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Sample records for 8-year study period

  1. Molecular genetics study of deafness in Brazil: 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Andréa; Alexandrino, Fabiana; Christiani, Thalita Vitachi; Steiner, Carlos Eduardo; Cunha, José Luiz Rosemberis; Guerra, Andréa Trevas Maciel; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2007-07-15

    Hereditary hearing loss is a complex disorder that involves a large number of genes. In developed countries, 1 in 1,000 children is born with deafness severe enough to require special education services, and about 60% of the cases of isolated deafness have a genetic origin. Although more than 100 genes for hearing loss are known currently, only a few are routinely tested in the clinical practice. In this study, we present our findings from the molecular diagnostic screening of the GJB2 and GJB3 genes, del(GJB6-D13S1,830) and del(GJB6-D13S1,854) deletions in the GJB6 gene, Q829X mutation in the otoferlin gene (OTOF) and, the A1,555G and A7,445G mutations in the mitochondrial genome over an 8-year period. Mutations analysis in the previously mentioned genes and mutations was performed on 645 unrelated Brazilian patients with hearing loss who fell into two different testing groups. Different mutations in the GJB2 gene were responsible for most of cases studied, but deletions in the GJB6 gene as well as mitochondrial mutations were also found. While most cases of hearing loss in this country are due to environmental factors, the genetic etiology of deafness will increasingly be determined as more genetic tests become available.

  2. Ameloblastomas: Clinicopathological features from 70 cases diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology service in an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Filizzola, Andressa-Incerte; Bartholomeu-dos-Santos, Teresa-Cristina-Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are odontogenic tumors that can present some distinct clinicopathological profiles when comparing different populations and studies. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological features from a series of ameloblastomas diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology service in Brazil in an 8-year period. Study Design: The files were revised and all cases diagnosed as ameloblastomas in the period were retrieved. All hematoxylin and eosin stained histological slides were reviewed and all clinical and radiological information were obtained through a review of the laboratory forms. Data were descriptively analyzed and a comparison was performed with the different ameloblastomas subtypes. Results: Seventy ameloblastomas composed the final sample, including 57 (81%) solid/multicystic, 9 (13%) unicystic, 2 (3%) desmoplastic and 2 (3%) peripheral ameloblastomas. Mean age of the affected patients was in the forth decade of life and there was a slight male predominance. Most tumors presented as multilocular radiolucencies, were located in the posterior mandible and showed the follicular and plexiform histological patterns. There was no difference on the mean age of the patients affected by solid and unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusions: The present results showed that the clinicopathological features of the ameloblastomas included in this Brazilian sample were similar to the features described in most other worldwide populations. Key words:Ameloblastoma, solid, unicystic, review, epidemiology, histology. PMID:25129244

  3. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  4. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004). Conclusions The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  5. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  6. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A.; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Methods: A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May–June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007–October 2014. Results: Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40–15.36, P < 0.05). Nightmare complaint alone did not predict the occurrence of suicide attempts, but the comorbidity of nightmares and insomnia was associated with the risk of suicide attempt over follow-up (adjusted HR = 11.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.68–73.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. Citation: Li SX, Lam SP, Zhang J, Yu MW, Chan JW, Chan CS, Espie CA, Freeman D, Mason O, Wing YK. Sleep disturbances and suicide risk in an 8-year longitudinal study of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1275–1282. PMID:27091530

  7. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly.

  8. Pediatric Sleep Disorders and Special Educational Need at 8 Years: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Trupti; Xu, Linzhi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and behavioral sleep problems (BSPs) through 5 years of age and special educational need (SEN) at 8 years. METHODS: Parents in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported on children’s snoring, witnessed apnea, and mouth-breathing at 6, 18, 30, 42, and 57 months, from which SDB symptom trajectories, or clusters, were derived. BSPs were based on report of ≥5 of 7 sleep behaviors at each of the 18-, 30-, 42-, and 57-month questionnaires. Parent report of SEN (yes/no) at 8 years was available for 11 049 children with SDB data and 11 467 children with BSP data. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict SEN outcome by SDB cluster and by cumulative report of SEN. RESULTS: Controlling for 16 putative confounders, previous history of SDB and BSPs was significantly associated with an SEN. BSPs were associated with a 7% increased odds of SEN (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.15), for each ∼1-year interval at which a BSP was reported. SDB, overall, was associated with a near 40% increased odds of SEN (95% CI 1.18–1.62). Children in the worst symptom cluster were 60% more likely to have an SEN (95% CI 1.23–2.08). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based longitudinal study, history of either SDB or BSPs in the first 5 years of life was associated with increased likelihood of SEN at 8 years of age. Findings highlight the need for pediatric sleep disorder screening by early interventionists, early childhood educators, and health professionals. PMID:22945405

  9. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4-8-year old children: associations with temperament.

    PubMed

    Buss, Kristin A; Dennis, Tracy A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Sippel, Lauren M

    2011-04-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4-8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety.

  10. Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chan, Khee-Siang; Tseng, Kuei-Ling; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common in critical care; by contrast, a subtype called alcohol-associated lactic acidosis (AALA) is rarely encountered. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of AALA in critically ill patients and the second aim was to determine whether the survival was associated to the peak blood lactate concentration. An 8-year retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with AALA between January 2007 and December 2014 was considered in a tertiary care hospital. In total, 23 patients were analyzed and the median peak blood lactate level was 15.9 mmol/L. Only 2 patients (8.7%) presented peak blood lactate levels <10 mmol/L. In this study, 21 patients survived from ICU and hospital, the mortality rate was 8.7%. The result indicted the survival of AALA was not associated with peak blood lactate concentration although survivors still had a better lactate clearance rate per hour than non-survivors. Moreover, AALA patients with coexisting sepsis presenting higher lactate clearance rate and shorter lactate clearance time than those of AALA patients with solely sepsis-related lactic acidosis. PMID:27748410

  11. Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J

    2010-06-01

    Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed.

  12. Effect of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine on glucose metabolism of pancreas and kidney recipients in the late (> 8 years) posttransplant period.

    PubMed

    Havrdova, T; Jedinakova, T; Lipar, K; Skibova, J; Saudek, F

    2011-11-01

    Diabetogenic effects of immunosuppressive agents are of great importance in pancreas or islet transplantation. The aim of our study was to compare the glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic kidney and pancreas recipients on tacrolimus (Tacro) versus cyclosporine-based (Cyclo) immunosuppression in the late posttransplant period. We examined 26 insulin-independent patients with stabile good renal function. They were at least 7 years after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation and with unchanged immunosuppressive therapy for at least 6 years. The mean follow-up in Tacro (n = 13) and Cyclo (n = 13) groups were 9.7 ± 1.9 and 10.9 ± 1.3 years, respectively (P = .08). Fasting glycemia, insulin levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), a standard intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) with coefficient of glucose assimilation (K(G)) calculation and trough Tacro/Cyclo levels were assessed. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, HOMA-B). Total C-peptide and insulin secretions were calculated as areas under the curves (AUC) from the serum levels during the IVGTT. Tacro and Cyclo groups did not differ in age and body mass index. We did not find any significant difference in any examined parameters of glucose metabolism (fasting glycemia, insulin and C-peptide levels, HbA(1c,) IVGTT with K(G), HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, AUC of C-peptide and AUC of insulin; P > .05). Two patients in the Tacro group and none in the Cyclo group had K(G) <0.8%/min. Seven recipients in the Tacro group and eight in the Cyclo group had the normal glucose tolerance with K(G) ≥ 1.2%/min. Trough Tacro or Cyclo levels did not correlate with any of examined parameters. The use of different types of calcineurin inhibitors in type 1 diabetic pancreas and kidney recipients had no effect on glucose metabolism in the late posttransplant period.

  13. Parkinson disease and musculoskeletal pain: an 8-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lien, Wei-Hung; Lien, Wei-Chih; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Wu, Shang-Te; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Ching-Ju

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) compared with a control group without the disease. The retrospective cohort study used a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) comprising information on 1 million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the entire population of Taiwan. A total of 490 patients aged 50 and above with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease were identified during a period from 2000 to 2005. Among them, 199 developed MSP after PD. The control group consisted of 1960 participants without PD over the study period randomly selected by matching PD cases according to the date of PD incidence, age, and sex. The study groups were then followed to the end of 2007. Musculoskeletal pain was the end point. The incidence rate ratios of MSP were higher in the PD group than in the control group, representing an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.58). PD was associated with a significantly elevated risk of MSP in all sex and age stratifications, with the highest hazard ratio noted for middle-aged male patients with PD, followed by older male patients with PD. This study showed that the PD may significantly increase the risk of developing MSP. The risk of developing MSP seems to be greatest for middle-aged male patients with PD. Clinicians should be more alert for MSP in patients with PD, and early intervention should be considered.

  14. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese hospital over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Fengzhi; Kang, Jianbang; Wang, Xinchun; Yin, Donghong; Dang, Wen; Duan, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive cocci are common causes of bloodstream and nosocomial infections, and their multi-drug resistance is an increasingly serious problem. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data about Gram-positive cocci from in-patients (January 2006 and December 2013) at the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China, were reviewed. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolated Gram-positive cocci was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2009 guidelines. The prevalence of drug resistance was determined, as well as correlation coefficients for various drugs between the resistance rate and year of sample collection. A total of 7789 Gram-positive cocci isolates were found, including 2576 (33%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 1477 (19%) Staphylococci aureus, 1343 (17%) Enterococcus faecalis, and 1139 (15%) Enterococcus faecium. The proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) were 31.5% (465/1477) and 61.6% (1587/2576), respectively. Among all isolates, MRS had much higher drug resistance rate than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococci (P<0.05). E. faecalis had a higher multi-drug resistance rate than E. faecium (P<0.01). Interestingly, MRSA resistance rates declined over the years, showing a negative correlation coefficient for all drugs, with significance for levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (P<0.05), but not sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (P=0.057) and gentamicin (P=0.186). These results indicated that Staphylococci were the predominant Gram-positive cocci isolated. There was a trend of decreasing MRSA in the population studied. PMID:26309609

  15. Factors Associated with Reevaluation of the Stepwise Excavation Procedure: An 8-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Verdugo, Paula; Guzmán-Armstrong, Sandra; Cobb, Deborah; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek; Kolker, Justine L; Hernández, Marcela; Warren, J J

    2016-01-01

    Although the stepwise excavation procedure (SWP) has been shown to be an effective caries treatment technique, studies reporting its application outside of controlled clinical trials are limited. We performed a retrospective study from patient record data to assess the proportion of patients who had an SWP reevaluated within 18 months at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry (UICOD) between 2004 and 2012, and evaluated the association between different variables and this outcome. A total of 1,985 SWPs were performed in 1,326 patients, with 518 patients having had reevaluation within 18 months. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression modeling revealed strong associations between explanatory variables such as provider type, tooth type, patient age, number of recalls and the calendar year in which the SWP was done and reevaluation status. There was also evidence of association with dental insurance status. Other characteristics such as gender, distance traveled to the UICOD, number of surfaces treated and tooth arch did not show any significant association. In general, patients were more likely to have reevaluation when seen by faculty members or residents, the procedure was performed in molars/pre-molars, they were older, they had more recalls and were seen earlier in the study period. These results suggest that decisions to use SWP should consider patient demographics and treatment characteristics such as provider level, tooth type, patient age and number of recalls. The impact of treatment year may reflect program heterogeneity or temporal changes in external societal factors.

  16. On the Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Chinese Literacy Skills: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years.…

  17. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  18. Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Retrospective Case Study With 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stobert, Julia R.; Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) who was initially misdiagnosed and treated for a hip flexor strain. Clinical Features A 36-year-old male patient presented with insidious onset of progressive anterior right hip and groin pain of 7 years' duration. He was diagnosed with a right-sided hip flexor muscle strain and was discharged from care 1 month later. The patient then returned to the office 8 years later for treatment of unrelated lower back pain. This time, the doctor of chiropractic learned that the patient was misdiagnosed years before. The patient's past radiographs in fact revealed FAI, including severe hip joint osteoarthritis on the right and mild osteoarthritis on the left. As a result, the patient had undergone right hip joint replacement surgery. Recent radiographs also revealed FAI in the contralateral hip. Intervention and Outcome After investigating for FAI, the doctor of chiropractic was able to identify through symptomatology, history, physical examination, and radiographs the presence of FAI in the patient's left hip. An “active surveillance” approach is being taken. Conclusion This case illustrates the importance of an increasing awareness of FAI, as doctors of chiropractic are frequently the primary contact for patients with this condition. PMID:26793042

  19. Drug Eruptions: An 8-year Study Including 106 Inpatients at a Dermatology Clinic in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Fatma; Dervis, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously. PMID:22707770

  20. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  1. 8-Year Prospective Study of Depressive Symptoms and Change in Insulin from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. Methods Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001–2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline (adolescence) and eight years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants. Puberty was assessed using a validated protocol measuring sex steroids and physical changes. The primary outcome was change in fasting insulin. Analyses accounted for age, sex, race, parental education, baseline insulin, BMI z, puberty, and time to follow up. Results At baseline, depressive symptoms were correlated with insulin (rho = .13, p = .001). High baseline insulin predicted insulin change (B = −11.50, SE = 2.30, p< .001). Depressive symptoms also predicted insulin change, but only for pubertal adolescents (B = −.23, SE = .11, p = .038). This relationship was moderated by race (p < .047); depressive symptoms predicted insulin change only among pubertal black adolescents ( p= .030), not whites (p = .49), and in the direction opposite that hypothesized (Bblacks = −.51, SE = .23). Post-hoc analyses revealed pubertal black adolescents with high depressive symptoms had the highest baseline insulin, which stayed high across the follow up period. Conclusions Among pubertal black adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for sustained hyperinsulinemia from adolescence into adulthood. These youths may be particularly vulnerable for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26368574

  2. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: key distal household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Schott, Whitney B; Crookston, Benjamin T; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2013-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7266 children in the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. HAZ at about age 1 year and age in months predicted much of the variation in HAZ at age 5 years, but 40-71% was not predicted. Similarly, HAZ at age 5 years and age in months did not predict 26-47% of variation in HAZ at 8 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that parental schooling, consumption, and mothers' height are key correlates of HAZ at about age 1 and also are associated with unpredicted change in HAZ from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years, given initial HAZ. These results underline the importance of a child's starting point in infancy in determining his or her growth, point to key distal household and community factors that may determine early growth in early life and subsequent growth recovery and growth failure, and indicate that these factors vary some by country, urban/rural designation, and child sex.

