing among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren: a city-wide cross-sectional study in Nicosia, Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported associations between respiratory outcomes in children and a range of self-reported, administrative or geographical indicators of traffic pollution. First-time investigation into the frequency of asthmatic symptoms among 7-8 year-old Cypriot children in 1999-2000 showed increased prevalence in the capital Nicosia compared to other areas. Geographical differences on an island the size of Cyprus may reflect environmental and/or lifestyle factors. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported symptoms and residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions among Nicosia schoolchildren. Methods The addresses of children in the metropolitan area of Nicosia who participated in the original survey (N = 1,735) were geo-coded and the level of exposure of each child was assessed using distance- and emission-based indicators (i.e. estimated levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions due to motor vehicles on main roads around the residence). Odds ratios of wheezing and asthma diagnosis in relation to levels of exposure were estimated in logistic regression models adjusting for person-based factors, co-morbidity and intra-school clustering. Results We found an increased risk of wheezing at distances less than 50 m from a main road and/or only among those experiencing the highest levels of exposure. The strongest effect estimates were observed when exposure was defined in terms of the cumulative burden at all roads around the residence. Adjusted odds ratios for current wheezing were 2.33 (95% CI 1.27, 4.30) amongst the quartile of participants exposed to the highest levels of PM at all roads 50 m of their residence and 2.14 (95% CI 1.05, 4.35) for NOx, with no effect at intermediate levels of exposure. While the direction of effect was apparent at longer distances, differences were generally not statistically significant. Conclusions Children experiencing the highest burden of emissions in Nicosia seem to be at

  20. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08–1.35]), foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21–1.48]), episiotomy (1.27 [1.21–1.34]), uterine revision (1.15 [1.06–1.25]), APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21–1.67]), cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07–1.48]), and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25–1.62]); however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71), 0.90 (0.85–0.96), and 0.29 (0.20–0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers. PMID:28133615

  1. Metastatic spiradenocarcinoma occurring in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Jayson R; Burgon, Eric; Burkhart, Craig; Stitzenberg, Karyn; Hipps, John; Zedek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We recently saw the case of an 8-year-old boy with histologic findings of spiradenocarcinoma. Malignant adnexal tumors in children are exceedingly rare, and cases of spiradenocarcinoma in children are absent in the literature. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with metastatic spiradenocarcinoma. A biopsy 2 years before his presentation at our institution was interpreted as a benign lesion, but when the lesion regrew, a repeat biopsy was performed that demonstrated ominous findings, prompting a reexcision. This reexcision demonstrated an area with significant necrosis, many mitoses, and cellular pleomorphism apparently arising out of a sharply demarcated, adjacent, lower-grade area. The histologic features of this patient's biopsies were those of spiradenocarcinoma, potentially arising out of a preexisting spiradenoma, a finding that has not been documented previously in this age group. Staging studies demonstrated multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules, which were confirmed using thoracoscopic biopsy to be metastatic disease. His chemotherapy regimen has included several cycles of cisplatin and 5-flourouracil, with ongoing disease progression of pulmonary disease. It has been 16 months since he presented to our institution (>3 years since the appearance of his initial lesion). Imaging studies demonstrate a slowly increasing size and number of pulmonary lesions. The long-term prognosis is guarded.

  2. Temporal Generalization in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clement, Angelique; Wearden, John

    2001-01-01

    Tested 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds on temporal generalization with visual stimuli. Found increasing sharpness of generalization gradient with increasing age, and change from symmetrical to adult-like asymmetrical generalization gradients among 8-year-olds. Theoretical models attributed changes to increasing precision of the reference memory with…

  3. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V.; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  4. Retention of fetal bones 8 years following termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Hasan Onur; Şimşek, Bilge Şener; Taşdemir, Umit; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Doğanay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies; in particular, fetal bones may present with a variety of clinical symptoms and signs including infertility, vaginal discharge, disparonia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding. Many case reports were described post- abortal removal of retained fetal bone at varying time intervals from the previous (D&E), ranging from weeks to years. In our case, a 34-year-old woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and secondary infertility, her only pregnancy being a termination 8 years previously at 15 weeks' gestation. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed a normal-sized, normal-shaped uterus with an echogenic scarred endometrium. After then office hysterescopy revealed fragments of the immature bone. All the immature bones were removed by operative hysterescopy. Significant numbers of patients may have endometrial pathology; the differential diagnosis of such unusual findings on ultrasound examination includes intrauterine contraceptive devices, foreign bodies, calcified submucous fibroids and Asherman's syndrome, as well as rarities such as heterotopic bone. The presence of this pathology may be a causal or contributory factor to subfertilty, and will remain undetected if the endometrium is not routinely evaluated. Indeed, these cases highlight the advantage of performing a hysteroscopy at the same time as the more invasive laparoscopy and dye insufflation, in selected cases.

  5. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  6. The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to 8 Years after High School: A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Marder, Camille; Nagle, Katherine; Shaver, Debra; Wei, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) funded by the National Center for Special Education Research at the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, provides a unique source of information to help in developing an understanding of the experiences of secondary school students with disabilities nationally as they…

  7. Long-term treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with strontium ranelate: results at 8 years.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J Y; Bruyère, O; Sawicki, A; Roces-Varela, A; Fardellone, P; Roberts, A; Devogelaer, J P

    2009-12-01

    Strontium ranelate 2 g/day has proven efficacy against vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 5 years in postmenopausal osteoporosis, though many women require longer-term treatment. This article describes the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this agent over 8 years. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women having participated in the 5-year efficacy trials SOTI and TROPOS were invited to enter a 3-year open-label extension study. The results presented here focus on patients who received strontium ranelate for 8 years. At the extension baseline, the population treated for 8 years (n=879; 79.1+/-5.6 years) had femoral neck T-score of -2.61+/-0.71. The cumulative incidences of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures (13.7% and 12.0%, respectively) over years 6 to 8 were non-statistically different from the cumulative incidences in the first 3 years of the original studies (11.5% and 9.6%). Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) increased throughout the 8-year period. Annual relative change in BMD was significant at every visit, except the 8-year visit for femoral neck and total hip BMD. Strontium ranelate was safe and well tolerated over 8 years. Long-term treatment with strontium ranelate 2 g/day in postmenopausal osteoporotic women leads to continued increases in BMD at all sites. The data also provide some evidence for a sustained antifracture efficacy.

  8. Phenotypes of food hypersensitivity and development of allergic diseases during the first 8 years of life.

    PubMed

    Ostblom, E; Lilja, G; Pershagen, G; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2008-08-01

    Longitudinal data from population-based studies on the development and persistence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) during childhood are almost absent. A population-based birth cohort was established, and information on various exposures and symptoms of allergic disease were obtained from questionnaires when the children were 2 months, 1, 2, 4 and 8 years of age. Complete data were available on 3104 children. Children with reported FHS and doctor's diagnosis of food allergy (RDFA) were identified and allocated into transient, intermittent, late-onset and persistent phenotypes. Food allergen-specific IgE-antibodies (abs) to a mix of six common food allergens (fx5) were analysed at 4 and 8 years of age in 1857 children. The overall prevalence of reported FHS in combination with RDFA should be 3.1% at 1 year to 7.6% at 8 years of age. However, reactions to milk, egg, fish and wheat decreased, whereas an increase was seen for peanuts and tree nuts. Reported reactions to egg, peanuts or tree nuts early in life, as well as IgE-abs to food allergens at the age of 4, increased the risk of FHS at 8 years of age. Furthermore, FHS at young ages increased the risk for asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis at 8 years of age, even when adjustments were made for children with these symptoms during the first 2 years of life. The increasing prevalence of FHS up to the age of 8 years probably reflects an increasing prevalence of allergy to birch pollen and pollen-related reactions to foods. Reactions to egg, peanuts and tree nuts early in life increase the risk of FHS at 8 years. Furthermore, reported FHS at young ages, even though transient, seems to increase the risk for other allergic diseases at 8 years of age.

  9. Childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and neurobehavior in children at 8 years.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. Child serum PBDEs were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years; missing serum PBDE concentrations were estimated via multiple imputation. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 was used to assess intelligence and externalizing behavior, respectively, in children at 8 years. We used multiple informant models to estimate associations between repeated lipid-adjusted PBDEs and child neurobehavior and to test for windows of susceptibility. Postnatal exposure to PBDE congeners (- 28, - 47, - 99, - 100, and - 153) at multiple ages was inversely associated with FSIQ at 8 years. For instance, a 10-fold increase in BDE-153 concentrations at 2, 3, 5, and 8 years were all related to lower FSIQ at age 8 (β for 3 years: - 7.7-points, 95% CI - 12.5, - 2.9; β for 8 years: - 5.6-points, 95% CI - 10.8, - 0.4). Multiple PBDE congeners at 8 years were associated with increased hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors at 8 years. Postnatal PBDE exposure was associated with decrements in FSIQ and increases in hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. Materials and methods The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child’s background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children’s dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in relation to the answers of the questionnaire, and a logistic regression model was used to determine the power of the variables, separately or combined, to predict BMP. Results The logistic regression analysis considering differences in background variables between children with negative or positive behavior. Four variables turned out to be as predictors: Age, the guardian’s expectation of the child’s behavior at the dental examination, the child’s anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people, and the presence and absence of toothache. Conclusion The present study concluded that by means of simple questionnaire BMP in children may be expected if one of these attributes is found. Clinical significance Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient prior to treatment process may help the pediatric dentist plan appropriate behavior management and treatment strategy. How to cite this article Sharma A, Kumar D, Anand A, Mittal V, Singh A, Aggarwal N. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):5-9. PMID:28377646

  11. Micronutrient intake adequacy in children from birth to 8 years. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Luque, Veronica; Ferré, Natàlia; Grote, Veit; Koletzko, Berthold; Pawellek, Ingrid; Verduci, Elvira; ReDionigi, Alice; Socha, Jerzy; Stolarczyk, Anna; Poncelet, Pascale; Rousseaux, Déborah; Escribano, Joaquin

    2017-02-09

    In European countries, suboptimal intake has been reported for several micronutrients (as calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, D and folate) in both adulthood and childhood. No studies to date have prospectively compiled nutrient intake from healthy children in different European countries using the same methodology. To describe the adequacy of micronutrient intake during the first eight years of life in children from 5 European countries. Prospective observational trial analyzing data from the EU Childhood Obesity Project. Infants were enrolled within the first two months of life and were followed regularly to age 8 years. Dietary intake was collected periodically with 3-day food records. Nutrient intake adequacy was estimated for calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, magnesium, iodine, folate and vitamins B12, A and D, following the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines at group (prevalence of adequacy >80%) and individual (high probability of adequate intake >80% of the children) level; the assessment was based on the Estimated Average Requirements of nutrients of the FAO, WHO and United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) or the IOM if FAO/WHO/UNU data were not available. Intake data were available for a decreasing number of children, from 904 at 3 months to 396 at 8 years. Iron, iodine, folate and vitamin D were inadequately consumed when assessing adequacy at group level; at individual-level less than 80% of the children showed high probability of adequate intake for iron, iodine, folate and zinc at all ages, and calcium from 12 months onwards. Accurate dietary intake and adequacy assessment methodology in this prospective cohort of European children found iron, calcium, vitamin D, folate, iodine and zinc to be inadequately consumed in childhood, as described previously by epidemiologic studies. Further studies are needed to elucidate health consequences of these deficiencies. CHOP trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00338689. Copyright © 2017

  12. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  13. Ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian child

    PubMed Central

    Keisham, Chitralekha; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, V. K.; Chugh, Shikha

    2013-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis is a disorder of pigmentation, characterized by asymptomatic symmetric ashy gray-colored macules, in the first to third decade of life. It can, however, affect children sometime. But, there is a paucity of similar cases in Indian children. We present a case of ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian girl who presented to skin OPD with areas of ashy pigmentation, which were distributed symmetrically. Skin biopsy was consistent with lichenoid pattern histology. This case has been reported to highlight the rarity of ashy dermatosis in Indian children. PMID:23439983

  14. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen k

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case. PMID:27900279

  15. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sisodiya, Rajpal S; Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen K

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case.

  16. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Japanese elementary school children aged 6-8 years.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hideaki; Kanemura, Takashi; Komada, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Michiko; Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Okawa, Masako

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in Japanese children aged 6-8 years. The parents of 202 children aged 6-8 years who attended a single elementary school in Shiga, Japan, were requested to complete the Child and Adolescent Sleep Checklist (CASC) and perform home Type 3 portable monitoring of their children. By using the CASC data and monitor recordings, we estimated the prevalence of pediatric OSAS with the help of different diagnostic criteria and identified the risk factors associated with OSAS. Complete data were obtained from 170 of the 194 children whose parents participated in the study. The mean total apnea-hypopnea index and obstructive apnea hypopnea index were 1.4 ± 1.3 and 0.4 ± 0.6 h(-1), respectively, and central apnea was the most prevalent type of respiratory event, accounting for 70.4% of all events. The overall prevalence of OSAS ranged from 0.6% to 43.5%, depending on the cutoff value used, and was 3.5% when using International Criteria of Sleep Disorders version II (ICSD II) diagnostic criteria. The presence of tonsillar hypertrophy was the only parameter whose prevalence was significantly elevated in children with OSAS across all diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of pediatric OSAS varies according to the diagnostic criteria used, indicating the need for further research focusing on outcomes to define a clinically significant diagnostic threshold. The presence of tonsillar hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the development of pediatric OSAS.

  17. Career choice and future plan of Chinese 8-year stomatology medical doctor program students.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Zhang, Xinwen; Shen, Yong; Yi, Zhe; Wu, Lin; Ai, Hongjun

    2015-09-01

    This elite education reform that commenced in 2001 aims to improve the quality of Chinese dentists. It is expected to be one of the biggest drivers that lead dental education of China to a new stage. The authors identified and analyzed the perspectives of Chinese 8-year stomatology medical doctor (SMD) program students toward their career choice and future plan. The data from a self-administered questionnaire (4 items regarding career choice and 6 items about future plan), administered to 87 8-year SMD program students from the School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China, were used. The authors performed a comparison of the students of different sexes and home locations using the Chi-square test. Of the students, 34.5% indicated interpersonal motives as the reason to choose the 8-year SMD program, and only 52.9% thought that they had made good choices. The top three popular careers were those of prosthodontists (20.7%), oral surgeons (14.9%), and orthodontists (13.8%). The majority of students preferred first-tier cities (85.7%) and university hospitals (71.3%). In China, most 8-year S.M.D students would like to work as clinical dentists of university hospitals in first-tier cities. The top three career choices of graduates would be prosthodontists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Dante; Plakas, Christos; Fisher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint. PMID:24955272

  19. Construction and Validation of Parental Rating Scale from Children's Emotional Intelligence (4-8 Years Old)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajbafnezhad, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence rating tools are not available for children, but mostly for children. So, the present study investigated the measurement and assessment of Emotional Intelligence in children with the age range of 4-8 years old by parents (mothers) through a preliminary research-made questionnaire. This study was based on an…

  20. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  1. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  2. Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

  3. Vismodegib Therapy for Basal Cell Carcinoma in an 8-Year-Old Chinese Boy with Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Fife, Douglas; Laitinen, Marko A; Myers, David J; Landsteiner, Pamela B

    2017-03-01

    Vismodegib is an oral inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and has been used to treat basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in adults. This article reports clearance of a nodular BCC of the nasal tip in an 8-year-old boy with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). BCC can pose therapeutic challenges when located in areas that are not amenable to traditional therapies such as Mohs micrographic surgery or topical agents. Vismodegib was used at a dose of 150 mg/day to treat the boy's BCC. After 4 months of therapy, we achieved complete clinical clearance. During 21 months of follow-up, the patient's nose remained clinically clear of tumor. Vismodegib was successfully used to treat a child with XP and nodular BCC. Our goal in using vismodegib was tumor regression while avoiding cosmetic and functional disfigurement. Vismodegib was effective in clinically clearing the tumor, and the patient has shown no signs of recurrence. Further studies are warranted.

  4. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  5. Celebrating 8 Years at Mars: Repeated Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 September 2005 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) entered Mars orbit on 12 September 1997.

    Today, we celebrate the MGS's 8th anniversary!

    The 8 Earth years that MGS has been in orbit span portions of 5 martian years. One of the critical science activities that the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been engaged in for the past 8 years has been to document daily changes in the martian weather. Each day that MOC is operating, the red and blue wide angle cameras are used to build up a daily global map. These maps provide a record of the planet's changing meteorological conditions.

    One of the most exciting observations that the MOC wide angle cameras have made during these 8 years is that the red planet has very repeatable weather patterns. In light of weather-related problems and disruptions that occur every year on Earth, one can only imagine how nice it would be if our planet followed a similar, repeated pattern.

    The four pictures shown here provide an example of one of the weather phenomena that repeat each martian year. Each picture shows the north polar region of Mars during the northern summer season. Each picture is a composite of several images acquired at different visible wavelengths to give a color view of the planet. Each picture was taken about 1 Mars year apart, and each shows an annular (circular) cloud located over the same terrain each summer.

    The first picture, acquired in April 1999, is actually not from the MGS MOC instrument. It was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and was originally released by the Space Telescope Science Institute on 19 May 1999. The reason there is no MOC image for April 1999 is a product of the MGS spacecraft's 8-year history at Mars. MGS was certainly in orbit at the time, and it was taking data during the month of April. However, the camera did not obtain any images between 17 and 28 April because the spacecraft encountered, and then had to be recovered

  6. Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis Relapse after an 8 Year Delay: An Interplay of Infection and Immune Reconstitution?

    PubMed Central

    Katchanov, Juri; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nielsen, Kirsten; Branding, Gordian; Arastéh, Keikawus; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Meintjes, Graeme; Boulware, David R.; Stocker, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a symptomatic relapse of HIV-related cryptococcal meningoencephalitis 8 years after the first diagnosis on the background of immune reconstitution. The findings as well as the clinical course suggests a combination of smouldering localized infection and enhanced inflammatory reaction related to immune restoration due to antiretroviral therapy. A combination of antifungal and anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Our case challenges the concept that immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and microbiological relapse are dichotomous entities. PMID:25505049

  7. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Roduit, C; Scholtens, S; de Jongste, J C; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D S; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M O; Aalberse, R; Smit, H A

    2009-02-01

    Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of asthma included wheeze, dyspnoea and prescription of inhaled steroids. In a subgroup (n = 1454), serum IgE antibodies for inhalant and food allergens were measured at 8 years. In the total study population, 12.4% (n = 362) of the children had asthma at the age of 8 years. Caesarean section, with a total prevalence of 8.5%, was associated with an increased risk of asthma (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.51). This association was stronger among predisposed children (with two allergic parents: OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.20 to 7.05; with only one: OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.09) than in children with non-allergic parents (OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.77 to 2.42). The association between caesarean section and sensitisation at the age of 8 years was significant only in children of non-allergic parents (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.16 to 3.98). Children born by caesarean section have a higher risk of asthma than those born by vaginal delivery, particularly children of allergic parents. Caesarean section increases the risk for sensitisation to common allergens in children with non-allergic parents only.

  8. Imprints of approximately 8 year oscillation in climatic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikšovský, Jiří; Paluš, Milan; Jajcay, Nikola; Donner, Reik

    2017-04-01

    Due to activity and complex interaction of various climate-determining agents, a wide range of variability patterns can be found in the meteorological records. Some of these can be attributed to external factors such as changes in solar or volcanic activity; others are linked to internally induced climate variations. Among the perhaps less prominent, yet still potentially influential variability modes is the approximately 8 year oscillation. In the past, its presence has been reported in various (particularly European) climate records, typically related to temperature or pressure data. Here, the presence of the approximately 8y cycle has been investigated in climate signals originating from a range of observational, reanalyzed and simulated datasets. Through statistical techniques based primarily on wavelet transform and regression analysis, magnitude and statistical significance of the approximately 8y oscillation were evaluated, as well as its temporal stability and geographical patterns. In addition to confirming a statistically significant presence of the approximately 8y periodicity in the mean temperature series over a large part of Europe, its existence has also been demonstrated for minimum and maximum temperature series, while only limited traces were found in precipitation data. The analysis of long European temperature records has revealed a distinct multidecadal variation of the magnitude of the approximately 8y oscillation, although the specific mechanism responsible for this behavior still remains unclear. A link of the approximately 8y component in the index of the North Atlantic Oscillation to near-ground temperatures has been detected for much of Europe as well as some areas in the North Atlantic region. Finally, the presence of the approximately 8y cycle in the general circulation model outputs has been investigated: while some indications of the 8y oscillations were found in the simulated data, they seem generally weaker than in their

  9. Neuropsychological signs of Alzheimer's disease 8 years prior to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Nicole S; Taylor, Kirsten I; Foldi, Nancy S; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the earliest neuropsychological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by comparing the baseline performance of 29 individuals who subsequently developed AD within an average of 7.91 ± 2.70 years with 29 pairwise-matched individuals who remained cognitively healthy (NC). We hypothesized that subtle, qualitative changes in cognition precede clinical AD by several years, and therefore examined subjective as well as standard quantitative measures of cognition, in addition to subjective estimates of mood and medical status. Participants were selected from the 825 members of the longitudinal BASEL study (BAsel Study on the ELderly), all of whom had been ApoE-genotyped and received comprehensive bi-annual neuropsychological assessments. Within 13 years, 29 were diagnosed with probable AD. Each individual who progressed to AD (AD-P) was pairwise matched to a NC participant based on age, education, demographic status, observation period, and, importantly, ApoE genotype. A regression analysis using the lasso technique identified which of 115 neuropsychological variables best discriminated baseline NC from baseline AD-P performance. This analysis yielded eleven neuropsychological variables that optimally discriminated the two groups (correct classification rate: 60.4%): 1) Intrusions and 2) response bias in verbal learning and memory tasks; 3) delayed figure recall; 4-6) three Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design subtest variables; 7-8) number of errors and repetitions on letter fluency; and 9-11) self-report of memory problems, a feeling of sadness, and cardiac problems. These results suggest that the preclinical neuropsychological cascade to AD includes subtle but identifiable qualitative impairments in verbal and visual memory, visuospatial processing, error control, and subjective neuropsychological complaints.

  10. A predictive radiological analysis of short stems versus both shortened and long stems in primary hip replacement: a case-control study of 100 cases of Metha versus ABG II and Omnifit HA at 2-8 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Brax, Michel; Chammaï, Yves

    2017-09-09

    Short hip stems, intended to conserve bone stock and ensure a more physiological distribution of stress in the femur under loading, are meeting with renewed interest. Radiologic semiology is not known exactly, particularly in relation to conventional implants; we therefore conducted a case-control study of 3 types of implant differing only in stem length: short, shortened or long. The aim was 1) to compare radiographic aspects, 2) to attempt to systematize medium-term radiologic status for the 3 types, and 3) to assess the impact of radiographic aspect on loosening and revision rates. The short Metha stem is better adapted to the recipient bone than longer stems, without sacrificing stability. A prospective series comprising the first 100 selected cases of hip replacement using the short Metha stem was compared to two other series of 100 "long" (Omnifit HA) and 100 "shortened" (ABG II) stems at comparable follow-up: 4.05 ± 1.44 years (range, 2-8 years) for Metha, 4.48 ± 0.97 years (range 2-8 years) for Omnifit, and 4.75 ± 2.07 years (range, 2-8 years) for ABG II. Selection criteria in this initial phase were very strict: young age and/or high activity level, with good bone stock and femoral morphology suited to fitting a Metha stem (no "stovepipe" or "champagne-flute" femurs), for which 12.8% of primary hip replacements were selected. Matching was performed by sampling on criteria of age, gender, body-mass index and etiology. Radiographic parameters were compared between the short stem group and the two control groups and classified according to Engh-Massin score (10 points for fixation and 17 for stability). The short Metha stem provided excellent fixation scores: 7.65/10, versus 7.16 (p = 0.003) and 5.92 (p = 0.0001) for ABG II and Omnifit, respectively. Likewise, stability was scored 14.23/17 for Metha, versus 14.51 (NS) and 11.83 (p = 0.0001) respectively, and the total score was higher for Metha (21.88/27) than ABG II (21.67; p = 0.03) or, more particularly

  11. Fixed partial dentures in an up to 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    CENCI, Maximiliano Sérgio; RODOLPHO, Paulo Antônio da Rosa; PEREIRA-CENCI, Tatiana; CURY, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Information on the longevity of fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures (inlay FPDs) should be considered in the selection of materials, operative techniques and patient instructions related to prognosis and long-term cost-effectiveness. Objective This study evaluated the long-term survival of fiber-reinforced, adhesively-bonded composite prostheses placed in posterior teeth. Material and Methods Twenty-one patients that received adhesively bonded polyethylene inlay FPDs in posterior teeth were selected from a private practice dental office and invited to evaluation. Of the eligible 21 patients, 13 (mean age 50.3 ±11.5 years) agreed to be enrolled as participants, providing 22 restorations, as several subjects presented more than one inlay FPD. One dentist placed all inlay FPDs using Ribbond as reinforcement and Tetric Ceram/Durafil or Charisma/Renamel composite combinations, according to manufacturer’s instructions. Two independent calibrated operators performed the evaluation, using modified USPHS criteria. Survival functions of restorations were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank test (α = 0.05). Results The majority of restorations received A or B scores. Four (18.2%) inlay FPDs fractured among the 22 evaluated. The mean estimate survival rate was 7 years (95% CI: 5.9 to 8.1), and the overall percentage of survival was 81.8%. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between composite combinations or tooth location considering all clinical aspects evaluated and survival functions. Conclusion Posterior fiber-reinforced fixed partial dentures exhibited acceptable clinical performance after a period up to 8 years. PMID:20835571

  12. [Tinea capitis in the military hospital Avicenna (Morocco): Review of 8 years (2006-2013)].

    PubMed

    El Mezouari, E; Hocar, O; Atarguine, H; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Moutaj, R

    2016-03-01

    Tinea capitis are due to fungal infection by dermatophytes. They are common in developing countries including Morocco. The objective of this study intended to describe the epidemiology, clinical and mycological profile of tinea capitis in Avicenna military hospital of Marrakech. This is a retrospective study over an 8-year period (from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2013). All patients targeted through this study presented to the laboratory with the suspicion of tinea capitis, they were under a detailed investigation with a careful mycological analysis; diagnosis of tinea capitis was established as the direct examination and/or the sampling proved positive. Of the 334 patients investigated, 216 had a TC with an overall prevalence of 64.67%. The average age was 6 years. The M/F sex ratio was 0.55. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis with 105 cases (63.26%), Trichophyton violaceum in 44 cases (26.51%), T. mentographytes in 8 cases (4.81%), M. langeronii in 5 cases (3.01%), T. verrucosum in 3 cases (1.8%) and T. schoenleinii in 1 case (0.61%). The contact with animals was found in 40% of cases and immunosupression in 3.47% of cases. We verify through our investigation that tineas predominate among school age children with a female predominance. The epidemiological profile of TC in our study is similar to that of other studies in Moroccan and Maghrebian countries investigations. The TC is relatively a mild infection but can be confused with other dermatoses not easy to diagnose. For this reason, their treatment necessitates a mycological analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum.

  14. Cardiac Function in 7-8-Year-Old Offspring of Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rijpert, Maarten; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Evers, Inge M.; de Valk, Harold W.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers (ODMs) are at risk of short-term and long-term complications, such as neonatal macrosomia (birth weight >90th percentile), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular morbidity in later life. However, no studies have been performed regarding cardiac outcome. In this study, we investigated cardiac dimensions and function in 30 ODMs at 7-8 years of age in relation to neonatal macrosomia and maternal glycemic control during pregnancy and compared these with those in a control group of 30 children of nondiabetic women. We found that cardiac dimensions and systolic and diastolic function parameters in ODMs were comparable with those in controls. Neonatal macrosomia and poorer maternal glycemic control during pregnancy were not related to worse cardiac outcome in ODM. We conclude that cardiac function at 7-8 years of age in offspring of women with type 1 diabetes is reassuring and comparable with that in controls. PMID:22144987

  15. The Innsbruck hand transplant program: update at 8 years after the first transplant.

    PubMed

    Brandacher, G; Ninkovic, M; Piza-Katzer, H; Gabl, M; Hussl, H; Rieger, M; Schocke, M; Egger, K; Loescher, W; Zelger, B; Ninkovic, M; Bonatti, H; Boesmueller, C; Mark, W; Margreiter, R; Schneeberger, S

    2009-03-01

    We herein provide an update on two bilateral hand and one bilateral forearm transplants with emphasis on immunosuppression (IS), function, morphology, and graft vascular changes at 8 years and 2 years after bilateral hand and 5 years after bilateral forearm transplantation. Between March 2000 and May 2006, three patients underwent bilateral hand or forearm transplantation at our institution. Following induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (n = 2) or alemtuzumab (n = 1), tacrolimus, prednisolone +/- mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were given for maintenance IS. Later, tacrolimus (n = 1) or MMF (n = 1) was replaced by sirolimus/everolimus for long-term IS. Clinical follow-ups with evaluation of hand function, skin biopsies, X-ray, ultrasound, angiography, computed tomography angiography, electrophysiological studies, and somatosensory evoked potentials were performed at regular intervals. Three, six, and three rejection episodes were successfully treated with bolused steroids, anti-CD25 or anti-CD52 antibodies. Subsequently, skin histology remained normal without any evidence of chronic rejection. Hand function continuously improved during the first 3 years and since then remained stable with minor improvements. Investigation of hand arteries revealed no signs of occlusion or stenosis. Motor and intrinsic hand muscle function continues to improve in all patients. Protective sensation was observed in all patients; however, discriminative sensation was only accomplished after hand but not forearm transplantation. No life-threatening adverse events occurred. Despite immunologic challenging postoperative courses, patients are now free of rejection with moderate levels of IS and good functional results. No signs indicating chronic rejection have been encountered.

  16. Habit tic nail deformity - a rare presentation in an 8 year old boy.

    PubMed

    El-Heis, S; Abadie, Al

    2016-11-15

    Habit tic nail deformity is a nail dystrophy resulting from habitual, repetitive trauma to the nail. It is usually acquired in adulthood, however, we report a case of habit tic nail deformity in an 8 year old boy. The diagnosis was made clinically with further history revealing that the boy repeatedly rubbed his thumbnails and pushed the cuticles. Emollient cream (Balneum®) was recommended twice daily and both the patient and his mother were educated on the behavioral nature of this condition. There was marked improvement at 6 months of treatment and further improvement at 12 months.We note that habit tic nail deformity is not exclusive to adults. Diagnosis can be made clinically. History and physical examination provide valuable clues and psychosocial links must be explored and addressed. Management is challenging and compliance with treatment is variable. Patient education, barrier methods, and behavioral therapy can be helpful in preventing further trauma to the nails.

  17. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Body Mass Index in Children Up To 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, epidemiologic studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are limited despite animal studies indicating PBDEs’ potential role as an obesogen. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal concentrations of BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and ΣPBDEs during pregnancy were associated with anthropometric measures in children aged 1–8 years. Methods: We examined 318 mother–child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort enrolled from 2003 through 2006 (Cincinnati, OH). Serum PBDEs were measured at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. We measured child height (1–8 years), weight (1–8 years), body mass index (BMI) (2–8 years), waist circumference (4–8 years), and body fat (8 years). To account for repeated measures, we used linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between maternal PBDEs and child anthropometric measures. Results: We found no statistically significant associations between prenatal PBDEs and height or weight z-score. A 10-fold increase in maternal serum BDE-153 was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = –0.36; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.13) at 2–8 years, smaller waist circumference (β = –1.81 cm; 95% CI: –3.13, –0.50) at 4–8 years, and lower percent body fat (β = –2.37%; 95% CI: –4.21, –0.53) at 8 years. A decrease in waist circumference at 4–8 years was observed with a 10-fold increase in BDE-100 (β = –1.50 cm; 95% CI: –2.93, –0.08) and ΣPBDEs (β = –1.57 cm; 95% CI: –3.11, –0.02). Conclusions: Reverse causality may have resulted in prenatal PBDEs, particularly BDE-153, and decreased BMI, waist circumference, and body fat. Citation: Vuong AM, Braun JM, Sjödin A, Webster GM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2016. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and body mass index in children up to 8 years of age

  18. Clinical Studies with Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    As indicated in previous chapters, epothilone research so far has delivered seven new chemical entities that have been advanced to clinical trials in humans (Fig. 1). However, the amount of clinical data publicly available at this time strongly varies between individual compounds, depending on their development stage, but also on the general publication policy of the developing company. The compound that has been most comprehensively characterized in the clinical literature is ixabepilone (BMS-247550), for which trial results have been described in a number of articles in peer-reviewed journals and which has been granted FDA approval for two clinical indications on Oct. 16, 2007. For all other compounds, most of the information on clinical trials is available only in abstract form. In all these cases it remains uncertain, whether the content of these abstracts fully reflects the content of the subsequent (poster or oral) presentations at the corresponding meeting; in fact, it seems likely that additional data will have been included in the actual meeting presentations that may not have been available at the time of abstract submission. As this is unknown to the author, such additional information cannot be considered in this chapter, which is solely based on information documented in accessible abstracts or journal publications. It should also be kept in mind that the interpretation of data from ongoing clinical trials or forward looking statements based on data from completed trials are always preliminary in character.

  19. Longevity of posterior resin composite restorations in permanent teeth in Public Dental Health Service: a prospective 8 years follow up.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan W V; Halken, Jette; Hallonsten, Anna-Lena; Höigaard, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    To investigate in a prospective follow up the longevity of posterior resin composites (RC) placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service. All posterior RC placed, in the PDHS clinics in the cities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg in Denmark between November 1998 and December 2002, in permanent teeth of children and adolescents up to 18 years, were evaluated in an up to 8 years follow up. The endpoint of each restoration was defined, when repair or replacement was performed. Survival analyses were performed between subgroups with Kaplan-Meier analysis. The individual contribution of different cofactors to predict the outcome was performed with Cox regression analysis. Totally 2881 children with a mean age of 13.7 years (5-18) received 4355 RC restorations placed by 115 dentists. Eighty percent were placed in molars and 49% were Class I. Two percent of restorations with base material and 1% of the restorations without base material showed postoperative sensitivity (n.s.). Replacements were made in 406 and repairs in 125 restorations. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a cumulative survival at 8 years of 84.3%, resulting in an annual failure rate of 2%. Lower patient age, more than one restoration per patient, placement of a base material and placement of RC: in molars, in cavities with high number of surfaces, in lower jaw teeth, showed all significant higher failure rates. Five variables had significant importance for the end point, replacement/repair of the resin composite restorations: age of patient, age of operator, jaw, tooth type and cavity size. Posterior RC restorations placed in children and adolescents in Public Dental Health clinics showed an acceptable durability with annual failure rates comparable with those of randomized controlled RC studies in adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty for severe Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease in patients older than 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chao; Xu, Rui-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The natural history of Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD) in children older than 8 years is usually poor without treatment. The treatment goal is to prevent deformity and incongruity of the hip by achieving a stable spherical femoral head in a deep, congruent, sharp-edged acetabulum, with a good range of hip movement at skeletal maturity. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty in LCPD can increase the coverage of the femoral head, benefiting the remodeling of the femoral head and acetabulum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lateral shelf acetabuloplasty for severe LCPD in patients older than 8 years. We evaluated 51 patients with severe LCPD who underwent shelf acetabuloplasty between 1994 and 2005. Clinical and radiological examinations were evaluated preoperatively and over a mean follow-up of 132.35 months (range 102–183 months). According to the Catterall classification, the LCPD was classified as grade II in 11 (21.6%) patients, grade III in 15 (29.4%), and grade IV in 25 (49.0%). According to the Herring classification, there were 12 (23.5%) patients in grade B, 24 (47.1%) in grade B/C, and 15 (29.4%) in grade C. The mean ages at the onset of signs and at surgery were 103.39 months and 110.78 months, respectively. By the end of follow-up, all patients had a normal passive range of hip movement without pain. The mean Iowa hip score was improved from 69.5 ± 7.28 to 91.6 ± 5.14 (P < 0.001). According to the Stulberg classification, 11 (21.6%) hips were classified as grade 1, 19 (37.3%) hips as grade 2, 14 (27.5%) hips as grade 3, and 7 (13.7%) hips as grade 4. The CE angle, Sharp angle, medial joint space ratio, epiphysis height ratio, and percentage of acetabular coverage were significantly improved by shelf acetabuloplasty (P < 0.001). We recommend shelf acetabuloplasty for severe LCPD in patients older than 8 years. The procedure yields a favorable clinical outcome and Stulberg outcome for the hip. Shelf

  1. Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins follow-up: from 18 months to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sherryl Scott; Boris, Neil W; Fuselier, Sarah-Hinshaw; Page, Timothy; Koren-Karie, Nina; Miron, Devi

    2006-03-01

    The best means for the diagnosis and treatment of reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood have not been established. Though some longitudinal data on institutionalized children is available, reports of maltreated young children who are followed over time and assessed with measures of attachment are lacking. This paper presents the clinical course of a set of maltreated fraternal twins who were assessed and treated from 19 months to 30 months of age and then seen in follow-up at 3 and 8 years of age. A summary of the early assessment and course is provided and findings from follow-up assessments of the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal functioning of each child is analysed. Follow-up measures, chosen to capture social-cognitive processing of these children from an attachment perspective, are highlighted. Finally, findings from the case are discussed from nosological and theoretical perspectives.

  2. Pediatric Absence Status Epilepticus: Prolonged Altered Mental Status in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Scott J; Wong, Melody; Haji, Tahereh; Sohail, Shahmir; Almubarak, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Absence status epilepticus is characterized by a prolonged state of impaired consciousness or altered sensorium with generalized electroencephalographic abnormalities. It is most commonly diagnosed in patients with known idiopathic generalized epilepsy; however, it may also be the first presentation of epilepsy. Due to the subtle and variable manifestations of the condition, absence status epilepticus may be underrecognized, particularly in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who experienced two episodes of prolonged altered mental status, subsequently determined to be absence status epilepticus with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with phantom absences. We discuss the classification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and electroencephalographic findings of pediatric absence status epilepticus and provide a practical overview for management.

  3. Pediatric Absence Status Epilepticus: Prolonged Altered Mental Status in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Almubarak, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Absence status epilepticus is characterized by a prolonged state of impaired consciousness or altered sensorium with generalized electroencephalographic abnormalities. It is most commonly diagnosed in patients with known idiopathic generalized epilepsy; however, it may also be the first presentation of epilepsy. Due to the subtle and variable manifestations of the condition, absence status epilepticus may be underrecognized, particularly in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who experienced two episodes of prolonged altered mental status, subsequently determined to be absence status epilepticus with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with phantom absences. We discuss the classification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and electroencephalographic findings of pediatric absence status epilepticus and provide a practical overview for management. PMID:28042487

  4. Periodontitis in patients with coronary artery disease: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Carin Starkhammar; Ravald, Nils; Pagonis, Christos; Richter, Arina

    2014-03-01

    This study examines whether preceding assessment of periodontal status in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) can predict future CAD endpoints (myocardial infarction, new revascularization procedure, or CAD-related death) during 8-year follow-up and whether the changes in periodontal status over time differ in patients with CAD compared with healthy controls. In 2003, periodontal status was examined in 161 patients with CAD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft due to significant stenosis in the coronary arteries and 162 controls without CAD. Eight years later, 126 patients with CAD (102 males and 24 females, mean age: 68 ± 8.9 years) and 121 controls (101 males and 20 females, mean age: 69 ± 9.0 years) were reexamined periodontally. A standard classification of periodontal disease in three groups (mild, moderate, and severe) was used. CAD endpoints during follow-up were obtained by review of medical records. CAD as cause of death was confirmed from the Swedish Cause of Death Register. No significant differences were found among patients with CAD, with or without CAD-related endpoints at 8-year follow-up, and severity of periodontitis at baseline (P = 0.7). CAD did not influence the incidence or severity of periodontitis. Significant differences were found at the final examination in periodontitis prevalence and severity (P = 0.001), number of teeth (P = 0.006), probing depth 4 to 6 mm (P = 0.016), bleeding on probing (P = 0.001), and radiographic bone level (P = 0.042) between CAD patients and controls, all in favor of controls. The study results did not show a significant association during 8 years among CAD endpoints and periodontal status at baseline. The progression of periodontitis was low in both groups, although the higher proportion of individuals with severe periodontitis among patients with CAD compared with controls remained unchanged over the 8-year follow-up. Further long

  5. An analysis of reference laboratory (send out) testing: an 8-year experience in a large academic medical center.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donna; Lewandrowski, Elizabeth; Lewandrowski, Kent

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of outside reference laboratories for selected laboratory testing is common in the United States. However, relatively little data exist in the literature describing the scope and impact of these services. In this study, we reviewed use of reference laboratory testing at the Massachusetts General Hospital, a large urban academic medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. A retrospective review of hospital and laboratory administrative records over an 8-year period from fiscal years (FY) 1995-2002. Over the 8 years studied, reference laboratory expenses increased 4.2-fold and totaled 12.4% of the total laboratory budget in FY 2002. Total reference laboratory test volume increased 4-fold to 68,328 tests in FY 2002 but represented only 1.06% of the total test volume in the hospital. The menu of reference laboratory tests comprised 946 tests (65.7% of the hospital test menu) compared to 494 (34.3%) of tests performed in house. The average unit cost of reference laboratory tests was essentially unchanged but was approximately 13 times greater than the average unit cost in the hospital laboratory. Much of the growth in reference laboratory cost can be attributed to the addition of new molecular, genetic, and microbiological assays. Four of the top 10 tests with the highest total cost in 2002 were molecular diagnostic tests that were recently added to the test menu. Reference laboratory testing comprises a major component of hospital clinical laboratory services. Although send out tests represent a small percentage of the total test volume, these services account for the majority of the hospital laboratory test menu and a disproportionate percentage of laboratory costs.

  6. The Stability of Extreme Response Style and Acquiescence Over 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Eunike; Lüdtke, Oliver; Zettler, Ingo; Böhnke, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the stability of extreme response style (ERS) and acquiescence response style (ARS) over a period of 8 years. ERS and ARS were measured with item sets drawn randomly from a large pool of items used in an ongoing German panel study. Latent-trait-state-occasion and latent-state models were applied to test the relationship between time-specific (state) response style behaviors and time-invariant trait components of response styles. The results show that across different random item samples, on average between 49% and 59% of the variance in the state response style factors was explained by the trait response style factors. This indicates that the systematic differences respondents show in their preferences for certain response categories are remarkably stable over a period of 8 years. The stability of ERS and ARS implies that it is important to consider response styles in the analysis of self-report data from polytomous rating scales, especially in longitudinal studies aimed at investigating stability in substantive traits. Furthermore, the stability of response styles raises the question in how far they might be considered trait-like latent variables themselves that could be of substantive interest. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Quality of spirometry in 5-to-8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Vargas-Domínguez, Claudia; García-Mujica, María Eugenia; Bautista-Bernal, Anaid; Salas-Escamilla, Isabel; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Although spirometry quality standards for children were proposed by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) in 2007, there is limited information on the percentage of children that fulfill these criteria during routine clinical testing, especially among 5-to-8-year-olds. to report the percentage of children that met the current 2007 ATS/ERS quality criteria; explore factors potentially associated with poor quality spirometry; and ascertain the repeatability of forced expiratory volume at 0.5 sec (FEV0.5 ), and at 1 sec (FEV1 ), as well as forced vital capacity (FVC). We evaluated the quality of spirometries without bronchodilator use performed at our laboratory in 2008 by 5-to-8-year-old children. FEV1 , FEV0.5 , FVC, back-extrapolated volume (BEV), forced expiratory time (FET), number of acceptable maneuvers, and repeatability, were computed and the percentage of tests that met the quality criteria standards was calculated. Based on our results, we propose a quality scoring system for spirometry for children that grades on a scale from A-to-F. Three hundred seventy-six spirometries were reviewed. Mean age was 6.7 years; (53% males); 68% fulfilled the 2005 and 2007 ATS/ERS quality standards; >90% reached a repeatability ≤150 and ≤100 ml, or 10%, in FVC or FEV1 ; 87.2% reached FET ≥3 sec; 88% had a BEV ≤80 ml. The 90 percentile repeatability was 120 ml for FVC and FEV1 . Quality improved with age. Our results support the proposal that a FET ≥3 sec, a BEV ≤80 ml, and repeatability in FEV1 and FVC ≤100 ml, or 10%, be taken into account as elements in quality control for spirometry in children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Learn about Clinical Studies

    MedlinePlus

    ... already available to each other. When a new product or approach is being studied, it is not usually known ... the development and marketing of new drugs, biological products, and medical devices. Sometimes, the safety and the effectiveness of the experimental approach or use may not be fully known at ...

  9. Chiropractic Care of an 8-Year-Old Girl With Nonorganic, Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Instebø, Eigil; Lystad, Reidar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of an 8-year-old girl with nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis. Clinical Features An 8-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic clinic with persistent nighttime bedwetting. The patient experienced enuresis, on average, 7 nights per week. The patient presented with no other comorbidities or complaints, such as low back or pelvic pain. Intervention and Outcomes Chiropractic treatment included high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation of the left sacroiliac joint over 3 visits. Follow-up at 3 months revealed only 3 subsequent episodes of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusion This patient reported the resolution of nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis after receiving a series of side-posture chiropractic manipulations of the left sacroiliac joint. PMID:27069432

  10. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at 8 Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    School-age language outcomes for children in a longitudinal, randomized controlled study of foster care were examined. Even though children had different placement status at 8 years, children originally placed in Romanian foster care had higher sentence repetition accuracy and longer sentences at 8 years than children who originally lived in severely depriving institutional care. A larger number of foster children also showed written word identification ability. Children placed in foster care by 25 months had significant advantages in nonword repetition and word identification than children placed later. Children placed by 15 months performed equivalently to typical community peers on these measures. Children’s expressive language at 42 months was correlated with their 8-year sentence repetition, nonword repetition, and word identification. The results speak to the continuing adverse effects of early poor institutional care on later language development and to the key importance of age of placement in a more optimal environment. PMID:22584071

  11. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  12. Ameloblastomas: Clinicopathological features from 70 cases diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology service in an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Filizzola, Andressa-Incerte; Bartholomeu-dos-Santos, Teresa-Cristina-Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are odontogenic tumors that can present some distinct clinicopathological profiles when comparing different populations and studies. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological features from a series of ameloblastomas diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology service in Brazil in an 8-year period. Study Design: The files were revised and all cases diagnosed as ameloblastomas in the period were retrieved. All hematoxylin and eosin stained histological slides were reviewed and all clinical and radiological information were obtained through a review of the laboratory forms. Data were descriptively analyzed and a comparison was performed with the different ameloblastomas subtypes. Results: Seventy ameloblastomas composed the final sample, including 57 (81%) solid/multicystic, 9 (13%) unicystic, 2 (3%) desmoplastic and 2 (3%) peripheral ameloblastomas. Mean age of the affected patients was in the forth decade of life and there was a slight male predominance. Most tumors presented as multilocular radiolucencies, were located in the posterior mandible and showed the follicular and plexiform histological patterns. There was no difference on the mean age of the patients affected by solid and unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusions: The present results showed that the clinicopathological features of the ameloblastomas included in this Brazilian sample were similar to the features described in most other worldwide populations. Key words:Ameloblastoma, solid, unicystic, review, epidemiology, histology. PMID:25129244

  13. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): an 8-year reevaluation of testicular function and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Potashnik, G.; Yanai-Inbar, I.

    1987-02-01

    The current study summarizes an 8-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance in 15 workers with dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Recovery of spermatogenesis was observed in four oligozoospermic and three azoospermic men whose plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was normal during the whole period. A marked increase in FSH and luteinizing hormone concentrations above the upper limit of normal was found in the azoospermic workers who did not recover. No significant changes in FSH concentrations were detected in both recovered and nonrecovered oligozoospermic men. Testosterone levels of all patients were normal at all times. Paternal exposure to DBCP was not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or spontaneous abortion.

  14. Enterobius vermicularis infection among children aged 1-8 years in a rural area in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, G; Minudin, Y M

    1994-09-01

    The infection rate and relationship of enterobiasis with socio-economic status were determined in children aged 1-8 years, living in a rural area in Malaysia. Of the 178 subjects 40.4% were infected with Enterobius vermicularis. The distribution of enterobiasis among these children were analyzed in relation to age groups and sex. The rate of infection was significantly higher in older children (5-7 years). The association of enterobiasis with other factors studied such as number of persons per house, household income per months and mother's employment status were not significant. The sensitivity of three successive days anal swabs compared to a single swab was found to be statistically significant.

  15. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  16. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  17. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  18. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  19. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.

    PubMed

    Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

    2013-09-01

    Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. © 2013.

  20. Effectiveness and relevance of MR acceptance testing: results of an 8 year audit.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, D W; Quest, R A

    2002-06-01

    The effectiveness and relevance of independent acceptance testing was assessed by means of an audit of acceptance procedures for 17 MRI systems, with field strengths in the range 0.5-1.5 T, acquired over 8 years. Signal-to-noise ratio and geometric linearity were found to be the image quality parameters most likely to fall below acceptable or expected standards. These received confirmed successful corrective action in 69% of instances. Non-uniformity, ghosting and poor fat suppression were the next most common non-compliant parameters, but yielded less satisfactory outcomes. Spatial resolution was not found to be a sensitive parameter in determining acceptability. 49% of all non-compliant parameters received verifiable corrective attention. A schedule of actual acceptance criteria is presented and shown to be reasonable. Parameter failure rates were shown not to have improved with time. A safety audit of 11 of the installations revealed the most common failings to be inadequate suite layout and poor use of signs. The mean number of safety issues per installation identified as requiring attention was 5, from a questionnaire of 100 points. A number of anecdotal errors and omissions are reported. The data support the importance of an appropriate acceptance procedure for new clinical MRI equipment and for the involvement of a suitably qualified safety adviser on the project team from the outset.

  1. Odontogenic infections: an 8-year epidemiologic analysis in a dental emergency outpatient care unit.

    PubMed

    Cachovan, Georg; Phark, Jin-Ho; Schön, Gerhard; Pohlenz, Philipp; Platzer, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze epidemiological patterns, clinical features and the management of odontogenic infections in patients undergoing treatment in a dental emergency outpatient care unit. A retrospective analysis of 58 161 case records of patients presenting to an emergency outpatient unit in Hamburg, Germany between 2000-2007 was performed. From this pool, patients with odontogenic infections were identified using an ICD-10 code, analyzing age, gender, medical co-morbidities, duration of pain, ratio of infiltrates/abscesses, affected teeth, management of infection and administered antibiotics. Of the 58 161 patients, 5357 (9.2%) were identified as having odontogenic infections, with 2689 (50.2%) inflammatory infiltrates and 2668 (49.8%) abscesses. Mean age was 34.8 ± 16.8 years. As the primary site of odontogenic infection, the most significantly affected teeth were the maxillary and mandibular first molars. Patients in age-group 20-29 years (25.1%) utilized the emergency care unit more frequently than other age groups. Clindamycin was the most frequently administered antibiotic. Early recognition, diagnosis and management of odontogenic infections are requisite for avoiding or minimizing the development of potential complications. Strategies and evidence-based protocols should be developed within the dental ambulatory care sector, advancing interdisciplinary cooperation between general dentists and oral or maxillofacial surgeons.

  2. Experimental studies: randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gjorgov, A N

    1998-01-01

    There are two major approaches to medical investigations: observational studies and experimental trials. The classical application of the experimental design to studies of human populations is the randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a new drug or treatment. A further application of the experimental studies is to the testing of hypotheses about the etiology of a disease, already tested and corroborated from various forms of observational studies. Ethical considerations and requirements for consent of the experimental subjects are of primary concern in the clinical trials, and those concerns set the first and final limits for implementing a trial. General moral principles in research with human and animal beings, defined by the "Nuremberg Code," deal with strict criteria for approval, endorsement and evaluation of a clinical trial.

  3. [Neurological manifestations of an osteoid osteoma located on the femoral neck in an 8-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Cabasson, S; Yvert, M; Pillet, P; Pédespan, J-M

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of an 8-year-old boy, suffering from nocturnal pain localized on the left groin and presenting as a limp over several months. Examination revealed diminished strength of the left leg, atrophy of the thigh and calf, and a diminished deep tendon reflex. The pain could be intense and the patient had found an analgesic position by pushing on his groin or by flexing his thigh on the pelvis. He could no longer run. He was unsuccessfully treated with carbamazepine and gabapentin. His evaluation included a negative abdominal ultrasound study and a normal spine and cerebral MRI. Electromyography was unremarkable. He finally underwent an MRI of the pelvis that revealed a hyperintense T2 signal of the left femoral neck; CT confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Radiofrequency ablation of the lesion was performed. His clinical state dramatically improved after the procedure. His walk is normal, without any limping. Deep tendon reflexes are normal, and he only presents residual pain. Physicians should be aware that osteoid osteoma may take the form of a slowly evolving neuropathy. We review the literature on this underestimated condition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Effects of an 8-year childhood physical activity intervention on musculoskeletal gains and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Cöster, Marcus E; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Caroline; Dencker, Magnus; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) in childhood is associated with musculoskeletal benefits while the effect on fracture risk is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether extension of a PA intervention leads to improvement in musculoskeletal traits with an accompanied reduced fracture risk. We hypothesized that the PA program would have beneficial effects in both sexes, but more so in girls since they tend to be less physically active than boys during this time frame. In one elementary school we increased physical education (PE) from 60 to 200min per school week and followed 65 girls and 93 boys from a mean age of 7years until a mean age of 15years. Thirty-nine girls and 37 boys in three other schools continued with 60min of PE per week during the same years and served as controls. We measured bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone area annually with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and leg muscle strength with a computerized dynamometer. In 3534 children within the same PE program (1339 in the intervention and 2195 in the control group) we registered incident fractures during the 8-year study period and estimated annual sex-specific fracture incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Girls in the intervention group annually gained more total body less head aBMD, spine aBMD (p<0.01), femoral neck BMC (p<0.05), lumbar vertebrae size (p<0.05), and knee flexion strength (p<0.05) than girls in the control cohort. In boys we found no group differences. There was an inverse correlation between number of years with extra PE and the annual IRR of sustaining fractures in both girls (r=-0.90 (95% CI -0.98 to -0.51); p<0.001) and boys (r=-0.74 (95% CI -0.94 to -0.02); p<0.05). In this 8-year pediatric school-based moderate exercise intervention program there is an inverse correlation in both sexes between annual IRR and each additional year of extra PA. A sub-cohort of girls in the intervention group had greater gains in bone mass, bone size

  5. Adverse events during monitored anesthesia care for GI endoscopy: an 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Massimo; Fanti, Lorella; Gemma, Marco; Pasculli, Nicola; Beretta, Luigi; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The importance of sedation during endoscopy is well established. There is no consensus about the best techniques for sedation, which specialist should perform it, and in which location. To provide data on the epidemiology of adverse events during sedation for endoscopy. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database. Endoscopy unit of a university hospital. A total of 17,999 procedures performed over 8 years. Sedation for GI endoscopy. We recorded the following information: sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, American Society of Anesthesiologists and Mallampati scores, duration of the procedure, type of sedative drug administered, whether the procedure was performed emergently, and endoscopic interventions during the maneuver. Adverse events were defined as occurrences that warranted intervention and were classified as hypotension, desaturation, bradycardia, hypertension, arrhythmia, aspiration, respiratory depression, vomiting, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, angina, hypoglycemia, and/or allergic reaction. Deep sedation with intravenous propofol target controlled infusion pump was the most frequently used means of administering sedation. Adverse events were rare in both the adult (4.5%) and pediatric (2.6%) populations. Six complications occurred in more than 0.1% of adult cases: arterial hypotension, desaturation, bradycardia, arterial hypertension, arrhythmia, and aspiration. Only bradycardia (2.1%) and hypotension (0.44%) occurred in children. Three adult patients (0.017%) died, and no pediatric patients died. Some predictive models for the occurrence of complications are proposed. Retrospective analysis, single-center data collection. Deep sedation during endoscopic procedures is safe in both adults and children. Our data may be useful for the future planning of new clinical strategies in this setting. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and Functional Reorganization of the Corpus Callosum between the Age of 6 and 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luders, Eileen; Specht, Karsten; Ofte, Sonja H.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of an efficient exchange of information between the cerebral hemispheres is of crucial importance in the developing functionally lateralized brain. The corpus callosum, the major connection between the cerebral hemispheres, grows constantly throughout childhood and adolescence. However, behavioral studies suggest the existence of a critical time period for callosal functional development starting around the age of 6 years. In the present longitudinal study, examining a cohort of 20 children at the age of 6 and 8 years, we assessed the relationship between structural and functional callosal development during this time period. The structural development was quantified by calculating the increase in callosal thickness using a shape-based computational analysis of the mid-sagittal corpus callosum as obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. The functional development was assessed with a speech discrimination task based on the dichotic presentation of consonant–vowel syllables. The statistical analysis revealed that children whose callosal isthmus increased in thickness over the course of 2 years showed a decrease in interhemispheric information transfer. However, children exhibiting a decrease in isthmus thickness revealed an increase in information transfer. These results might indicate a refinement process of the callosal connections to optimize the neuronal communication between the developing cerebral hemispheres. PMID:20847151

  7. Animal Trichinella infection in Romania: geographical heterogeneity for the last 8 years.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Durand, B; Stoichici, A; Gherman, C; Stefan, N; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2009-02-23

    Previous studies in southeastern Europe reported a high incidence of human trichinellosis and a high prevalence of Trichinella infection in animals in countries like Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Serbia. The aim of this study was, using routine Trichinella test data in pig and game animals, to investigate the extent of Trichinella infection in slaughtered animals in Romania, over the period of 1997-2004, and to identify possible differences in prevalence among the various regions of Romania. Trichinella infection data were obtained from trichinelloscopic examinations of domestic (backyard and industrial reared pigs) and game species (wild boar and bears). A marked difference between Transylvania and other counties of Romania, observed for human trichinellosis, was taken into account when analyzing Trichinella epidemiological data. A cumulative prevalence of 8 cases/10(4) animals tested for pigs, 9 cases/10(3) animals tested for wild boars, and 13.1 cases/10(2) animals tested for bears was obtained for the 8 years period. Analysis of animal prevalence data demonstrated a geographical heterogeneity: whereas Trichinella prevalence in pigs is much lower in Transylvania than in the other counties, Trichinella prevalence in game animals is similar for the different regions. This observation suggests that, in Romania, rather than the levels of the parasite circulating in domestic and game animals, it was changes in the social and political structure of Romania in the 1990s, combined with inadequate meat inspection practices that were the main contributors to these geographic variations.

  8. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  9. Dieting awareness and low self-worth: related issues in 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Hill, A J; Pallin, V

    1998-12-01

    Since weight concerns and dieting are apparent before adolescence, this study examined the factors predictive of early dieting awareness. It was hypothesized that early dieting awareness would be negatively associated with perceived self-worth, particularly in girls. One hundred seventy six 8-year-old children (86 girls, 90 boys) completed assessments of body shape preference, body and self-esteem, dieting awareness, and body weight and height. Children were more likely to advise a fictitious character, "Mary-Jane," to diet than they were to report dieting themselves. However, self-endorsed dieting was more strongly correlated with negative self-perception, especially in girls. Significant predictors of dieting awareness in girls included global self-worth (negatively), body mass index (BMI), and frequency of mother dieting (positively). This study supports the view that young girls are drawn to weight control to improve their self-worth, and that mothers are influential in this regard. This early pattern of association is of questionable acceptability.