  3. Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

  4. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  5. Implementation of pay for performance in primary care: a qualitative study 8 years after introduction

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Helen; Matharu, Tatum; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lester, David; Foskett-Tharby, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Pay for performance is now a widely adopted quality improvement initiative in health care. One of the largest schemes in primary care internationally is the English Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). Aim To obtain a longer term perspective on the implementation of the QOF. Design and setting Qualitative study with 47 health professionals in 23 practices across England. Method Semi-structured interviews. Results Pay for performance is accepted as a routine part of primary care in England, with previous more individualistic and less structured ways of working seen as poor practice. The size of the QOF and the evidence-based nature of the indicators are regarded as key to its success. However, pay for performance may have had a negative impact on some aspects of medical professionalism, such as clinical autonomy, and led a significant minority of GPs to prioritise their own pay rather than patients’ best interests. A small minority of GPs tried to increase their clinical autonomy with further unintended consequences. Conclusion Pay for performance indicators are now welcomed by primary healthcare teams and GPs across generations. Almost all interviewees wanted to see a greater emphasis on involving front line practice teams in developing indicators. However, almost all GPs and practice managers described a sense of decreased clinical autonomy and loss of professionalism. Calibrating the appropriate level of clinical autonomy is critical if pay for performance schemes are to have maximal impact on patient care. PMID:23735412

  6. Hearing impairment: a population study of age at diagnosis, severity, and language outcomes at 7–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wake, M; Poulakis, Z; Hughes, E; Carey-Sargeant, C; Rickards, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Better language outcomes are reported for preschool children with hearing impairment (HI) diagnosed very early, irrespective of severity. However, population studies of older children are required to substantiate longer term benefits of early detection. Aims: To study impact of age of diagnosis and severity of HI in a population cohort of 7–8 year old children. Methods: Eighty eight 7–8 year old children born in Victoria, who were (a) fitted with hearing aids for congenital HI by 4.5 years and (b) did not have intellectual or major physical disability were studied. Main outcome measures were Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Predictors were pure tone average (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) in better ear at diagnosis and age at diagnosis. Marginal (adjusted) means were estimated with general linear models. Results: Response rate was 67% (n = 89; 53 boys). Mean age at diagnosis was 21.6 months (SD 14.4); 21% had mild, 34% moderate, 21% severe, and 24% profound HI; mean non-verbal IQ was 104.6 (SD 16.7). Mean total CELF score was 76.7 (SD 21.4) and mean PPVT score 78.1 (SD 18.1). Age of diagnosis, adjusted for severity and IQ, did not contribute to language scores. In contrast, adjusted mean CELF and PPVT language scores fell sequentially with increasing severity of HI. Conclusions: More severe HI, but not later diagnosis, was strongly related to poorer language outcomes at 7–8 years. Further systematic study is needed to understand why children with hearing impairment have good or poor outcomes. PMID:15723906

  7. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  8. Outcome of asbestos exposure (lung fibrosis and antinuclear antibodies) with respect to skin reactivity: an 8-year longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, A.; Garncarek, D.; Tomeczko, J.; Ciechanowski, G.; Bisikiewicz, R.

    1986-10-01

    Two hundred seventy asbestos workers were examined during an 8-year period. During this time five consecutive surveys were completed. Skin tests with streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD), tuberculin (PPD), and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were performed in the middle of this period. The results of these tests were related to X-ray chest film results and the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). In all surveys, except the first, X-ray films with small irregular opacities with a profusion greater than or equal to1/1 belonged more frequently to asbestos workers who did not respond to SK-SD or PHA. Thirty-one cases of asbestosis were diagnosed at that time, 23 of them became asbestotic after the skin tests were performed. Asbestotic cases contributed more frequently to the group with energy as compared to asbestos workers lacking asbestosis. Furthermore, asbestosis was correlated with lack of response to second strength of SK-SD in males and PHA in both sexes. Lack of response to these activators was predictive of asbestosis. Asbestos workers with ANA frequently displayed a lack of response to the first strength of SK-SD, PPD, and PHA. This was partly due to the presence of asbestotic cases in the group. However, low responders to all these activators were found frequently in the group with ANA independent of the presence of asbestosis.

  9. Ant exclusion in citrus over an 8-year period reveals a pervasive yet changing effect of ants on a Mediterranean spider assemblage.

    PubMed

    Mestre, L; Piñol, J; Barrientos, J A; Espadaler, X

    2013-09-01

    Ants and spiders are ubiquitous generalist predators that exert top-down control on herbivore populations. Research shows that intraguild interactions between ants and spiders can negatively affect spider populations, but there is a lack of long-term research documenting the strength of such interactions and the potentially different effects of ants on the diverse array of species in a spider assemblage. Similarly, the suitability of family-level surrogates for finding patterns revealed by species-level data (taxonomic sufficiency) has almost never been tested in spider assemblages. We present a long-term study in which we tested the impact of ants on the spider assemblage of a Mediterranean citrus grove by performing sequential 1-year experimental exclusions on tree canopies for 8 years. We found that ants had a widespread influence on the spider assemblage, although the effect was only evident in the last 5 years of the study. During those years, ants negatively affected many spiders, and effects were especially strong for sedentary spiders. Analyses at the family level also detected assemblage differences between treatments, but they concealed the different responses to ant exclusion shown by some related spider species. Our findings show that the effects of experimental manipulations in ecology can vary greatly over time and highlight the need for long-term studies to document species interactions.

  10. Kidney diseases associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): an 8-year observational study at a single center.

    PubMed

    Izzedine, Hassan; Escudier, Bernard; Lhomme, Catherine; Pautier, Patricia; Rouvier, Philippe; Gueutin, Victor; Baumelou, Alain; Derosa, Lisa; Bahleda, Rastilav; Hollebecque, Antoine; Sahali, Djillali; Soria, Jean Charles

    2014-11-01

    Expanded clinical experience with patients taking antiangiogenic compounds has come with increasing recognition of the renal adverse effects. Because renal histology is rarely sought in those patients, the renal consequences are underestimated. Antiangiogenic-treated-cancer patients, who had a renal biopsy for renal adverse effects from 2006 to 2013, were included in the current study. Clinical features and renal histologic findings were reviewed. Our cohort was 100 patients (58 women) with biopsy-proven kidney disease using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy with a mean age of 59.8 years (range, 20-85 yr). Patients were referred for proteinuria, hypertension, and/or renal insufficiency. Kidney biopsy was performed 6.87 ± 7.18 months after the beginning of treatment. Seventy-three patients experienced renal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and 27 patients had variable glomerulopathies, mainly minimal change disease and/or collapsing-like focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (MCN/cFSGS). MCN/cFSGS-like lesions developed mainly with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, whereas TMA complicated anti-VEGF ligand. Thirty-one percent of TMA patients had proteinuria up to 1 g/24 h. Half of TMA cases are exclusively renal localized. Pathologic TMA features are intraglomerular exclusively. MCN/cFSGS glomeruli displayed a high abundance of KI-67, but synaptopodin was not detected. Conversely, TMA glomeruli exhibited a normal abundance of synaptopodin-like control, whereas KI-67 was absent. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1-80 mo). Fifty-four patients died due to cancer progression. Hypertension and proteinuria resolved following drug discontinuation and antihypertensive agents. No patient developed severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Drug continuation or reintroduction resulted in a more severe recurrence of TMA in 3 out of 4 patients requiring maintenance of anti-VEGF agents despite renal TMA. In conclusion, TMA and MCN/cFSGS are the most

  11. Electrophysiological assessment of glaucomatous visual dysfunction during treatment with cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline): a study of 8 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    In this study we assessed, by simultaneous recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and pattern-electroretinograms (PERGs), the effects cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) on retinal function and/or visual cortical responses in glaucoma patients. Thirty glaucoma patients were randomly divided into two age-matched groups: patients in group GC (15 patients) were treated with citicoline (1,000 mg/die intramuscularly) for 2 months; patients in group GP (15 patients) were treated with placebo for 2 months. After 4 months of wash-out (month 6), GC patients underwent a further 2-month period of citicoline treatment (months 7-8) followed by another 4-month period of wash-out (months 9-12). In GP patients the wash-out was extended for a further 6 months (months 7-12). During the following 13-96 months, GC patients received additional 2-month periods of treatment with citicoline (each period followed by 4 months of wash-out) for a total of 16 periods in 8 years. GP patients were also examined at months 24, 26, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96. In GC patients the first two treatments with citicoline induced a significant (p <0.01) improvement of VEP and PERG parameters with respect to pre-treatment conditions. VEPs and PERGs recorded in GC patients after the first wash-out revealed that, although there was a worsening trend, the electrophysiological improvement was still maintained with respect to baseline conditions. The additional periods of citicoline treatment in GC patients during the subsequent 13-96 months induced a greater (p <0.01) improvement of VEP and PERG parameters with respect to pre-treatment conditions and when compared to GP patients. Thus, we observed that citicoline significantly improves retinal and cortical bioelectrical responses in glaucoma patients, suggesting a potential use of this substance in the medical treatment of glaucoma, as a complement to hypotensive therapy.

  12. Prevalence of sequelae in the permanent anterior teeth after trauma in their predecessors: a longitudinal study of 8 years.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo Jácomo, Diana Ribeiro; Campos, Vera

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sequelae in the permanent anterior teeth following trauma in their predecessors, and also to verify the existence of association between the sequelae in the permanent teeth and the type of injury in their predecessors according to the age group at the time of injury. This study was performed based on data from the records of 169 boys and 138 girls who received assistance at the dental clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro from March 1996 to December 2004. The sample was collected from 753 traumatized deciduous teeth of children aged 0-10 years. The number of boys and girls with dental trauma corresponded to 55.0% and 45.0%, respectively. The more affected age period was between 1 and 4 years (75.3%). The most common type of traumatic injury was the intrusion (29.3%), followed by avulsion (14.1%). Concerning permanent dentition, the most common developmental disturbances were discoloration of enamel and/or enamel hypoplasia (46.08%) and eruption disturbances (17.97%) due to the traumatic injury in their predecessors. It was not possible to find an association between the type of injury in primary teeth and sequelae in their successors in the studied age groups (P study concluded that discolorations of enamel and/or enamel hypoplasia (46.08%) were the most prevalent sequelae on the permanent dentition and that there was no significant statistical association between the occurrence of sequelae in the permanent teeth and the type of traumatic injury in their predecessors in the studied age groups.

  13. Childhood Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders among Boys: A Prospective Community-Based Follow-Up Study from Age 8 Years to Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…

  14. Mold colonization during use of preservative-treated and untreated air filters, including HEPA filters from hospitals and commercial locations over an 8-year period (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel L; Simmons, Robert B; Crow, Sidney A; Ahearn, Donald G

    2005-07-01

    High efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA; 99.97% efficient at 0.3 microm) filters, filters with ASHRAE particulate arrestance rating of 90-95% at 1 mum (90-95% filters), and lower efficiency cellulosic-polyester filters from air conditioning systems in hospitals and commercial buildings were removed from the systems and examined microscopically for mold colonization. Cellulosic-type filters from systems with water entrainment problems typically were colonized, or became colonized upon incubation in moisture chambers. Species of Acremonium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were most common. With air filters of all types, treatment of filter media with an antimicrobial preservative tended to reduce or delay colonization. Mold colonization of HEPA and 90-95% filters was observed most often on the load surfaces, but two untreated HEPA filters were permeated with fungi, one with Aspergillus flavus, the other with Cladosporium sp. Air filters in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, particularly those with chronic or periodic exposure to moisture, may serve as point sources for indoor molds.

  15. More-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with low bone density: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L; Bliuc, D; Stanford, P; Eisman, J A; Center, J R

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between more-than-minimal-trauma fractures and bone density. This study demonstrated that more-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with lower bone density similar to that seen in minimal trauma fractures. Men and women over 50 years with a more-than-minimal-trauma fracture should be investigated to exclude low bone density.

  16. Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2013-11-01

    Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

  17. Clinicopathological study of gall bladder carcinoma with special reference to gallstones: our 8-year experience from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, Nissar Hussain; Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid; Aggarwalla, Ramesh; Bhartia, Vishnu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Sumit; Debakshi, Sanjay; Baig, Sarfaraz Jalil; Pal, N K

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the commonest cancer of the biliary tree and the most frequent cause of death from biliary malignancies. The incidence of GBC shows prominent geographic, age, race, and gender-related differences and is 4-7 times higher in patients with gallstones. This prompted us to study the clinicopathological aspects of the disease and the incidence of gallstones in gallbladder carcinoma patients, in this part of India. In this, combined retrospective (Jan 2004-March 2010) and prospective study (April 2010-Dec 2011) of eight years, 198 patients of gallbladder carcinoma (50 males and 148 females), (range 28-82 years; mean 55 years) were studied. Most of the patients were poor and presented with abdominal pain and mass, with abnormal lab parameters. Gallstones were present in 86% of patients. Surgical exploration was performed in 130, with gallbladder resection in 60 (including 7 incidental GBC). Adenocarcinoma (87.7%) was the commonest histological type. The study indicates that GBC is common in our scenario. It is a disease of elderly females, has a strong association with gallstones and every cholecystectomy specimen should be examined histopathologically.

  18. Spinopelvic Fixation of Sacroiliac Joint Fractures and Fracture-Dislocations: A Clinical 8 Years Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sobhan, Mohammad R.; Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J.; Vakili, Mahmood; Shirdel, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pelvic ring injuries and sacroiliac dislocations have significant impacts on patient’s quality of life. Several techniques have been described for posterior pelvic fixation. The current study has been designed to evaluate the spinopelvic method of fixation for sacroiliac fractures and fracture-dislocations. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2014, 14 patients with sacroiliac joint fractures, dislocation and fracture-dislocation were treated by Spinopelvic fixation at Shahid Sadoughi Training Hospital, Yazd, Iran. Patients were seen in follow up, on average, out to 32 months after surgery. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of injuries. A functional assessment of the patients was performed using Majeed’s score. Patient demographics, reduction quality, loss of fixation, outcomes and complications, return to activity, and screw hardware characteristics are described Results: The injury was unilateral in 11 (78.5%) patients and bilateral in 3 (21.5%). Associated injuries were present in all patients, including fractures, dislocation and abdominal injuries. Lower limb length discrepancy was less than 10 mm in all patients except two. Displacement, as a measure of quality of reduction was less than 5 mm in 13 patients. The mean Majeed score was 78/100. Wound infection and hardware failure were observed in 3 (21.4%) and 1 (7.1%) cases, respectively. In this study most patients (85%) return to work postoperatively. Conclusion: According to the findings, spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective technique for treatment of sacroiliac injuries. This method can obtain early partial to full weight bearing and possibly reduce the complications. PMID:27847854

  19. Incidence, risk factors and impact on outcomes of secondary infection in patients with septic shock: an 8-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang-ju; Li, Dong; Zhao, Qian; Song, Jia-xing; Chen, Xiao-rong; Hong, Guang-liang; Li, Meng-fang; Wu, Bing; Lu, Zhong-qiu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary infection in septic patients has received widespread attention, although clinical data are still lacking. The present study was performed on 476 patients with septic shock. Time trends for mortality were analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation test. Risk factors for secondary infection were investigated by binary logistic regression. The extended Cox model with time-varying covariates and hazard ratios (HR) was performed to determine the impact of secondary infection on mortality. Differences in hospital length of stay (LOS) between patients with and without secondary infection were calculated using a multistate model. Thirty-nine percent of septic shock patients who survived the early phase of the disease developed secondary infection. There was a statistically significant increased odds ratio for secondary infection in older patients and patients with a longer LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU), a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and endotracheal intubation. Secondary infection significantly reduced the rate of discharge (HR 5.607; CI95 3.612–8.704; P < 0.001) and was associated with an increased hospital LOS of 5.46 days. The present findings represent a direct description of secondary infection in septic shock patients and highlight the influence of this condition on septic shock outcomes. PMID:27924831

  20. Efficacy of single and multi-metric fish-based indices in tracking anthropogenic pressures in estuaries: An 8-year case study.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Filipe; Nyitrai, Daniel; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-12-15

    Facing a generalized increase in water degradation, several programmes have been implemented for protecting and enhancing the water quality and associated wildlife, which rely on ecological indicators to assess the degree of deviation from a pristine state. Here, single (species number, Shannon-Wiener H', Pielou J') and multi-metric (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index, EFAI) community-based ecological quality measures were evaluated in a temperate estuary over an 8-year period (2005-2012), and established their relationships with an anthropogenic pressure index (API). Single metric indices were highly variable and neither concordant amongst themselves nor with the EFAI. The EFAI was the only index significantly correlated with the API, indicating that higher ecological quality was associated with lower anthropogenic pressure. Pressure scenarios were related with specific fish community composition, as a result of distinct food web complexity and nursery functioning of the estuary. Results were discussed in the scope of the implementation of water protection programmes.

  1. Heterogeneity of humoral immune abnormalities in children with Nijmegen breakage syndrome: an 8-year follow-up study in a single centre.

    PubMed

    Gregorek, H; Chrzanowska, K H; Michałkiewicz, J; Syczewska, M; Madaliński, K

    2002-11-01

    During an 8-year period of observation, defects of immune responses were characterized and monitored in 40 of 50 Polish children with Nijmegen breakage syndrome referred to the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw. The following parameters were determined at diagnosis: (1) concentrations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA; (2) concentrations of IgG subclasses; and (3) lymphocyte subpopulations. In addition, naturally acquired specific antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in 20 patients with a history of recurrent respiratory infections. During follow-up, total serum immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses were monitored systematically in 17 patients who did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody response was measured after vaccination of 20 children against HBV. We found that the immune deficiency in NBS is profound, highly variable, with a tendency to progress over time. Systematic monitoring of the humoral response, despite good clinical condition, is essential for early medical intervention.

  2. A 5- to 8-year randomized study on the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: anterior cervical decompression and fusion plus physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Engquist, Markus; Löfgren, Håkan; Öberg, Birgitta; Holtz, Anders; Peolsson, Anneli; Söderlund, Anne; Vavruch, Ludek; Lind, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the 5- to 8-year outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) combined with a structured physiotherapy program as compared with that following the same physiotherapy program alone in patients with cervical radiculopathy. No previous prospective randomized studies with a follow-up of more than 2 years have compared outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical intervention for cervical radiculopathy. METHODS Fifty-nine patients were randomized to ACDF surgery with postoperative physiotherapy (30 patients) or to structured physiotherapy alone (29 patients). The physiotherapy program included general and specific exercises as well as pain coping strategies. Outcome measures included neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), neck and arm pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), health state (EQ-5D questionnaire), and a patient global assessment. Patients were followed up for 5-8 years. RESULTS After 5-8 years, the NDI was reduced by a mean score% of 21 (95% CI 14-28) in the surgical group and 11% (95% CI 4%-18%) in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.03). Neck pain was reduced by a mean score of 39 mm (95% CI 26-53 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-30 mm; p = 0.01), and arm pain was reduced by a mean score of 33 mm (95% CI 18-49 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-32 mm; p = 0.1), respectively. The EQ-5D had a mean respective increase of 0.29 (95% CI 0.13-0.45) compared with 0.14 (95% CI 0.01-0.27; p = 0.12). Ninety-three percent of patients in the surgical group rated their symptoms as "better" or "much better" compared with 62% in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.005). Both treatment groups experienced significant improvement over baseline for all outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective randomized study of 5- to 8-year outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment in patients with cervical radiculopathy, ACDF combined with physiotherapy reduced neck disability and neck pain more effectively than

  3. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  4. Different sensitization profile for asthma, rhinitis, and eczema among 7-8-year-old children: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies.

    PubMed

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-04-01

    Sensitization to different airborne allergens in relation to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied. A cross-sectional study was performed among 7-8-year-old children living in northern Sweden. The ISAAC-questionnaire with additional questions were sent to the parents, and 3431 (97%) participated. Two-thirds of the children were invited to undergo a skin test with 10 common airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The prevalence rates of all three diseases were significantly higher among the children who were sensitized to any of the tested allergens. Among asthmatics, 40% were sensitized to cat, 34% to dog, 28% to horse, 23% to birch and 16% to timothy. The corresponding figures for rhinitis were: cat 49%, dog 33%, horse 37%, birch 46%, timothy 32%; and for eczema: cat 29%, dog 21%, horse 15%, birch 20%, and timothy 11%. Only a few children were sensitized to mites or moulds. The main risk factors for all three diseases were type-1 allergy and a family history of the disease. Independently from other risk factors, sensitization to dog (OR 2.4) and horse (OR 2.2) were significant risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to birch (OR 6.0), horse (OR 4.1), and timothy (OR 2.8) were significant risk factors for rhinitis, while birch (OR 2.4), dog (OR 2.0) and cat (OR 1.6) were significant risk factors for eczema. Despite a large over-lapping of the diseases the pattern of sensitization was different for asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Sensitization to cat was most common among all children, but sensitization to dog and horse was associated with the highest risk for asthma, and sensitization to birch showed the highest risk for rhinitis and eczema. The different risk factor pattern for the often coexisting diseases; asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, may indicate differences in the etiology.

  5. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    PubMed Central

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A.; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and

  6. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (p<0.05) after three and six months follow up. The difference in sealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (p<0.05). Conclusions Combining air abrasion pretreatment with subsequent acid etching did not result in statistically significant difference in sealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  7. Four Years Prospective Study of Natural History of Atopic Dermatitis Aged 7~8 Years at an Individual Level: A Community-Based Survey by Dermatologists' Skin Examination in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jee; Yun, Sook Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong Jin; Won, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The age-dependent change in atopic dermatitis (AD) at an individual level has mostly performed in a hospital-setting. Objective We evaluated the age-dependent change of AD symptoms at an individual level in a community-setting. Methods For the diagnostic accuracy, all participants of schoolchildren were received skin examination by dermatologists (twice a year for the same group), instead of questionnaire-based surveys. For this study, sequential check-ups of 273 elementary school children, aged 7~8 years, were performed for 4 years up to the age of 10~11 years. Results Among the 47 AD children, who had been diagnosed as having AD at the first-year check-up, spontaneous remission was detected in nine children during the follow-up periods (remission rate of 19.1%). As a consequence, the one-year AD prevalence was decreased by 5.9% in the elementary schoolchildren over four years. Unexpectedly, late onset (after 8 years of age) AD was observed in 21.7% of AD children. There was no statistically significant relationship between spontaneous remission and host factors including sex and family history of atopic diseases. Conclusion We observed that 19.1% of AD children in the age group of 7~11 years showed spontaneous remission based on skin examination by dermatologists. There might be an increase in the prevalence of late onset AD in Korea. PMID:27904266

  8. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  9. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-03-15

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p < 0.001), cheese (p = 0.001), and meat (p = 0.027). Satiety responsiveness was inversely associated with consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p < 0.001) and directly associated with consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs.

  10. Fighting with Spirits: Migration Trauma, Acculturative Stress, and New Sibling Transition-A Clinical Case Study of an 8-Year-Old Girl with Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Bose, Ruma

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the impact of migration and acculturation processes on the cultural, personal identity, and mental health of children who immigrate to a Western, multicultural environment, and the challenges clinicians in such environments face, when confronted with non-Western idioms of distress and healing practices. We do that by presenting a challenging clinical case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with very disorganized behavior, which matches a culturally accepted construct of spirit possession, in the context of migration trauma, acculturative stress, and new sibling transition. We identify cultural conflict in school and bullying as major mediators between acculturative stress and mental distress. We also aim at identifying vulnerability, risk and protective factors, and the importance of cultural coping resources. We explore in depth the patient's cultural background and the family's belief system and culturally shaped narratives, in order to arrive at a cultural formulation, which focuses on the significance of idioms of distress in shaping psychopathology and influencing the personal and interpersonal course of trauma- and stress-related disorders. We also call attention to the finding that in children, idioms of distress may manifest themselves in a somatic manner. We argue, together with other researchers, that spirit possession deserves more interest as an idiom of distress and a culture-specific response to traumatizing events. We finally emphasize the importance of an anti-reductionist clinical stance, that is able to use different levels of understanding processes of distress and healing, and seeks to reconciliate cultural divides and integrate different explanatory frameworks and help-seeking practices.

  11. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Daniel; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental "circumstance" with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development.

  12. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental “circumstance” with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development. PMID:28114381

  13. Infliximab is the new kid on the block in Kawasaki disease: a single-centre study over 8 years from North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Sharma, Dhrubajyoti; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This was a single-centre study to evaluate the usefulness of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocker, infliximab (IFX), for treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD) in children in Northern Indian. The study was carried out in the Paediatric Allergy-Immunology Unit, Advanced Paediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. The study period was January 2007 to March 2015. Review of records of 23 children with KD who had received IFX was carried out. Median age at presentation was 2 years (range 2 months to 12 years). Indications for using IFX were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) resistance (12/23 patients); severe KD especially when coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) had developed in spite of IVIg (9/23 patients); retinal vasculitis in association with KD (1 patient) and economic reasons (1 patient). Twenty one (21/23) patients had received IVIg (2 g/kg) as first line therapy. A dose of IFX was 5-7 mg/kg given intravenously. Screening tests for tuberculosis (chest xray, Tuberculin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test) were not carried out prior to IFX infusion in any patient. Duration of follow-up was 0-20 months in 13 patients; 21-40 months in 5 patients and >40 months in 6 patients. Mean follow-up was 28.78±25.49 months, range 1-84 months. Eleven of 12 patients (11/12) who had IVIg resistance showed prompt resolution with IFX. Nineteen patients (19/23) in the cohort had CAAs. Of these, 12 showed improvement over mean follow-up of 28.78±25.49 months (range 1-84 months) and 4 showed normalisation. No adverse reactions were noted during infusion of IFX. On follow-up, none of these patients has developed tuberculosis or any other significant infection over a cummulative follow-up of 662 months. IFX can be considered as a useful adjunct in treatment of children with KD.

  14. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  15. Early treatment of imported falciparum malaria in the intermediate and intensive care unit setting: an 8-year single-center retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, Lukas; Streit, Judith Pamela; Edler, Lutz; Encke, Jens; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Junghanss, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Imported falciparum malaria is characterized by a broad spectrum of potentially life-threatening complications that may arise even after initiation of appropriate antimalarial drug therapy. Hence, at Heidelberg University Hospital, all patients with newly diagnosed falciparum malaria are initially treated in the intermediate care unit (IMC) or intensive care unit (ICU). The present study was undertaken to evaluate critically the benefit of this strategy, which includes daily consultation with senior specialists in tropical medicine. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the 14-bed combined IMC/ICU of a 1,685-bed university hospital. A cohort of 122 patients with imported falciparum malaria admitted from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2003 was included. Results Thirty-four patients (27.9%) developed complications, defined according to the current World Health Organization classification. Most patients (80.3%) studied did not take the recommended chemoprophylaxis against malaria. The majority of patients (89.3% [n = 109]) could be adequately treated in the IMC. Life-threatening complications requiring ICU support occurred in 13 patients (10.7%). All complications were successfully managed. Fifty-five patients (45.1%) fulfilling recently published criteria for outpatient treatment had an excellent therapeutic response and did not require ICU support. Conclusion This retrospective evaluation demonstrated favourable therapeutic results in hospitalized patients with imported falciparum malaria. Both initial treatment in the medical IMC/ICU and close collaboration between intensivists and specialists in tropical medicine may improve disease outcome among affected patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:18294371

  16. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy in an Elderly Population in Beijing, China, 1992–2000: An 8-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. Methods This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. Results The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Conclusions Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation. PMID:21747208

  17. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  18. Transition of blaOXA-58-like to blaOXA-23-like in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in Southern China: An 8-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiyuan; He, Yi; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yuemei; Wu, Jinsong; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals has been increasing worldwide. This study aims to investigate the carbapenemase genes and the clonal relatedness among A. baumannii clinical isolates in a Chinese hospital. Methods Carbapenemase genes and the upstream locations of insertion sequences were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Results A total of 231 nonduplicate carbapenemase gene-harboring A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Shenzhen People’s Hospital, were investigated between 2002 and 2009. blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-40-like, and ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like were identified in 119, 107, 1, and 4 isolates, respectively. IS1008-ΔISAba3, ISAba3, and ISAba1 were detected upstream of the blaOXA-58-like gene in 69, 35, and 3 isolates, respectively. All blaOXA-23-like genes but one had an upstream insertion of ISAba1. blaOXA-58-like was the most common carbapenemase gene in A.baumannii before 2008, thereafter blaOXA-23-like became rapidly prevalent and replaced blaOXA-58-like in 2009. The majority of blaOXA-58-like-carrying isolates showed lower level of resistance to imipenem and meropenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml), compared with the majority of blaOXA-23-like-carrying isolates (MICs, 16 μg/ml to 64 μg/ml for both imipenem and meropenem). All 231 blaOXA carbapenemase gene-harboring isolates belonged to 14 PFGE types (A–N), and three dominant clones A, J, and H accounted for 43.3%, 42.0%, and 8.2% of the tested isolates, respectively. Clone A (sequence type ST92/ST208) with blaOXA-58-like was the most prevalent before 2008. Clone H (ST229) with blaOXA-23-like became striking between 2007 and 2008. Clone J (ST381) with blaOXA-23-like rapidly spread and replaced clones A and H in 2009. Conclusion This study is the first to