  10. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2009-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories. PMID:20121876

  11. Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) at Age 8 Years: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria B.; Duffy, Frank H.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports the effects of NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) at 8 years of age for a randomized controlled trial of 38 very early born (≤29 weeks postmenstrual age), high-risk preterm infants. It was hypothesized that the experimental group at school age in comparison with the control group would perform significantly better neuropsychologically and neuroelectrophysiologically. Twenty-two (11 control, 11 experimental) children of the original 38 (18 control, 20 experimental) participants were studied at school age with a detailed neuropsychological battery and with EEG spectral coherence measures. Results indicated significantly better right hemisphere and frontal lobe function in the experimental group than the control group, both neuropsychologically and neurophysiologically. Neurobehavioral and physiological results in the newborn period successfully predicted the beneficial brain function effects at age 8 years. Results support the conclusion that the NIDCAP intervention has lasting effects into school age. PMID:19448128

  12. Diagnosis of Class III malocclusion in 7- to 8-year-old children--a 3D evaluation.

    PubMed

    Krneta, Bojana; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize facial and jaw morphology of children with Class III malocclusion in early mixed dentition. This study was conducted on 7- to 8-year-old Caucasian children, 48 children with Class III malocclusion and 91 children with normal occlusion. Surface images of faces and study casts were obtained using laser scanning. Two average facial templates were constructed for the males and females in the control group. The facial images were superimposed on the corresponding average templates. Facial parameters, palatal volumes, and gingival surface areas were measured and group differences were quantified. The analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation of the measured parameters. The results revealed shorter lower face height (P < 0.001), concave facial profile (P < 0.001), retruded maxilla (P < 0.001), protruded mandible (P < 0.001), retrusive mid-face restricted area (P < 0.001), reduced gingival surface area of the maxilla (P = 0.013), and reduced maxilla/mandible gingival surface area ratio (P < 0.001) in the Class III group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in upper face height, restricted areas of the upper and lower face, palatal volume, and gingival surface area of the mandible (P > 0.05). Regardless of the fact that the prevalence of Class III malocclusion is rather small, the sample size could be larger. Class III subjects show clinically relevant facial and jaws characteristics in pre-pubertal growth period. A comprehensive diagnosis should include transverse dimension analysis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Preventing Internalizing Problems in 6–8 Year Old Children: A Universal School-Based Program

    PubMed Central

    Pophillat, Eugenie; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Nesa, Monique; Davis, Melissa C.; Baughman, Natalie; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism Program: Feelings and Friends (AOP-FF) is a 10 week, universal mental health promotion program based on social/emotional and cognitive and behavioral strategies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based program in preventing and reducing internalizing problems in 6–8 year olds (Years 1–3 in Australia). Year 1–3 students from a low SES primary school (N = 206) were randomly assigned in classes to either an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline and post-test. Results showed a significant (p = 0.009) and small to moderate (partial eta-squared = 0.034) pre-post decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms for the intervention group, in conjunction with a non-significant (p = 0.708) and negligible (partial eta-squared = 0.001) pre-post increase for the control group. A larger randomized controlled trial assessing longer term effects is needed. In addition the program needs to be simplified for year 1–2 students with a separate more developmentally appropriate program for year 3 students. PMID:28018267

  14. Benefit of the Vibrant Soundbridge device in patients implanted for 5 to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Mosnier, Isabelle; Sterkers, Olivier; Bouccara, Didier; Labassi, Samia; Bebear, Jean-Pierre; Bordure, Philippe; Dubreuil, Christian; Dumon, Thibaud; Frachet, Bruno; Fraysse, Bernard; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Magnan, Jacques; Martin, Christian; Meyer, Bernard; Mondain, Michel; Portmann, Didier; Robier, Alain; Schmerber, Sébastien; Thomassin, Jean-Marc; Truy, Eric; Uziel, Alain; Vanecloo, François-Michel; Vincent, Christophe; Ferrary, Evelyne

    2008-04-01

    To assess audiological performance, satisfaction rate, and side effects of 100 patients who have been using the middle ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) for 5 to 8 yr when compared with data collected from 3 to 18 mo postsurgery. Audiological testing and subjective evaluation using self-assessment scales were performed in 77 out of the 100 patients using the VSB for 5 to 8 years. The results were compared to data collected 3 months (audiological testing) and 18 months (self-assessment scales) after surgery. Twenty-three patients have not been evaluated for different reported reasons. Pure-tone hearing thresholds decreased similarly in both implanted and contralateral ears. The satisfaction ratings and the functional gain provided by the VSB remained stable. Speech comprehension in quiet conditions without the VSB decreased from 56 to 37% in 5 to 8 yr, but an 81% score was achieved with the VSB. This study demonstrates that the performance of the VSB does not deteriorate for more than 5 yr, without adverse effect. These results confirm the safety and the effectiveness of the VSB with a long-term follow-up.

  15. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain.

  16. 8-year field comparison of naturally seeded to planted container `pinus taeda`, with and without release

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.; Barnett, J.P.

    1996-01-09

    A field study compared genetically improved, container loblolly pines (Pinus taedo L.) with naturally seeded loblolly pines through eight growing seasons on a cutover site in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Measurement pines on 6 of 12 plots were released from woody and herbaceous competition within a 61-cm radius of each tree stem. On natural pine plots, only 1st-year pine seedlings were selected for measurement based on quality standards and their spacing. Woody competition was controlled by hand cutting for 5 consecutive years, and herbaceous competition was controlled with herbicides for 4 consecutive years. Release treatments increased 8-year survival by 50% for natural pines and by 35% for planted pines. Greater gains (343-391%) in individual tree volumes were achieved within regeneration techniques, as a result of release, than were achieved with the two regeneration techniques. In addition, stand volume gains of 647% and 910% were achieved by planted and natural pines, respectively, as a result of release. Eight years after field establishment, stand volume index averaged 46% higher on planted plots than on natural plots. Degree of overtopping was a better predictor of pine performance than live-crown ratio.

  17. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Observations from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bekki, S.; Pereira, N.; Cessateur, G.; Marchand, M.; Thiéblemont, R.; Foujols, T.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its UV variability, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  18. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Dietary Behaviors in Picture Book Fiction for 4- to 8-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Matvienko, Oksana

    2016-10-01

    Picture books may facilitate parents' efforts to decrease pickiness and other undesirable food habits in children. This study conducted a content analysis of dietary behaviors and feeding strategies featured in fictional picture books compared with those discussed in the research literature. Several databases were searched for fictional picture books about dietary behavior, published between 2000 and 2016, accessible in the US, available in print format, and designated for 4- to 8-year-olds. Messages about dietary behavior in picture book fiction. Stories were systematically coded using holistic, data-driven, and evaluation coding methods. The final set of codes was examined for themes and patterns. Of the 104 books, 50% featured a specific eating behavior, 21% lifestyle/eating patterns, 20% food-related sensations and emotions, and 9% table manners. Books about dietary behaviors are abundant but the topic coverage is unbalanced. Problem behaviors portrayed in books overlap those discussed in the research literature. However, problem-solving strategies and actions do not align with those endorsed by nutrition professionals. Messages vary in their complexity (in terms of their plot and/or language), ranging from clear and direct to vague, sophisticated, unresolved, conflicting, or controversial. Recommendations for practitioners are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  1. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used.

  2. Surgical management and follow-up of lateral skull base tumors: An 8-year review

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Hong-Yu; Wang, Yu-Fan; Yang, Hui-Jun; Shen, Shi-Yue; Wang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to describe the diagnostic evaluation of, and surgical approaches to, lateral skull base tumors (LSBTs). The study is a retrospective review of 21 patients diagnosed with tumors that involve lateral skull base (8 with malignant diseases and 13 with benign lesions) who were surgically treated during a 8-year period. The transparotid-transmandibular (38%) was the most commonly performed surgical procedure, followed by the transmandibular (24%), the transmaxillary (24%), the transcervical approach (10%) and the combined approach (4%). The surgical procedures were uneventful and there were no postoperative mortalities. Complications were encountered in 12 cases, and morbidity was not remarkable during the perioperative stages. After an average follow-up of 46 months, only 1 of 14 patients with benign diseases had a recurrence following the resection of a pleomorphic adenoma. Of 7 patients with malignant tumors, 5 are alive with no evidence of disease. The majority of the benign lateral skull base tumors can be removed surgically with a low rate of complications and recurrence. However, malignant neoplasms carry a poor prognosis and a low rate of disease-free survival. PMID:28357097

  3. Copy and recall performance of 6-8-year-old children after standard vs. Step-by-step administration of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Virginia; Jakobson, Lorna S; Knight, Rachel M; Robertson, Barbara

    2005-04-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF; Rey 1941; Osterrieth, 1944) is frequently used in the neuropsychological assessment of children and adults. The present study was designed, in part, to examine the impact of providing organizational scaffolding to young children being tested with the ROCF. To this end, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children were administered the test either in the standard fashion, or using a format in which the 18 key elements of the figure were introduced sequentially. Participants included 132 children who were randomly assigned to the standard or step-by-step administration groups. Significantly higher accuracy and organization scores for both copy and recall were seen with the step-by-step format than with the standard format, even though children in the step-by-step condition took less time to execute their drawings. Retention of encoded information was not affected by age or testing format. The fact that 6-year-olds in the step-by-step condition performed as well as, or better than, 8-year-olds in the standard condition suggests that the primary problem young children experience with the ROCF lies with organizational strategy formation. Advantages of using the Step-by-step ROCF in clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Response inhibition and adaptations to response conflict in 6- to 8-year-old children: evidence from the Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Stella, Giacomo; Rubichi, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown that the Simon effect, which is the advantage of spatial correspondence between stimulus and response locations when the stimulus location is task-irrelevant, decreases with increasing response times and is affected by preceding-trial correspondence. These modulations suggest the existence of control mechanisms that adapt our behavior to current goals by responding to the conflict experienced within a trial and by preventing the recurrence of a conflict in the subsequent trial. The aim of the present study was to assess whether these control mechanisms, which are well consolidated in adults and in children older than 8 years of age, are present in children between 6 and 8 years old. To this end, we tested 32 first-grade (6-7 years) and 34 second-grade (7-8 years) children on a Simon task in which correspondence sequence was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. The Simon effect was larger for first- than for second-graders and decreased with increasing response times only in second-graders. Crucially, for both groups, the effect was reduced when the preceding trial was noncorresponding, and the reductions were comparable for the two groups, indicating that trial-by-trial control mechanisms are already present in first-grade children and may be dissociated from within-trial control adjustments.

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004). Conclusions The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  6. Educational Attainment of High School Dropouts 8 Years Later. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, David; Kelly, Dana; Princiotta, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This issue brief examines the educational outcomes of students who were classified as high school dropouts 8 years after most of their 1988 cohort of 8th graders would have completed high school. Some students who drop out return a short time later to earn a diploma, some may pursue an alternative credential such as a General Educational…

  7. Genome Sequences of Two Brucella suis Strains Isolated from the Same Patient, 8 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcus Vinicius Canário; Govil Batra, Dhwani; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas Scott; Frace, Michael; Xia, Fangfang; Azevedo, Vasco; Tiller, Rebekah; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella suis is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that has pigs as its preferred host, but it can also infect humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two B. suis strains that were isolated from the same patient, 8 years apart. PMID:28254974

  8. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  9. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  10. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  11. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  12. Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Tait, Robert J; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen

    2011-12-01

      To evaluate the relationship between change in cannabis use and changed cognitive performance over 8 years.   We used survey methodology with a cohort design.   An Australian community sample aged 20-24 years at baseline.   We assessed cognitive performance with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) (immediate and delayed), Spot-the-Word test (STW), Symbol Digit Modality test (SDMT) and Digit Backwards (DB). Groups of cannabis users were defined from self-reports across three waves as: 'never' (n= 420) 'remain light' (n= 71), 'former light' (n= 231), 'remain heavy' (n= 60), 'former heavy' (n= 60) and 'always former' (since start of study) (n= 657). Planned contrasts within mixed model repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for longitudinal analysis with an adjusted alpha of 0.01.   Data were obtained from 2404 participants with 1978 (82.3%) completing wave 3. At baseline there were significant differences between cannabis groups on CVLT (immediate and delayed) and SDMT. However, after controlling for education, gender, gender × group and gender × wave, there were no significant between-group differences and only CVLT immediate recall reached adjusted statistically significant longitudinal change associated with changed cannabis use (group × wave P= 0.007). Specifically, former heavy users improved their performance relative to remaining heavy users (estimated marginal means: former heavy 6.1-7.5: remain heavy 6.4-6.6).   Cessation of cannabis use appears to be associated with an improvement in capacity for recall of information that has just been learned. No other measures of cognitive performance were related to cannabis after controlling for confounds. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?

    PubMed

    Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Grioni, S; Viola, G C V; Donato, F; Feretti, D; Festa, A; Bonizzoni, S; Bonetti, A; Monarca, S; Villarini, M; Levorato, S; Carducci, A; Verani, M; Casini, B; De Donno, A; Grassi, T; Bagordo, F; Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bonetta, Sa; Gelatti, U

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤ 3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥ 6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socio-economic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.

  14. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (M<4.5) are realized in the close vicinity of the salt deposit. Local seismological network (LSN) is deployed in the region to monitor the local seismicity. It consists of 6 three component digital stations. A real-time data transfer from LSN stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) is implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  15. Effect of audiovisual eyeglasses during local anesthesia injections in 5- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Asvanund, Yuwadee; Mitrakul, Kemthong; Juhong, Ratana-on; Arunakul, Malee

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) eyeglasses on pain reduction during local anesthetic injection in children who are 5 to 8 years old. Forty-nine healthy, cooperative children with bilateral carious molars requiring treatment under local anesthesia were recruited in this crossover study. Treatments were done in two visits, 1 to 4 weeks apart. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups according to the sequence of AV eyeglasses used. Group I received the injection without wearing AV eyeglasses in the first visit and then wearing AV eyeglasses in a second visit. Group II was vice versa. Self-reporting pain using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), face, legs, activity, crying, and consolability scale (FLACC), and heart rate (HR), were measured to assess the injection pain. No significant differences in sex (P = .132) and treatment arch (P = .779) were observed between the two groups using a chi-square test at P < .05. There were no significant differences in age (P = .341, t test at P ≤ .05) and previous dental experience (P = .19, Fisher's exact test at P ≤ .05) between the two groups. Pain scores were lower when the patients had their injection while wearing AV eyeglasses in both groups. No subject reported a maximum score on the pain rating scale when wearing AV eyeglasses, while 14% of the subjects reported so when not wearing the eyeglasses. AV eyeglasses significantly reduced FLACC scores (P = .03) and HR (P = .005) when compared with not wearing the eyeglasses (Mann-Whitney U test at P ≤ .05). AV eyeglasses successfully reduced pain, physical distress, and HR during local anesthesia injection.

  16. Trends of mortality due to septicemia in Greece: an 8-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Korbila, Ioanna P; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Manousou, Kyriaki; Leontiou, Lili; Tansarli, Giannoula S

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are among the major causes of death worldwide. We evaluated the trends of mortality due to septicemia in Greece and compared it with mortality due to other infections. Data on mortality stratified by cause of death during 2003-2010 was obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority. Deaths caused by infectious diseases were grouped by site of infection and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. 45,451 deaths due to infections were recorded in Greece during the 8-year period of time, among which 12.2% were due to septicemia, 69.7% pneumonia, 1.5% pulmonary tuberculosis, 0.2% influenza, 0.5% other infections of the respiratory tract, 7.9% intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), 2.5% urinary tract infections (UTIs), 2.2% endocarditis or pericarditis or myocarditis, 1.6% hepatitis, 1% infections of the central nervous system, and 0.7% other infections. A percentage of 99.4% of deaths due to septicemia were caused by bacteria that were not reported on the death certificate (noted as indeterminate septicemia). More deaths due to indeterminate septicemia were observed during 2007-2010 compared to 2003-2006 (3,558 versus 1,966; p<0.05). Despite the limitations related to the quality of death certificates, this study shows that the mortality rate due to septicemia has almost doubled after 2007 in Greece. Proportionally, septicemia accounted for a greater increase in the mortality rate within the infectious causes of death for the same period of time. The emergence of resistance could partially explain this alarming phenomenon. Therefore, stricter infection control measures should be urgently applied in all Greek healthcare facilities.

  17. Diagnostic Performance of MR-guided Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: 8 Years of Experience.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Romuald; Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Uzan, Catherine; Canale, Sandra; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated increased sensitivity over conventional imaging in identifying and characterizing in situ and invasive, multifocal, and multicentric disease. A histologic diagnosis is required for any enhancing lesion displaying suspicious features, especially in the presence of lower and often variable reported specificity values. Breast MRI findings occult on mammography and ultrasound should undergo an MR-guided biopsy. We retrospectively evaluate our 8 years' experience with this procedure. Our study included 259 lesions in 255 consecutive patients referred for MR-guided breast biopsy. MRI screening of women at a high risk for developing breast cancer accounted for 84 lesions, 54 lesions were detected on MRI staging for multifocal and multicentric disease, and 115 were incidental findings or lesions that presented diagnosis related issues on conventional imaging. Six procedures were cancelled due to lack of visualization. MR-guided breast biopsy was performed for 100 mass and 153 nonmass enhancements. Pathology results were classified into benign (113 lesions), high risk (47 lesions), and malignant (40 ductal carcinoma in situ, 38 invasive ductal carcinoma, 15 invasive lobular carcinoma). Subsequent surgery for high risk and malignant findings revealed an underestimation rate of 34% (16/47) for high risk lesions and of 7.5% for ductal carcinoma in situ (3/40). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated at 43.1% (33.3% for high-risk women, 70.3% for cancer staging, and 37.4% for incidental/undetermined lesions). The PPV was higher for mass (57%) versus nonmass enhancements (34%). MR-guided breast biopsy proved to be a reliable procedure for the diagnosis and management of occult breast MRI findings, or lesions that preclude biopsy under conventional guidance. The PPV displayed significant variation between patient subgroups, correlating higher values with a higher associated breast cancer prevalence.

  18. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Yuan, Wei; Russell, James M.; Hervig, M. E.; Nakamura, Takuji

    2016-07-01

    The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite provides an opportunity to study the longitudinal variation in polar mesospheric cloud (PMC). We examined the longitudinal variation in PMC albedo using 8 years (2007-2014) of observations from the CIPS instrument. The results show that the PMC albedo in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), especially in the latitude band of 80°S-85°S, is persistently low ( 65% relative to the rest of the hemisphere) within 60°W to 150°W longitude. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), however, PMC albedo is found to be relatively zonally asymmetry. Harmonic analyses show that the persistent longitudinal variation in the SH PMC albedo is due to zonal wave numbers 1 through 4 (WN1-WN4) processes with minima in the longitude range of 60°W-150°W. The influence of temperature and H2O on the longitudinal variation of the PMC albedo is discussed based on results obtained using a simple 0-D PMC model and temperature from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and H2O from MLS. The modeled region of low ice mass in the SH is generally consistent with that of low PMC albedo seen in CIPS. Tidal analyses using the SABER temperatures indicate that the nonmigrating semidiurnal tides with modes of S0, W1, and E1 might be the main drivers of the persistent longitudinal variations of PMC albedo in the SH. Nonmigrating tides are much weaker in the NH and consistent with the observed lack of longitudinal variability in PMC albedo.

  20. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in 'missing' or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a

  1. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodorakis, Michael J; Melnik, Bodo C; Pappas, Apostolos; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-10-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, integrity and aging through multiple pathways and cofactors implicated in skin biology. The onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, especially acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss, have been suggested to be critically affected by nutrition patterns and habits. The relationship between acne and diet, predominantly the role of high glycemic load diets and dairy consumption have recently gained increased interest. Abnormal nutritional conditions such as obesity or malnutrition often manifest themselves by specific cutaneous features and altered skin function. Skin photoprotection, rendered by various nutrients, is well documented and appropriate nutritional supplementation has been shown to exert beneficial effects upon impaired skin integrity, restore its appearance and promote skin health. It is our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the most recent information on the role of nutrition for common skin diseases and regulation of skin biology. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology have been reviewed using the MedLine literature source and the terms "diet" or "nutrition" and "skin". The data on the relationship between nutrition and skin are until now controversial and much more work is needed to be done to clarify possible etiological correlations.

  2. Whole blood, serum, and saliva lead concentrations in 6- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Costa de Almeida, Glauce Regina; de Freitas Tavares, Cristiane Fernandes; de Souza, Ana Maria; Sampaio de Sousa, Tiago; Rodrigues Funayama, Carolina Araújo; Barbosa, Fernando; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda

    2010-03-01

    With increasing evidence of adverse health effects of lower lead levels (below 10microg/dL in whole blood), studies on novel internal dose biomarkers are needed. This study aimed at: (1) assessing the lead exposure by measuring this element in whole blood (Pb-blood), serum (Pb-serum), and 3 different types of saliva: whole (Pb-whole-saliva), submandibular/sublingual (Pb-sub-saliva) and parotid saliva (Pb-parotid-saliva); (2) correlating Pb-blood with Pb-serum; and (3) relating Pb-blood and Pb-serum with the lead found in the different salivas. The study population included 444 children aged 6 to 8 years attending 4 government schools in the district of Campos Eliseos, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Whole blood, serum, parotid, submandibular/sublingual ("sub-saliva"), and whole saliva were collected in trace element-free tubes. Lead concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median Pb-blood and Pb-serum were 2.1microg/dL and 0.4microg/L, respectively. Ten percent of the children had Pb-blood between 4.0 and 9.4microg/dL. Boys showed higher Pb-blood than girls (2.3 vs. 2.0microg/dL, p<0.0003). Lead concentrations in whole, sub, and parotid saliva were 1.7, 1.4, and 1.3microg/L, respectively. No significant correlations were found between Pb-blood and Pb-serum, between Pb-blood and lead in the 3 different salivas, or between Pb-serum and Pb-whole-saliva or Pb-sub-saliva. However, there was a weak statistically significant correlation between Pb-serum and Pb-parotid-saliva. In conclusion, the mean Pb-blood concentration was 2.4microg/dL, with 10% of the children exhibiting Pb-blood between 4.0 and 9.4microg/dL. Boys presented higher Pb-blood. Results suggest that Pb-blood has no correlation with Pb-serum or lead in the 3 different salivas collected here. A weak but statistically significant correlation between Pb-serum and Pb-parotid-saliva was found. Our results also point to the need for carrying out more

  3. [Clinical studies in developing countries].

    PubMed

    van den Munkhof, Hanna E

    2013-01-01

    In general, clinical trials in developing countries are met with resistance because the people are particularly vulnerable and medical assistance is often unaffordable. The prospect of free medication can then lead to exploitation since the local population can be persuaded to participate in trials that would never be allowed in Western countries due to ethical concerns. Placebo-controlled research that tests cheaper alternatives for treatments already registered could greatly improve the situation in developing countries, however. Expensive registered treatments are often unavailable in these countries. Therefore, I call for allowing such studies when the registered treatment is locally unavailable. This should be based on the four most important principles of medical ethics: the duty to help patients, avoid harm, justice and respect for autonomy. On the condition, however, that the population in developing countries benefits in the long term.

  4. Choroidal neovascularisation as an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of cat-scratch disease in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latanza, L; Viscogliosi, F; Solimeo, A; Calabrò, F; De Angelis, V; De Rosa, P

    2015-10-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that appeared during the primary Bartonella henselae infection in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl was referred to our clinic complaining of a central scotoma in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral disc oedema and in the right eye neuroretinitis with macular star and CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The optical coherence tomography revealed the presence of macular serous retinal detachment. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgM and IgG titres for B. henselae. Cat-scratch disease was diagnosed, and an 8-week treatment with azithromycin was initiated. In addition, an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed in the right eye to treat the CNV. A month later, we decided to administer a systemic antibiotic again for an additional 5 months, due to the persistence of papillitis. Cat-scratch disease should be considered among the different causes of inflammatory CNV secondary to infectious uveitis. Our case was the first described in the literature in which a CNV appeared during the primary infection and not as a later complication. The combination of systemic antibiotic treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy was a successful choice because it allowed us to obtain the complete resolution of neuroretinitis, associated with the scarring of the choroidal neovascular membrane, with a final visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes.

  5. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  6. Frequency measurement of vowel formants produced by Brazilian children aged between 4 and 8 years.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Flávia; Viegas, Danieli; Baeck, Heidi Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    To investigate frequency measurement of the first three formants of the seven oral Brazilian Portuguese vowels of healthy children aged 4-8 years. Two hundred seven children of both genders were selected by oral expression screening and perceptive-auditory analysis. They were separated into four age groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4) and by gender. The voice signals were obtained from key sentence utterance and segments of the seven Brazilian Portuguese oral vowels in tonic position used to estimate formant frequency measurement. Software Praat was used to for processing the recordings. Findings were presented by mean values of each of the investigated parameters. A rate of 61.90% of statistically significant differences between genders was found, and when analyzing the age groups and genders, we observed that 65 of the 84 items studied (seven vowels × three formant frequencies × four groups) had higher frequencies of formants for girls. There was a decrease in the frequencies values of the first three formants with age. The results recommended grouping of G1 and G2, and they showed a clear difference between this new formed group and G4. In the age groups of 5-year old to 6 years 11 months (G2 and G3) and 6-year old to 7 years 11 months (G3 and G4), there were statistically significant changes that were random for parameter and vowel. There was a decrease in the frequencies values of the first three formants with age. Formant frequencies showed a tendency to differentiate genders and their absolute values were in general higher in girls. Age increases showed decreases in formant frequencies. Tests for statistical differences led to grouping of G1 and G2 and a clear difference between this new formed group and G4. The comparison between G2 and G3 and G3 and G4 showed random changes. The changes during this age period (5-year old to 7 years 11 months) were attributed to a transition stage of acoustic measurements in children. As formant frequencies vary according to

  7. Awake Tracheal Intubation in an 8-Year-Old Girl with McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bohman, J Kyle; Segura, Leal

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome presented for resection of a very large fibrous dysplasia mass of the face with significant distortion of the airway anatomy. She had significant obstructive sleep apnea with daytime somnolence and hemoglobin oxygen desaturations while breathing room air preoperatively. We were able to successfully manage her airway by providing IV sedation, topical anesthesia of the airway, and oral fiberoptic intubation in close collaboration with our otorhinolaryngology colleagues.

  8. Assessment of fire-damaged mesquite trees 8 years following an illegal burn

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Pablo Garcia; Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Akram Al-Khouri

    2003-01-01

    Effects of an illegal burn on the Santa Rita Experimental Range on mesquite (Prosopis velutina) survival in the semidesert grass-shrub ecosystem was initially assessed in terms of firedamage classes 18 months after the fire and again 8 years after the burn. While many of the mesquite trees on the burned site were damaged by the fire, some of the trees appear to have...

  9. The magnetism of surgery: small bowel obstruction in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R; Everett, T; Watts, A; Qureshi, T

    2010-10-12

    An 8-year-old boy with Asperger's syndrome presented with right-sided abdominal pain, which was consistent with a probable appendicitis, but revisiting the history with a high index of suspicion confirmed multiple foreign body ingestion to be the cause of his symptoms. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Multiple toy magnets and other metal objects were found, which were causing small bowel obstruction with interloop fistulation. Following removal and repair, the patient made an excellent recovery.

  10. The magnetism of surgery: small bowel obstruction in an 8-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R; Everett, T; Watts, A; Qureshi, T

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy with Asperger's syndrome presented with right-sided abdominal pain, which was consistent with a probable appendicitis, but revisiting the history with a high index of suspicion confirmed multiple foreign body ingestion to be the cause of his symptoms. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Multiple toy magnets and other metal objects were found, which were causing small bowel obstruction with interloop fistulation. Following removal and repair, the patient made an excellent recovery. PMID:22789732

  11. Suicidal Behavior and Psychosocial Outcome in Borderline Personality Disorder at 8-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2017-03-06

    We sought predictors of both suicidal behavior and psychosocial outcome in subjects with BPD followed for 8 years and asked if there was a relationship between these outcomes. One hundred twenty-three BPD subjects, recruited from inpatient (35.8%), outpatient (30.9%) and community (33.3%) sources, were assessed annually for known risk factors for suicidal behavior. Interval attempts were reported by 25 subjects (20.2%). Increased risk of suicide attempt was associated with negative affectivity, aggression, inpatient recruitment, hospitalizations, minority race, and frequent changes in employment. Decreased risk was associated with increased education. Poor psychosocial outcome was predicted by impulsivity, negative affectivity, and antisocial traits at baseline, and by comorbid MDD at 8-year follow-up. There was no significant relationship between poor psychosocial outcome at 8-year follow-up and risk of suicidal behavior. Predictors of suicidality include modifiable risk factors. Rehabilitation models are needed to address educational and vocational deficits associated with suicidality, especially among minorities.