  19. Elbow Flexion Contractures in Childhood in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions: A Longitudinal Study of 20 Neurosurgically Reconstructed Infants with 8-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Maaike J.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem-Jan R.; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; van Royen, Barend J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  Little knowledge exists on the development of elbow flexion contractures in children with obstetrical brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of several neuromuscular parameters in infants with OBPL regarding the later development of elbow flexion contractures. Methods  Twenty infants with OBPL with insufficient signs of recovery in the first months of life who were neurosurgically reconstructed were included. At a mean age of 4.6 months, the following neuromuscular parameters were assessed: existence of flexion contractures, cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper arm muscles on MRI, Narakas classification, EMG results, and elbow muscle function using the Gilbert score. In childhood at follow-up at mean age of 7.7 years, we measured the amount of flexion contractures and the upper arm peak force (Newton). Statistical analysis is used to assess relations between these parameters. Results  Flexion contractures of greater than 10 degrees occurred in 55% of our patient group. The relation between the parameters in infancy and the flexion contractures in childhood is almost nonexistent. Only the Narakas classification was related to the development of flexion contractures in childhood (p = 0.006). Infant muscle CSA is related to childhood peak muscle force. Conclusion  The role of infancy upper arm muscle hypotrophy/hypertrophy, reinnervation, and early elbow muscle function in the development of childhood elbow contractures remains unclear. In this cohort prediction of childhood flexion, contractures were not possible using infancy neuromuscular parameters. We suggest that contractures might be an adaptive process to optimize residual muscle function. PMID:27917234

  20. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  1. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007-2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Iorga, Magdalena; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08-1.35]), foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21-1.48]), episiotomy (1.27 [1.21-1.34]), uterine revision (1.15 [1.06-1.25]), APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21-1.67]), cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07-1.48]), and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25-1.62]); however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70-0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10-1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03-1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90-3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04-2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12-2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26-0.71), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), and 0.29 (0.20-0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  2. Residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions and the risk of wheezing among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren: a city-wide cross-sectional study in Nicosia, Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported associations between respiratory outcomes in children and a range of self-reported, administrative or geographical indicators of traffic pollution. First-time investigation into the frequency of asthmatic symptoms among 7-8 year-old Cypriot children in 1999-2000 showed increased prevalence in the capital Nicosia compared to other areas. Geographical differences on an island the size of Cyprus may reflect environmental and/or lifestyle factors. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported symptoms and residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions among Nicosia schoolchildren. Methods The addresses of children in the metropolitan area of Nicosia who participated in the original survey (N = 1,735) were geo-coded and the level of exposure of each child was assessed using distance- and emission-based indicators (i.e. estimated levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions due to motor vehicles on main roads around the residence). Odds ratios of wheezing and asthma diagnosis in relation to levels of exposure were estimated in logistic regression models adjusting for person-based factors, co-morbidity and intra-school clustering. Results We found an increased risk of wheezing at distances less than 50 m from a main road and/or only among those experiencing the highest levels of exposure. The strongest effect estimates were observed when exposure was defined in terms of the cumulative burden at all roads around the residence. Adjusted odds ratios for current wheezing were 2.33 (95% CI 1.27, 4.30) amongst the quartile of participants exposed to the highest levels of PM at all roads 50 m of their residence and 2.14 (95% CI 1.05, 4.35) for NOx, with no effect at intermediate levels of exposure. While the direction of effect was apparent at longer distances, differences were generally not statistically significant. Conclusions Children experiencing the highest burden of emissions in Nicosia seem to be at

  3. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08–1.35]), foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21–1.48]), episiotomy (1.27 [1.21–1.34]), uterine revision (1.15 [1.06–1.25]), APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21–1.67]), cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07–1.48]), and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25–1.62]); however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71), 0.90 (0.85–0.96), and 0.29 (0.20–0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers. PMID:28133615

  4. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-Year Update

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Franziska J.; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the “Hispanic Paradox”). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  5. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities.

  6. The Stability of Extreme Response Style and Acquiescence Over 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Eunike; Lüdtke, Oliver; Zettler, Ingo; Böhnke, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the stability of extreme response style (ERS) and acquiescence response style (ARS) over a period of 8 years. ERS and ARS were measured with item sets drawn randomly from a large pool of items used in an ongoing German panel study. Latent-trait-state-occasion and latent-state models were applied to test the relationship between time-specific (state) response style behaviors and time-invariant trait components of response styles. The results show that across different random item samples, on average between 49% and 59% of the variance in the state response style factors was explained by the trait response style factors. This indicates that the systematic differences respondents show in their preferences for certain response categories are remarkably stable over a period of 8 years. The stability of ERS and ARS implies that it is important to consider response styles in the analysis of self-report data from polytomous rating scales, especially in longitudinal studies aimed at investigating stability in substantive traits. Furthermore, the stability of response styles raises the question in how far they might be considered trait-like latent variables themselves that could be of substantive interest.

  7. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  8. Temporal Generalization in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clement, Angelique; Wearden, John

    2001-01-01

    Tested 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds on temporal generalization with visual stimuli. Found increasing sharpness of generalization gradient with increasing age, and change from symmetrical to adult-like asymmetrical generalization gradients among 8-year-olds. Theoretical models attributed changes to increasing precision of the reference memory with…

  9. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V.; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  10. Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) at Age 8 Years: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria B.; Duffy, Frank H.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports the effects of NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) at 8 years of age for a randomized controlled trial of 38 very early born (≤29 weeks postmenstrual age), high-risk preterm infants. It was hypothesized that the experimental group at school age in comparison with the control group would perform significantly better neuropsychologically and neuroelectrophysiologically. Twenty-two (11 control, 11 experimental) children of the original 38 (18 control, 20 experimental) participants were studied at school age with a detailed neuropsychological battery and with EEG spectral coherence measures. Results indicated significantly better right hemisphere and frontal lobe function in the experimental group than the control group, both neuropsychologically and neurophysiologically. Neurobehavioral and physiological results in the newborn period successfully predicted the beneficial brain function effects at age 8 years. Results support the conclusion that the NIDCAP intervention has lasting effects into school age. PMID:19448128

  11. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  12. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  13. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): an 8-year reevaluation of testicular function and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Potashnik, G.; Yanai-Inbar, I.

    1987-02-01

    The current study summarizes an 8-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance in 15 workers with dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Recovery of spermatogenesis was observed in four oligozoospermic and three azoospermic men whose plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was normal during the whole period. A marked increase in FSH and luteinizing hormone concentrations above the upper limit of normal was found in the azoospermic workers who did not recover. No significant changes in FSH concentrations were detected in both recovered and nonrecovered oligozoospermic men. Testosterone levels of all patients were normal at all times. Paternal exposure to DBCP was not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or spontaneous abortion.

  14. The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to 8 Years after High School: A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Marder, Camille; Nagle, Katherine; Shaver, Debra; Wei, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) funded by the National Center for Special Education Research at the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, provides a unique source of information to help in developing an understanding of the experiences of secondary school students with disabilities nationally as they…

  15. Structural and Functional Reorganization of the Corpus Callosum between the Age of 6 and 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luders, Eileen; Specht, Karsten; Ofte, Sonja H.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of an efficient exchange of information between the cerebral hemispheres is of crucial importance in the developing functionally lateralized brain. The corpus callosum, the major connection between the cerebral hemispheres, grows constantly throughout childhood and adolescence. However, behavioral studies suggest the existence of a critical time period for callosal functional development starting around the age of 6 years. In the present longitudinal study, examining a cohort of 20 children at the age of 6 and 8 years, we assessed the relationship between structural and functional callosal development during this time period. The structural development was quantified by calculating the increase in callosal thickness using a shape-based computational analysis of the mid-sagittal corpus callosum as obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. The functional development was assessed with a speech discrimination task based on the dichotic presentation of consonant–vowel syllables. The statistical analysis revealed that children whose callosal isthmus increased in thickness over the course of 2 years showed a decrease in interhemispheric information transfer. However, children exhibiting a decrease in isthmus thickness revealed an increase in information transfer. These results might indicate a refinement process of the callosal connections to optimize the neuronal communication between the developing cerebral hemispheres. PMID:20847151

  16. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  17. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen k

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case. PMID:27900279

  18. Ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian child

    PubMed Central

    Keisham, Chitralekha; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, V. K.; Chugh, Shikha

    2013-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis is a disorder of pigmentation, characterized by asymptomatic symmetric ashy gray-colored macules, in the first to third decade of life. It can, however, affect children sometime. But, there is a paucity of similar cases in Indian children. We present a case of ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian girl who presented to skin OPD with areas of ashy pigmentation, which were distributed symmetrically. Skin biopsy was consistent with lichenoid pattern histology. This case has been reported to highlight the rarity of ashy dermatosis in Indian children. PMID:23439983

  19. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  20. Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

  1. MR LLRF VXI upgrade beam study period

    SciTech Connect

    Mesiner, K.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    AD/RFI/LLRF group personnel performed several studies with the MR LLRF VXI upgrade system during the evening of 7/29/95. The study period lasted about 4 hours. The MR operating conditions were a mixture of $29 and $2B cycles, with beam injected only on the $29. The author believes the $2B cycles were present for reasons unrelated to the study. The basic study period goal was to test the initial VXI version of MR LLRF finite state machine (FSM) execution. This goal represents what has been called MR LLRF VXI Upgrade Implementation Stage No.2 throughout presentations and documentation on the upgrade project. The test includes control of MR LLRF NIM hardware, the MR RF cavities, and beam via XVI TTL FSM outputs. Numerous MR LLRF VXI system objects, or components, must work together correctly for a successful test. Very briefly, the required objects include VXI Front End hardware, the ACNET/Front End interface code, and the VXI/NIM Interface chassis (the chassis solves VXI-CAMAC-NIM RF and FSM output connectivity and development problems). Though this initial FSM does not yet fully support Upgrade Implementation Stage 2 functionality, all code and hardware for the following basic functionality is tested.

  2. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  3. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  4. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  5. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain.

  6. Surgical management and follow-up of lateral skull base tumors: An 8-year review

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Hong-Yu; Wang, Yu-Fan; Yang, Hui-Jun; Shen, Shi-Yue; Wang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to describe the diagnostic evaluation of, and surgical approaches to, lateral skull base tumors (LSBTs). The study is a retrospective review of 21 patients diagnosed with tumors that involve lateral skull base (8 with malignant diseases and 13 with benign lesions) who were surgically treated during a 8-year period. The transparotid-transmandibular (38%) was the most commonly performed surgical procedure, followed by the transmandibular (24%), the transmaxillary (24%), the transcervical approach (10%) and the combined approach (4%). The surgical procedures were uneventful and there were no postoperative mortalities. Complications were encountered in 12 cases, and morbidity was not remarkable during the perioperative stages. After an average follow-up of 46 months, only 1 of 14 patients with benign diseases had a recurrence following the resection of a pleomorphic adenoma. Of 7 patients with malignant tumors, 5 are alive with no evidence of disease. The majority of the benign lateral skull base tumors can be removed surgically with a low rate of complications and recurrence. However, malignant neoplasms carry a poor prognosis and a low rate of disease-free survival. PMID:28357097

  7. Celebrating 8 Years at Mars: Repeated Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 September 2005 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) entered Mars orbit on 12 September 1997.

    Today, we celebrate the MGS's 8th anniversary!

    The 8 Earth years that MGS has been in orbit span portions of 5 martian years. One of the critical science activities that the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been engaged in for the past 8 years has been to document daily changes in the martian weather. Each day that MOC is operating, the red and blue wide angle cameras are used to build up a daily global map. These maps provide a record of the planet's changing meteorological conditions.

    One of the most exciting observations that the MOC wide angle cameras have made during these 8 years is that the red planet has very repeatable weather patterns. In light of weather-related problems and disruptions that occur every year on Earth, one can only imagine how nice it would be if our planet followed a similar, repeated pattern.

    The four pictures shown here provide an example of one of the weather phenomena that repeat each martian year. Each picture shows the north polar region of Mars during the northern summer season. Each picture is a composite of several images acquired at different visible wavelengths to give a color view of the planet. Each picture was taken about 1 Mars year apart, and each shows an annular (circular) cloud located over the same terrain each summer.

    The first picture, acquired in April 1999, is actually not from the MGS MOC instrument. It was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and was originally released by the Space Telescope Science Institute on 19 May 1999. The reason there is no MOC image for April 1999 is a product of the MGS spacecraft's 8-year history at Mars. MGS was certainly in orbit at the time, and it was taking data during the month of April. However, the camera did not obtain any images between 17 and 28 April because the spacecraft encountered, and then had to be recovered

  8. Retention of fetal bones 8 years following termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Hasan Onur; Şimşek, Bilge Şener; Taşdemir, Umit; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Doğanay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies; in particular, fetal bones may present with a variety of clinical symptoms and signs including infertility, vaginal discharge, disparonia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding. Many case reports were described post- abortal removal of retained fetal bone at varying time intervals from the previous (D&E), ranging from weeks to years. In our case, a 34-year-old woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and secondary infertility, her only pregnancy being a termination 8 years previously at 15 weeks' gestation. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed a normal-sized, normal-shaped uterus with an echogenic scarred endometrium. After then office hysterescopy revealed fragments of the immature bone. All the immature bones were removed by operative hysterescopy. Significant numbers of patients may have endometrial pathology; the differential diagnosis of such unusual findings on ultrasound examination includes intrauterine contraceptive devices, foreign bodies, calcified submucous fibroids and Asherman's syndrome, as well as rarities such as heterotopic bone. The presence of this pathology may be a causal or contributory factor to subfertilty, and will remain undetected if the endometrium is not routinely evaluated. Indeed, these cases highlight the advantage of performing a hysteroscopy at the same time as the more invasive laparoscopy and dye insufflation, in selected cases.

  9. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  10. Neuropsychological signs of Alzheimer's disease 8 years prior to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Nicole S; Taylor, Kirsten I; Foldi, Nancy S; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the earliest neuropsychological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by comparing the baseline performance of 29 individuals who subsequently developed AD within an average of 7.91 ± 2.70 years with 29 pairwise-matched individuals who remained cognitively healthy (NC). We hypothesized that subtle, qualitative changes in cognition precede clinical AD by several years, and therefore examined subjective as well as standard quantitative measures of cognition, in addition to subjective estimates of mood and medical status. Participants were selected from the 825 members of the longitudinal BASEL study (BAsel Study on the ELderly), all of whom had been ApoE-genotyped and received comprehensive bi-annual neuropsychological assessments. Within 13 years, 29 were diagnosed with probable AD. Each individual who progressed to AD (AD-P) was pairwise matched to a NC participant based on age, education, demographic status, observation period, and, importantly, ApoE genotype. A regression analysis using the lasso technique identified which of 115 neuropsychological variables best discriminated baseline NC from baseline AD-P performance. This analysis yielded eleven neuropsychological variables that optimally discriminated the two groups (correct classification rate: 60.4%): 1) Intrusions and 2) response bias in verbal learning and memory tasks; 3) delayed figure recall; 4-6) three Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design subtest variables; 7-8) number of errors and repetitions on letter fluency; and 9-11) self-report of memory problems, a feeling of sadness, and cardiac problems. These results suggest that the preclinical neuropsychological cascade to AD includes subtle but identifiable qualitative impairments in verbal and visual memory, visuospatial processing, error control, and subjective neuropsychological complaints.