  12. Controlled clinical studies of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Mathie, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    Observations about controlled clinical trials expressed by Max Haidvogl in the book Ultra High Dilution (1994) have been appraised from a perspective two decades later. The present commentary briefly examines changes in homeopathy research evidence since 1994 as regards: the published number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the use of individualised homeopathic intervention, the 'proven efficacy of homeopathy', and the quality of the evidence. The commentary reflects the details of RCTs that are available in a recently published literature review and by scrutiny of systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy. The homeopathy RCT literature grew by 309 records in the 18 years that immediately followed Haidvogl's article, with more than a doubling of the proportion that investigated individualised homeopathy. Discounting one prior publication, the entire systematic review literature on homeopathy RCTs post-dates 1994. A total of 36 condition-specific systematic reviews have been identified in the peer-reviewed literature: 16 of them reported positive, or tentatively positive, conclusions about homeopathy's clinical effectiveness; the other 20 were negative or non-conclusive. Reviews typically have been restricted in the strength of their conclusions by the low quality of the original RCT evidence. Three comprehensive systematic reviews concluded, cautiously, that homeopathy may differ from placebo; a fourth such review reached negative conclusions. A recent high-quality meta-analysis concluded that medicines prescribed in individualised homeopathic treatment may have small, specific, effects. Despite important growth in research activity since 1994, concerns about study quality limit the interpretation of available RCT data. The question whether homeopathic intervention differs from placebo awaits decisive answer. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Children aged 4-8 years treated with parent training and child therapy because of conduct problems: generalisation effects to day-care and school settings.

    PubMed

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo

    2006-10-01

    In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.

  14. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health ... Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural ...

  15. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  16. Clinical study of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Aher, K; Jaiswal, M

    1992-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for a sizeable proportion of infertility and ectopic recurrence. The possibility that a woman is experiencing an ectopic pregnancy must be considered when evaluating a woman, especially a sterilized woman, who has a possible pregnancy, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, or abnormal bleeding; studies have found that one in six pregnancies occurring after tubal sterilization are ectopic. The authors present a clinical study of 82 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Cases of ectopic pregnancy represent 0.99% of total obstetric admissions, of whom 69.51% were diagnosed as such on admission. 40.24% of the women were older than 30 years, while 34.14% were elderly beyond third parity. 70.73% of the women presented before missing their second period. Patients presented with multiple complaints, but the most common was abdominal pain reported by 61.70%. 78.04% were admitted with an acute abdomen, but shock was present in only 7.14% of cases. The main surgical treatment modality was salpingectomy among 59.75%. There was no maternal mortality through postoperative morbidity in the form of paralytic ileus, although fever did occur in some women.

  17. [Epidemio-clinical profile of human scabies through dermatologic consultation. Retrospective study of 1148 cases].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Zeglaoui, Faten; Ezzine, Nedia; Kharfi, Monia; Zghal, Mohamed; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2003-11-01

    We report a retrospective study of all scabies cases collected in the department of Dermatology of Charles Nicolle Hospital during a 8 year-period (1993-2000). 148 cases of scabies were collected with a mean incidence of 144 new cases/year (65-204). Diagnosis was made clinically in all cases. Parasitological exam was done in case of doubtful diagnosis. Our purpose is to try to define an epidemio-clinical profile of scabies in Tunisia and to estimate the incidence of this parasitosis through our dermatological consultation with reviewing the literature data.

  18. An 8-Year-Old Boy With Treatment-Resistant Encopresis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Martin T; Benninga, Marc A; Felt, Barbara T

    Paul is an 8-year-old boy with a long-standing history of encopresis and enuresis. Potty training was initiated when he was 2 years old. At this time, his mother was absent from the home for 6 weeks when she cared for her ill father in a different city. The process of teaching Paul to use the bathroom was described as "inconsistent" due to multiple caretakers.Paul never successfully mastered bowel and bladder control. He continues to wet and soil his clothes on a daily basis at home and school. According to his parents, he does not accept responsibility and comments about his soiling such as, "I didn't do it; someone else must have put it there." One of Paul's teachers commented that she could tell at the beginning of the school day whether he would maintain bowel and bladder control. If he was "agitated and talkative" in the early morning, he would often soil that day.He had a pediatric gastroenterological evaluation at the age of 5 years when he was having daily episodes of stool soiling. Physical examination revealed normal anal tone, normal placement of the anus, and moderate stool in the rectal vault. An abdominal radiograph revealed moderate stool throughout the colon. He was treated with Miralax and instructed to sit on the toilet twice daily. Paul did not respond to these interventions and was diagnosed with "overflow incontinence secondary to stool withholding." When he was taking Miralax, he had a normal barium enema radiograph. He was admitted to the hospital for a cleanout with a polyethylene glycol/electrolyte solution.Although abdominal radiographs demonstrated absence of colonic stool for the following 5 months, he continued to soil his clothing. Play therapy and biofeedback did not change the chronic soiling and wetting pattern. An evaluation at the Continence Clinic resulted in a rigorous program including stooling after each meal, wearing a vibrating watch reminding him to void every 2 hours, drinking 60 ounces of water per day, tracking

  19. An 8-year-old boy with treatment-resistant encopresis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Martin T; Benninga, Marc A; Felt, Barbara T

    2010-01-01

    Paul is an 8-year-old boy with a long-standing history of encopresis and enuresis. Potty training was initiated when he was 2(1/2) years old. At this time, his mother was absent from the home for 6 weeks when she cared for her ill father in a different city. The process of teaching Paul to use the bathroom was described as "inconsistent" due to multiple caretakers.Paul never successfully mastered bowel and bladder control. He continues to wet and soil his clothes on a daily basis at home and school. According to his parents, he does not accept responsibility and comments about his soiling such as, "I didn't do it; someone else must have put it there." One of Paul's teachers commented that she could tell at the beginning of the school day whether he would maintain bowel and bladder control. If he was "agitated and talkative" in the early morning, he would often soil that day.He had a pediatric gastroenterological evaluation at the age of 5 years when he was having daily episodes of stool soiling. Physical examination revealed normal anal tone, normal placement of the anus, and moderate stool in the rectal vault. An abdominal radiograph revealed moderate stool throughout the colon. He was treated with Miralax and instructed to sit on the toilet twice daily. Paul did not respond to these interventions and was diagnosed with "overflow incontinence secondary to stool withholding." When he was taking Miralax, he had a normal barium enema radiograph. He was admitted to the hospital for a clean out with a polyethylene glycol/electrolyte solution. Although abdominal radiographs demonstrated absence of colonic stool for the following 5 months, he continued to soil his clothing. Play therapy and biofeedback did not change the chronic soiling and wetting pattern. An evaluation at the Continence Clinic resulted in a rigorous program including stooling after each meal, wearing a vibrating watch reminding him to void every 2 hours, drinking 60 ounces of water per day, tracking

  20. The relation between serum insulin levels and 8-year changes in lipid, lipoprotein, and blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, B D; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Valdez, R; Stern, M P

    1992-07-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is associated with an adverse pattern of cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, elevated triglyceride levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure. Whether hyperinsulinemia precedes (and perhaps causes) this deterioration in the risk factors or merely accompanies the deterioration is controversial. We therefore examined the 8-year changes in lipids, lipoproteins, and blood pressure as a function of baseline levels of fasting insulin in 1,383 nondiabetic Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white subjects enrolled between October 1979 and November 1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in San Antonio, Texas. After age and concomitant changes in body mass index were adjusted for, fasting insulin at baseline was found to be correlated positively with 8-year changes in triglyceride levels and negatively with 8-year changes in HDL cholesterol levels (p less than 0.05). Among the non-Hispanic whites, insulin was more strongly correlated with a decline in HDL cholesterol levels in women than in men (p less than 0.001). Fasting insulin was also positively correlated with changes in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in non-Hispanic whites, but not in Mexican Americans, although these correlations were slightly diminished and no longer achieved statistical significance after subjects receiving antihypertensive medications were excluded. These results support the hypothesis that in nondiabetic subjects, insulin has a direct regulatory effect on triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels. These data provide evidence for a possible role for insulin in blood pressure regulation, at least in non-Hispanic whites, although further analysis of this issue is warranted.

  1. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  2. Frontal Bone Hemangioma in an 8-year-old Female: A Common Tumor in a Rare Location

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhimanyu; Singh, Usha Rani; Sihag, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is a rare bone tumor accounting for 0.7%–1.0% of all bone tumors. In the skull, frontal bone is the commonly involved bone. An 8-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with complaints of pain and swelling over forehead for 4 months. X-ray revealed a lytic expansile lesion involving frontal bone with sunburst pattern of bony spicules radiating to periphery of the lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a well-circumscribed lesion with both intra as well as extracranial components. Histopathology revealed a vascular tumor consisting of both small (capillary) and large (cavernous) sized vessels. A diagnosis of mixed type of hemangioma of the frontal bone was given. Recognition of hemangioma on radiology and confirmation by histopathology is essential for proper management as it might be confused clinically with other locally aggressive/malignant lesions. PMID:28163515

  3. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  4. Reversible brainstem edema due to hypertensive encephalopathy in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Ahsan N V; Eagam, Mamata; Moodley, Manikum

    2011-08-01

    The authors report an 8-year-old girl with refractory status epilepticus due to hypertensive encephalopathy, secondary to end-stage renal disease. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute phase showed striking hyperintensities in the brain stem and medial thalamus along with subtle cortical lesions. After successful control of hypertensive crisis and status epilepticus, the patient recovered to her baseline. Near total resolution of the lesions was noted on follow-up imaging performed 9 days later. Predominant brainstem involvement as a feature of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to hypertensive crisis is extremely rare in children and has not been well documented.

  5. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the umbilicus 8 years following anterior resection for villous adenoma of the rectum

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Benjamin W.P.; Booth, Sam; England, Norman; Smart, Neil J.; Daniels, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of an 80-year-old retired consultant histopathologist who presented to us with a malignant umbilical mass 8years following resection of a sigmoid adenoma. The report details initial investigation and management of the umbilical mass and the subsequently discovered pelvic recurrence. Our conclusions of its origin, as a malignant transformation due to seeding of the original sigmoid adenoma, show the slow progression of some colorectal tumours; and the importance of obtaining a complete specimen intra-operatively. PMID:24876318

  6. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  7. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist.

  8. Solitary parotid metastasis 8 years after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Faiz; Yedavalli, Nina; Loeffler, David; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common cancer, known for its aggressive behavior and ability to metastasize nearly every organ system in the body. While the cancer commonly spreads to a select few organs and metastasis usually develops within 5 years of diagnosis, there have been numerous case reports of atypical sites of metastasis and cases of relapse up to decades after treatment. We present a case a 65-year-old male who presented with right preauricular swelling 8 years after the initial diagnosis and right nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell cancer. We take a look at previous case reports with similar presentations. PMID:27609721

  9. An 8-year follow-up of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment with a treat-and-extend modality for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Berg, Karina; Roald, Anca B; Navaratnam, Jesintha; Bragadóttir, Ragnheiður

    2017-09-19

    To investigate long-term visual results of treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) following a treat-and-extend regimen. Retrospective review of 155 patients who initiated treatment with bevacizumab for nAMD in one eye. At the final 8-year visit, 40 patients (26%) remained for follow-up. Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was calculated compared to baseline values. Mean BCVA improved significantly from baseline during the first year of treatment, with -0.11 logMAR units equivalent to 6.1 approximate Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (approxETDRS) letters (p = <0.001). Mean BCVA was still significantly improved after 4 years of treatment for the entire group of patients and after 6 years of treatment for the subgroup of 40 patients who remained at the final 8-year visit. Thereafter, BCVA gradually declined and at 8 years, there was a mean change of 0.05 logMAR units equivalent to 2.1 approxETDRS letters below baseline (p = 0.530). Mean number of injections during the first year was 6.1 ± 2.8 and during year 8 was 5.4 ± 3.5. At 5 years, fundus autofluorescence showed some degree of macular atrophy in all eyes. At the final 8-year visit, 87.5% of the eyes had stable neovascular lesions with no fluid on optical coherence tomography (OCT). In an everyday clinical setting, treatment of nAMD patients with a treat-and-extend modality provided improvement and stability of vision for several years. After 8 years of follow-up, there was a decline in visual acuity (VA) that could be explained by macular atrophic development. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  11. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

  12. Compliance with the smoking ban in Italy 8 years after its application.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Valentina; Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Masocco, Maria; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Possenti, Valentina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Vasselli, Stefania; Salmaso, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report compliance with the smoking ban and the spread of smoke-free homes after 3-8 years since the Italian smoking ban implementation, according to the ongoing Italian surveillance system for behavioural risk factors (PASSI). PASSI is based on representative annual samples of the Italian population aged 18-69 years. We considered questions on smoking habits, self-reported compliance with the ban, and on smoke-free homes of 176,236 interviews conducted in 2008-2012. Ninety percent of respondents in 2012 reported that the smoking ban was enforced in hospitality premises (HPs), with a significant 3% increase from 2008. Similarly, 91.3% in 2012 reported a high compliance in workplaces other than HPs, with a significant 5% increase. Perception of compliance did not change among smokers and non-smokers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents in 2012 reported smoke-free homes, with a significant increase from 2008 to 2012. The high compliance with the ban that is still increasing even after 8 years since its implementation may partially have caused the concurrent increase in smoke-free homes.

  13. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  14. Transfer of figural face aftereffects suggests mature orientation selectivity in 8-year-olds' face coding.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-10-01

    Adult face perception mechanisms are tuned to upright faces, and this orientation selectivity is central to adult expertise with upright faces. Children are less expert than adults, and it has been argued that their face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults. Here we used face aftereffects to test this hypothesis by examining whether children's aftereffects show greater transfer across changes in orientation than do adults' aftereffects. We adapted 7- to 8-year-old children and adults to figural face distortions in both upright and inverted orientations and examined the size of resulting aftereffects in both upright and inverted test faces. If children's face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults, then children's aftereffects should transfer more strongly across changes in orientation. We found no evidence to support this prediction. Children's and adults' aftereffects were similarly reduced by orientation differences between adapt and test. These results indicate that children, like adults, show a high degree of orientation selectivity in face shape coding and suggest that neural tuning to face orientation may be mature by 8 years of age. Our findings are consistent with an emerging view that many of the key attributes of specialized face perception emerge much earlier in development than previously thought.

  15. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  16. Judgments of Omitted BE and DO in Questions as Extended Finiteness Clinical Markers of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) to 15 Years: A Study of Growth and Asymptote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Wexler, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical grammar markers are needed for children with SLI older than 8 years. This study followed children who were previously studied on sentences with omitted finiteness to determine if affected children continue to perform at low levels and to examine possible predictors of low performance. This is the first longitudinal report of…

  17. The Development of Attitudes About Physical Punishment: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined young adolescents’ endorsement of parental use of corporal punishment to elucidate processes underlying the intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies. The community sample was ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Mothers completed interviews and questionnaires when the target children were entering kindergarten (n = 566) and in 6th and 8th grades. Adolescents completed questionnaires when they were in 8th grade (n = 425). Adolescents’ attitudes about corporal punishment varied widely. Those adolescents who had been spanked by their own mothers were more approving of this discipline method, regardless of the overall frequency, timing, or chronicity of physical discipline they had received. However, there was no correlation among adolescents for whom physical maltreatment in early or middle childhood was suspected. PMID:14562459

  18. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  19. Lipid changes 8 years post gastric bypass in adolescents with severe obesity (FABS-5+ study).

    PubMed

    Shah, A S; Jenkins, T; Gao, Z; Daniels, S R; Urbina, E M; Kirk, S; Siegel, R; Inge, T H

    2017-06-09

    Severe obesity in adolescents is increasing and few effective treatments exist. Bariatric surgery is one option, but the extent to which surgery influences cardiovascular risk factors over time in youth is not clear. We hypothesized that Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) would be associated with sustained improvements in lipids over time (>5 years). Youth who underwent RYGB from 2001 to 2007 were recruited for the Follow-up of Adolescent Bariatric Surgery-5+ (FABS-5+) in 2011-2014. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and lipids were abstracted from medical records. Follow-up data were obtained at a research visit. Analyses included paired t-tests to assess changes in BMI and lipids over time. General linear models were used to evaluate predictors of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL-cholesterol at follow-up. A non-operative group was recruited for comparison. Surgical participants (n=58) were a mean±s.d. age of 17±2 years at baseline and 25±2 years at long-term follow-up. Eighty-six percent were Caucasian and 64% were female. At long-term follow-up BMI decreased by 29% and all lipids (except total cholesterol) significantly improved (P<0.01). Female sex was a significant predictor of non-HDL-cholesterol level at 1 year, while change in BMI from 1 year to long-term follow-up was a significant predictor of non-HDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol during the same interval (P<0.05). In the non-operative group, BMI increased by 8% and lipid parameters were unchanged. This is the longest and most complete follow-up of youth following RYGB. Weight loss maintenance over time was significantly associated with improvements in lipid profile over 5 years.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 4 July 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.141.

  20. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  1. Seasonal variation and dynamics of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma, after 8 years of Cassini in orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn orbits the Sun with a period of nearly 29.5 years and has an obliquity of 26.73°. As a result, Saturn presents seasonal variations similar to Earth's, but with much longer seasons, as the tilt between the planet's spin axis and the solar wind vary (approximately sinusoidally) with time between solstices. Saturn was close to its equinox (tilt below 8.1°) during the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 flybys that took place between September 1979 and August 1981, so any seasonal effects would have been relatively hard to see in the limited data from these missions. More than 2 decades later, on July 4, 2004, Cassini began orbiting Saturn, returning a variety of in situ and remote measurements. During the last 8 years, Cassini covered a large part of the Saturnian system and offered the opportunity of sampling the planetary magnetosphere not just at different seasons, but also at seasonal phases that are symmetric to the Saturnian equinox (August 2009). In this talk, we focus on the seasonal effects seen in the magnetosphere of Saturn as the angle between the solar wind flow and the Saturn-Sun direction changes from +23.7° (northern hemisphere winter) at the arrival of Cassini, to -14.9° (northern hemisphere summer) on July 2012. Particle and magnetic field data taken from a extensive set of equatorial and high latitude orbits of Cassini, at various distances and local times, show that: (a) the plasma sheet of Saturn has the form of a magnetodisk, with an energy-dependent vertical structure, being thicker by a factor of ~2 in the energetic particle range than in the electron plasma, and (b) it exhibits intense dynamical behavior, evident in in-situ particle measurements but also in energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. The study of the pre-equinox high latitude orbits revealed that the night side plasma sheet was tilted northward beyond a radial distance of ~15 Rs (1Rs=60,258 km). As equinox approached, Cassini observed a clear decrease in the tilt of the

  2. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed Central

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth. PMID:12948893

  3. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  4. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-09-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth.

  5. Weekly administration of paclitaxel attenuated rectal stenosis caused by multiple peritoneal recurrence 8 years after the resection of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoichi; Yoshida, Ikuo; Tonomura, Shuhei; Sakai, Wakana; Nakamura, Yasuko; Imazu, Hiroki; Matsubara, Toshiki; Ochiai, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    We report a patient with rectal stenosis caused by peritoneal recurrence 8 years after a curative resection of advanced stage gastric carcinoma; the recurrence was effectively treated with the weekly administration of paclitaxel. The patient was a 66-year-old Japanese woman who was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain and frequent bowel movements. She had undergone total gastrectomy, due to advanced-stage gastric carcinoma with extensive lymph node metastasis, 8 years before, and had taken an oral anticancer agent, fluoropyrimidine, for 4 years after the operation. Colonofiberscopy performed on admission revealed circumferential rectal stenosis located 10 cm from the anal verge. Barium enema study demonstrated extensive poor expansion of the upper and lower rectum and irregularity of the descending colon. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed wall thickening in the rectum and descending colon. These findings were compatible with rectal stenosis caused by the peritoneal recurrence of gastric carcinoma. Weekly administration of paclitaxel was started. The abdominal symptoms soon disappeared when the second cycle of paclitaxel was completed, and they have not appeared since then. The rectal stenosis was attenuated, as confirmed by imaging analyses. Weekly paclitaxel has been effective for more than 13 months, suggesting that the patient is in a state of tumor dormancy of recurrent gastric carcinoma.

  6. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be

  7. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    PubMed

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  8. Clinical Mental Health Counselor Handbook & Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Bonnie; Lawless, Linda; Williams, Midge; Bergstrom, Deborah

    This handbook and study guide were developed as a textbook to be used as a review course for preparation for the clinical licensing examination. It presents a summary of a graduate level academic program in clinical mental health counseling. It contains 17 chapters on clinical information; 4 chapters on test taking; 2 types of sample tests; and 3…

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α deficiency presenting as recurrent acute proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kara, Bülent; Genç, Hülya Maraş; Uyur-Yalçın, Emek; Sakarya-Güneş, Ayfer; Topçu, Uğur; Mülayim, Serap; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) plays an important role in aerobic energy metabolism and acid-base equilibrium. PDHC contains of 5 enzymes, 3 catalytic (E1, E2, E3) and 2 regulatory, as well as 3 cofactors and an additional protein (E3-binding protein) encoded by nuclear genes. The clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency ranges from fatal neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurologic dysfunction without lactic acidosis. Paroxysmal neurologic problems such as intermittent ataxia, episodic weakness, exercise-induced dystonia and recurrent demyelination may also be seen although they are rare. Here, we present an 8-year-old boy complaining of acute proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities with normal mental status. He had a history of Guillain-Barré-like syndrome at the age of 2 years. Electrophysiologic studies showed sensorial polyneuropathy findings in the first attack and sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy findings in the last attack. The genetic analysis revealed a previously reported hemizygote novel mutation of the PDHA1 gene (p.A353T/c.1057G > A), which encodes the E1α subunit of PDHC. Thiamine was ordered (15 mg/kg/day), dietary carbohydrates were restricted and clinical findings improved in a few weeks. This rare phenotype of PDHC deficiency is discussed.

  10. 8 years of CPV: ISFOC CPV plants, long-term performance analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Sánchez, Daniel; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; Hipólito, Ángel; de Gregorio, Fernando; de la Rubia, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    ISFOC is an R&D center focused on CPV in Puertollano (Spain). It was founded in 2006 and has 2.3MW of CPV plants in operation and connected to the grid since 2008. Therefore, for the time of the conference ISFOC has more than 8 years of real operation data. The performance analysis has been focused on ISFOC - La Nava CPV plant: 800kW of Concentrix (Soitec), SolFocus and Isofotón and one flat PV plant mounted on two-axis tracker. The main result obtained is that the rate of performance decrease obtained for a mature CPV technology and IEC 62108 certified is in the range of flat PV values, this means that the CPV technology does not present higher degradation rates than flat PV.

  11. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  12. [Breast cancer mass screening in the Province of Liege. Results after 8 years].

    PubMed

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Delleuze, J M

    2000-08-01

    Breast cancer mass screening by mobile units started in 1992 in the Province of Liège (Belgium). This project is developed for rural areas and interests all women between 40-69 years old not regularly X-rayed in traditional breast cancer diagnosis centers. Despite lots of efforts population participation is low (25%). Nevertheless, the experiment results are encouraging: in a series of 31,443 women, 213 cancers were diagnosed, corresponding to a rate of 6.9/1000, 75% of which are of good prognosis. After an 8 years experiment, it is hoped that the population concerned becomes more sensitive to this mass screening project and one should expect a better collaboration with the other actors in the field of breast diseases diagnosis.

  13. The Existence of Trust in the Relationship of Parents and District Administration in the Placement Process of 3- to 8-Year-Old Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellner, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which trust-building variables exist between public school districts and parents of 3- to 8-year-old children with autism during the initial placement process in the perception of special education administration. Additional purposes of the study were to identify barriers and…

  14. [Clinical studies on SM-4300].

    PubMed

    Sawae, Y; Nagafuchi, S

    1985-09-01

    Use of SM-4300, which is a newly developed human immunoglobulin preparation for intravenous administration, has clinically been evaluated in the patients with severe or intractable bacterial infections. Of total 13 cases of the admitted patients at the 1st department of internal medicine, faculty of medicine, Kyushu university, 10-pneumonia case were associated with blood diseases like acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma (MM), and in addition, with other underlying diseases like lung cancer and bronchiectasis, 1 was prosthetic valve endocarditis, 1 cholecystitis associated with pericarditis and 1 fever of undetermined origin (FUO). SM-4300 of 5 g single bolus or 3 daily doses of 2.5 g per day were infused with chemotherapy drugs preceedingly administered for more than 3 days and the results were evaluated; good in 4, fair 4, poor 2 and unknown 3, and the efficacy rate was 40%. Bacteriologically, the results were decreased in 1, persisted 1 and the majority was unknown. Observed were no side reactions nor the changes in clinical examination variables incurred by this drug. It is therefore considered that SM-4300 is of use for the treatment of intractable bacterial infections when used with antibiotics.

  15. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Dietary Patterns and Their Socioeconomic and Behavioral Determinants in 6- to 8-Year-Old Portuguese Children.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D; Muc, M; Rodrigues, P R M; Pinto, A Mota; Padez, C

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to a healthier diet is declining, with children consuming more saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. Factors influencing this choice were studied using a cross-sectional study with children (6 to 8 years old) living in Coimbra. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors were obtained from the parents. Dietary patterns of 1,063 children were identified: Mediterranean (MedDiet), saturated fats (SFatDiet), and base of Portuguese diet (BPDiet). Their relationship with socioeconomic and behavioral determinants was analyzed. SES determined strongly the dietary choices with lower SES being associated with higher consumption of SFatDiet and higher SES with BPDiet. Worse diet quality was shown to coexist with other unhealthy behaviors.

  17. The NIDDK Central Repository at 8 years--ambition, revision, use and impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles F; Pan, Huaqin; Silk, Gregg W; Ardini, Mary-Anne; Bakalov, Vesselina; Bryant, Stephanie; Cantor, Susanna; Chang, Kung-yen; DeLatte, Michael; Eggers, Paul; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Lakshmikanthan, Sujatha; Levy, Joshua; Li, Sheping; Pratt, Joseph; Pugh, Norma; Qin, Ying; Rasooly, Rebekah; Ray, Helen; Richardson, Jean E; Riley, Amanda Flynn; Rogers, Susan M; Scheper, Charlotte; Tan, Sylvia; White, Stacie; Cooley, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repository makes data and biospecimens from NIDDK-funded research available to the broader scientific community. It thereby facilitates: the testing of new hypotheses without new data or biospecimen collection; pooling data across several studies to increase statistical power; and informative genetic analyses using the Repository's well-curated phenotypic data. This article describes the initial database plan for the Repository and its revision using a simpler model. Among the lessons learned were the trade-offs between the complexity of a database design and the costs in time and money of implementation; the importance of integrating consent documents into the basic design; the crucial need for linkage files that associate biospecimen IDs with the masked subject IDs used in deposited data sets; and the importance of standardized procedures to test the integrity data sets prior to distribution. The Repository is currently tracking 111 ongoing NIDDK-funded studies many of which include genotype data, and it houses over 5 million biospecimens of more than 25 types including serum, plasma, stool, urine, DNA, red blood cells, buffy coat and tissue. Repository resources have supported a range of biochemical, clinical, statistical and genetic research (188 external requests for clinical data and 31 for biospecimens have been approved or are pending). Genetic research has included GWAS, validation studies, development of methods to improve statistical power of GWAS and testing of new statistical methods for genetic research. We anticipate that the future impact of the Repository's resources on biomedical research will be enhanced by (i) cross-listing of Repository biospecimens in additional searchable databases and biobank catalogs; (ii) ongoing deployment of new applications for querying the contents of the Repository; and (iii) increased harmonization of procedures, data collection

  18. The End-State Comfort Effect in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children in Two Object Manipulation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Birgit; Henning, Anne; Wunsch, Kathrin; Weigelt, Matthias; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare 3- to 8-year-old children’s propensity to anticipate a comfortable hand posture at the end of a grasping movement (end-state comfort effect) between two different object manipulation tasks, the bar-transport task, and the overturned-glass task. In the bar-transport task, participants were asked to insert a vertically positioned bar into a small opening of a box. In the overturned-glass task, participants were asked to put an overturned-glass right-side-up on a coaster. Half of the participants experienced action effects (lights) as a consequence of their movements (AE groups), while the other half of the participants did not (No-AE groups). While there was no difference between the AE and No-AE groups, end-state comfort performance differed across age as well as between tasks. Results revealed a significant increase in end-state comfort performance in the bar-transport task from 13% in the 3-year-olds to 94% in the 8-year-olds. Interestingly, the number of children grasping the bar according to end-state comfort doubled from 3 to 4 years and from 4 to 5 years of age. In the overturned-glass task an increase in end-state comfort performance from already 63% in the 3-year-olds to 100% in the 8-year-olds was significant as well. When comparing end-state comfort performance across tasks, results showed that 3- and 4-year-old children were better at manipulating the glass as compared to manipulating the bar, most probably, because children are more familiar with manipulating glasses. Together, these results suggest that preschool years are an important period for the development of motor planning in which the familiarity with the object involved in the task plays a significant role in children’s ability to plan their movements according to end-state comfort. PMID:23112786

  19. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  20. What Is the Status of High School Athletes 8 Years after Their Senior Year? Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Scott, Leslie; Planty, Michael; Thompson, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the status of high school athletes 8 years after their senior year in high school. Using a representative sample of 10th-graders in 1990, who were seniors in 1992, from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), this Brief provides information on the 1990-1992 high school athletes' educational,…

  1. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  2. Schooling, Values, Objective Life Conditions and Social Support: Their Predictive Power in the Reported Use of Coercive Behaviors by Mothers of 6- to 8-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Camil

    This study was undertaken to identify the relative contribution of personal and environmental variables to the reported frequency of use of coercive control behaviors in a nonclinical sample of mothers. Seventy mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children participated; half were from single-parent families. Results of analysis of variance indicate that…

  3. Primary care hypnotic and anxiolytic prescription: Reviewing prescribing practice over 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lloyd D.; Raitt, Neil; Riaz, Muhammed Awais; Baldwin, Sarah-Jane; Erskine, Kay; Graham, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last few years, hypnotic and anxiolytic medications have had their clinical efficacy questioned in the context of concerns regarding dependence, tolerance alongside other adverse effects. It remains unclear how these concerns have impacted clinical prescribing practice. Materials and Methods: This is a study reviewing community-dispensed prescribing data for patients on the East Practice Medical Center list in Arbroath, Scotland, in 2007, 2011 and 2015. Anxiolytic and hypnotic medications were defined in accordance with the British National Formulary chapter 4.1.1 and chapter 4.1.2. All patients receiving a drug within this class in any of the study years were collated and anonymized using primary care prescribing data. The patients’ age, gender, name of the prescribed drug(s), and total number of prescriptions in this class over the year were extracted. Results: The proportion of patients prescribed a benzodiazepine medication decreased between 2007 and 2015: 83.8% (n = 109) in 2007, 70.5% (n = 122) in 2011, and 51.7% (n = 138) in 2015 (P = 0.006). The proportion of these patients prescribed a nonbenzodiazepine drug increased between 2007 and 2015: 30% (n = 39) in 2007, 46.2% (n = 80) in 2011, and 52.4% (n = 140) in 2015 (P = 0.001). There was a significant increase in the number of patients prescribed melatonin (P = 0.020). Discussion: This study reports a reduction in benzodiazepine prescriptions in primary care alongside increases in nonbenzodiazepine and melatonin prescribing, with an increase in prescribing rates of this drug class overall. Conclusion: Changes in this prescribing practice may reflect the medicalization of insomnia, local changes in prescribing practice and alongside national recommendations. PMID:28217600

  4. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Health Impact after 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Eric A.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark; Biswas, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    Background In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: >1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine) were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA) to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. Methodology To assess the health impact that this massive global effort has had, we analyzed the benefits accrued first from preventing or stopping the progression of LF disease, and then from the broader anti-parasite effects (‘beyond-LF’ benefits) attributable to the use of albendazole and ivermectin. Projections were based on demographic and disease prevalence data from publications of the Population Reference Bureau, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Result Between 2000 and 2007, the GPELF prevented LF disease in an estimated 6.6 million newborns who would otherwise have acquired LF, thus averting in their lifetimes nearly 1.4 million cases of hydrocele, 800,000 cases of lymphedema and 4.4 million cases of subclinical disease. Similarly, 9.5 million individuals—previously infected but without overt manifestations of disease—were protected from developing hydrocele (6.0 million) or lymphedema (3.5 million). These LF-related benefits, by themselves, translate into 32 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) averted. Ancillary, ‘beyond-LF’ benefits from the >1.9 billion treatments delivered by the GPELF were also enormous, especially because of the >310 million treatments to the children and women of childbearing age who received albendazole with/without ivermectin (effectively treating intestinal helminths, onchocerciasis, lice, scabies, and other conditions). These benefits can be described but remain difficult to quantify, largely because of the poorly defined epidemiology of these latter infections. Conclusion The GPELF has earlier

  5. Development of oral side preference during chewing and its relation to hand preference in normal 2- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G

    1988-06-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 5 to 8 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side of the mouth when starting to eat. A developmental curve spanning 2 to 8 years was generated by including data from an earlier study. Data of oral side preference were correlated with data of preferred hand use. In addition, the ability to move a small piece of food from one side of the mouth to the other was studied. It was found that normal children undergo a transition from placing solid food predominantly on the right side at 2 years of age to placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. The left side preference persists until at least 8 years of age for both viscous and solid food textures. Oral side preference did not correlate with hand preference. The ability to move food from one side of the mouth to the other (lateralizing) was found to undergo a developmental progression: The inability to lateralize in a third of 2-year-olds gave way to rolling movements. Concomitantly, a consistent increase in slow and then smooth movements was found to occur from 2 to 8 years of age. These data provide the clinician with a normative baseline against which eating-impaired children can be compared.

  6. Approaching 8 Years On Orbit: Status and Outlook for GRACE (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Tapley, B. D.; Flechtner, F.; Bettadpur, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    GRACE was launched in March 2002 and since then has produced an essentially continuous set of gravity data now approaching 8 years in length. This ever-lengthening data span has been key in allowing users of the data to begin to understand the important relationships between annual, interannual, and longer term variability in mass flux in the Earth system, and the GRACE Project and sponsoring agencies are dedicated to maximizing the usable life of the mission. Although the spacecraft each show some signs of "old age" in their extended mission phase, they continue to produce data equal in quality to that of the prime mission, while our analysis techniques continue to very significantly improve. Most of the improvements in analysis have come from superior treatment of aliasing effects due to ocean tides, non-tidal ocean mass variations, and atmospheric mass, and high frequency hydrological variability. In this talk, we will provide a summary of the latest science results from the cutting edge of GRACE, review the engineering health and status of the spacecraft, including outlook for the next several years, and finally we will review the plans by the project analysis centers (CSR and JPL in the US, and GFZ in Germany) for the next major reprocessing of the entire GRACE dataset, referred to in the project as Release 5. All centers expect significant improvements to the quality of the entire multi-year GRACE dataset with this reprocessing, expected to be released in mid-2010.

  7. Sex differences in cerebral volumes of 8-year-olds born preterm.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allan L; Kesler, Shelli R; Vohr, Betty; Duncan, Charles C; Katz, Karol H; Pajot, Sarah; Schneider, Karen C; Makuch, Robert W; Ment, Laura R

    2004-08-01

    We investigate sex-associated effects of preterm birth on cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes. Preterm children (n=65) and 31 healthy, term control children had usable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data acquired at 8 years of age. Both GM and WM volumes were significantly reduced in the preterm group compared with controls. However, only males with preterm birth had significantly reduced WM compared with term males (P=.021), whereas WM volumes were equivalent in the female groups. Lower birth weight was associated with reduced WM in both boys and girls with preterm birth, whereas intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was associated with reduced GM in girls only. Positive correlations between GM and cognitive outcome were observed in girls with preterm birth but not boys. We conclude that preterm birth has a significant impact on brain development with increased risk for smaller GM and WM cerebral volumes. Males appear particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of preterm birth on WM development. However, girls with preterm birth show stronger correlations between neuro-anatomical variables and both neonatal risk factors and cognitive outcome, compared with boys. These findings indicate that the sex of the very preterm newborn influences the mechanisms by which the developing brain is affected.

  8. Endovascular Management of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: An 8-year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gerassimidis, Thomas S.; Karkos, Christos D. Karamanos, Dimitrios G.; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O.; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios N.; Demiropoulos, Filippos P.; Malkotsis, Dimitrios P.; Kamparoudis, Apostolos G.

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to review our experience with the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). During an 8-year period, 69 patients with a RAAA presented to our department; 67 underwent assessment by computed axial tomography, and 2 died on arrival before any evaluation was possible. A total of 42 patients (63%) were suitable for stent-grafting, and all but 1 (c-arm failure) proceeded to endovascular repair. Of these, 27 underwent surgery with local anaesthesia; 3 did so under general anaesthesia; and a further 11 procedures were commenced with the patient under local anaesthesia and then converted to general anaesthesia. A total of 28 bifurcated and 14 aorto-uni-iliac stent-grafts were implanted. Aortic occlusion balloons were used in 2 (5%) patients. The in-hospital and the 30-day mortality rates were 36% and 41%, respectively. After surgery, 21 complications were encountered in 17 patients. Two patients required reintervention during their hospital stay (1 type I endoleak and 1 limb occlusion). During the follow-up (median 730 days [range 90 to 580 days]), the 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival probabilities were 53% (SE 7.9%) and 50% (SE 8.0%), respectively. Three reinterventions were necessary during follow-up (2 type I endoleaks and 1 graft occlusion). We conclude that endovascular treatment is feasible in the emergency setting, and the early experience is promising. Whether such an approach is superior to open surgery remains to be determined.

  9. Behavioral Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Maureen; Taylor, Hudson G.; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Drotar, Dennis; Klein, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of behavioral problems and symptomatology suggestive of Autism and Asperger’s disorders at age 8 years among extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1 kg) children, born 1992 through 1995. Method Parent reports of the behavior of 219 ELBW (mean birth weight, 810 g; gestational age 26 weeks) were compared with 176 normal birth weight children of similar maternal sociodemographic status, sex, and age. Behavior was assessed via the Child Symptom Inventory that includes both Symptom Severity Scores and scores meeting DSM-IV criteria for disorders. Results ELBW compared with normal birth weight children had significantly higher mean Symptom Severity Scores for the inattentive, hyperactive, and combined types of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (all p < .001) as well as higher scores for Generalized Anxiety (p < .01) and Autistic (p < .001) and Asperger’s (p < .01) disorders. When DSM-IV criteria were considered, ELBW children also had significantly higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder of the inattentive (10% vs 3%, p < .01) and combined (5% vs 0.6%, p < .05) types. Conclusions Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, mainly the inattentive type is prevalent among ELBW children. Our findings of an increase in symptoms pertaining to Autistic and Asperger’s disorders at school age agree with recent reports of others during early childhood. Early identification and intervention for these problems might improve child functioning and ameliorate parent and child distress. PMID:19322106

  10. Chylolymphatic Cyst of Mesentery of Terminal Ileum: A Case Report in 8 Year-old Boy

    PubMed Central

    More, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra peritoneal tumor and more than half of the mesenteric cysts involve the mesentery of the terminal ileum. We present 8 year-old boy, who presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed a cystic mass in the peritoneal cavity with dilated loops of bowel. Exploration of the abdomen revealed a solitary cyst of the mesentery of the terminal ileum measured 10 x 8 cm. There was twisting of the part of the ileum (volvulus) due to the cyst. It also involved the wall and lumen of the adjacent ileum and there were dilated bowel loops proximal to the cyst. Complete cyst excision and resection of the part of the ileum involved with the cyst was done en bloc. An ileostomy was created due to gross disparity in the lumen of the ileum, which was closed two and half month later. Histopathology of the excised cyst was consistent with the chylolymphatic cyst (mesenteric cyst). PMID:25584262

  11. Chylolymphatic Cyst of Mesentery of Terminal Ileum: A Case Report in 8 Year-old Boy.

    PubMed

    Ghritlaharey, Rajendra K; More, Santosh

    2014-11-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra peritoneal tumor and more than half of the mesenteric cysts involve the mesentery of the terminal ileum. We present 8 year-old boy, who presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed a cystic mass in the peritoneal cavity with dilated loops of bowel. Exploration of the abdomen revealed a solitary cyst of the mesentery of the terminal ileum measured 10 x 8 cm. There was twisting of the part of the ileum (volvulus) due to the cyst. It also involved the wall and lumen of the adjacent ileum and there were dilated bowel loops proximal to the cyst. Complete cyst excision and resection of the part of the ileum involved with the cyst was done en bloc. An ileostomy was created due to gross disparity in the lumen of the ileum, which was closed two and half month later. Histopathology of the excised cyst was consistent with the chylolymphatic cyst (mesenteric cyst).

  12. Weight change in the first two months of a lifestyle intervention predicts weight changes 8 years later

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jeffery, Robert; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between 1- and 2-month weight loss (WL) and 8-year WL among participants enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. Design & Methods 2290 Look AHEAD participants (BMI: 35.65±5.93kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes received an intensive behavioral WL intervention. Results 1 and 2-month WL were associated with yearly WL through Year 8 (p’s<0.0001). At Month 1, participants losing 2-4% and >4% had 1.62 (95% CI:1.32,1.98) and 2.79 (95% CI:2.21,3.52) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 and 1.28 (95% CI:1.05,1.58) and 1.77 (95% CI:1.40,2.24) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% at Year 8, compared to those losing <2% initially. At Month 2, a 3-6% WL resulted in greater odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=1.85; CI:1.48,2.32) and a >6% WL resulted in the greatest odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=3.85; CI:3.05,4.88) and Year 8 (OR=2.28; CI:1.81,2.89), compared to those losing <3%. Differences in adherence between WL categories were observed as early as Month 2. Conclusions 1 and 2-month WL was associated with 8-year WL. Future studies should examine whether alternative treatment strategies can be employed to improve treatment outcomes among those with low initial WL. PMID:26110890

  13. Weight change in the first 2 months of a lifestyle intervention predicts weight changes 8 years later.

    PubMed

    Unick, Jessica L; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Hogan, Patricia E; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Dutton, Gareth R; Jeffery, Robert; Nelson, Julie A; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R

    2015-07-01

    Examine the relationship between 1- and 2-month weight loss (WL) and 8-year WL among participants enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. 2,290 Look AHEAD participants (BMI: 35.65 ± 5.93 kg/m(2) ) with type 2 diabetes received an intensive behavioral WL intervention. 1- and 2-month WL were associated with yearly WL through Year 8 (P's < 0.0001). At Month 1, participants losing 2-4% and >4% had 1.62 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.98) and 2.79 (95% CI: 2.21, 3.52) times higher odds of achieving ≥5% WL at Year 4 and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.05,1.58) and 1.77 (95% CI: 1.40, 2.24) times higher odds of achieving ≥5% WL at Year 8, compared to those losing <2% initially. At Month 2, 3-6% WL resulted in greater odds of achieving ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.48, 2.32), and >6% WL resulted in the greatest odds of achieving ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR = 3.85; CI: 3.05, 4.88) and Year 8 (OR = 2.28; CI: 1.81, 2.89), compared to those losing <3%. Differences in adherence between WL categories were observed as early as Month 2. 1- and 2-month WL was associated with 8-year WL. Future studies should examine whether alternative treatment strategies can be employed to improve treatment outcomes among those with low initial WL. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case. PMID:21418566

  15. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Sridhar; Bentley, George

    2011-03-18

    We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case.

  16. Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry S.

    A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

  17. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup.

  18. A new cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive titanium porous-coating by alkaline and heat treatment: average 4.8-year results.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Keiichi; Ise, Kentaro; Goto, Koji; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Sugimori, Tanzo; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for creating a bioactive coating on titanium by alkaline and heat treatment, and shown that it forms a thin layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of implants when soaked in simulated body fluid. A series of 70 cementless primary total hip arthroplasties using this coating technique on a porous titanium surface was performed, and followed up the patients for a mean period of 4.8 years. There were no instances of loosening or revision, or formation of a reactive line on the porous coating. Although radiography just after operation showed a gap between the host bone and the socket in over 70% of cases, all the gaps disappeared within a year, indicating the good osteoconduction provided by the coating. Alkaline-heat treatment of titanium to provide a thin HA coating has several advantages over plasma-spraying, including no degeneration or absorption of the HA coating, simplicity of the manufacturing process, and cost effectiveness. In addition, this method allows homogeneous deposition of bone-like apatite within a porous implant. Although this was a relatively short-term study, treatment that creates a bioactive surface on titanium and titanium alloy implants has considerable promise for clinical application.

  19. Clinical study of tetanus neonatorum.

    PubMed

    Verma, M; Dhanwade, S M; Singh, T

    1989-09-01

    Seventy six cases of neonatal tetanus were studied. There was preponderance of males. Short incubation period, short period of onset, low birth weight, presence of fever and tachycardia were associated with a poor prognosis. The cases were divided into 2 groups of 46 and 30. First group was given TIG while second group was given ATS. All other therapies were kept identical. Mortality rate in two groups was 97.5% and 96.5%. Corrected mortality due to tetanus per se was 22.5% and 28.5% (p-0.5). Fifteen cases (32.7%) and 12 cases (40%) in group A & B respectively were born to mothers who had already received one to three doses of tetanus toxoid. The potency of the vaccine should be ensured before it is administered to mothers, through proper maintenance of cold chain. It is concluded that TIG is not superior to ATS in managing moderate and severe grade cases.

  20. Arctic Cloud Fraction and Microphysical Characteristics from 8-year Space-based Lidar and Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Yeo, H.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, M. H.; Son, S. W.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic clouds are a key factor in determining the energy budget both at the top of the atmosphere and at the suface by modulating the long-wave and short-wave radiative fluxes, which affect the surface temperature and may effect on the growth or retreat of sea ice extent and thickness. In this work, we exmine three-dimensional geometric and microphysical properties of Arctic clouds mainly from 8-year space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). Cloud Frations (CFs) from CALIOP-CPR and MODIS show similar seasonal and inter-annual variations, but shows significant different in CF over the opened sea area (i.e., Barents and Kara Sea) and over the sea ice. High occurrences of cloud top height are found below 2 km. But comparably high presences of mid- and high-level clouds are also found, especially in winter-time. This suggests that both low- and high-level clouds over the Arctic may influence on the long-wave radiation budget both at the surface and top of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the top height of winter-time clouds looks consistent with tropopause height. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) over the Arctic shows high in summer and low in winter, which would be contrary to the seasonal/monthly variations of CF. High COD during summer can be explained by enhanced level of liquid cloud droplet number concentrations. The number concentration and effective radius (in parenthesis) of liquid cloud droplet during summner was in the range of about 30 to 80 cm-3 (about 6 ~ 16 mm).

  1. The status of maternal and newborn care services in Sierra Leone 8 years after ceasefire.

    PubMed

    Oyerinde, Koyejo; Harding, Yvonne; Amara, Philip; Kanu, Rugiatu; Shoo, Rumishael; Daoh, Kizito

    2011-08-01

    To conduct a needs assessment for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) to address the unacceptably high maternal and newborn mortality indices in Sierra Leone 8 years after the end of the civil war. From June to August 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of health facilities in Sierra Leone offering delivery services. Assessment tools were local adaptations of tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program at Columbia University, New York, USA. There were enough comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) facilities in the country but they were poorly distributed. There were no basic EmOC (BEmOC) facilities. Few facilities (37% of hospitals and 2% of health centers) were able to perform assisted vaginal delivery (AVD), and 3 potentially BEmOC facilities did not meet the standard only because they did not perform AVD. Severe shortages in staff, equipment, and supplies, and unsatisfactory supply of utilities severely hampered the delivery of quality EmOC services. Demand for maternity and newborn services was low, which may have been related to the poor quality and the high/unpredictable out-of-pocket cost of such services. Significant increases in the uptake of institutional delivery services, the linkage of remote health workers to the health system, and the recruitment of midwives, in addition to rapid expansion in the training of health workers (including training in midwifery and obstetric surgery skills), are urgently needed to improve the survival of mothers and newborns. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cord blood banking activities at a university hospital in northeast Mexico: an 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Perez, Jose C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Colunga-Pedraza, Julia; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2012-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and genetic disorders. There is scarce information detailing cord blood bank (CBB) collection and transplantation activities from developing countries. We documented our experience at a public university hospital in northeast Mexico. We carried out a retrospective and descriptive analysis of our CBB activity during an 8-year period from May 2002 to September 2010. Collection, processing, and cryopreservation of CB were carried out following standard operating procedures. The minimum volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) content for cryopreservation were 80 mL and 8.0 × 10(8) , respectively. A total of 1256 UCB units were collected; 428 (34%) were banked and 828 (66%) were discarded. The main reason for exclusion was biologic: low volume and/or low number of TNC accounted for 84% of the total discarded units. Cryopreserved cord blood units (CBUs) had a median volume of 113.8 mL (range, 80-213.2 mL) and 13.0 × 10(8) (range, 8 × 10(8) -36.6 × 10(8) ) TNCs. Cell viability was 99.3% (88-100%). The median CD34+ cell content was 4.0 × 10(6) (0.46 × 10(6) -19.38 × 10(6) ). Sixteen units have been released for transplantation, leading to a utilization rate of 3.7%. CBB demands considerable human and financial resources; it is then essential for centers at developing countries to share their experience, results, and databases to increase the probability of finding matching units for their patients. Efforts to create and maintain CBBs allow to offer this therapeutic option at an affordable cost. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. [Clinical research III. The causality studies].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    The need to solve a clinical problem leads us to establish a starting point to address (risk, prognosis or treatment studies), all these cases seek to attribute causality. Clinical reasoning described in the book Clinical Epidemiology. The architecture of clinical research, offers a simple guide to understanding this phenomenon. And proposes three basic components: baseline, maneuver and outcome. In this model, different systematic errors (bias) are described, which may be favored by omitting characteristics of the three basic components. Thus, omissions in the baseline characteristics cause an improper assembly of the population and susceptibility bias, omissions in the application or evaluation of the maneuver provoke performance bias, and omissions in the assessment of out-come cause detection bias and transfer bias. Importantly, if this way of thinking facilitates understanding of the causal phenomenon, the appropriateness of the variables to be selected in the studies to which attribute or not causality, require additional arguments for evaluate clinical relevance.

  4. Pediatric malaria: 8 year case series in Atlanta, Georgia, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, Julie; Guarner, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Background Although malaria is frequent in travelers, it is often misdiagnosed on initial presentation, especially in children. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiology, clinical and laboratory presentation, and treatment of children with malaria in the United States. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 50 confirmed cases of malaria from 2 pediatric metropolitan hospitals in Atlanta, GA from 2000 – 2008. Results Malaria smears were performed in 385 unique patients; 50 (12.6%) were positive. American children who had visited family and friends in malaria endemic countries comprised 62% of our cases. Most cases visited Nigeria or Cameroon; all but 3 travelled to Africa. Three patients presented 8 – 12 months following travel. Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed most frequently (72%). Most patients had low level parasitemia (<1%). Gametocytes were rarely identified. Treatment was primarily with quinine and either doxycycline or clindamycin, transfusion was rare. All patients responded rapidly to treatment. Although 7 (14%) had hyperparasitemia (>5%), no fatalities or long-term sequelae were seen. Conclusions Malaria diagnosis can be difficult in children because parasitemia is usually below 1%. A high index of suspicion is required in patients who have travelled to Africa. PMID:20920055

  5. Response to hydroxycarbamide in pediatric β-thalassemia intermedia: 8 years' follow-up in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Beshlawy, Amal; El-Ghamrawy, Mona; EL-Ela, Mona Abou; Said, Fadwa; Adolf, Sonia; Abdel-Razek, Abdel-Rahman Ahmed; Magdy, Rania Ismail; Abdel-Salam, Amina

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea or HU) has been shown to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (TI). The reported effects of HU in increasing the total hemoglobin (Hb) have been inconsistent. Studies of long-term therapy with HU in pediatric TI are rather uncommon. A retrospective observational study was carried out to evaluate the clinical responses to HU in Egyptian patients with β-TI. One hundred patients; children (n = 82, mean age 9.9 ± 4.1 years) and adults (n = 18) were studied for the mean Hb, HbF%, median serum ferritin, transfusion history, and splenic size before and after HU therapy (mean dose 20.0 ± 4.2 mg/kg/day, range 10-29 mg/kg/day) over a follow-up period 4 to 96 months (mean 35.4 ± 19.2 months). Molecular studies were also done for group of patients (n = 42). The overall response rate to HU was 79 %; 46 % were minor responders (with a reduction in transfusion rate by 50 % or more and/or an increase in their total hemoglobin level by 1-2 g/dl) and 33 % major responders (becoming transfusion-free and/or having an increase in total hemoglobin level by >2 g/dl). Mean hemoglobin increased among responders from 6.9 ± 0.9 g/dl to 8.3 ± 1.4 g/dl (p < 0.001). A significant rise in mean HbF (27.0 vs. 42.5 %; p < 0.011) and a decrease in median serum ferritin (800 vs. 644 ng/ml; p < 0.001) were also observed among responders (n = 45). Transfusions stopped in 44 % of pretreatment frequently transfused responders (n = 11/25). Splenic size decreased in 37 % of patients (n = 30/81). The predominant β-thalassemia mutation was 1-6 (T > C) in 32/42 (76 %) of studied patients; 28/32 were responders. Bivariate analysis showed no predictors of response as regards sex, pediatric and adult age, splenic status, or genotype. Hydroxycarbamide is a good therapeutic modality in the management of pediatric as in adult TI patients. It can minimize the need for blood transfusion, concomitant iron overload, and blood-born viral

  6. Sequential treatment of speech disorders in velocardiofacial syndrome patients: an 8-year retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guomin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yang; Yang, Yusheng; Wu, Yilai; Jiang, Liping; Xu, Haiosng; Salyer, Kenneth E

    2009-09-01

    Speech disorders are the most common presentations of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and are difficult to be treated with very good treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical diagnosis and outcomes of sequential treatment of therapy for VCFS. A retrospective study of 120 patients (ages ranged from 4.3 to 38 years old, with a mean age of 10.2 years) was conducted and thoroughly reviewed retrospectively oral speech evaluation, oral examinations, and lateral cephalometry of 33 patients. Comparison was made in 33 patients (age range, 4-17 years; mean age, 7.24 years); patients were compared with and age-matched controls, using IQ scores and speech intelligibility tests. A Chinese speech intelligibility test and blowing test were also used to evaluate the outcomes of modified pharyngeal flap surgery, behavioral therapy, and speech therapy. The average age of the primary diagnosis for VCFS was 13.9 years. No cleft palate and reduced mobility in pharyngeal function were found by oral examination. Speech intelligibility in the 33 patients with VCFS was 33%, with an average IQ test score of 67. Chinese speech intelligibility of 33 patients who underwent pharyngoplasty and speech therapy was improved from 47% to 98%, and the duration of blowing test increased from 17 to 38 seconds. The average length of therapy period was estimated to be 8 months. Hypernasality and reduced mobility in palate and pharyngeal structures of VCFS patients could be measured with Chinese speech intelligibility test and blowing tests. The pharyngeal flap surgery and the behavioral therapy are proved to be an effective protocol for VCFS.

  7. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustained High Cure Rate of Artemether-Lumefantrine against Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria after 8 Years of Its Wide-Scale Use in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwaiswelo, Richard; Ngasala, Billy; Gil, J Pedro; Malmberg, Maja; Jovel, Irina; Xu, Weiping; Premji, Zul; Mmbando, Bruno P; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the temporal trend of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) cure rate after 8 years of its wide-scale use for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from 2006 to 2014 in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Trend analysis was performed for four studies conducted in 2006, 2007-2008, 2012-2013, and 2014. Patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled, treated with standard AL regimen and followed-up for 3 (2006), 28 (2014), 42 (2012-2013), or 56 (2007-2008) days for clinical and laboratory evaluation. Primary outcome was day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted cure rate across years from 2007 to 2014. Parasite clearance was slower for the 2006 and 2007-2008 cohorts with less than 50% of patients cleared of parasitemia on day 1, but was rapid for the 2012-2013 and 2014 cohorts. Day 28 PCR-adjusted cure rate was 168/170 (98.8%) (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.2-100), 122/127 (96.1%) (95% CI, 92.6-99.5), and 206/207 (99.5%) (95% CI, 98.6-100) in 2007-2008, 2012-2013, and 2014, respectively. There was no significant change in the trend of cure rate between 2007 and 2014 (χ(2)trend test = 0.06, P = 0.90). Pretreatment P. falciparum multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr1) N86 prevalence increased significantly across years from 13/48 (27.1%) in 2006 to 183/213 (85.9%) in 2014 (P < 0.001), and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) K76 prevalence increased significantly from 24/47 (51.1%) in 2006 to 198/205 (96.6%) in 2014 (P < 0.001). The AL cure rate remained high after 8 years of its wide-scale use in Bagamoyo district for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria despite an increase in prevalence of pretreatment Pfmdr1 N86 and Pfcrt K76 between 2006 and 2014.

  9. Developmental coordination disorder in geographic cohorts of 8-year-old children born extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gehan; Anderson, Peter J; Davis, Noni; De Luca, Cinzia; Cheong, Jeanie; Doyle, Lex W

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at the age of 8 years in a geographic cohort of extremely preterm or extremely-low-birthweight (EP/ELBW) children and a term-born comparison group, as well as associated academic outcomes, parents' perceptions of motor performance, and changes in prevalence during the 1990s. Moderate DCD was defined as a score below the 5th centile on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children in children without cerebral palsy or intellectual impairment. DCD rates were compared in a group of 132 8-year-old children born in 1997 at 22 to 27 weeks' gestation or birthweight of less than 1000 g (49% male, 51% female) and a comparison group of 154 term-born children (55% male, 45% female). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - 4th edition and the Wide Range Achievement Test - 3rd edition were used to measure academic and cognitive outcomes. Parental perceptions of motor performance were measured using the physical function scale of the Child Health Questionnaire, parent-report form (CHQ PF50). The results for children with and without DCD were then compared. To assess changes in prevalence throughout the 1990s, DCD rates were compared with those found in children from the same region born in 1991 to 92. The mean number of completed weeks of gestation in the EP/ELBW children and in the comparison group of term-born children for whom data were available for analysis was 26.5 (SD 1.9) and 39.2 (SD 1.1) respectively, and the mean birthweight was 830 g (SD 163) and 3511 g (SD 462) respectively. The prevalence of DCD was 16% in the EP/ELBW group and 5% in the comparison group (odds ratio 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-8.09%). Academic outcomes for reading, spelling, and arithmetic were poorer among children with DCD than among those without DCD (mean difference [95% CI] 10.2 [0.9-19.7; p=0.03], 8.9 [2.2-15.5; p=0.01], and 7.9 [1.4-14.5; p=0.02] respectively). Parental

  10. Advances in clinical study of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies.

  11. Effect of maternal dietary counselling during the 1st year of life on glucose profile and insulin resistance at the age of 8 years: a randomised field trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cintia S; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Lumey, L H; Vitolo, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Education interventions that stimulate complementary feeding practices can improve the nutritional status of children and may protect against future chronic diseases. We assessed the long-term effectiveness of dietary intervention during the 1st year of life on insulin resistance levels, and investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and weight changes over time. A randomised field trial was conducted among 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants between October 2001 and June 2002 in a low-income area in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mother-child pairs were randomly assigned to intervention (n 200) and control groups (n 300), and the mothers in the intervention group received dietary counselling on breast-feeding and complementary feeding of their children during the 1st year of life. Fieldworkers blinded to assignment assessed socio-demographic, dietary and anthropometric data during follow-up at ages 1, 4 and 8 years. Blood tests were performed in 305 children aged 8 years to measure fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the homoeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). At the age of 8 years, the intervention group showed no changes in glucose and insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR values (change 0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21 for girls; and change -0·07; 95 % CI -0·19, 0·04 for boys) compared with study controls. Insulin resistance was highly correlated, however, with increases in BMI between birth and 8 years of age. Although this dietary intervention had no impact on glucose profile at age 8 years, our findings suggest that BMI changes in early childhood can serve as an effective marker of insulin resistance.