  11. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed Central

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth. PMID:12948893

  12. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-09-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth.

  13. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  14. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Body Mass Index in Children Up To 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, epidemiologic studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are limited despite animal studies indicating PBDEs’ potential role as an obesogen. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal concentrations of BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and ΣPBDEs during pregnancy were associated with anthropometric measures in children aged 1–8 years. Methods: We examined 318 mother–child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort enrolled from 2003 through 2006 (Cincinnati, OH). Serum PBDEs were measured at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. We measured child height (1–8 years), weight (1–8 years), body mass index (BMI) (2–8 years), waist circumference (4–8 years), and body fat (8 years). To account for repeated measures, we used linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between maternal PBDEs and child anthropometric measures. Results: We found no statistically significant associations between prenatal PBDEs and height or weight z-score. A 10-fold increase in maternal serum BDE-153 was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = –0.36; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.13) at 2–8 years, smaller waist circumference (β = –1.81 cm; 95% CI: –3.13, –0.50) at 4–8 years, and lower percent body fat (β = –2.37%; 95% CI: –4.21, –0.53) at 8 years. A decrease in waist circumference at 4–8 years was observed with a 10-fold increase in BDE-100 (β = –1.50 cm; 95% CI: –2.93, –0.08) and ΣPBDEs (β = –1.57 cm; 95% CI: –3.11, –0.02). Conclusions: Reverse causality may have resulted in prenatal PBDEs, particularly BDE-153, and decreased BMI, waist circumference, and body fat. Citation: Vuong AM, Braun JM, Sjödin A, Webster GM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2016. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and body mass index in children up to 8 years of age

  15. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  16. Growth trajectories from conception through middle childhood and cognitive achievement at age 8 years: Evidence from four low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Crookston, Benjamin T; Duc, Le Thuc; Hermida, Priscila; Mani, Subha; Woldehanna, Tassew; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-12-01

    Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories), and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: a) compare two of the most common approaches of modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and b) investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods.

  17. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  18. Seasonal variation and dynamics of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma, after 8 years of Cassini in orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn orbits the Sun with a period of nearly 29.5 years and has an obliquity of 26.73°. As a result, Saturn presents seasonal variations similar to Earth's, but with much longer seasons, as the tilt between the planet's spin axis and the solar wind vary (approximately sinusoidally) with time between solstices. Saturn was close to its equinox (tilt below 8.1°) during the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 flybys that took place between September 1979 and August 1981, so any seasonal effects would have been relatively hard to see in the limited data from these missions. More than 2 decades later, on July 4, 2004, Cassini began orbiting Saturn, returning a variety of in situ and remote measurements. During the last 8 years, Cassini covered a large part of the Saturnian system and offered the opportunity of sampling the planetary magnetosphere not just at different seasons, but also at seasonal phases that are symmetric to the Saturnian equinox (August 2009). In this talk, we focus on the seasonal effects seen in the magnetosphere of Saturn as the angle between the solar wind flow and the Saturn-Sun direction changes from +23.7° (northern hemisphere winter) at the arrival of Cassini, to -14.9° (northern hemisphere summer) on July 2012. Particle and magnetic field data taken from a extensive set of equatorial and high latitude orbits of Cassini, at various distances and local times, show that: (a) the plasma sheet of Saturn has the form of a magnetodisk, with an energy-dependent vertical structure, being thicker by a factor of ~2 in the energetic particle range than in the electron plasma, and (b) it exhibits intense dynamical behavior, evident in in-situ particle measurements but also in energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. The study of the pre-equinox high latitude orbits revealed that the night side plasma sheet was tilted northward beyond a radial distance of ~15 Rs (1Rs=60,258 km). As equinox approached, Cassini observed a clear decrease in the tilt of the

  19. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at 8 Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    School-age language outcomes for children in a longitudinal, randomized controlled study of foster care were examined. Even though children had different placement status at 8 years, children originally placed in Romanian foster care had higher sentence repetition accuracy and longer sentences at 8 years than children who originally lived in severely depriving institutional care. A larger number of foster children also showed written word identification ability. Children placed in foster care by 25 months had significant advantages in nonword repetition and word identification than children placed later. Children placed by 15 months performed equivalently to typical community peers on these measures. Children’s expressive language at 42 months was correlated with their 8-year sentence repetition, nonword repetition, and word identification. The results speak to the continuing adverse effects of early poor institutional care on later language development and to the key importance of age of placement in a more optimal environment. PMID:22584071

  20. Trends in Indications and Techniques of Corneal Transplantation in Iran from 2006 to 2013; an 8-year Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Motevasseli, Tahmineh; Chamani, Tahereh; Rezaei Kanavi, Mahnoush; Kheiri, Bahareh; Safi, Sare

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report changing trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran. Methods: We reviewed eye bank records of 47,129 patients who had undergone corneal transplantation between 2006 and 2013 at different eye centers throughout Iran. Results: The most common indication for corneal transplantation was keratoconus (KCN, n = 21,350 eyes, 45.3%), followed by bullous keratopathy (BK, n = 8,566 eyes, 18.2%), corneal opacity and scar (COS, n = 7,158 eyes, 15.2%), graft failure (n = 3,252 eyes, 6.9%), corneal dystrophies (n = 2,553 eyes, 5.4%), and infectious keratitis (n = 2,238 eyes, 4.7%). Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the frequency of BK (P = 0.001) and graft failure (P = 0.025), and a significant decrease in the relative frequency of COS (P = 0.012). The prevalence of KCN (P = 0.172), infectious keratitis (P = 0.107), and corneal dystrophies (P = 0.836) remained unchanged. The most common technique of corneal transplantation was penetrating keratoplasty (PKP, n = 33,476 eyes, 71.0%), followed by deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, n = 8,363 eyes, 17.7%), Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, n = 3,516 eyes, 7.5%), tectonic (n = 1752, 3.7%), and keratolimbal allograft (KLAL, n = 19 eyes, 0.1%). Regarding the shift in surgical techniques, a significant increase was observed in DSAEK (P < 0.001), whereas PKP was significantly decreased (P = 0.005) over the 8-year period. No significant change was seen in the rates of DALK (P = 0.354), tectonic graft (P > 0.999) and KLAL (P = 0.151). Conclusion: KCN was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. Significant changes in surgical techniques were observed over the past 8 years; DSAEK demonstrated an increasing trend while PKP showed a decrease. PMID:27413493

  1. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  2. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  3. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  4. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. Materials and methods The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child’s background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children’s dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in relation to the answers of the questionnaire, and a logistic regression model was used to determine the power of the variables, separately or combined, to predict BMP. Results The logistic regression analysis considering differences in background variables between children with negative or positive behavior. Four variables turned out to be as predictors: Age, the guardian’s expectation of the child’s behavior at the dental examination, the child’s anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people, and the presence and absence of toothache. Conclusion The present study concluded that by means of simple questionnaire BMP in children may be expected if one of these attributes is found. Clinical significance Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient prior to treatment process may help the pediatric dentist plan appropriate behavior management and treatment strategy. How to cite this article Sharma A, Kumar D, Anand A, Mittal V, Singh A, Aggarwal N. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):5-9. PMID:28377646

  5. Endovascular Management of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: An 8-year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gerassimidis, Thomas S.; Karkos, Christos D. Karamanos, Dimitrios G.; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O.; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios N.; Demiropoulos, Filippos P.; Malkotsis, Dimitrios P.; Kamparoudis, Apostolos G.

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to review our experience with the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). During an 8-year period, 69 patients with a RAAA presented to our department; 67 underwent assessment by computed axial tomography, and 2 died on arrival before any evaluation was possible. A total of 42 patients (63%) were suitable for stent-grafting, and all but 1 (c-arm failure) proceeded to endovascular repair. Of these, 27 underwent surgery with local anaesthesia; 3 did so under general anaesthesia; and a further 11 procedures were commenced with the patient under local anaesthesia and then converted to general anaesthesia. A total of 28 bifurcated and 14 aorto-uni-iliac stent-grafts were implanted. Aortic occlusion balloons were used in 2 (5%) patients. The in-hospital and the 30-day mortality rates were 36% and 41%, respectively. After surgery, 21 complications were encountered in 17 patients. Two patients required reintervention during their hospital stay (1 type I endoleak and 1 limb occlusion). During the follow-up (median 730 days [range 90 to 580 days]), the 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival probabilities were 53% (SE 7.9%) and 50% (SE 8.0%), respectively. Three reinterventions were necessary during follow-up (2 type I endoleaks and 1 graft occlusion). We conclude that endovascular treatment is feasible in the emergency setting, and the early experience is promising. Whether such an approach is superior to open surgery remains to be determined.

  6. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  7. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  8. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2009-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories. PMID:20121876

  9. Changing attitudes toward needle biopsies of breast cancer in Shanghai: experience and current status over the past 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuang; Liu, Zhe-Bin; Ling, Hong; Chen, Jia-Jian; Shen, Ju-Ping; Yang, Wen-Tao; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic patterns in breast cancer have greatly changed over the past few decades, and core needle biopsy (CNB) has become a reliable procedure for detecting breast cancer without invasive surgery. To estimate the changing diagnostic patterns of breast cancer in urban Shanghai, 11,947 women with breast lesions detected by preoperative needle biopsy between January 1995 and December 2012 were selected from the Shanghai Cancer Data base, which integrates information from approximately 50% of breast cancer patients in Shanghai. The CNB procedure uses an automated prone unit, biopsy gun, and 14-gauge needles under freehand or ultrasound guidance and was performed by experienced radiologists and surgeons specializing in needle biopsies. Diagnosis and classification for each patient were independently evaluated by pathologists. Over the indicated 8-year period, biopsy type consisted of 11,947 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsies (UCNBs), 2,015 ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (UVABs), and 654 stereotactic X-ray-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (XVABs). For all the 11,947 women included in this study, image-guided needle biopsy was the initial diagnostic procedure. Approximately 81.0% of biopsied samples were histopathologically determined to be malignant lesions, 5.5% were determined to be high-risk lesions, and 13.5% were determined to be benign lesions. The number of patients choosing UCNB increased at the greatest rate, and UCNB has become a standard procedure for histodiagnosis because it is inexpensive, convenient, and accurate. The overall false-negative rate of CNB was 1.7%, and the specific false-negative rates for UCNB, UVAB, and XVAB, were 1.7%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. This study suggests that the use of preoperative needle biopsy as the initial breast cancer diagnostic procedure is acceptable in urban Shanghai. Preoperative needle biopsy is now a standard procedure in the Shanghai Cancer Center because it may reduce the number of surgeries

  10. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  11. Preventing Internalizing Problems in 6–8 Year Old Children: A Universal School-Based Program

    PubMed Central

    Pophillat, Eugenie; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Nesa, Monique; Davis, Melissa C.; Baughman, Natalie; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism Program: Feelings and Friends (AOP-FF) is a 10 week, universal mental health promotion program based on social/emotional and cognitive and behavioral strategies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based program in preventing and reducing internalizing problems in 6–8 year olds (Years 1–3 in Australia). Year 1–3 students from a low SES primary school (N = 206) were randomly assigned in classes to either an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline and post-test. Results showed a significant (p = 0.009) and small to moderate (partial eta-squared = 0.034) pre-post decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms for the intervention group, in conjunction with a non-significant (p = 0.708) and negligible (partial eta-squared = 0.001) pre-post increase for the control group. A larger randomized controlled trial assessing longer term effects is needed. In addition the program needs to be simplified for year 1–2 students with a separate more developmentally appropriate program for year 3 students. PMID:28018267

  12. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  13. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  14. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used.

  15. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  16. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  17. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  18. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  19. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  20. Genome Sequences of Two Brucella suis Strains Isolated from the Same Patient, 8 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcus Vinicius Canário; Govil Batra, Dhwani; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas Scott; Frace, Michael; Xia, Fangfang; Azevedo, Vasco; Tiller, Rebekah; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella suis is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that has pigs as its preferred host, but it can also infect humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two B. suis strains that were isolated from the same patient, 8 years apart. PMID:28254974

  1. Educational Attainment of High School Dropouts 8 Years Later. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, David; Kelly, Dana; Princiotta, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This issue brief examines the educational outcomes of students who were classified as high school dropouts 8 years after most of their 1988 cohort of 8th graders would have completed high school. Some students who drop out return a short time later to earn a diploma, some may pursue an alternative credential such as a General Educational…

  2. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (M<4.5) are realized in the close vicinity of the salt deposit. Local seismological network (LSN) is deployed in the region to monitor the local seismicity. It consists of 6 three component digital stations. A real-time data transfer from LSN stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) is implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  3. The Innsbruck hand transplant program: update at 8 years after the first transplant.

    PubMed

    Brandacher, G; Ninkovic, M; Piza-Katzer, H; Gabl, M; Hussl, H; Rieger, M; Schocke, M; Egger, K; Loescher, W; Zelger, B; Ninkovic, M; Bonatti, H; Boesmueller, C; Mark, W; Margreiter, R; Schneeberger, S

    2009-03-01

    We herein provide an update on two bilateral hand and one bilateral forearm transplants with emphasis on immunosuppression (IS), function, morphology, and graft vascular changes at 8 years and 2 years after bilateral hand and 5 years after bilateral forearm transplantation. Between March 2000 and May 2006, three patients underwent bilateral hand or forearm transplantation at our institution. Following induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (n = 2) or alemtuzumab (n = 1), tacrolimus, prednisolone +/- mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were given for maintenance IS. Later, tacrolimus (n = 1) or MMF (n = 1) was replaced by sirolimus/everolimus for long-term IS. Clinical follow-ups with evaluation of hand function, skin biopsies, X-ray, ultrasound, angiography, computed tomography angiography, electrophysiological studies, and somatosensory evoked potentials were performed at regular intervals. Three, six, and three rejection episodes were successfully treated with bolused steroids, anti-CD25 or anti-CD52 antibodies. Subsequently, skin histology remained normal without any evidence of chronic rejection. Hand function continuously improved during the first 3 years and since then remained stable with minor improvements. Investigation of hand arteries revealed no signs of occlusion or stenosis. Motor and intrinsic hand muscle function continues to improve in all patients. Protective sensation was observed in all patients; however, discriminative sensation was only accomplished after hand but not forearm transplantation. No life-threatening adverse events occurred. Despite immunologic challenging postoperative courses, patients are now free of rejection with moderate levels of IS and good functional results. No signs indicating chronic rejection have been encountered.

  4. Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Yuan, Wei; Russell, James M.; Hervig, M. E.; Nakamura, Takuji

    2016-07-01

    The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite provides an opportunity to study the longitudinal variation in polar mesospheric cloud (PMC). We examined the longitudinal variation in PMC albedo using 8 years (2007-2014) of observations from the CIPS instrument. The results show that the PMC albedo in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), especially in the latitude band of 80°S-85°S, is persistently low ( 65% relative to the rest of the hemisphere) within 60°W to 150°W longitude. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), however, PMC albedo is found to be relatively zonally asymmetry. Harmonic analyses show that the persistent longitudinal variation in the SH PMC albedo is due to zonal wave numbers 1 through 4 (WN1-WN4) processes with minima in the longitude range of 60°W-150°W. The influence of temperature and H2O on the longitudinal variation of the PMC albedo is discussed based on results obtained using a simple 0-D PMC model and temperature from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and H2O from MLS. The modeled region of low ice mass in the SH is generally consistent with that of low PMC albedo seen in CIPS. Tidal analyses using the SABER temperatures indicate that the nonmigrating semidiurnal tides with modes of S0, W1, and E1 might be the main drivers of the persistent longitudinal variations of PMC albedo in the SH. Nonmigrating tides are much weaker in the NH and consistent with the observed lack of longitudinal variability in PMC albedo.

  5. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  6. Awake Tracheal Intubation in an 8-Year-Old Girl with McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bohman, J Kyle; Segura, Leal

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome presented for resection of a very large fibrous dysplasia mass of the face with significant distortion of the airway anatomy. She had significant obstructive sleep apnea with daytime somnolence and hemoglobin oxygen desaturations while breathing room air preoperatively. We were able to successfully manage her airway by providing IV sedation, topical anesthesia of the airway, and oral fiberoptic intubation in close collaboration with our otorhinolaryngology colleagues.

  7. Suicidal Behavior and Psychosocial Outcome in Borderline Personality Disorder at 8-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2017-03-06

    We sought predictors of both suicidal behavior and psychosocial outcome in subjects with BPD followed for 8 years and asked if there was a relationship between these outcomes. One hundred twenty-three BPD subjects, recruited from inpatient (35.8%), outpatient (30.9%) and community (33.3%) sources, were assessed annually for known risk factors for suicidal behavior. Interval attempts were reported by 25 subjects (20.2%). Increased risk of suicide attempt was associated with negative affectivity, aggression, inpatient recruitment, hospitalizations, minority race, and frequent changes in employment. Decreased risk was associated with increased education. Poor psychosocial outcome was predicted by impulsivity, negative affectivity, and antisocial traits at baseline, and by comorbid MDD at 8-year follow-up. There was no significant relationship between poor psychosocial outcome at 8-year follow-up and risk of suicidal behavior. Predictors of suicidality include modifiable risk factors. Rehabilitation models are needed to address educational and vocational deficits associated with suicidality, especially among minorities.

  8. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly.

  9. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  10. Information transfer across the scales of climate variability: The effect of the 7-8 year cycle on the annual and interannual scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Milan; Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Kravtsov, Sergey; Tsonis, Anastasios

    2016-04-01

    Complexity of the climate system stems not only from the fact that it is variable over a huge range of spatial and temporal scales, but also from the nonlinear character of the climate system that leads to interactions of dynamics across scales. The dynamical processes on large time scales influence variability on shorter time scales. This nonlinear phenomenon of cross-scale causal interactions can be observed due to the recently introduced methodology [1] which starts with a wavelet decomposition of a multi-scale signal into quasi-oscillatory modes of a limited bandwidth, described using their instantaneous phases and amplitudes. Then their statistical associations are tested in order to search for interactions across time scales. An information-theoretic formulation of the generalized, nonlinear Granger causality [2] uncovers causal influence and information transfer from large-scale modes of climate variability with characteristic time scales from years to almost a decade to regional temperature variability on short time scales. In analyses of air temperature records from various European locations, a quasioscillatory phenomenon with the period around 7-8 years has been identified as the factor influencing variability of surface air temperature (SAT) on shorter time scales. Its influence on the amplitude of the SAT annual cycle was estimated in the range 0.7-1.4 °C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7 °C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect of the 7-8 year cycle was observed in the winter SATA means where it reaches 4-5 °C in central European station and reanalysis data [3]. This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) [2] M. Palus, M. Vejmelka, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056211 (2007) [3] N. Jajcay, J. Hlinka, S. Kravtsov, A. A. Tsonis, M. Palus, Time

  11. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  12. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  13. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  14. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  15. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  16. Solitary parotid metastasis 8 years after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Faiz; Yedavalli, Nina; Loeffler, David; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common cancer, known for its aggressive behavior and ability to metastasize nearly every organ system in the body. While the cancer commonly spreads to a select few organs and metastasis usually develops within 5 years of diagnosis, there have been numerous case reports of atypical sites of metastasis and cases of relapse up to decades after treatment. We present a case a 65-year-old male who presented with right preauricular swelling 8 years after the initial diagnosis and right nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell cancer. We take a look at previous case reports with similar presentations. PMID:27609721

  17. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum.

  18. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist.

  19. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  20. Weekly administration of paclitaxel attenuated rectal stenosis caused by multiple peritoneal recurrence 8 years after the resection of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoichi; Yoshida, Ikuo; Tonomura, Shuhei; Sakai, Wakana; Nakamura, Yasuko; Imazu, Hiroki; Matsubara, Toshiki; Ochiai, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    We report a patient with rectal stenosis caused by peritoneal recurrence 8 years after a curative resection of advanced stage gastric carcinoma; the recurrence was effectively treated with the weekly administration of paclitaxel. The patient was a 66-year-old Japanese woman who was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain and frequent bowel movements. She had undergone total gastrectomy, due to advanced-stage gastric carcinoma with extensive lymph node metastasis, 8 years before, and had taken an oral anticancer agent, fluoropyrimidine, for 4 years after the operation. Colonofiberscopy performed on admission revealed circumferential rectal stenosis located 10 cm from the anal verge. Barium enema study demonstrated extensive poor expansion of the upper and lower rectum and irregularity of the descending colon. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed wall thickening in the rectum and descending colon. These findings were compatible with rectal stenosis caused by the peritoneal recurrence of gastric carcinoma. Weekly administration of paclitaxel was started. The abdominal symptoms soon disappeared when the second cycle of paclitaxel was completed, and they have not appeared since then. The rectal stenosis was attenuated, as confirmed by imaging analyses. Weekly paclitaxel has been effective for more than 13 months, suggesting that the patient is in a state of tumor dormancy of recurrent gastric carcinoma.

  1. Transfer of figural face aftereffects suggests mature orientation selectivity in 8-year-olds' face coding.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-10-01

    Adult face perception mechanisms are tuned to upright faces, and this orientation selectivity is central to adult expertise with upright faces. Children are less expert than adults, and it has been argued that their face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults. Here we used face aftereffects to test this hypothesis by examining whether children's aftereffects show greater transfer across changes in orientation than do adults' aftereffects. We adapted 7- to 8-year-old children and adults to figural face distortions in both upright and inverted orientations and examined the size of resulting aftereffects in both upright and inverted test faces. If children's face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults, then children's aftereffects should transfer more strongly across changes in orientation. We found no evidence to support this prediction. Children's and adults' aftereffects were similarly reduced by orientation differences between adapt and test. These results indicate that children, like adults, show a high degree of orientation selectivity in face shape coding and suggest that neural tuning to face orientation may be mature by 8 years of age. Our findings are consistent with an emerging view that many of the key attributes of specialized face perception emerge much earlier in development than previously thought.

  2. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  3. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  4. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  5. The Development of Attitudes About Physical Punishment: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined young adolescents’ endorsement of parental use of corporal punishment to elucidate processes underlying the intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies. The community sample was ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Mothers completed interviews and questionnaires when the target children were entering kindergarten (n = 566) and in 6th and 8th grades. Adolescents completed questionnaires when they were in 8th grade (n = 425). Adolescents’ attitudes about corporal punishment varied widely. Those adolescents who had been spanked by their own mothers were more approving of this discipline method, regardless of the overall frequency, timing, or chronicity of physical discipline they had received. However, there was no correlation among adolescents for whom physical maltreatment in early or middle childhood was suspected. PMID:14562459

  6. The Existence of Trust in the Relationship of Parents and District Administration in the Placement Process of 3- to 8-Year-Old Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellner, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which trust-building variables exist between public school districts and parents of 3- to 8-year-old children with autism during the initial placement process in the perception of special education administration. Additional purposes of the study were to identify barriers and…

  7. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  8. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be

  9. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    PubMed

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  10. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  11. Habit tic nail deformity - a rare presentation in an 8 year old boy.

    PubMed

    El-Heis, S; Abadie, Al

    2016-11-15

    Habit tic nail deformity is a nail dystrophy resulting from habitual, repetitive trauma to the nail. It is usually acquired in adulthood, however, we report a case of habit tic nail deformity in an 8 year old boy. The diagnosis was made clinically with further history revealing that the boy repeatedly rubbed his thumbnails and pushed the cuticles. Emollient cream (Balneum®) was recommended twice daily and both the patient and his mother were educated on the behavioral nature of this condition. There was marked improvement at 6 months of treatment and further improvement at 12 months.We note that habit tic nail deformity is not exclusive to adults. Diagnosis can be made clinically. History and physical examination provide valuable clues and psychosocial links must be explored and addressed. Management is challenging and compliance with treatment is variable. Patient education, barrier methods, and behavioral therapy can be helpful in preventing further trauma to the nails.

  12. Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins follow-up: from 18 months to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sherryl Scott; Boris, Neil W; Fuselier, Sarah-Hinshaw; Page, Timothy; Koren-Karie, Nina; Miron, Devi

    2006-03-01

    The best means for the diagnosis and treatment of reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood have not been established. Though some longitudinal data on institutionalized children is available, reports of maltreated young children who are followed over time and assessed with measures of attachment are lacking. This paper presents the clinical course of a set of maltreated fraternal twins who were assessed and treated from 19 months to 30 months of age and then seen in follow-up at 3 and 8 years of age. A summary of the early assessment and course is provided and findings from follow-up assessments of the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal functioning of each child is analysed. Follow-up measures, chosen to capture social-cognitive processing of these children from an attachment perspective, are highlighted. Finally, findings from the case are discussed from nosological and theoretical perspectives.

  13. Pediatric Absence Status Epilepticus: Prolonged Altered Mental Status in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Almubarak, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Absence status epilepticus is characterized by a prolonged state of impaired consciousness or altered sensorium with generalized electroencephalographic abnormalities. It is most commonly diagnosed in patients with known idiopathic generalized epilepsy; however, it may also be the first presentation of epilepsy. Due to the subtle and variable manifestations of the condition, absence status epilepticus may be underrecognized, particularly in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who experienced two episodes of prolonged altered mental status, subsequently determined to be absence status epilepticus with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with phantom absences. We discuss the classification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and electroencephalographic findings of pediatric absence status epilepticus and provide a practical overview for management. PMID:28042487

  14. [Breast cancer mass screening in the Province of Liege. Results after 8 years].

    PubMed

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Delleuze, J M

    2000-08-01

    Breast cancer mass screening by mobile units started in 1992 in the Province of Liège (Belgium). This project is developed for rural areas and interests all women between 40-69 years old not regularly X-rayed in traditional breast cancer diagnosis centers. Despite lots of efforts population participation is low (25%). Nevertheless, the experiment results are encouraging: in a series of 31,443 women, 213 cancers were diagnosed, corresponding to a rate of 6.9/1000, 75% of which are of good prognosis. After an 8 years experiment, it is hoped that the population concerned becomes more sensitive to this mass screening project and one should expect a better collaboration with the other actors in the field of breast diseases diagnosis.

  15. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  16. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  17. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children.

  18. Children aged 4-8 years treated with parent training and child therapy because of conduct problems: generalisation effects to day-care and school settings.

    PubMed

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo

    2006-10-01

    In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.

  19. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  20. What Is the Status of High School Athletes 8 Years after Their Senior Year? Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Scott, Leslie; Planty, Michael; Thompson, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the status of high school athletes 8 years after their senior year in high school. Using a representative sample of 10th-graders in 1990, who were seniors in 1992, from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), this Brief provides information on the 1990-1992 high school athletes' educational,…

  1. A Fundamental Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    household radiators or electric heaters, furnaces, combustion chambers, fires, rocket nozzles , power plants, engines etc. The importance of radiation...can be applied to any other problem related to the wave propagation through periodic structures such as acoustic wave and ultrasonic wave propagation

  2. Vismodegib Therapy for Basal Cell Carcinoma in an 8-Year-Old Chinese Boy with Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Fife, Douglas; Laitinen, Marko A; Myers, David J; Landsteiner, Pamela B

    2017-03-01

    Vismodegib is an oral inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and has been used to treat basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in adults. This article reports clearance of a nodular BCC of the nasal tip in an 8-year-old boy with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). BCC can pose therapeutic challenges when located in areas that are not amenable to traditional therapies such as Mohs micrographic surgery or topical agents. Vismodegib was used at a dose of 150 mg/day to treat the boy's BCC. After 4 months of therapy, we achieved complete clinical clearance. During 21 months of follow-up, the patient's nose remained clinically clear of tumor. Vismodegib was successfully used to treat a child with XP and nodular BCC. Our goal in using vismodegib was tumor regression while avoiding cosmetic and functional disfigurement. Vismodegib was effective in clinically clearing the tumor, and the patient has shown no signs of recurrence. Further studies are warranted.

  3. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty for severe Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease in patients older than 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chao; Xu, Rui-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The natural history of Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD) in children older than 8 years is usually poor without treatment. The treatment goal is to prevent deformity and incongruity of the hip by achieving a stable spherical femoral head in a deep, congruent, sharp-edged acetabulum, with a good range of hip movement at skeletal maturity. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty in LCPD can increase the coverage of the femoral head, benefiting the remodeling of the femoral head and acetabulum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lateral shelf acetabuloplasty for severe LCPD in patients older than 8 years. We evaluated 51 patients with severe LCPD who underwent shelf acetabuloplasty between 1994 and 2005. Clinical and radiological examinations were evaluated preoperatively and over a mean follow-up of 132.35 months (range 102–183 months). According to the Catterall classification, the LCPD was classified as grade II in 11 (21.6%) patients, grade III in 15 (29.4%), and grade IV in 25 (49.0%). According to the Herring classification, there were 12 (23.5%) patients in grade B, 24 (47.1%) in grade B/C, and 15 (29.4%) in grade C. The mean ages at the onset of signs and at surgery were 103.39 months and 110.78 months, respectively. By the end of follow-up, all patients had a normal passive range of hip movement without pain. The mean Iowa hip score was improved from 69.5 ± 7.28 to 91.6 ± 5.14 (P < 0.001). According to the Stulberg classification, 11 (21.6%) hips were classified as grade 1, 19 (37.3%) hips as grade 2, 14 (27.5%) hips as grade 3, and 7 (13.7%) hips as grade 4. The CE angle, Sharp angle, medial joint space ratio, epiphysis height ratio, and percentage of acetabular coverage were significantly improved by shelf acetabuloplasty (P < 0.001). We recommend shelf acetabuloplasty for severe LCPD in patients older than 8 years. The procedure yields a favorable clinical outcome and Stulberg outcome for the hip. Shelf

  4. Development of oral side preference during chewing and its relation to hand preference in normal 2- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G

    1988-06-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 5 to 8 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side of the mouth when starting to eat. A developmental curve spanning 2 to 8 years was generated by including data from an earlier study. Data of oral side preference were correlated with data of preferred hand use. In addition, the ability to move a small piece of food from one side of the mouth to the other was studied. It was found that normal children undergo a transition from placing solid food predominantly on the right side at 2 years of age to placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. The left side preference persists until at least 8 years of age for both viscous and solid food textures. Oral side preference did not correlate with hand preference. The ability to move food from one side of the mouth to the other (lateralizing) was found to undergo a developmental progression: The inability to lateralize in a third of 2-year-olds gave way to rolling movements. Concomitantly, a consistent increase in slow and then smooth movements was found to occur from 2 to 8 years of age. These data provide the clinician with a normative baseline against which eating-impaired children can be compared.