  12. Effect of audiovisual eyeglasses during dental treatment in 5-8 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Mitrakul, K; Asvanund, Y; Arunakul, M; Paka-Akekaphat, S

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Audiovisual (AV) eyeglasses on pain and anxiety levels during restorative treatment in 5-8 year-olds Thai children. Forty-two children with bilateral carious molars were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the sequence of AV eyeglasses used. Group I was a group which received treatment without wearing AV eyeglasses in the first visit and wearing the eyeglasses in a second visit. Group II was vice versa. Treatments were done in 2 visits, 1 to 4 weeks apart. Self-reporting pain using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), face, legs, activity, crying and consolability scale (FLACC) and heart rate (HR), were measured to assess pain and anxiety levels, respectively. Besides baseline, all variables were measured at the following periods: 1) pre-operation, 2) rubber dam placement, 3) the first use of high speed hand piece, and 4) five minutes interval during the remaining treatment. There was no significant difference in gender (p=0.204) and treatment arch (p=0.292) using Chi-square test at p<0.05, previous dental experience (p=0.381) and treatment received (p=0.835) using Fisher's exact test at p<0.05, age (p=0.384, T-test at p<0.05), and treatment time (1st visit: p=0.465, 2nd visit: p=0.89, Mann- Whitney U test at p<0.05) between 2 groups. AV eyeglasses effectively reduced HR in pre-operation (p=0.043, T test at p<0.05) and FLACC scores in pre-operation (p=0.018, Mann-Whitney U test at p<0.05) and during the first use of high speed hand piece (p=0.047, Mann-Whitney U test at p<0.05). However, HR were decreased during rubber dam placement (p=0.002, T test at p<0.0), the first use of high speed hand piece (p=0.049, T test at p<0.05) and during remaining treatment (p=0.035, T test at p<0.05) in second visit as compared with the first visit with or without wearing the eyeglasses. AV eyeglasses successfully reduced HR and physical distress during pre-operation and the first use of high speed hand piece. It could be used as an

  13. Breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life, adiposity rebound and overweight/obesity at 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Estévez-González, M D; Santana Del Pino, A; Henríquez-Sánchez, P; Peña-Quintana, L; Saavedra-Santana, P

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether breastfeeding protects the child from obesity is a still debated issue; however, the relationship between early adiposity rebound and higher risk of obesity is well known. This study was aimed at evaluating whether breastfeeding (without formula supplement) during the first 6 months of life delays the time of adiposity rebound and consequently reduces the rates of obesity at the age of 8. This retrospective cohort study included 1812 children born in Gran Canaria in 2004, with follow-up until they were 8 years of age. Anthropometrical data had been taken during routine visits to the doctor and were extracted from medical record databases. Only children with breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life (173 children) and children without breastfeeding (192 children) were included. Children with mixed feeding and children whose data were not available were excluded. No body mass index (BMI) differences were found between children with breastfeeding (17.7) or without breastfeeding (17.3) during the first 6 months of life. The percentages of children with normal weight, overweight and obesity were similar in both groups, as well as the age of adiposity rebound breastfeeding 3.61 years; formula 3.64 years). Early adiposity rebound was associated with increased BMI at the age of 8, both in male and female children. Breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was not demonstrated to delay the age of the adiposity rebound, in our study.

  14. Exposure to antibacterial agents with QT liability in 14 European countries: trends over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Raschi, Emanuel; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Zuliani, Chiara; Muller, Arno; Goossens, Herman; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    AIMS (i) To classify antibacterial agents with QT liability on the basis of the available evidence, and (ii) to assess trends in their consumption over an 8-year period (1998–2005) in 14 European countries. METHODS Current published evidence on QT liability of antibiotics was retrieved through MEDLINE search and joined to official warnings from regulatory agencies. Each drug was classified according to an already proposed algorithm based on the strength of evidence: from group A (any evidence) to group E (clinical reports of torsades de pointes and warnings on QT liability). Consumption data were provided by the European Surveillance of Antibacterial Consumption (ESAC) project and were expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). RESULTS Among 21 detected compounds, nine [six fluoroquinolones (FQs) and three macrolides (MACs)] belonged to group E. Use of group E drugs ranged from 1.3 (Sweden) to 4.1 DID (Italy) in 1998 and from 1.2 (Sweden) to 6.5 DID (Italy) in 2005. Significant exposure was observed in Italy and Spain (6.5 and 3.8 DID, respectively, in 2005). Only Denmark, Sweden and UK showed a slight decrease in use. Exposure to clarithromycin increased in 10 out of 14 countries, with a marked increment in Italy (3 DID in 2005). CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding regulatory measures, in 2005 there was still significant exposure to antibacterials with strong evidence of QT liability and, in most countries, it was even increased. This warrants further investigation of appropriateness of use and suggests closer monitoring of group E drugs. Physicians should be aware when prescribing them to susceptible patients. PMID:19076158

  15. Blood Pressure and Fibrinogen Responses to Mental Stress as Predictors of Incident Hypertension over an 8-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Kivimäki, Mika; Lowe, Gordon; Rumley, Ann; Hamer, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Heightened blood pressure (BP) responses to mental stress predict raised BP levels over subsequent years, but evidence for associations with incident hypertension is limited, and the significance of inflammatory responses is uncertain. We investigated the relationship between BP and plasma fibrinogen responses to stress and incident hypertension over an average 8-year follow-up. Participants were 636 men and women (mean age 59.1 years) from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort with no history of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. They performed standardized behavioral tasks (color/word conflict and mirror tracing), and hypertension was defined by clinic measures and medication status. Of participants in the highest systolic BP reactivity tertile, 29.3 % became hypertensive over the follow-up period compared with 16.5 % of those in the lowest tertile, with an odds ratio of 2.02 (95 % CI 1.17-3.88, p = 0.012) after adjustment for age, sex, grade of employment, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, follow-up time, subjective stress response, perceived task difficulty, perceived task engagement, and baseline BP. Similar associations were observed for diastolic BP reactivity (odds ratio 2.05, 95 % CI 1.23-3.40, p = 0.006) and for impaired systolic BP post-stress recovery (odds ratio 2.06, 95 % CI 1.19-3.57, p = 0.010). Fibrinogen reactions to tasks also predicted future hypertension in women (odds ratio 2.64, 95 % CI 1.11-6.30, p = 0.029) but not men. These data suggest that heightened cardiovascular and inflammatory reactivity to mental stress is associated with hypertension risk, and may be a mechanism through which psychosocial factors impact on the development of hypertension.

  16. Vespa velutina nest distribution at a local scale: An 8-year survey of the invasive honeybee predator.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Karine; Thiéry, Denis

    2017-08-01

    Vespa velutina is an invasive species that was observed for the first time in France and Europe in 2004, which rapidly threatened domestic honeybees with active predation. For the first time in this study, we analyzed the distribution of V. velutina nests at a local scale to understand the pattern of nesting, and in 8 years of monitoring, a total of 528 nests were surveyed. With the exception of 2 years, the nests of V. velutina were randomly distributed within the monitored area, which suggested that intraspecific competition for nesting sites and/or food was unlikely. When the data for all years were combined, an aggregated distribution of nests at the seafront in the vicinity of the oyster farm and sportfishing activities was observed. This distribution suggested that seafood, attractive to vespids, might provide a valuable alternative food source that favored colony development. We also tested the effect of spring queen trapping of V. velutina on the distribution of nests in 2014, which was the year with the greatest number of colonies within the area; the position of the traps did not influence the distribution of the nests. For the first time, this study showed that (i) intraspecific competition was unlikely to be a mechanism for population regulation, (ii) some areas were more likely favored for hornet nests, and (iii) spring queen wasp trapping was inefficient as a method to limit the distribution of the V. velutina population. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Assessing fundamental motor skills in Belgian children aged 3-8 years highlights differences to US reference sample.

    PubMed

    Bardid, Farid; Huyben, Floris; Lenoir, Matthieu; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Deconinck, Frederik J A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to understand the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Belgian children using the process-oriented Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) and to investigate the suitability of using the United States (USA) test norms in Belgium. FMS were assessed using the TGMD-2. Gender, age and motor performance were examined in 1614 Belgian children aged 3-8 years (52.1% boys) and compared with the US reference sample. More proficient FMS performance was found with increasing age, from 3 to 6 years for locomotor skills and 3 to 7 years for object control skills. Gender differences were observed in object control skills, with boys performing better than girls. In general, Belgian children had lower levels of motor competence than the US reference sample, specifically for object control skills. The score distribution of the Belgian sample was skewed, with 37.4% scoring below average and only 6.9% scoring above average. This study supported the usefulness of the TGMD-2 as a process-oriented instrument to measure gross motor development in early childhood in Belgium. However, it also demonstrated that caution is warranted when using the US reference norms. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found.

  19. From numeracy to arithmetic: Precursors of arithmetic performance in children with cerebral palsy from 6 till 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Van Rooijen, M; Verhoeven, L; Steenbergen, B

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are generally delayed in arithmetic compared to their peers. The development of early numeracy performance in children with CP is not yet evident, nor have the factors associated with change over time been identified. Therefore, we examined the development of numeracy in children with CP over a two year period and studied which cognitive factors were predictive of arithmetic performance. A longitudinal study with three measurement waves separated by one year was conducted. 56 children participated (37 boys, M=6.0 years, SD=.58). Standardized tasks were used to assess verbal- and visual-spatial working memory, executive functioning, fine motor skills and early numeracy performance. In addition, experimental tasks were developed to measure counting and arithmetic. The results showed that early numeracy performance of children with CP increased between 6 and 8 years of age. Structural equation modelling showed that early numeracy was strongly related to arithmetic performance at the consecutive year. Working memory, counting and fine motor skills were all positively related to early numeracy performance a year later. Furthermore, working memory and fine motor skills were precursors of the development of early numeracy. Considering the importance of numeracy and arithmetic in daily life and in academic and work success, children with CP could substantially benefit from intervention programs aimed at increasing working memory and early numeracy performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unemployment and coronary heart disease among middle-aged men in Sweden: 39 243 men followed for 8 years.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Falkstedt, Daniel; Lundberg, Ingvar; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    Although unemployment may be a stressful life event, its association with coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This study examines the association between unemployment and later hospitalisation due to CHD. The study was based on a Swedish military conscription cohort of 18 to 20-year-old men from 1969/1970 (n=49 321) with information provided on health status and health behaviours. Information on unemployment in middle age was obtained from national registers. CHD information was obtained from hospital registers and the cause of death register. Cox proportional hazard analyses were run on the 39 243 individuals who were in paid employment in 1996 and 1997. It was found that ≥90 days of unemployment was associated with subsequent CHD during 8 years follow-up (crude HR=1.47, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.75). Controlling for known risk factors for CHD reduced the association but a significant association remained (HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.48); ≥90 days of unemployment was significantly associated with CHD during the first 4 years (HR adjusted for known risk factors=1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.71). Unemployment was associated with increased risk of CHD after adjustment for confounders. We interpret the increased risk of CHD associated with unemployment as potentially the somatic result of a process started by stress.

  1. Impact of an 8-Year-Old Transgenic Poplar Plantation on the Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Armand; Bérubé, Jean A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term impact of field-deployed genetically modified trees on soil mutualistic organisms is not well known. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of poplars transformed with a binary vector containing the selectable nptII marker and β-glucuronidase reporter genes on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi 8 years after field deployment. We generated 2,229 fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR products from 1,150 EM root tips and 1,079 fungal soil clones obtained from the organic and mineral soil horizons within the rhizosphere of three control and three transformed poplars. Fifty EM fungal operational taxonomic units were identified from the 1,706 EM fungal ITS amplicons retrieved. Rarefaction curves from both the root tips and soil clones were close to saturation, indicating that most of the EM species present were recovered. Based on qualitative and/or quantitative α- and β-diversity measurements, statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences between EM fungal communities associated with transformed poplars and the untransformed controls. However, EM communities recovered from the root tips and soil cloning analyses differed significantly from each other. We found no evidence of difference in the EM fungal community structure linked to the long-term presence of the transgenic poplars studied, and we showed that coupling root tip analysis with a soil DNA cloning strategy is a complementary approach to better document EM fungal diversity. PMID:19801471

  2. [Ribeiro-Technique in Gigantomastia - Review of 294 Reduction Mammaplasties in 8 Years].

    PubMed

    Wolter, Andreas; Pluto, Naja; Scholz, Till; Diedrichson, Jens; Arens-Landwehr, Andreas; Liebau, Jutta

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Reduction mammaplasty in patients with gigantomastia is challenging even to very experienced plastic surgeons. Extremely elongated pedicles impair the vascular supply of the nipple-areola complex. Breast shaping and effective reduction are difficult due to the severely stretched skin envelope. The Ribeiro technique is the standard technique for reduction mammaplasty in our clinic. The aim of this study is to review our approach in patients with gigantomastia in comparison to the current literature. Patients und methods From 01/2009 to 12/2016, we performed 1247 reduction mammaplasties in 760 patients. In 294 reduction mammoplasties (23.6 %), resection weight was more than 1000 g per breast corresponding to the definition of gigantomastia. The Ribeiro technique with a superomedial pedicle and inferior dermoglandular flap for autologous augmentation of the upper pole was implemented as standard procedure. In cases with a sternal notch-nipple distance > 40 cm, free nipple grafting was performed. The outcome parameters complication rate, patient satisfaction with the aesthetic result, nipple sensitivity and surgical revision rate were obtained and retrospectively analysed. Results In 174 patients, 294 reduction mammaplasties were performed with a resection weight of more than 1000 g per breast. Average resection weight was 1389.6 g (range, 1000-4580 g). Average age was 43.5 years (range, 18-76 years), average body mass index (BMI) was 29.2 kg/m(2) (range, 19-40 kg/m(2)), average sternal notch-nipple distance was 34.8 cm (range, 27-52 cm), average operation time was 117 minutes (range, 72-213 minutes). A free nipple graft was necessary in 30 breasts. Overall complication rate was 7.8 %; secondary surgical revision rate was 16 %. 93 % of the patients were "very satisfied" and "satisfied" with the aesthetic result. Nipple sensitivity was rated "very good" and "good" in 88 %. Conclusion The Ribeiro technique is a well

  3. The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Bladen, Catherine L.; Mayhew, Anna; James, Meredith; Bettinson, Karen; Moore, Ursula; Smith, Fiona E.; Rufibach, Laura; Cnaan, Avital; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana X.; Blamire, Andrew M.; Bravver, Elena; Carlier, Pierre G.; Day, John W.; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Eagle, Michelle; Grieben, Ulrike; Harms, Matthew; Jones, Kristi J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Mendell, Jerry R.; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Paradas, Carmen; Pegoraro, Elena; Pestronk, Alan; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Semplicini, Claudio; Spuler, Simone; Stojkovic, Tanya; Straub, Volker; Takeda, Shin'ich; Rocha, Carolina Tesi; Walter, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the baseline clinical and functional characteristics of an international cohort of 193 patients with dysferlinopathy. Methods: The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS) is an international multicenter study of this disease, evaluating patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy over 3 years. We present a cross-sectional analysis of 193 patients derived from their baseline clinical and functional assessments. Results: There is a high degree of variability in disease onset, pattern of weakness, and rate of progression. No factor, such as mutation class, protein expression, or age at onset, accounted for this variability. Among patients with clinical diagnoses of Miyoshi myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, clinical presentation and examination was not strikingly different. Respiratory impairment and cardiac dysfunction were observed in a minority of patients. A substantial delay in diagnosis was previously common but has been steadily reducing, suggesting increasing awareness of dysferlinopathies. Conclusions: These findings highlight crucial issues to be addressed for both optimizing clinical care and planning therapeutic trials in dysferlinopathy. This ongoing longitudinal study will provide an opportunity to further understand patterns and variability in disease progression and form the basis for trial design. PMID:27602406

  4. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Decline in Walking Speed Over 8 Years Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Danit R.; Houston, Denise K.; Hue, Trisha F.; Lee, Jung-Sun; Sahyoun, Nadine R.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Geva, Diklah; Vardi, Hillel; Harris, Tamara B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Walking speed is an indirect marker of overall mobility performance. Data regarding its association with diet is lacking. Objectives To determine the association between the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) score with 20m walking-speed over 8 years. Design Health-ABC cohort study beginning in 1997–1998. Setting and participants We analyzed data of 2,225 well-functioning participants aged ≥70y. Measurements Walking-speed was assessed in relation to low, medium, and high adherence to the MedDiet (0–2, 3–5, 6–9 points, respectively). Results Individuals in the highest vs. the lowest MedDiet adherence groups were more likely to be men, less likely to be smokers, with lower BMI, higher energy intake and physical activity (p<0.05). Usual and rapid 20m walking speed were highest in the high MedDiet adherence group compared with the other groups, 1.19±0.19, 1.16±0.21, and 1.15±0.19m/s, respectively, (p=0.02) for usual speed and 1.65±0.30, 1.59±0.32, and 1.55±0.30m/s, respectively (p=0.001) for rapid speed. Over 8y, both usual and rapid 20m walking speed declined in all MedDiet adherence groups. Higher MedDiet adherence was an independent predictor of less decline in usual 20m walking speed (p=0.049) in Generalized Estimating Equations adjusted for age, race, gender, site, education, smoking, physical activity, energy intake, health status, depression, and cognitive score. The effect decreased after adding total body-fat-percent to the model (p=0.134). Similar results were observed for MedDiet adherence and rapid 20m walking speed; the association remained significant after adjustment for total body-fat-percent (p=0.012). In all models the interaction between time and MedDiet adherence was not significant. Conclusion Walking speed over 8 years was faster among those with higher MedDiet adherence at baseline. The differences remained significant over 8y, suggesting a long-term effect of diet on mobility performance with aging. PMID:23035758

  5. Trends in Indications and Techniques of Corneal Transplantation in Iran from 2006 to 2013; an 8-year Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Motevasseli, Tahmineh; Chamani, Tahereh; Rezaei Kanavi, Mahnoush; Kheiri, Bahareh; Safi, Sare

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report changing trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran. Methods: We reviewed eye bank records of 47,129 patients who had undergone corneal transplantation between 2006 and 2013 at different eye centers throughout Iran. Results: The most common indication for corneal transplantation was keratoconus (KCN, n = 21,350 eyes, 45.3%), followed by bullous keratopathy (BK, n = 8,566 eyes, 18.2%), corneal opacity and scar (COS, n = 7,158 eyes, 15.2%), graft failure (n = 3,252 eyes, 6.9%), corneal dystrophies (n = 2,553 eyes, 5.4%), and infectious keratitis (n = 2,238 eyes, 4.7%). Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the frequency of BK (P = 0.001) and graft failure (P = 0.025), and a significant decrease in the relative frequency of COS (P = 0.012). The prevalence of KCN (P = 0.172), infectious keratitis (P = 0.107), and corneal dystrophies (P = 0.836) remained unchanged. The most common technique of corneal transplantation was penetrating keratoplasty (PKP, n = 33,476 eyes, 71.0%), followed by deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, n = 8,363 eyes, 17.7%), Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, n = 3,516 eyes, 7.5%), tectonic (n = 1752, 3.7%), and keratolimbal allograft (KLAL, n = 19 eyes, 0.1%). Regarding the shift in surgical techniques, a significant increase was observed in DSAEK (P < 0.001), whereas PKP was significantly decreased (P = 0.005) over the 8-year period. No significant change was seen in the rates of DALK (P = 0.354), tectonic graft (P > 0.999) and KLAL (P = 0.151). Conclusion: KCN was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. Significant changes in surgical techniques were observed over the past 8 years; DSAEK demonstrated an increasing trend while PKP showed a decrease. PMID:27413493

  6. Ulysses: the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme-an 8-year review.

    PubMed

    Fullen, B M; Blake, C; Horan, S; Kelley, V; Spencer, O; Power, C K

    2014-06-01

    To characterise a cohort of patients with chronic pain registered to the Ulysses cognitive behavioural pain management programme (CBT-PMP) and to evaluate the effectiveness of the CBT-PMP 6 months post-discharge. A review of patients referred to the Ulysses CBT-PMP from 2002 to 2010 was undertaken. The profile of patients was established. Domains measured included pain, physical and psychological function. Relationships between these factors were explored. Clinically significant changes in outcome measures were established at the 6-month follow-up. In total 553 patients registered to the CBT-PMP, pre-post data were available for 91 % of patients and 52 % at 6 months. The majority of patients were female and aged between 40 and 50 years. Most patients had significant psychological morbidity (76 % depression, 84.5 % anxiety), moderate reports of pain [numerical rating scale, mean (SD) 6.0 (2.2)], and low levels of functional activity. At 6 months follow-up, statistically significant positive findings for physical and psychological outcome measures are supplemented by results showing their clinical significance. With regard to psychological function, a clinically significant change (depending on outcome measure) was shown between 1 in 2 and 1 in 10 patients. Improvements in physical function were lower with rates of 1 in 4 to 1 in 14 reporting significant gains. The effectiveness of the Ulysses CBT-PMP is established with measures of clinically significant change for physical and psychological outcomes contributing to the evidence for this novel approach of analysis. Future research determining benchmarks for CBT-PMP outcomes will assist clinicians in monitoring and enhancing patient's progress in clinical practice.

  7. Kimura's disease: case report of an Italian young male and response to oral cyclosporine A in an 8 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Beccastrini, Enrico; Emmi, Giacomo; Chiodi, Michela; Di Paolo, Camilla; Benedetta Silvestri, Elena; Massi, Daniela; Maggi, Enrico; Liotta, Francesco; Emmi, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    Kimura's disease is a benign chronic inflammatory disease, common in Asian males and rare in Western people. Clinically, Kimura's disease is characterized by subcutaneous nodular lesions, usually localised in head and neck, often associated with regional lymphadenopathy. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE are often observed. We report a case of a 40-year-old Italian patient presenting with nodular subcutaneous lesions and peripheral eosinophilia. Based on clinical, histopathological and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was made. The patient was treated with very low doses of cyclosporine A with no evidence of disease recurrence over the following 8 years. However, the discontinuation of cyclosporine A determined a relapse of the disease. The relevance of this case is due to the rarity of the disease in Italy, to its peculiar clinical presentation and, moreover, it is the first case in literature that has a good response to treatment with low doses of cyclosporine A, documented in an 8-year follow-up.

  8. [A clinical study of gingival tattooing].

    PubMed

    Gbane, M; Assoumou, M; Abouattier-Mansilla, E

    1998-06-01

    Tattooing gingiva is a current practice in traditional areas. Only women are concerned by it. Thus this study recommends to evaluate clinical characteristics of tattooed gingiva and their influence on the woman's beauty and elegance. This study revealed that: explored tattooed gingiva do not show any significant lesions, tattooing the gingiva remains a woman's beauty mark, its produce esthetic effects and a wellbeing.

  9. PPB | What is a Clinical Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study ‹an observational clinical research study‹is enrolling children with PPB and their families. In an observational study, investigators assess health outcomes in groups of participants according to a protocol or research plan.

  10. Clinical and Epidemiological Studies on Rickettsial Infections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTI011-"- APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL FOR TEAR-7 (1979-1980) Pase 2 Repor Page 11 effective control of the infection were...34CLINICAL AND EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS" ANINUAL REPORT. YFAR-7(1979-1980) Page 62 Report Page 31 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH

  11. Clinical study of giant cell arteritis in our hospital.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Eiichi; Miyamura, Tomoya; Nakamura, Masataka; Higuchi, Makiko; Mori, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Tomoaki; Kaku, Yu; Takahama, Soichiro; Minami, Rumi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate clinical and laboratory features of giant cell arteritis (GCA). We included 24 patients (6 men, 18 women; mean age 69.8 years) in this study. GCA was diagnosed based on the American College of Rheumatology 1990 classification criteria. Mean serum C-reactive protein was 9.03 mg/dl. GCA was classified into three types: classic temporal arteritis type (cranial GCA, nine patients); large-vessel type, affecting the aorta and its major branches without temporal arteries (12 patients); generalized type, affecting both temporal arteries and large vessels (three patients). Swelling and tenderness of temporal arteries were recognized in temporal arteritis and generalized arteritis. Ten of these patients also had histopathologic findings of arteritis, including giant cells in biopsy specimens. Examination of HLA-class 1 expression showed that one patient with cranial GCA, three with generalized GCA, and seven with large-vessel GCA were positive for HLA-A24, and four patients with large-vessel GCA were positive for HLA-B39. One patient with cranial GCA, one with generalized GCA, and six with large-vessel GCA were positive for HLA-B52. Nine patients were positive for anti-phospholipid antibodies (seven for anti-cardiolipin antibody immunoglobulin G, seven for anti-cardiolipin β2-glycoprotein-1 antibody, one for lupus anticoagulant). Our study demonstrated that HLA-class 1 expression in GCA resembles that in Takayasu arteritis, suggesting that these two arteritis types share the same genetic background. In contrast, the difference in the prevalence of anti-phospholipid antibodies in GCA and Takayasu arteritis patients shows a difference in the characteristic aspects of these two arteritis types.

  12. [Analysis of protection or risk factors for dental fluorosis in 6 to 8 year-old children in Fortaleza, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Bezerra de Menezes, Léa Maria; Dias, Aldo Angelim; Morais de Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Leitão de Almeida, Maria Eneide

    2010-12-01

    To investigate protection or risk factors for dental fluorosis in permanent teeth of 6 to 8 year-old children in a neighborhood of Fortaleza, Brazil. This case-control study included 57 controls and 67 children with fluorosis affecting superior and inferior incisors teeth as determined by the Dean classification criteria. Presence of fluorosis was considered as the dependent variable. Data concerning independent variables were obtained through interviews with the parents. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations between fluorosis and the independent variables. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to investigate associations and likelihood of fluorosis in the case group, with 95% significance level. Fluorosis was significantly associated with type of housing (owned, rented or squatted), but not with the source of drinking water or use of fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride supplements. Univariate analysis showed that the risk of fluorosis was higher in children who began drinking powdered milk mixed with water before 2 years of age (OR = 4.53; IC95%: 1.07-26.74) and in those who did not breastfeed (OR = 6.66; IC95%: 1.61-38.62). In the multivariate analysis, only breastfeeding was associated with fluorosis (4.54; IC95%: 1.21-16.66). Breastfeeding was a protection factor against fluorosis. More specific categorization criteria must be established to investigate relationships between fluorosis and socioeconomic class.

  13. Determinants of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Population Sample of Girls and Boys Aged 6 to 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Lintu, Niina; Savonen, Kai; Viitasalo, Anna; Tompuri, Tuomo; Paananen, Jussi; Tarvainen, Mika P; Lakka, Timo

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among girls and boys separately in population samples of children. We therefore investigated the determinants of CRF, assessed by maximal workload per height using allometric scaling, in a population sample of 162 girls and 177 boys aged 6 to 8 years. We used automated bootstrap feature selection and linear regression models. The strongest determinants of CRF among girls were maximal heart rate (HR; standardized regression coefficient [β] = 0.31, P < .001), unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.29, P < .001), lean body mass (β = 0.23, P = .001), and errors in static balance test (β = -0.16, P = .02), accounting altogether for 25.7% of variation in CRF. In boys, unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.24, P < .001), resting HR (β = -0.25, P < .001), hand grip strength (β = 0.21, P = .001), errors in static balance test (β = -0.16, P = .01), organized football (β = 0.16, P = .01), and unsupervised trampoline jumping (β = 0.14, P = .04) were the strongest determinants of CRF, accounting altogether for 29.7% of variation in CRF. These findings suggest that unsupervised physical activity is sufficient in improving CRF in both sexes. Furthermore, larger muscle mass and better balance are associated with higher CRF that has to be taken into account when assessing CRF using maximal cycle ergometer exercise test among children.

  14. Malignant paraganglioma associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B in an 8-year-old child: the age of first screening?

    PubMed

    Prodanov, Tamara; Havekes, Bas; Nathanson, Katherine L; Adams, Karen T; Pacak, Karel

    2009-06-01

    Several studies have shown that patients with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) mutations have a very high risk for developing malignant paragangliomas. However, there is no consensus of what age screening for paragangliomas should start. We report a case of an 8-year-old white girl with a 3-year history of catecholamine excess-related complaints who was diagnosed with a malignant SDHB-associated mediastinal paraganglioma. The patient presented with intermittent sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weight loss that had been present since she was 5 years of age. A large posterior mediastinal mass measuring 6.4 cm x 3.1 cm x 4.6 cm was discovered on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laboratory data included an elevated level of urine normetanephrine of 45,400 microg/g creatinine (upper reference limit 718 microg/g) and elevated level of plasma normetanephrine of 62.4 nmol/l (upper reference limit <0.90 nmol/l). She was diagnosed with a thoracic paraganglioma and subsequently underwent surgical removal of the tumor and two lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination confirmed metastatic paraganglioma. Postoperatively, her blood pressure normalized and plasma normetanephrine levels remained normal. Our patient first presented with paraganglioma-associated signs and symptoms at the young age of 5 years. This case clearly illustrates the need for increased vigilance and screening for paragangliomas in families with SDHB at a younger age than previously thought.

  15. [Malposition of epidural catheter: an 8-year retrospective analysis on an incident reporting system at an urban university hospital].