  5. Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy among 8-Year-Old Children in 2010 and Preliminary Evidence of Trends in Its Relationship to Low Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Maureen S.; Benedict, Ruth E.; Christensen, Deborah; Dubois, Lindsay A.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Kirby, Russell S.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Wingate, Martha S.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2017-01-01

    Background The public health objective for cerebral palsy (CP) in the United States is to reduce the percentage of children with CP who were born low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) by 10% between 2006 and 2020. This study reports the prevalence of CP in a constant surveillance area for the years 2006, 2008, and 2010 and describes initial progress towards the CP public health objective. Methods Data on children with CP at age 8 years were ascertained by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, a population-based surveillance system that monitored CP in four areas of the United States. Results CP prevalence in 2010 was 2.9 per 1000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6, 3.2], down from 3.5 (95% CI 3.2, 3.9) in the same surveillance area in 2006. Among CP cases with no documented postneonatal aetiology, 49.1% (95% CI 42.9, 55.2) were born LBW in 2010 compared with 54.3% (95% CI 48.4, 60.1) in 2006. In 2010, 28.1% (95% CI 22.9, 30.4) were born very low birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g) compared with 35.4% (95% CI 30.0, 41.2) in 2006. The relative risks for associations between CP and both LBW and VLBW also declined, though not significantly, during the study period. Conclusions Declines in the associations between CP and LBW categories may have contributed to declines during the study period in both the prevalence of CP and the percentage of children with CP who were born LBW or VLBW. Ongoing monitoring of these trends is warranted. PMID:27215680

  6. A new cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive titanium porous-coating by alkaline and heat treatment: average 4.8-year results.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Keiichi; Ise, Kentaro; Goto, Koji; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Sugimori, Tanzo; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for creating a bioactive coating on titanium by alkaline and heat treatment, and shown that it forms a thin layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of implants when soaked in simulated body fluid. A series of 70 cementless primary total hip arthroplasties using this coating technique on a porous titanium surface was performed, and followed up the patients for a mean period of 4.8 years. There were no instances of loosening or revision, or formation of a reactive line on the porous coating. Although radiography just after operation showed a gap between the host bone and the socket in over 70% of cases, all the gaps disappeared within a year, indicating the good osteoconduction provided by the coating. Alkaline-heat treatment of titanium to provide a thin HA coating has several advantages over plasma-spraying, including no degeneration or absorption of the HA coating, simplicity of the manufacturing process, and cost effectiveness. In addition, this method allows homogeneous deposition of bone-like apatite within a porous implant. Although this was a relatively short-term study, treatment that creates a bioactive surface on titanium and titanium alloy implants has considerable promise for clinical application.

  7. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup.

  8. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Health Impact after 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Eric A.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark; Biswas, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    Background In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: >1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine) were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA) to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. Methodology To assess the health impact that this massive global effort has had, we analyzed the benefits accrued first from preventing or stopping the progression of LF disease, and then from the broader anti-parasite effects (‘beyond-LF’ benefits) attributable to the use of albendazole and ivermectin. Projections were based on demographic and disease prevalence data from publications of the Population Reference Bureau, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Result Between 2000 and 2007, the GPELF prevented LF disease in an estimated 6.6 million newborns who would otherwise have acquired LF, thus averting in their lifetimes nearly 1.4 million cases of hydrocele, 800,000 cases of lymphedema and 4.4 million cases of subclinical disease. Similarly, 9.5 million individuals—previously infected but without overt manifestations of disease—were protected from developing hydrocele (6.0 million) or lymphedema (3.5 million). These LF-related benefits, by themselves, translate into 32 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) averted. Ancillary, ‘beyond-LF’ benefits from the >1.9 billion treatments delivered by the GPELF were also enormous, especially because of the >310 million treatments to the children and women of childbearing age who received albendazole with/without ivermectin (effectively treating intestinal helminths, onchocerciasis, lice, scabies, and other conditions). These benefits can be described but remain difficult to quantify, largely because of the poorly defined epidemiology of these latter infections. Conclusion The GPELF has earlier

  9. Weight change in the first two months of a lifestyle intervention predicts weight changes 8 years later

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jeffery, Robert; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between 1- and 2-month weight loss (WL) and 8-year WL among participants enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. Design & Methods 2290 Look AHEAD participants (BMI: 35.65±5.93kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes received an intensive behavioral WL intervention. Results 1 and 2-month WL were associated with yearly WL through Year 8 (p’s<0.0001). At Month 1, participants losing 2-4% and >4% had 1.62 (95% CI:1.32,1.98) and 2.79 (95% CI:2.21,3.52) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 and 1.28 (95% CI:1.05,1.58) and 1.77 (95% CI:1.40,2.24) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% at Year 8, compared to those losing <2% initially. At Month 2, a 3-6% WL resulted in greater odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=1.85; CI:1.48,2.32) and a >6% WL resulted in the greatest odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=3.85; CI:3.05,4.88) and Year 8 (OR=2.28; CI:1.81,2.89), compared to those losing <3%. Differences in adherence between WL categories were observed as early as Month 2. Conclusions 1 and 2-month WL was associated with 8-year WL. Future studies should examine whether alternative treatment strategies can be employed to improve treatment outcomes among those with low initial WL. PMID:26110890

  10. Effectiveness and relevance of MR acceptance testing: results of an 8 year audit.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, D W; Quest, R A

    2002-06-01

    The effectiveness and relevance of independent acceptance testing was assessed by means of an audit of acceptance procedures for 17 MRI systems, with field strengths in the range 0.5-1.5 T, acquired over 8 years. Signal-to-noise ratio and geometric linearity were found to be the image quality parameters most likely to fall below acceptable or expected standards. These received confirmed successful corrective action in 69% of instances. Non-uniformity, ghosting and poor fat suppression were the next most common non-compliant parameters, but yielded less satisfactory outcomes. Spatial resolution was not found to be a sensitive parameter in determining acceptability. 49% of all non-compliant parameters received verifiable corrective attention. A schedule of actual acceptance criteria is presented and shown to be reasonable. Parameter failure rates were shown not to have improved with time. A safety audit of 11 of the installations revealed the most common failings to be inadequate suite layout and poor use of signs. The mean number of safety issues per installation identified as requiring attention was 5, from a questionnaire of 100 points. A number of anecdotal errors and omissions are reported. The data support the importance of an appropriate acceptance procedure for new clinical MRI equipment and for the involvement of a suitably qualified safety adviser on the project team from the outset.

  11. Sex differences in cerebral volumes of 8-year-olds born preterm.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allan L; Kesler, Shelli R; Vohr, Betty; Duncan, Charles C; Katz, Karol H; Pajot, Sarah; Schneider, Karen C; Makuch, Robert W; Ment, Laura R

    2004-08-01

    We investigate sex-associated effects of preterm birth on cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes. Preterm children (n=65) and 31 healthy, term control children had usable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data acquired at 8 years of age. Both GM and WM volumes were significantly reduced in the preterm group compared with controls. However, only males with preterm birth had significantly reduced WM compared with term males (P=.021), whereas WM volumes were equivalent in the female groups. Lower birth weight was associated with reduced WM in both boys and girls with preterm birth, whereas intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was associated with reduced GM in girls only. Positive correlations between GM and cognitive outcome were observed in girls with preterm birth but not boys. We conclude that preterm birth has a significant impact on brain development with increased risk for smaller GM and WM cerebral volumes. Males appear particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of preterm birth on WM development. However, girls with preterm birth show stronger correlations between neuro-anatomical variables and both neonatal risk factors and cognitive outcome, compared with boys. These findings indicate that the sex of the very preterm newborn influences the mechanisms by which the developing brain is affected.

  12. The development of norm-based coding and race-specific face prototypes: an examination of 5- and 8-year-olds' face space.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Hatry, Alexandra J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2011-02-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of expanded, compressed, and undistorted Caucasian and Chinese faces. The method was validated with adults and then refined to test 8- and 5-year-olds. The 5-year-olds were also tested in a simple aftereffects paradigm. The current research provides the first evidence for simple attractiveness aftereffects in 5-year-olds and for race-contingent aftereffects in both 5- and 8-year-olds. Evidence that adults and 5-year-olds may possess only a weak prototype for Chinese children's faces suggests that Caucasian adults' prototype for Chinese adult faces does not generalize to child faces and that children's face space undergoes a period of increasing differentiation between 5 and 8 years of age.

  13. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  14. Effect of maternal dietary counselling during the 1st year of life on glucose profile and insulin resistance at the age of 8 years: a randomised field trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cintia S; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Lumey, L H; Vitolo, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Education interventions that stimulate complementary feeding practices can improve the nutritional status of children and may protect against future chronic diseases. We assessed the long-term effectiveness of dietary intervention during the 1st year of life on insulin resistance levels, and investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and weight changes over time. A randomised field trial was conducted among 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants between October 2001 and June 2002 in a low-income area in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mother-child pairs were randomly assigned to intervention (n 200) and control groups (n 300), and the mothers in the intervention group received dietary counselling on breast-feeding and complementary feeding of their children during the 1st year of life. Fieldworkers blinded to assignment assessed socio-demographic, dietary and anthropometric data during follow-up at ages 1, 4 and 8 years. Blood tests were performed in 305 children aged 8 years to measure fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the homoeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). At the age of 8 years, the intervention group showed no changes in glucose and insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR values (change 0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21 for girls; and change -0·07; 95 % CI -0·19, 0·04 for boys) compared with study controls. Insulin resistance was highly correlated, however, with increases in BMI between birth and 8 years of age. Although this dietary intervention had no impact on glucose profile at age 8 years, our findings suggest that BMI changes in early childhood can serve as an effective marker of insulin resistance.

  15. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  16. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood.

  17. Response to hydroxycarbamide in pediatric β-thalassemia intermedia: 8 years' follow-up in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Beshlawy, Amal; El-Ghamrawy, Mona; EL-Ela, Mona Abou; Said, Fadwa; Adolf, Sonia; Abdel-Razek, Abdel-Rahman Ahmed; Magdy, Rania Ismail; Abdel-Salam, Amina

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea or HU) has been shown to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (TI). The reported effects of HU in increasing the total hemoglobin (Hb) have been inconsistent. Studies of long-term therapy with HU in pediatric TI are rather uncommon. A retrospective observational study was carried out to evaluate the clinical responses to HU in Egyptian patients with β-TI. One hundred patients; children (n = 82, mean age 9.9 ± 4.1 years) and adults (n = 18) were studied for the mean Hb, HbF%, median serum ferritin, transfusion history, and splenic size before and after HU therapy (mean dose 20.0 ± 4.2 mg/kg/day, range 10-29 mg/kg/day) over a follow-up period 4 to 96 months (mean 35.4 ± 19.2 months). Molecular studies were also done for group of patients (n = 42). The overall response rate to HU was 79 %; 46 % were minor responders (with a reduction in transfusion rate by 50 % or more and/or an increase in their total hemoglobin level by 1-2 g/dl) and 33 % major responders (becoming transfusion-free and/or having an increase in total hemoglobin level by >2 g/dl). Mean hemoglobin increased among responders from 6.9 ± 0.9 g/dl to 8.3 ± 1.4 g/dl (p < 0.001). A significant rise in mean HbF (27.0 vs. 42.5 %; p < 0.011) and a decrease in median serum ferritin (800 vs. 644 ng/ml; p < 0.001) were also observed among responders (n = 45). Transfusions stopped in 44 % of pretreatment frequently transfused responders (n = 11/25). Splenic size decreased in 37 % of patients (n = 30/81). The predominant β-thalassemia mutation was 1-6 (T > C) in 32/42 (76 %) of studied patients; 28/32 were responders. Bivariate analysis showed no predictors of response as regards sex, pediatric and adult age, splenic status, or genotype. Hydroxycarbamide is a good therapeutic modality in the management of pediatric as in adult TI patients. It can minimize the need for blood transfusion, concomitant iron overload, and blood-born viral

  18. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  19. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found.

  20. Impact of an 8-Year-Old Transgenic Poplar Plantation on the Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Armand; Bérubé, Jean A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term impact of field-deployed genetically modified trees on soil mutualistic organisms is not well known. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of poplars transformed with a binary vector containing the selectable nptII marker and β-glucuronidase reporter genes on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi 8 years after field deployment. We generated 2,229 fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR products from 1,150 EM root tips and 1,079 fungal soil clones obtained from the organic and mineral soil horizons within the rhizosphere of three control and three transformed poplars. Fifty EM fungal operational taxonomic units were identified from the 1,706 EM fungal ITS amplicons retrieved. Rarefaction curves from both the root tips and soil clones were close to saturation, indicating that most of the EM species present were recovered. Based on qualitative and/or quantitative α- and β-diversity measurements, statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences between EM fungal communities associated with transformed poplars and the untransformed controls. However, EM communities recovered from the root tips and soil cloning analyses differed significantly from each other. We found no evidence of difference in the EM fungal community structure linked to the long-term presence of the transgenic poplars studied, and we showed that coupling root tip analysis with a soil DNA cloning strategy is a complementary approach to better document EM fungal diversity. PMID:19801471

  1. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  2. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  3. Molecular characterization of HCV in a Swedish county over 8 years (2002–2009) reveals distinct transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ederth, Josefine; Jern, Camilla; Norder, Helené; Magnius, Lars; Alm, Erik; Rognsvåg, Björg Kleverman; Sundin, Carl-Gustaf; Brytting, Mia; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern and data on its molecular epidemiology in Sweden is scarce. We carried out an 8-year population-based study of newly diagnosed HCV cases in one of Sweden's centrally situated counties, Södermanland (D-county). The aim was to characterize the HCV strains circulating, analyze their genetic relatedness to detect networks, and in combination with demographic data learn more about transmission. Methods Molecular analyses of serum samples from 91% (N=557) of all newly notified cases in D-county, 2002–2009, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis (NS5B gene, 300 bp) was linked to demographic data from the national surveillance database, SmiNet, to characterize D-county transmission clusters. The linear-by-linear association test (LBL) was used to analyze trends over time. Results The most prevalent subtypes were 1a (38%) and 3a (34%). Subtype 1a was most prevalent among cases transmitted via sexual contact, via contaminated blood, or blood products, while subtype 3a was most prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype 3a sequences formed more and larger transmission clusters (50% of the sequences clustered), while the 1a sequences formed smaller clusters (19% of the sequences clustered), possibly suggesting different epidemics. Conclusion We found different transmission patterns in D-county which may, from a public health perspective, have implications for how to control virus infections by targeted interventions. PMID:26854010

  4. Malignant paraganglioma associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B in an 8-year-old child: the age of first screening?