    PubMed

    Date, Yoriko; Ishikawa, Seiji; Fujisawa, Akiko; Uchida, Tokujirou; Nakazawa, Koichi; Makita, Koshi

    2010-10-01

    Epidural anesthesia is widely used in patients who undergo thoracic, abdominal or lower extremity surgeries and generally considered useful for perioperative analgesic management. Epidural catheterization is often associated with some complications including misplacement of the catheter. Epidural catheters are known to be misplaced or migrate into subarachnoidal space, subdural space, vessels and thoracic cavities ; however, frequency, predominant sites of misplacement, and the timing of detection are not fully understood regarding the misplacement of the catheters. In this retrospective study, our incident reporting system dealt with a period of 8 years (from 1999 to 2007) at our university hospital. Out of 8 patients who had misplacement of the catheter, 6 patients were male and 2 patients were female. Epidural catheters were misplaced to subarachnoid space in 6 cases and thoracic cavity in 2 cases. The misplacement of the catheters was found before the induction of general anesthesia in 2 patients, after induction of general anesthesia in 1 patient, during surgical procedure in 3 patients, and postoperatively in 2 patients. Since misplacement of epidural catheters can occur at any moment during perioperative period, continuous monitoring and observation of patients seem to be very important to prevent and minimize the adverse events related to the misplacement of epidural catheters.

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Suburethral and Transobturator Sling in 209 Cases with Stress Urinary Incontinence in 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Prakash; D’Costa, Sylvia; Shirkande, Preeti; Kumar, Shilpi; Patil, Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of suburethral and transobturator sling in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in 209 cases from 2002 to 2010. The criteria evaluated were success, failure, complications, operating time, ease of the procedure, availability and cost effectivity of the sling. Design and Setting: A retrospective comparative study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre for female urinary incontinence. Material and Methods: A total of 209 patients (females from 27 to 79 years of age) with proven stress urinary incontinence were treated by suburethral transvaginal tape (TVT) type of slings in 101 cases and transobturator Monarc type of sling in 108 cases at the National Institute of Endoscopic Surgery and Urinary Incontinence Center, Mumbai, India, from March 2002 to June 2010. The maximum follow up was for 8 years. Results: The TVT type of slings had higher complication rate like needle entering the bladder, retention of urine necessitating to cut the tape in the center and had a success rate of 94.5% compared to Monarc/Trivedi obturator tape (TrOT) type of sling with outside-in technique, which had a negligible complication (less than 1%), pain in groin or leg movement that reduced in 6 weeks and a success rate of 95%. Specially, the Indian design Trivedi’s stress urinary incontinence tape (TSUIT) and TrOT with reusable needles, the cost was only 15–20% of the international brands. PMID:22442522

  17. Molecular characterization of HCV in a Swedish county over 8 years (2002–2009) reveals distinct transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ederth, Josefine; Jern, Camilla; Norder, Helené; Magnius, Lars; Alm, Erik; Rognsvåg, Björg Kleverman; Sundin, Carl-Gustaf; Brytting, Mia; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern and data on its molecular epidemiology in Sweden is scarce. We carried out an 8-year population-based study of newly diagnosed HCV cases in one of Sweden's centrally situated counties, Södermanland (D-county). The aim was to characterize the HCV strains circulating, analyze their genetic relatedness to detect networks, and in combination with demographic data learn more about transmission. Methods Molecular analyses of serum samples from 91% (N=557) of all newly notified cases in D-county, 2002–2009, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis (NS5B gene, 300 bp) was linked to demographic data from the national surveillance database, SmiNet, to characterize D-county transmission clusters. The linear-by-linear association test (LBL) was used to analyze trends over time. Results The most prevalent subtypes were 1a (38%) and 3a (34%). Subtype 1a was most prevalent among cases transmitted via sexual contact, via contaminated blood, or blood products, while subtype 3a was most prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype 3a sequences formed more and larger transmission clusters (50% of the sequences clustered), while the 1a sequences formed smaller clusters (19% of the sequences clustered), possibly suggesting different epidemics. Conclusion We found different transmission patterns in D-county which may, from a public health perspective, have implications for how to control virus infections by targeted interventions. PMID:26854010

  18. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease: An 8-Year Experience from a Single Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TAŞKAPILIOĞLU, Özlem; SEFEROĞLU, Meral; YURTOĞULLARI, Şükran; HAKYEMEZ, Bahattin; ERER, Sevda; KARLI, Necdet; BAKAR, Mustafa; TURAN, Ö. Faruk; ZARİFOĞLU, Mehmet; TOLUNAY, Şahsine; BORA, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to conduct a retrospective review to demonstrate the clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological features of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (sCJD). Method A total of 10 patients (5 female and 5 male, with a mean age of 45 years from a range of 40 to 67 years) out of 8.259 adult patients hospitalized from January 2000 to December 2008 were diagnosed with sCJD. Results Eight of the patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, electroencephalography (EEG), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. Two other patients also had a pathological diagnosis. The most common signs and symptoms were behavioral disturbances, movement disorders, cognitive decline, myoclonus, psychosis, focal neurological deficit, and aphasia. Nine of the patients had periodic sharp wave discharges on EEG. Seven patients were positive for the 14.3.3 protein in the CSF. Five patients had pulvinar signs-a bilateral increased signal in the pulvinar thalami-on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients were diagnosed with probable sCJD; two were diagnosed with definite sCJD. All of the patients died as a result of the disease within 24 months after the onset of symptoms. Discussion sCJD should be considered in the diagnosis of patients who present with rapidly progressive dementia. Clinical and radiological data appear to be sufficient for the diagnosis. However, detailed molecular examinations of the subtypes of the disease may be required for early diagnosis of cases given the wide spectra of CJD.

  19. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease: An 8-Year Experience from a Single Center in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşkapilioğlu, Özlem; Seferoğlu, Meral; Yurtoğullari, Şükran; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erer, Sevda; Karli, Necdet; Bakar, Mustafa; Turan, Ö Faruk; Zarifoğlu, Mehmet; Tolunay, Şahsine; Bora, İbrahim

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to conduct a retrospective review to demonstrate the clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological features of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (sCJD). A total of 10 patients (5 female and 5 male, with a mean age of 45 years from a range of 40 to 67 years) out of 8.259 adult patients hospitalized from January 2000 to December 2008 were diagnosed with sCJD. Eight of the patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, electroencephalography (EEG), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. Two other patients also had a pathological diagnosis. The most common signs and symptoms were behavioral disturbances, movement disorders, cognitive decline, myoclonus, psychosis, focal neurological deficit, and aphasia. Nine of the patients had periodic sharp wave discharges on EEG. Seven patients were positive for the 14.3.3 protein in the CSF. Five patients had pulvinar signs-a bilateral increased signal in the pulvinar thalami-on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients were diagnosed with probable sCJD; two were diagnosed with definite sCJD. All of the patients died as a result of the disease within 24 months after the onset of symptoms. sCJD should be considered in the diagnosis of patients who present with rapidly progressive dementia. Clinical and radiological data appear to be sufficient for the diagnosis. However, detailed molecular examinations of the subtypes of the disease may be required for early diagnosis of cases given the wide spectra of CJD.

  20. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  1. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  2. Precocious Puberty or Premature Thelarche: Analysis of a Large Patient Series in a Single Tertiary Center with Special Emphasis on 6- to 8-Year-Old Girls.

    PubMed

    Varimo, Tero; Huttunen, Heta; Miettinen, Päivi Johanna; Kariola, Laura; Hietamäki, Johanna; Tarkkanen, Annika; Hero, Matti; Raivio, Taneli

    2017-01-01

    We describe the etiology, MRI findings, and growth patterns in girls who had presented with signs of precocious puberty (PP), i.e., premature breast development or early menarche. Special attention was paid to the diagnostic findings in 6- to 8-year-olds. We reviewed the medical records of 149 girls (aged 0.7-10.3 years) who had been evaluated for PP in the Helsinki University Hospital between 2001 and 2014. In 6- to 8-year-old girls, PP was most frequently caused by idiopathic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-dependent PP (60%) and premature thelarche (PT; 39%). The former subgroup grew faster (8.7 ± 2.0 cm/year, n = 58) than the girls with PT (7.0 ± 1.1 cm/year, n = 32) (P < 0.001), and the best discrimination for GnRH-dependent PP was achieved with a growth velocity cut-off value of 7.0 cm/year (sensitivity 92% and specificity 58%) [area under the curve 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.91, P < 0.001]. Among asymptomatic and previously healthy 6- to 8-year-old girls with GnRH-dependent PP, one (1.7%, 95% CI 0.3-9.7%) had a pathological brain MRI finding requiring surgical intervention (craniopharyngioma). In girls younger than 3 years, the most frequent cause of breast development was PT, and, in 3- to 6-year-olds, GnRH-dependent PP. In 6- to 8-year-old girls, analysis of growth velocity is helpful in differentiating between PT and GnRH-dependent PP. Although the frequency of clinically relevant intracranial findings in previously healthy, asymptomatic 6- to 8-year-old girls was low, they can present without any signs or symptoms, which favors routine MRI imaging also in this age group.

  3. Clinical laboratory studies of disinfection with Sporicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, H D

    1985-01-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory evaluation of disinfectants can serve as a guide for their application to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The use of Sporicidin, a glutaraldehyde-phenol formulation, was evaluated by the application of modified MIC and MBC determinations for standard organisms. In addition, the effect of this formulation on bacteria that may proliferate in water at ambient temperatures was studied. This investigation indicated that such studies can help the clinical microbiologist to guide the use of disinfectants and sterilants for the maintenance of a safe hospital environment. PMID:3932457

  4. Using clinical data bases to study schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Davidson, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Studying psycho-pathology using clinical registries enables a birds-eye view of all mental illness, and allows researchers to look at each illness in the context of other mental illnesses. The papers presented in this issue indicate that at least some of the symptoms commonly present in schizophrenia are actually present in other mental disorders and may even be present in individuals without diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Although there are some disadvantages to research based on clinical registries, this method enables study designs not be possible with conventional research paradigms.

  5. Early head growth: relation with IQ at 8 years and determinants in term infants of low and appropriate birthweight.

    PubMed

    Lira, Pedro I C; Eickmann, Sophie H; Lima, Marilia C; Amorim, Rosemary J; Emond, Alan M; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth, 2 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 8 years. Cognition was assessed at 8 years (n=164) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Multivariable analysis with a two-stage residual model was used to relate head growth between successive time points with IQ. Mean birthweight was 2.35kg (SD 0.15) in the LBW group (33 males, 50 females), and 3.21kg (SD 0.15) in the ABW group (28 males, 53 females). Mean gestational age was 38.8 weeks (SD 1.4) and 40.0 weeks (SD 1.3) respectively. In the LBW group, head growth from birth to 2 months and from 2 to 6 months, conditional on previous size, were significant independent predictors of IQ at 8 years. Conditional head growth from 6 months to 8 years and head size at birth were unrelated to IQ. In the ABW group there was no significant relation between conditional head growth and IQ for any period. Determinants of more rapid head growth from birth to 6 months in LBW infants were maternal height and rate of infant weight gain. Head growth from birth to 6 months in term LBW infants is more important than prenatal or later postnatal head growth in predicting IQ at 8 years.

  6. Case Report of Percutaneous Tract Seeding of Renal Pelvic Tumor: 8-Year Journey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 58-year-old female presented with renal colic and was found to have renal transitional cell carcinoma at the time of percutaneous surgery. She developed percutaneous tract seeding that clinically presented as subcutaneous skin nodules. After local treatment with surgical excision and radiation treatment, the patient developed retroperitoneal recurrence 5 years later. Percutaneous tract seeding is rare. There is no general consensus on prevention of tract seeding during percutaneous resection of renal urothelial tumors. Various recommendations from the literature are discussed. PMID:27868102

  7. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors. PMID:18028537

  8. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study.

    PubMed

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-11-20

    Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  9. Home-based telemanagement in chronic heart failure: an 8-year single-site experience.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Amerigo; Zanelli, Emanuela; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    During an eight-year period, 358 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) were enrolled in a six-month home-based telemanagement (HBT) programme. The efficacy of the programme was evaluated in two four-year periods, based on changes in clinical, functional, Quality of Life (QoL) status and rate of hospital readmission. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and the number of patients with comorbidities increased significantly in the second period, while the number of patients with beta-blockers decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Following the HBT programme, non-cardiovascular hospital readmission rate and all-cause readmission rate increased by 11% (P < 0.03) and 13% (P < 0.05), respectively. On re-evaluation after six months (238 patients) there was a general improvement in clinical, functional and QoL status and a significant increase in the mean daily dosage of beta-blockers prescribed. Our experience confirms that HBT for patients with CHF is associated with favourable effects on hospital readmission for cardiovascular reasons and on QoL. However, a more comprehensive multidisciplinary approach will probably be required to obtain favourable effects on total morbidity.

  10. Clinical evidence for Japanese population based on prospective studies--linking clinical trials and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hisao; Kojima, Sunao

    2009-10-01

    "Evidence-based medicine (EBM)" implies effective and high quality practice for patients based on well-grounded medical science. The success of clinical trials in Japan is essential to build original evidence specific for Japanese patients. Based on this concept, we have performed several large-scale clinical trials to provide EBM, including the Japanese Antiplatelets Myocardial Infarction Study [JAMIS; clinical improvement in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with antiplatelet therapy], the Japanese beta-Blockers and Calcium Antagonists Myocardial Infarction (JBCMI; comparison of the effects of beta-blockers and calcium antagonists on cardiovascular events in post-AMI patients), a multicenter study for aggressive lipid-lowering strategy by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in patients with AMI (MUSASHI; effects of statin therapy on cardiovascular events in patients with AMI), and the Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis with Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD trial; efficacy of low-dose aspirin therapy for primary prevention of atherosclerotic events in type 2 diabetic patients). The results of these prospective studies were directly linked with clinical practice. We have acquired the know-how of large-scale clinical trials; an important point is to have passion for "buildup evidence specific for the Japanese" and to recruit subjects for enrollment after explaining the significance of "clinical trials for the Japanese".

  11. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: key distal household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Schott, Whitney B; Crookston, Benjamin T; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2013-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7266 children in the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. HAZ at about age 1 year and age in months predicted much of the variation in HAZ at age 5 years, but 40-71% was not predicted. Similarly, HAZ at age 5 years and age in months did not predict 26-47% of variation in HAZ at 8 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that parental schooling, consumption, and mothers' height are key correlates of HAZ at about age 1 and also are associated with unpredicted change in HAZ from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years, given initial HAZ. These results underline the importance of a child's starting point in infancy in determining his or her growth, point to key distal household and community factors that may determine early growth in early life and subsequent growth recovery and growth failure, and indicate that these factors vary some by country, urban/rural designation, and child sex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. External Quality Assessment Scheme for reference laboratories - review of 8 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anja; Siekmann, Lothar; Weykamp, Cas; Geilenkeuser, Wolf Jochen; Dreazen, Orna; Middle, Jonathan; Schumann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We describe an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) intended for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine and supervised by the Scientific Division of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the responsible Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. The official EQAS website, RELA (www.dgkl-rfb.de:81), is open to interested parties. Information on all requirements for participation and results of surveys are published annually. As an additional feature, the identity of every participant in relation to the respective results is disclosed. The results of various groups of measurands (metabolites and substrates, enzymes, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobins, proteins, hormones, thyroid hormones, therapeutic drugs) are discussed in detail. The RELA system supports reference measurement laboratories preparing for accreditation according to ISO 17025 and ISO 15195. Participation in a scheme such as RELA is one of the requirements for listing of the services of a calibration laboratory by the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine.

  13. Baseline serum MMP-3 levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis are still independently predictive of radiographic progression in a longitudinal observational cohort at 8 years follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, there is no reliable tool for predicting disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously demonstrated an association between specific baseline biomarkers/clinical measures including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and 2-year radiographic progression in patients with RA. This study further evaluates the predictive capability of these baseline variables with outcome extended over 8-years. Methods Fifty-eight of the original cohort (n = 118) had radiographic progression from baseline to mean 8.2-years determined using the van der Heijde modified Sharp method. The contribution of each predictor variable towards radiographic progression was assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Traditional factors (including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor) and biomarkers of tissue destruction (including MMP-3, C-telopeptide of type II collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) measured at baseline were associated with radiographic progression at endpoint. Multivariate logistic regression identified anti-CCP seropositivity [OR 9.29, 95%CI: 2.29-37.64], baseline elevated MMP-3 [OR 8.25, 95%CI: 2.54-26.78] and baseline radiographic damage [OR 5.83, 95%CI: 1.88-18.10] as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic progression. A model incorporating these variables had a predictive accuracy of 0.87, assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion In our cohort with onset of RA symptoms < 2-years, multivariate analysis identified anti-CCP status and baseline MMP-3 as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic disease outcome at 8.2-years. This finding suggests determination of baseline MMP-3, in conjunction with traditional serologic markers, may provide additional prognostic information for patients with RA. Furthermore

  14. Disease activity and disability in women and men with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA): an 8-year followup of a Swedish early RA project.

    PubMed

    Hallert, Eva; Björk, Mathilda; Dahlström, Orjan; Skogh, Thomas; Thyberg, Ingrid

    2012-08-01

    To compare women and men regarding the course of disease activity and disability over 8 years from diagnosis of recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 149 patients were followed in the Swedish TIRA study (Early Intervention in RA) for 8 years from RA diagnosis (1996-1998) regarding 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28), pain (visual analog scale), grip force, Grip Ability Test (GAT), Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI; hand, upper/lower extremity), walking speed, activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ]), and prescribed disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Disease activity pattern over time was similar in women and men, showing improvement during the first year and a stable situation during 6 years thereafter. However, at the 7- and 8-year followup times, deterioration was seen with a less favorable course in women. HAQ score did not differ between sexes at diagnosis, but at all followup times women had significantly higher scores than men. Women also had lower grip force and lower walking speed, but higher upper extremity mobility. DMARD prescription was similar for both sexes. Over 8 years, disease duration, sex, biologic agents, grip force, SOFI hand, and pain intensity together explained 43% of the variation in DAS28, whereas grip force, SOFI lower extremity, GAT, and pain intensity could together explain 55% of variations in HAQ score. Disease activity was fairly well managed, but disability gradually worsened. Despite similar medication, women had more disability than men. The discrepancy between disease activity and disability indicates unmet needs for multiprofessional interventions to prevent progressing disability, and patients at risk for disability need to be identified early in the process. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Pilonidal cyst involving the clitoris in an 8-year-old girl--a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Maor-Sagie, Esther; Arbell, Dan; Prus, Diana; Israel, Eduardo; Benshushan, Avi

    2010-11-01

    Pilonidal disease is common among adolescents and adults, mainly located in the sacral area. Pilonidal disease involving the clitoris is extremely rare and has not been described in premenarcheal girls. We present a case of a recurrent pilonidal periclitoral cyst in an 8-year-old girl which was surgically treated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorders and substance use disorders over 8 years of time at risk.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc

    2011-04-30

    Personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) lead to high violent criminality. The influence of co-morbidity on recidivism remains unclear. Recidivism of 379 offenders was assessed at 8 years of follow-up. Sixty-nine percent of PD+SUD, 45% of SUD- and 33% of PD- subjects showed any recidivism. However, violent recidivism was highest in the PD- group.

  17. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  18. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  19. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights, UNESCO's"…

  20. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights, UNESCO's"…

  1. The role of orbitofrontal cortex in processing empathy stories in 4- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M; Kuchinke, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4-8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more familiar.

  2. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  3. Changing attitudes toward needle biopsies of breast cancer in Shanghai: experience and current status over the past 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuang; Liu, Zhe-Bin; Ling, Hong; Chen, Jia-Jian; Shen, Ju-Ping; Yang, Wen-Tao; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic patterns in breast cancer have greatly changed over the past few decades, and core needle biopsy (CNB) has become a reliable procedure for detecting breast cancer without invasive surgery. To estimate the changing diagnostic patterns of breast cancer in urban Shanghai, 11,947 women with breast lesions detected by preoperative needle biopsy between January 1995 and December 2012 were selected from the Shanghai Cancer Data base, which integrates information from approximately 50% of breast cancer patients in Shanghai. The CNB procedure uses an automated prone unit, biopsy gun, and 14-gauge needles under freehand or ultrasound guidance and was performed by experienced radiologists and surgeons specializing in needle biopsies. Diagnosis and classification for each patient were independently evaluated by pathologists. Over the indicated 8-year period, biopsy type consisted of 11,947 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsies (UCNBs), 2,015 ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (UVABs), and 654 stereotactic X-ray-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (XVABs). For all the 11,947 women included in this study, image-guided needle biopsy was the initial diagnostic procedure. Approximately 81.0% of biopsied samples were histopathologically determined to be malignant lesions, 5.5% were determined to be high-risk lesions, and 13.5% were determined to be benign lesions. The number of patients choosing UCNB increased at the greatest rate, and UCNB has become a standard procedure for histodiagnosis because it is inexpensive, convenient, and accurate. The overall false-negative rate of CNB was 1.7%, and the specific false-negative rates for UCNB, UVAB, and XVAB, were 1.7%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. This study suggests that the use of preoperative needle biopsy as the initial breast cancer diagnostic procedure is acceptable in urban Shanghai. Preoperative needle biopsy is now a standard procedure in the Shanghai Cancer Center because it may reduce the number of surgeries

  4. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more

  5. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  6. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007).

    PubMed

    Chu, Brian K; Hooper, Pamela J; Bradley, Mark H; McFarland, Deborah A; Ottesen, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained

  7. Association of Bullying Behavior at 8 Years of Age and Use of Specialized Services for Psychiatric Disorders by 29 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ilola, Anna-Marja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2016-02-01

    Bullying and being exposed to bullying among children is prevalent, especially among children with psychiatric symptoms, and constitutes a major concern worldwide. Whether childhood bullying or exposure to bullying in the absence of childhood psychiatric symptoms is associated with psychiatric outcomes in adulthood remains unclear. To study the associations between bullying behavior at 8 years of age and adult psychiatric outcomes by 29 years of age. Nationwide birth cohort study of 5034 Finnish children with complete information about childhood bullying behavior was followed up from 8 to 29 years of age. Follow-up was completed on December 31, 2009, and data were analyzed from January 15, 2013, to February 15, 2015. Information about bullying, exposure to bullying, and psychiatric symptoms were obtained from parents, teachers, and child self-reports when children were 8 years of age. Use of specialized services for psychiatric disorders from 16 to 29 years of age was obtained from a nationwide hospital register, including outpatient and inpatient treatment. Among the 5034 study participants, 4540 (90.2%) did not engage in bullying behavior; of these, 520 (11.5%) had received a psychiatric diagnosis at follow-up; 33 of 166 (19.9%) who engaged in frequent bullying, 58 of 251 (23.1%) frequently exposed to bullying, and 24 of 77 (31.2%) who both frequently engaged in and were frequently exposed to bullying had received psychiatric diagnoses at follow-up. When analyses were adjusted by sex, family factors, and child psychiatric symptoms at 8 years of age, we found independent associations of treatment of any psychiatric disorder with frequent exposure to bullying (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5) and being a bully and exposed to bullying (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4). Exposure to bullying was specifically associated with depression (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9). Bullying was associated with psychiatric outcomes only in the presence of psychiatric problems at 8 years

  8. Northern Red Oak From Acorns to Acorns in 8 Years or Less

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn Kormanik; Tom Tibbs; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2004-01-01

    The intrinsic factors affecting acorn production in oak trees need further study. Common knowledge holds that an oak requires a minimum number of years to begin flowering, with 30 to 50 most frequently reported. Recently, the Institute of Tree Root Biology has been studying the development of northern red oak ( L.) in the nursery and in...

  9. A Right Middle Cerebral Artery Infarct After Frontal Eosinophilic Granuloma Resection in an 8-Year-Old Boy with Factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Ertugrul; Arslan, Erhan; Yazar, Ugur; Reis, Gokce Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Stroke in children is relatively uncommon. We describe an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the frontal bone. After excision of the EG, the postoperative course was eventful. The patient had an acute right middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and had been comatose with a diminished Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5. Urgent decompressive hemicraniectomy with duraplasty was performed. The postoperative course after the second operation was uneventful. Hematological tests revealed a diagnosis of factor V Leiden. The patient was discharged with left hemiparesis and GCS of 15. To the best of our knowledge, no such clinical picture of MCA infarction after EG excision has been described before. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inherited thrombophilias, such as factor V Leiden, if the postoperative clinical course worsens because of cerebral artery thrombosis. Also, decompressive hemicraniectomy could be life saving and should be performed urgently without any hesitation.

  10. Depression and Anxiety Screens as Predictors of 8-Year Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jesse C; Hawkins, Misty A W; Khambaty, Tasneem; Perkins, Anthony J; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    Because depression and anxiety are typically studied in isolation, our purpose was to examine the relative importance of these overlapping emotional factors in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined depression and anxiety screens, and their individual items, as predictors of incident hard CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke for 8 years in a diverse sample of 2041 older primary care patients initially free of CVD. At baseline, participants completed self-report depression and anxiety screens. Data regarding CVD events were obtained from an electronic medical record system and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analytic files. During follow-up, 683 (33%) experienced a CVD event. Cox proportional hazards models-adjusted for demographic and CVD risk factors-revealed that a positive anxiety screen, but not a positive depression screen, was associated with an increased risk of a hard CVD event in separate models (Years 0-3: anxiety hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.96, p < .001; Years 3+: anxiety HR = 0.99, CI = 0.81-1.21), p = .93; depression HR = 1.10, CI = 0.88-1.36, p = .41), as well as when entered into the same model (Years 0-3: anxiety HR = 1.53, CI = 1.20-1.95, p < .001; Years 3+: anxiety HR = 0.99, CI = 0.80-1.21, p = .99; depression HR = 1.03, CI = 0.82-1.29, p = .82). Analyses examining individual items and secondary outcomes showed that the anxiety-CVD association was largely driven by the feeling anxious item and the myocardial infarction outcome. Anxiety, especially feeling anxious, is a unique risk factor for CVD events in older adults, independent of conventional risk factors and depression. Anxiety deserves increased attention as a potential factor relevant to CVD risk stratification and a potential target of CVD primary prevention efforts.

  11. High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stewart, Christine P.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life. PMID:24763111

  12. High plasma homocysteine increases risk of metabolic syndrome in 6 to 8 year old children in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J; Khatry, Subarna K; Stewart, Christine P; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2014-04-21

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥ 85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08-2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33-2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06-2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life.

  13. Reversal of dental fluorosis: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Dhaval N.; Shah, Jigna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical reversal of dental fluorosis with various combinations of calcium, vitamin D3, and ascorbic acid, along with changes in levels of certain biochemical parameters concerned with dental fluorosis. The role of fluoride level of drinking water in the etiology of dental fluorosis and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in both dentitions and teeth were also assessed. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 patients with clinical features of dental fluorosis without trauma and any adverse habits were selected. Of these, in 30 co-operative patients, estimation of water fluoride level and pretreatment and post-treatment serum and urine fluoride levels were done with ion selective electrode method. The selected 30 patients were divided into three groups, that is, group A, group B, and group C, and were given various combinations of medications like calcium with vitamin D3 supplements, ascorbic acid with vitamin D3 supplements, and chlorhexidine mouthwash (placebo) for three months, respectively. These 30 patients were assessed for any change in the clinical grading of dental fluorosis. Results: No change in clinical grading of dental fluorosis was noted. Considerable reduction in serum and urine fluoride levels was noted in both group A and group B patients. Dental fluorosis was noted in permanent teeth more commonly than deciduous teeth, and permanent maxillary central incisors had the highest prevalence rate. Conclusion: This study comprises only 30 patients with three months of follow-up. So, this sample of patients and duration of follow-up period are conclusive to observe changes in biochemical parameters but not sufficient to observe changes in clinical grading. PMID:23633850

  14. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  15. Playful Fostering of 6- to 8-Year-Old Students' Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Gyongyver

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a training program in inductive reasoning for first-grade students and presents the direct results as well as the longitudinal effects of the evaluation study. The training is based on Klauer's theory of inductive reasoning and on his "Cognitive training for children" concept (Klauer, 1989a). The training program consists of…

  16. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  17. Explaining Variability: Numerical Representations in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to examine relations between number representations and various sources of individual differences within early stages of development of number representations. The mental number line has been found to develop from a logarithmic to a more linear representation. Sources under investigation are counting skills and executive…

  18. Gender Differences in Throwing Form of Children Ages 6-8 Years during a Throwing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Kevin M.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2008-01-01

    The study purposes were to describe throwing form and gender differences before and after instruction during a game. Children's (ages 6-8, n = 105) throwing form was assessed while they played a game (snowball) using the Body Component Assessment for Throwing in Games to determine the modal developmental levels for the step, trunk, and forearm…

  19. Head and Neck Cancer in a Developing Country: A Population-Based Perspective Across 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Esra; Dey, Subhojit; Hablas, Ahmad; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Rozek, Laura S.; Soliman, Amr S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) has been studied in different regions of the world but little is known about its incidence patterns in the Middle East and Egypt. In this study from Egypt’s only population-based registry, we analyzed data from 1999-2006, to estimate incidence, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) categorized by age, district and subsites. Overall urban incidence of HNC was twice or more that of rural incidence for both males (IRR = 2.59; 95% CI = 2.26, 2.97) and females (IRR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.64, 2.43). Highest urban-rural difference for males was seen in 40-49 years (IRR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.92, 4.05) and for females in 30-39 years (IRR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.60, 5.40). Among subsites, highest incidence among males was for larynx (1.53/105) and among females for gum and mouth (0.48/105). Maximum urban-rural difference in males was for paranasal sinus (IRR = 4.66; 95% CI = 1.88, 11.54) and in females for lip (IRR = 8.91; 95% CI = 1.89, 41.98). The study underscores the patterns of HNC incidence in Egypt while indicating the need for future analytical studies investigating specific risk factors of HNC in this population. PMID:20619719

  20. Biosimilars entering the clinic without animal studies

    PubMed Central

    van Aerts, Leon AGJM; De Smet, Karen; Reichmann, Gabriele; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Schneider, Christian K

    2014-01-01

    The concept of biosimilars has spread from Europe to other regions throughout the world, and many regions have drafted regulatory guidelines for their development. Recently, a paradigm shift in regulatory thinking on the non-clinical development of biosimilars has emerged in Europe: In vivo testing should follow a step-wise approach rather than being performed by default. To not require animal testing at all in some instances can well be seen as a revolutionary, but science-based, step. Here, we describe the internal discussions that led to this paradigm shift. The mainstay for the establishment of biosimilarity is the pharmaceutical comparability based on extensive physicochemical and biological characterization. Pharmacodynamic comparability can be evaluated in in vitro assays, whereas pharmacokinetic comparability is best evaluated in clinical studies. It is considered highly unlikely that new safety issues would arise when comparability has been demonstrated based on physicochemical and in vitro comparative studies. PMID:25517301

  1. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children.

  2. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  3. Long-term predictive role of urodynamics: an 8-year follow-up of prostatic surgery for lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K M; Jørgensen, T B; Mogensen, P

    1996-08-01

    To investigate the long-term predictive value of urodynamics for the outcome of patients undergoing prostatic surgery for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and to determine the long-term effectiveness on symptoms, maximum flow rate and the rate of re-operation. Of 139 elderly men who had undergone prostatic surgery, selected without reference to urodynamic assessment but having extensive (blinded) urodynamic testing included in their evaluation, 79 were followed for 8 years using a history, symptom score analysis, uroflowmetry and review of their records. Comparing the results in groups of men with a pre-operative maximum flow rate < or > or = 15 mL/s, there was a similar difference in the rate of success to that noted 6 months post-operatively. Similar results were obtained when comparing those with BOO or a normal bladder outlet function. However, although the tendency was clear it was not statistically significant because of the small sample size (type-2 error). There was a significant reduction in all symptom scores from those assessed pre-operatively and during the 8 years (P < 0.001). The median pre-operative maximum flow rate was 8.5 mL/s, compared with 12.5 mL/s after 8 years (P < 0.001). Of the 79 patients, 14 (18%) had 28 re-operations during the 8-year follow-up, 12 being repeat resections of the prostate, giving a repeat resection rate of 1.8% per year and a success rate of 71%. During the 8 years, 82% of the patients had an unchanged overall evaluation of the post-operative outcome. In general, those having an unsatisfactory outcome were slightly younger than the whole group. Uroflowmetry and pressure-flow studies can predict to some degree the long-term result after prostatic surgery. There was a durable effect on symptom scores and maximum flow rates after the operation. The annual rate of repeat resection (1.8%) was relatively low.

  4. Learning from 8 years of regional cyanobacteria observation in Brittany in view of sanitary survey improvement.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thomas, Olivier; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been more and more studied during the last decades with regard to environment and health issues. More recently the consequences of climate change reinforced the need for research in view of a better management of cyanobacteria blooms. In this context the exploitation of the water quality survey of 26 recreational lakes in Brittany (north western France) between 2004 and 2011 is reported in this paper in order to encompass spatial and interannual patterns of cyanobacteria development at a regional scale. Starting from weekly data principally acquired during summertime, the links between cyanobacteria cell densities, toxin occurrences and interannual meteorological factors can give insights on the potential evolution of cyanobacterial crisis in the future. This study is part of a project aiming at a better understanding of potentially toxic cyanobacteria crisis occurrences in recreational waters, in order to improve predictive monitoring routines.

  5. Burns and fire disasters from leaking petroleum pipes in Lagos, Nigeria: an 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    Fadeyibi, I O; Jewo, P I; Opoola, P; Babalola, O S; Ugburo, A; Ademiluyi, S A

    2011-02-01

    Petroleum products are mostly inflammable and require strict regulations for safe handling. This study characterises the epidemiology of people who sustained burns from leaking petroleum pipes in Lagos, Nigeria. Risk factors for the leaks were determined and proposals for preventive measures made. Records of burn patients treated in our hospital from June 1999 to September 2004 were studied and victims of petroleum pipeline fires treated from October 2004 to May 2007 interviewed. Nine incidents of pipeline fire disasters occurred during the study period. A total of 646 victims sustained 100% burns and died at the disaster sites. Deliberate pipeline damage caused explosions in 55.6% of the cases and spontaneous ruptures in 44.4%. Forty-eight patients were admitted to our hospital for major burns from pipeline explosions. Their ages ranged from 15 to 50 years with a mean of 25.36 ± 5.62 years. The total body surface area (TBSA) involved in burns ranged from 31% to 100% with a mean of 75.71 ± 18.60. Over 40% of the patients had burns beyond 80% TBSA. Mortality rate was 67.3%. Poverty, irregular supply and high prices of petroleum products were responsible for the deliberate pipeline damage and lack of maintenance and surveillance for the spontaneous ruptures. The incidents of fire disasters from broken petroleum pipelines increased over the study period with considerable mortality. Programmes to reduce poverty, regular product supply, pipeline maintenance and surveillance may reduce the occurrence of the disasters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Interference between oculomotor and postural tasks in 7-8-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Doré Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Several studies in adults having observed the effect of eye movements on postural control provided contradictory results. In the present study, we explored the effect of various oculomotor tasks on postural control and the effect of different postural tasks on eye movements in eleven children (7.8 ± 0.5 years) and nine adults (30.4 ± 6.3 years). To vary the difficulty of the oculomotor task, three conditions were tested: fixation, prosaccades (reactive saccades made toward the target) and antisaccades (voluntary saccades made in the direction opposite to the visual target). To vary the difficulty of postural control, two postural tasks were tested: Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR). Postural difficulty did not affect oculomotor behavior, except by lengthening adults' latencies in the prosaccade task. For both groups, postural control was altered in the antisaccade task as compared to fixation and prosaccade tasks. Moreover, a ceiling effect was found in the more complex postural task. This study highlighted a cortical interference between oculomotor and postural control systems.

  7. Aetiopathological and clinical study of erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B V S; Sirisha, N L; Satyanarayana, V V V; Sridevi, L; Ramachandra, B V

    2009-02-01

    Erythoderma first described by Hebra in 1868 is a reaction pattern, characterised by generalised and confluent erythema with desquamation affecting more than 90% of body surface and is usually accompanied by systemic manifestation including some metabolic changes. Tile study was envisaged to assess their profile of aetiology, clinical features and to correlate with histopathological findings. Twenty-four patients (18 males and 6 females) with erythroderma were considered for the study. All patients were hospitalised, detailed history was taken and were subjected to relevant investigations--haemogram, serum proteins, liver and renal function tests, routine and microscopic urine tests, HIV screening, x-ray chest, ultrasound abdomen, FNAC of enlarged lymph nodes and skin biopsy. The age group affected ranged between 7 and 70 years, peak incidence between 50 and 60 years. The male to female ratio was 3:1. Scaling, erythema and pruritus were predominant clinical manifestations. In 12 clinically suspected psoriatic erythroderma, only in 6 cases the histopathological features were correlated to psoriasis and remaining showed non-specific chronic dermatitis. Two patients were found to be HIV-positive. There is good clinicopathological correlation in erythroderma caused by lichen planus, atopic dermatitis, seborroeic dermatitis, non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Drugs were found to be aetiological factor in 3 cases. The study was conducted to assess variations in clinical, aetiological and histopathological profile of erythroderma. The present series had high percentage of erythroderma secondary to preexisting dermatoses. The onset of disease was insidious except in drug-induced erythroderma where it was acute.

  8. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  9. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  10. Impacts of curricular change: Implications from 8 years of data in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics classes at the University of Colorado Boulder were significantly transformed beginning in 2004. They now regularly include: interactive engagement using clickers in large lecture settings, Tutorials in Introductory Physics with use of undergraduate Learning Assistants in recitation sections, and a staffed help-room setting where students work on personalized CAPA homework. We compile and summarize conceptual (FMCE and BEMA) pre- and post-data from over 9,000 unique students after 16 semesters of both Physics 1 and 2. Within a single institution with stable pre-test scores, we reproduce results of Hake's 1998 study that demonstrate the positive impacts of interactive engagement on student performance. We link the degree of faculty's use of interactive engagement techniques and their experience levels on student outcomes, and argue for the role of such systematic data collection in sustained course and institutional transformations.

  11. Tele-ophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy screening: 8 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Ríos, A; Bonaque-González, S; Serrano-García, M; Cabrera-López, F; Abreu-Reyes, P; Marrero-Saavedra, M D

    2017-02-01

    To describe the results of a diabetic retinopathy screening program implemented in a primary care area. A retrospective study was conducted using data automatically collected since the program began on 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2015. The number of screened diabetic patients has progressively increased, from 7,173 patients in 2007 to 42,339 diabetic patients in 2015. Furthermore, the ability of family doctors to correctly interpret retinographies has improved, with the proportion of retinal images classified as normal having increased from 55% in 2007 to 68% at the end of the study period. The proportion of non-evaluable retinographies decreased to 7% in 2015, having peaked at 15% during the program. This was partly due to a change in the screening program policy that allowed the use of tropicamide. The number of severe cases detected has declined, from 14% with severe non-proliferative and proliferativediabetic retinopathy in the initial phase of the program to 3% in 2015. Diabetic eye disease screening by tele-ophthalmology has shown to be a valuable method in a growing population of diabetics. It leads to a regular medical examination of patients, helps ease the workload of specialised care services and favours the early detection of treatable cases. However, the results of implementing a program of this type are not immediate, achieving only modest results in the early years of the project that have improved over subsequent years. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  13. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-year follow-up from the PROSPER Project

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Chilenski, Sarah M.; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability eight years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004-2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  14. Vertebral augmentation by kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty: 8 years experience outcomes and complications

    PubMed Central

    Yaltirik, Kaan; Ashour, Ahmed M; Reis, Conner R; Özdoğan, Selçuk; Atalay, Başar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Context: Minimally invasive percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques; vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty have been treatment choices for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty regarding complications, correction of vertebral body height, kyphosis angle and pain relief assessment using visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records for 100 consecutive patients treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in our department database. Patients with osteoporotic compression fractures, traumatic compressions, and osteolytic vertebral lesions, including metastases, hemangiomas, and multiple myeloma, were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative VAS pain scores, percentages of vertebral compression and kyphotic angles were measured and compared as well as demographic characteristics and postoperative complications. Mobilization and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were treated by 110 procedures. 64 patients were operated on due to osteoporosis (72 procedures). Twelve patients were operated on because of metastasis (13 procedures), 8 patients were operated on because of multiple myeloma (9 procedures). Five patients had two surgeries, 1 patient had 3 surgeries, and 1 patient had 5 surgeries. The mean preoperative VAS was 74.05 ± 9.8. In total, 175 levels were treated, 46 levels by kyphoplasty and 129 by vertebroplasty. The mean postoperative VAS was 20.94 ± 11.8. Most of the patients were mobilized in the same day they of surgery. Mean LOS was 1.83 days. Six patients had nonsymptomatic leakage of polymethlymethacrylate, and patient had epidural hematoma, which was operated on performing hemi-laminectomy. Conclusions: Percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are both effective and safe minimally invasive procedures for the

  15. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive lacosamide among patients with partial-onset seizures in a long-term open-label extension trial of up to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, William; Fountain, Nathan B; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; McShea, Cindy; Isojarvi, Jouko; Doty, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Long-term (up to 8 years of exposure) safety and efficacy of the antiepileptic drug lacosamide was evaluated in this open-label extension trial (SP615 [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00552305]). Patients were enrolled following participation in a double-blind trial or one of two open-label trials of adjunctive lacosamide for partial-onset seizures. Dosage adjustments of lacosamide (100-800 mg/day) and/or concomitant antiepileptic drugs were allowed to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Of the 370 enrolled patients, 77%, 51%, and 39% had >1, >3, or >5 years of lacosamide exposure, respectively. Median lacosamide modal dose was 400mg/day. Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were dizziness (39.7%), headache (20.8%), nausea (17.3%), diplopia (17.0%), fatigue (16.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (16.5%), nasopharyngitis (16.2%), and contusion (15.4%). Dizziness (2.2%) was the only TEAE that led to discontinuation in >2% of patients. Ranges for median percent reductions in seizure frequency were 47-65%, and those for ≥ 50% responder rates were 49-63% for 1-, 3-, and 5-year completer cohorts. Exposure to lacosamide for up to 8 years was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to previous double-blind trials, and efficacy was maintained.

  16. Clinical, biochemical & cytomorphologic study on Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tina; Sreedharan, Suja; Khadilkar, Urmila N.; Deviprasad, D; Kamath, M. Panduranga; Bhojwani, Kiran M.; Alva, Arathi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite, the extensive salt iodization programmes implemented in India, the prevalence of goiter has not reduced much in our country. The most frequent cause of hypothyroidism and goiter in iodine sufficient areas is Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). This study records the clinical presentation, biochemical status, ultrasonographic picture and cytological appearance of this disease in a coastal endemic zone for goiter. Methods: Case records of patients with cytological diagnosis of HT were studied in detail, with reference to their symptoms, presence of goiter, thyroid function status, antibody levels and ultrasound picture. Detailed cytological study was conducted in selected patients. Results: A total of 144 patients with cytological proven HT/lymphocytic thyroiditis were studied. Ninety per cent of the patients were females and most of them presented within five years of onset of symptoms. Sixty eight per cent patients had diffuse goiter, 69 per cent were clinically euthyroid and 46 per cent were biochemically mildly hypothyroid. Antibody levels were elevated in 92.3 per cent cases. In majority of patients the sonographic picture showed heterogeneous echotexture with increased vascularity. Cytological changes were characteristic. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed predominance of females in the study population in 21-40 yr age group with diffuse goiter. We suggest that in an endemic zone for goiter, all women of the child bearing age should be screened for HT. PMID:25758571

  17. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-22

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  18. Assessment of the global intelligence and selective cognitive capacities in preterm 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Begega, Azucena; Méndez López, Magdalena; de Iscar, María Jesús; Cuesta-Izquierdo, Marcelino; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; Álvarez, Luis; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess various cognitive abilities such as attention, IQ, reasoning, and memory related to academic achievement in 8- and 9-year-old preterm children. A total of 141 children were assessed. The preterm group (=37 weeks) comprised 63 children and was compared to 78 full-term children. Attention was evaluated using the d2 Selective Attention test, and the IQ by the L-M form of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, establishing a profile of abilities: perception, memory, comprehension, reasoning, and verbal fluency. Significant differences in IQ were found between the preterm and full-term children. Of the cognitive abilities assessed, the only significant differences were found in verbal fluency, with preterm boys showing lower verbal fluency scores than full-term children. In conclusion, all preterm groups have attention ability similar to that of full-term children. However, preterm children obtain lower scores in intelligence measures. In addition, preterm boys have verbal fluency difficulties. Taking into account the increase in preterm births, suitable intervention programs must be planned to attend the difficulties found.

  19. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'An; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  20. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  1. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  2. Craniofacial cephalometric morphology in 8-year-old children with operated sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, A; Vuola, P; Hukki, J

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate cephalometrically craniofacial morphology in children with operated sagittal synostosis and to compare the findings with age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-two children (37 boys) with operated primary sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively with age- and sex-matched controls from lateral cephalograms taken at a mean age of 8.1 (range 7.0-8.9) years. The operations had been performed between the ages of 2 months and 6.3 years at three Finnish hospitals. The surgical methods included strip craniectomy, pi-plasty and cranial vault expansion. A paired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis were used in the statistical analyses. Children with operated sagittal synostosis had wide cranial base angles and their mandibles were retrognathic with labially inclined lower incisors relative to the controls. Age at craniosynostosis operation did not correlate with the cranial base angle. This study suggests that children with operated sagittal synostosis have minor distinctive morphological features in the cranial base and mandible. Orthodontic evaluation of craniofacial growth is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. HEALTH STATUS OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT AGE 8 YEARS: CHILD AND PARENT PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Maureen; Forrest, Christopher B; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Andreias, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Context Parental proxy reports have indicated poorer health for preterm children as compared to normal birth weight controls. The perspective of their children may however differ. Objective To compare the self reported health of preterm children to normal birth weight controls and the children’s perspective to that of their parents. Design Study of extremely low birth weight (<1kg) and normal birth weight children and their parents conducted 2006–2009. Setting Children’s hospital. Participants Eight year old extremely low birth weight (n=202) and normal birth weight (n=176) children of similar sociodemographic status. Main Outcome Measures The Child Health and Illness Profile child and parent reports. Results There was poor agreement between the parent and child ratings of health for both the extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight cohorts. Extremely low birth weight children rated their health similar to normal birth weight children. In contrast parents of extremely low birth weight children reported significantly poorer health for their children than parents of normal birth weight controls including poorer Satisfaction with health, Comfort and Achievement and less Risk avoidance. Conclusion There is poor agreement between child and parent reports of health. Eight year old extremely low birth weight children rate their health similar to that of normal birth weight controls. Their parents however report significantly poorer health. Both child and parent perspective needs to be considered when making health care decisions. PMID:21969395

  4. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4,779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally-reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economical problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD five years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH-study

  5. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  6. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM SHOUSHTARI, Mitra; GHALEBANDI, Mirfarhad; TAVASOLI, Azita; POURSHAMS, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies. PMID:26664444

  7. Transcervical collection of bovine embryos up to Day 21: an 8-year overview.

    PubMed

    Richard, C; Hue, I; Gelin, V; Neveux, A; Campion, E; Degrelle, S A; Heyman, Y; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2015-04-15

    Transcervical embryo collection is used routinely in the bovine species throughout the world to collect Day 6 to Day 9 embryos (early embryos) for genetic selection. For research purposes, however, the collection of embryos at later stages of pregnancy, i.e., Days 12 to 21 (late embryos), is needed. So far, for the recovery of late embryos, females are euthanized and embryo collection is performed after recovery of the genital tract. To reduce the number of animals used and still provide valuable material for embryo research, we have therefore developed a transcervical technique to collect late embryos. The objective of this study was to compare embryo recovery results at early and late stages within our laboratory. Altogether, 232 cows were used for this study. One hundred forty-five flushes were performed to collect embryos from Days 6 to 9, and 251 flushes were performed to collect embryos from Days 12 to 21. For the early embryos, a classical three-way collection equipment was used. To collect the late embryos, the same equipment was used, but the extensible flexible catheter that goes inside the external rigid catheter was removed, so that larger embryos could be collected through the remaining larger hole (two-way collection). All females were submitted to ovum pick up to remove the dominant follicle and were subsequently superovulated with FSH. Luteolysis was induced 48 hours before artificial insemination. Two artificial inseminations were performed with frozen semen, 48 and 56 hours after PGF2α injection. Before embryo collection, cows were treated with an epidural injection of a local anesthetic drug. The presence of CL was checked, and they were counted by rectal palpation. For all collections, the cervix was prepared with the initial introduction of a dilator. Then, the catheter was introduced in one horn, and the cuff was inflated as low as possible. For the collection of late embryos, the flushing solution (30 mL) was injected slowly twice to suspend

  8. Use of Antibiotics in Pediatrics: 8-Years Survey in Italian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Buccellato, Elena; Melis, Mauro; Biagi, Chiara; Donati, Monia; Motola, Domenico; Vaccheri, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate antibiotic consumption in the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna Region, from 2004 to 2011, with a focus on the antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections, and to analyse the ADRs reported for antibiotics by the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna hospitals. Methods Reference population was represented by all the patients (0–14 years old) admitted to the pediatric wards of all the hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Drug consumption was expressed as number of DDDs per 100 Bed-Days (BD) and data were analysed by active substance, by therapeutic subgroups or by ward type. The time trends of antibiotic consumption were statistically analysed by linear regression. All the suspected ADR reports associated with antibiotics, reported between January 2004 and December 2011 were drawn by the Italian Spontaneous Reporting Database. Results Overall antibiotic consumption showed only a slight increase (p = 0.224). Among the pediatric wards, pediatric surgery showed the highest increase from 2004 to 2011 (p = 0.011). Penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors was the first therapeutic group with a statistically significant increase over years (p = 0.038), whereas penicillins with extended spectrum presented a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.008). Moreover, only 5 drugs out of the 8 antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections were used. Pharmacovigilance data showed 27 spontaneous ADR reports associated to ATC J01 drugs. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid had the highest number of ADR reports (n = 7). Conclusions The steadily increasing consumption in penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors, in association with a considerable decrease of plain penicillins, raises a serious concern. Pharmacovigilance reports seem to suggest a safe use of antibiotics in the hospital setting of Emilia-Romagna. Further studies to investigate the reason for prescribing antibiotics in children inpatients are needed. PMID:26405817

  9. Use of Antibiotics in Pediatrics: 8-Years Survey in Italian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Buccellato, Elena; Melis, Mauro; Biagi, Chiara; Donati, Monia; Motola, Domenico; Vaccheri, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate antibiotic consumption in the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna Region, from 2004 to 2011, with a focus on the antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections, and to analyse the ADRs reported for antibiotics by the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna hospitals. Reference population was represented by all the patients (0-14 years old) admitted to the pediatric wards of all the hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Drug consumption was expressed as number of DDDs per 100 Bed-Days (BD) and data were analysed by active substance, by therapeutic subgroups or by ward type. The time trends of antibiotic consumption were statistically analysed by linear regression. All the suspected ADR reports associated with antibiotics, reported between January 2004 and December 2011 were drawn by the Italian Spontaneous Reporting Database. Overall antibiotic consumption showed only a slight increase (p = 0.224). Among the pediatric wards, pediatric surgery showed the highest increase from 2004 to 2011 (p = 0.011). Penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors was the first therapeutic group with a statistically significant increase over years (p = 0.038), whereas penicillins with extended spectrum presented a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.008). Moreover, only 5 drugs out of the 8 antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections were used. Pharmacovigilance data showed 27 spontaneous ADR reports associated to ATC J01 drugs. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid had the highest number of ADR reports (n = 7). The steadily increasing consumption in penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors, in association with a considerable decrease of plain penicillins, raises a serious concern. Pharmacovigilance reports seem to suggest a safe use of antibiotics in the hospital setting of Emilia-Romagna. Further studies to investigate the reason for prescribing antibiotics in children inpatients are needed.

  10. Service use in children aged 6-8 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Efron, Daryl; Moisuc, Olga; McKenzie, Vicki; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated prevalence, types and predictors of professional service use in families of children identified with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the community. children with ADHD were identified through 43 schools using parent and teacher screening questionnaires (Conners 3 ADHD Index) followed by case confirmation using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Parents completed a survey about professional service use in the last 12 months. data on variables potentially associated with service use were collected from parents (interview and questionnaires), teachers (questionnaires) and children (direct assessment). Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of service use in univariate and multivariable analyses. The sample comprised 179 children aged 6-8 years with ADHD. Over one-third (37%) had not received professional services in the last 12 months. The strongest predictors of service use were older child age (adjusted OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 8.9, p=0.05), and the degree to which the child's behaviour impacted on the family (adjusted OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.3, p=0.007), after controlling for ADHD subtype and severity, externalising comorbidities, academic achievement and parent-reported impairment. A substantial proportion of children with ADHD are not accessing professional services. Our findings suggest that the child's age and the impact of the child's behaviour on the family are the strongest predictors of service use. Given the demonstrated benefits from various interventions in ADHD, there is a need to improve case identification and referral for services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Safety of preoperative erythropoietin in surgical calvarial remodeling: an 8-year retrospective review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Naran, Sanjay; Cladis, Franklyn; Fearon, Jeffrey; Bradley, James; Michelotti, Brett; Cooper, Gregory; Cray, James; Katchikian, Hurig; Grunwaldt, Lorelei; Pollack, Ian F; Losee, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Calvarial remodeling is typically associated with significant blood loss. Although preoperative erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have proven to significantly decrease the need for blood transfusions, recent data in adults have raised concerns that elevating hemoglobin levels greater than 12.5 g/dl may increase the risk of thrombotic events. This study was designed to assess the risks of erythropoietin in the pediatric population. Records were retrospectively reviewed from 2000 to 2008 at three major metropolitan children's hospitals of all children undergoing calvarial remodeling after receiving preoperative erythropoietin. Demographic and perioperative outcome data were reviewed, including transfusion reactions, pressure ulcer secondary to prolonged positioning, pneumonia, infection, deep vein thrombosis, cerebrovascular accident, pulmonary embolism, sagittal sinus thrombosis, pure red cell aplasia, and myocardial infarction. A total of 369 patients met the inclusion criteria (mean age, 0.86±1.1 years). On average, three preoperative doses of erythropoietin were administered (600 U/kg). Iron was also supplemented. No complications associated with dosing were noted, there were no thrombotic events identified, and no other major complications were seen (i.e., death or blindness). Thirty-one patients (8.40 percent) experienced one or more postoperative complications. There was no significant correlation between hemoglobin levels greater than 12.5 g/dl and the occurrence of any noted complication. With zero thrombotic postoperative complications, the authors estimate the risk of a thrombotic event in the pediatric population to be less than 0.81 percent (95 percent confidence). These data suggest that preoperative administration of erythropoietin in children undergoing calvarial remodeling does not appear to increase the incidence of thrombotic events or other significant complications. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Cognitive development at age 8 years in very low birth weight children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mu, Shu-Chi; Tsou, Kuo-Su; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Fang, Li-Jung; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Chang, Chia-Han; Tsou, Kuo-Inn

    2008-12-01

    All children should have some developmental screening periodically throughout childhood, especially those who were born prematurely. There is limited information about the development of children with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) beyond the preschool age in Taiwan. We evaluated intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive ability of prematurely born school-aged children in Taiwan. This was a multicenter study of VLBW and full-term children born between 1995 and 1997 at four hospitals in northern Taiwan. We used the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Edition (WISC-III), to assess these children. Demographic data were recorded including maternal and paternal age, education, birth weight, gestational age, and gender. A total of 189 children (130 with VLBW born prematurely and 59 born at full term) were recruited. There were significant differences in performance IQ (PIQ; 90.16 +/- 17.05 vs. 108.51 +/- 15.65, p < 0.001), verbal IQ (VIQ; 97.43 +/- 15.62 vs. 111.78 +/- 13.65, p < 0.001), full-scale IQ (FSIQ; 93.14 +/- 16.33 vs. 111.05 +/- 14.81, p < 0.001), verbal comprehension index score (VCIS; 98.06 +/- 15.53 vs. 112.47 +/- 13.74, p < 0.001), perceptional organization index score (POIS; 92.39 +/- 17.13 vs. 109.42 +/- 14.87, p < 0.001) and freedom from distractibility index score (FDIS; 98.34 +/- 17.71 vs. 110.53 +/- 10.94, p = 0.008). There was no correlation between perinatal outcomes and FSIQ. Our results suggest that VLBW children have significantly lower PIQ, VIQ, FSIQ, VCIS, POIS and FDIS at primary school compared with full-term children.

  13. Clinical cardiac regenerative studies in children

    PubMed Central

    Pavo, Imre J; Michel-Behnke, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Although the incidence of pediatric heart failure is low, the mortality is relatively high, with severe clinical symptoms requiring repeated hospitalization or intensive care treatment in the surviving patients. Cardiac biopsy specimens have revealed a higher number of resident human cardiac progenitor cells, with greater proliferation and differentiation capacity, in the neonatal period as compared with adults, demonstrating the regeneration potential of the young heart, with rising interest in cardiac regeneration therapy in critically ill pediatric patients. We review here the available literature data, searching the MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE database for completed, and www.clinicaltrials.gov homepage for ongoing studies involving pediatric cardiac regeneration reports. Because of difficulties conducting randomized blinded clinical trials in pediatric patients, mostly case reports or cohort studies with a limited number of individuals have been published in the field of pediatric regenerative cardiology. The majority of pediatric autologous cell transplantations into the cardiac tissue have been performed in critically ill children with severe or terminal heart failure. Congenital heart disease, myocarditis, and idiopathic hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy leading to congestive heart failure are some possible areas of interest for pediatric cardiac regeneration therapy. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells, progenitor cells, or cardiospheres have been applied either intracoronary or percutaneously intramyocardially in severely ill children, leading to a reported clinical benefit of cell-based cardiac therapies. In conclusion, compassionate use of autologous stem cell administration has led to at least short-term improvement in heart function and clinical stability in the majority of the critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:28289528

  14. Clinical cardiac regenerative studies in children.

    PubMed

    Pavo, Imre J; Michel-Behnke, Ina

    2017-02-26

    Although the incidence of pediatric heart failure is low, the mortality is relatively high, with severe clinical symptoms requiring repeated hospitalization or intensive care treatment in the surviving patients. Cardiac biopsy specimens have revealed a higher number of resident human cardiac progenitor cells, with greater proliferation and differentiation capacity, in the neonatal period as compared with adults, demonstrating the regeneration potential of the young heart, with rising interest in cardiac regeneration therapy in critically ill pediatric patients. We review here the available literature data, searching the MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE database for completed, and www.clinicaltrials.gov homepage for ongoing studies involving pediatric cardiac regeneration reports. Because of difficulties conducting randomized blinded clinical trials in pediatric patients, mostly case reports or cohort studies with a limited number of individuals have been published in the field of pediatric regenerative cardiology. The majority of pediatric autologous cell transplantations into the cardiac tissue have been performed in critically ill children with severe or terminal heart failure. Congenital heart disease, myocarditis, and idiopathic hyp