    PubMed

    Prodanov, Tamara; Havekes, Bas; Nathanson, Katherine L; Adams, Karen T; Pacak, Karel

    2009-06-01

    Several studies have shown that patients with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) mutations have a very high risk for developing malignant paragangliomas. However, there is no consensus of what age screening for paragangliomas should start. We report a case of an 8-year-old white girl with a 3-year history of catecholamine excess-related complaints who was diagnosed with a malignant SDHB-associated mediastinal paraganglioma. The patient presented with intermittent sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weight loss that had been present since she was 5 years of age. A large posterior mediastinal mass measuring 6.4 cm x 3.1 cm x 4.6 cm was discovered on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laboratory data included an elevated level of urine normetanephrine of 45,400 microg/g creatinine (upper reference limit 718 microg/g) and elevated level of plasma normetanephrine of 62.4 nmol/l (upper reference limit <0.90 nmol/l). She was diagnosed with a thoracic paraganglioma and subsequently underwent surgical removal of the tumor and two lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination confirmed metastatic paraganglioma. Postoperatively, her blood pressure normalized and plasma normetanephrine levels remained normal. Our patient first presented with paraganglioma-associated signs and symptoms at the young age of 5 years. This case clearly illustrates the need for increased vigilance and screening for paragangliomas in families with SDHB at a younger age than previously thought.

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Suburethral and Transobturator Sling in 209 Cases with Stress Urinary Incontinence in 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Prakash; D’Costa, Sylvia; Shirkande, Preeti; Kumar, Shilpi; Patil, Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of suburethral and transobturator sling in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in 209 cases from 2002 to 2010. The criteria evaluated were success, failure, complications, operating time, ease of the procedure, availability and cost effectivity of the sling. Design and Setting: A retrospective comparative study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre for female urinary incontinence. Material and Methods: A total of 209 patients (females from 27 to 79 years of age) with proven stress urinary incontinence were treated by suburethral transvaginal tape (TVT) type of slings in 101 cases and transobturator Monarc type of sling in 108 cases at the National Institute of Endoscopic Surgery and Urinary Incontinence Center, Mumbai, India, from March 2002 to June 2010. The maximum follow up was for 8 years. Results: The TVT type of slings had higher complication rate like needle entering the bladder, retention of urine necessitating to cut the tape in the center and had a success rate of 94.5% compared to Monarc/Trivedi obturator tape (TrOT) type of sling with outside-in technique, which had a negligible complication (less than 1%), pain in groin or leg movement that reduced in 6 weeks and a success rate of 95%. Specially, the Indian design Trivedi’s stress urinary incontinence tape (TSUIT) and TrOT with reusable needles, the cost was only 15–20% of the international brands. PMID:22442522

  6. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  7. Rationalization of Periodical Holdings: A Case Study at Chalmers University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Describes study of periodical use in medium-sized university of technology which examined use of individual periodicals in relation to language of publication; patterns of use for interlibrary lending and for multiple copy journals; methods and costs for acquiring infrequently used periodicals. Thirty-three references and most frequently used…

  8. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights, UNESCO's"…

  9. Criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorders and substance use disorders over 8 years of time at risk.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc

    2011-04-30

    Personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) lead to high violent criminality. The influence of co-morbidity on recidivism remains unclear. Recidivism of 379 offenders was assessed at 8 years of follow-up. Sixty-nine percent of PD+SUD, 45% of SUD- and 33% of PD- subjects showed any recidivism. However, violent recidivism was highest in the PD- group.

  10. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more

  11. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease: An 8-Year Experience from a Single Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TAŞKAPILIOĞLU, Özlem; SEFEROĞLU, Meral; YURTOĞULLARI, Şükran; HAKYEMEZ, Bahattin; ERER, Sevda; KARLI, Necdet; BAKAR, Mustafa; TURAN, Ö. Faruk; ZARİFOĞLU, Mehmet; TOLUNAY, Şahsine; BORA, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to conduct a retrospective review to demonstrate the clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological features of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (sCJD). Method A total of 10 patients (5 female and 5 male, with a mean age of 45 years from a range of 40 to 67 years) out of 8.259 adult patients hospitalized from January 2000 to December 2008 were diagnosed with sCJD. Results Eight of the patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, electroencephalography (EEG), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. Two other patients also had a pathological diagnosis. The most common signs and symptoms were behavioral disturbances, movement disorders, cognitive decline, myoclonus, psychosis, focal neurological deficit, and aphasia. Nine of the patients had periodic sharp wave discharges on EEG. Seven patients were positive for the 14.3.3 protein in the CSF. Five patients had pulvinar signs-a bilateral increased signal in the pulvinar thalami-on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients were diagnosed with probable sCJD; two were diagnosed with definite sCJD. All of the patients died as a result of the disease within 24 months after the onset of symptoms. Discussion sCJD should be considered in the diagnosis of patients who present with rapidly progressive dementia. Clinical and radiological data appear to be sufficient for the diagnosis. However, detailed molecular examinations of the subtypes of the disease may be required for early diagnosis of cases given the wide spectra of CJD.

  12. High plasma homocysteine increases risk of metabolic syndrome in 6 to 8 year old children in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J; Khatry, Subarna K; Stewart, Christine P; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2014-04-21

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥ 85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08-2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33-2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06-2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life.

  13. High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stewart, Christine P.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life. PMID:24763111

  14. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  15. [Functional organization of the cerebral cortex during preparation to recognition of incomplete linedrawings in 7-8 years-old children and adults].

    PubMed

    Farber, D A; Machinskaia, R I; Kurganskiĭ, A V; Petrenko, N E

    2014-01-01

    Functional interaction between prefrontal, temporal and tempo-parieto-occipital zones during preparation to recognition of incomplete linedrawings were analyzed in adults (n = 26) and children of 7-8 years old (n = 20). The strength of cortico-cortical interactions was estimated with the imaginary part of the complex-valued coherence at the frequency of alpha-rhythm (Jα). The Jα value was analyzed in the following three experimental conditions which corresponded to different stages of preparation to visual recognition: nonspecific sustained attention in the period preceding the cue (C1); focused attention in the period preceding a not-yet-recognized target stimulus (C2) and focused attention prior the successfully recognized stimulus (C3). When sustained attention changed to focused attention toward a target stimulus Jα increased in adults but decreased in children. Comparing Jα in the subgroups of both adults and children that showed highest recognition scores helped to uncover the age-related pattern of rearrangement of the cortico-cortical functional interactions in alpha-rhythm. That pattern was found to be hemisphere-specific and different at different stages of preparation to recognition of incomplete linedrawings. In adults, the maximal Jα were found in the left hemisphere during the period preceding the recognition of a target stimulus. At this stage of the functional preparatory tuning, in adults, Jα in the left hemisphere was significantly greater than in children. In adults, Jα related to the right hemisphere attained the highest values when attention was directed to not-yet-recognized stimuli. These values were significantly higher than similar values measured in children. In children, Jα reached its highest value during sustained attention. The characteristic pattern of functional interactions among prefrontal, temporal and temporo-parieto-occipital cortices that observed in children of 7-8 years old during preparatory functional tuning for the

  16. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  17. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM SHOUSHTARI, Mitra; GHALEBANDI, Mirfarhad; TAVASOLI, Azita; POURSHAMS, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies. PMID:26664444

  18. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  19. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  20. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  1. Playful Fostering of 6- to 8-Year-Old Students' Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Gyongyver

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a training program in inductive reasoning for first-grade students and presents the direct results as well as the longitudinal effects of the evaluation study. The training is based on Klauer's theory of inductive reasoning and on his "Cognitive training for children" concept (Klauer, 1989a). The training program consists of…

  2. Gender Differences in Throwing Form of Children Ages 6-8 Years during a Throwing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Kevin M.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2008-01-01

    The study purposes were to describe throwing form and gender differences before and after instruction during a game. Children's (ages 6-8, n = 105) throwing form was assessed while they played a game (snowball) using the Body Component Assessment for Throwing in Games to determine the modal developmental levels for the step, trunk, and forearm…

  3. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  4. Learning from 8 years of regional cyanobacteria observation in Brittany in view of sanitary survey improvement.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thomas, Olivier; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been more and more studied during the last decades with regard to environment and health issues. More recently the consequences of climate change reinforced the need for research in view of a better management of cyanobacteria blooms. In this context the exploitation of the water quality survey of 26 recreational lakes in Brittany (north western France) between 2004 and 2011 is reported in this paper in order to encompass spatial and interannual patterns of cyanobacteria development at a regional scale. Starting from weekly data principally acquired during summertime, the links between cyanobacteria cell densities, toxin occurrences and interannual meteorological factors can give insights on the potential evolution of cyanobacterial crisis in the future. This study is part of a project aiming at a better understanding of potentially toxic cyanobacteria crisis occurrences in recreational waters, in order to improve predictive monitoring routines.

  5. The NIDDK Central Repository at 8 years--ambition, revision, use and impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles F; Pan, Huaqin; Silk, Gregg W; Ardini, Mary-Anne; Bakalov, Vesselina; Bryant, Stephanie; Cantor, Susanna; Chang, Kung-yen; DeLatte, Michael; Eggers, Paul; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Lakshmikanthan, Sujatha; Levy, Joshua; Li, Sheping; Pratt, Joseph; Pugh, Norma; Qin, Ying; Rasooly, Rebekah; Ray, Helen; Richardson, Jean E; Riley, Amanda Flynn; Rogers, Susan M; Scheper, Charlotte; Tan, Sylvia; White, Stacie; Cooley, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repository makes data and biospecimens from NIDDK-funded research available to the broader scientific community. It thereby facilitates: the testing of new hypotheses without new data or biospecimen collection; pooling data across several studies to increase statistical power; and informative genetic analyses using the Repository's well-curated phenotypic data. This article describes the initial database plan for the Repository and its revision using a simpler model. Among the lessons learned were the trade-offs between the complexity of a database design and the costs in time and money of implementation; the importance of integrating consent documents into the basic design; the crucial need for linkage files that associate biospecimen IDs with the masked subject IDs used in deposited data sets; and the importance of standardized procedures to test the integrity data sets prior to distribution. The Repository is currently tracking 111 ongoing NIDDK-funded studies many of which include genotype data, and it houses over 5 million biospecimens of more than 25 types including serum, plasma, stool, urine, DNA, red blood cells, buffy coat and tissue. Repository resources have supported a range of biochemical, clinical, statistical and genetic research (188 external requests for clinical data and 31 for biospecimens have been approved or are pending). Genetic research has included GWAS, validation studies, development of methods to improve statistical power of GWAS and testing of new statistical methods for genetic research. We anticipate that the future impact of the Repository's resources on biomedical research will be enhanced by (i) cross-listing of Repository biospecimens in additional searchable databases and biobank catalogs; (ii) ongoing deployment of new applications for querying the contents of the Repository; and (iii) increased harmonization of procedures, data collection

  6. Interference between oculomotor and postural tasks in 7-8-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Doré Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Several studies in adults having observed the effect of eye movements on postural control provided contradictory results. In the present study, we explored the effect of various oculomotor tasks on postural control and the effect of different postural tasks on eye movements in eleven children (7.8 ± 0.5 years) and nine adults (30.4 ± 6.3 years). To vary the difficulty of the oculomotor task, three conditions were tested: fixation, prosaccades (reactive saccades made toward the target) and antisaccades (voluntary saccades made in the direction opposite to the visual target). To vary the difficulty of postural control, two postural tasks were tested: Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR). Postural difficulty did not affect oculomotor behavior, except by lengthening adults' latencies in the prosaccade task. For both groups, postural control was altered in the antisaccade task as compared to fixation and prosaccade tasks. Moreover, a ceiling effect was found in the more complex postural task. This study highlighted a cortical interference between oculomotor and postural control systems.

  7. Chiropractic Care of an 8-Year-Old Girl With Nonorganic, Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Instebø, Eigil; Lystad, Reidar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of an 8-year-old girl with nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis. Clinical Features An 8-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic clinic with persistent nighttime bedwetting. The patient experienced enuresis, on average, 7 nights per week. The patient presented with no other comorbidities or complaints, such as low back or pelvic pain. Intervention and Outcomes Chiropractic treatment included high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation of the left sacroiliac joint over 3 visits. Follow-up at 3 months revealed only 3 subsequent episodes of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusion This patient reported the resolution of nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis after receiving a series of side-posture chiropractic manipulations of the left sacroiliac joint. PMID:27069432

  8. Primary care hypnotic and anxiolytic prescription: Reviewing prescribing practice over 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lloyd D.; Raitt, Neil; Riaz, Muhammed Awais; Baldwin, Sarah-Jane; Erskine, Kay; Graham, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last few years, hypnotic and anxiolytic medications have had their clinical efficacy questioned in the context of concerns regarding dependence, tolerance alongside other adverse effects. It remains unclear how these concerns have impacted clinical prescribing practice. Materials and Methods: This is a study reviewing community-dispensed prescribing data for patients on the East Practice Medical Center list in Arbroath, Scotland, in 2007, 2011 and 2015. Anxiolytic and hypnotic medications were defined in accordance with the British National Formulary chapter 4.1.1 and chapter 4.1.2. All patients receiving a drug within this class in any of the study years were collated and anonymized using primary care prescribing data. The patients’ age, gender, name of the prescribed drug(s), and total number of prescriptions in this class over the year were extracted. Results: The proportion of patients prescribed a benzodiazepine medication decreased between 2007 and 2015: 83.8% (n = 109) in 2007, 70.5% (n = 122) in 2011, and 51.7% (n = 138) in 2015 (P = 0.006). The proportion of these patients prescribed a nonbenzodiazepine drug increased between 2007 and 2015: 30% (n = 39) in 2007, 46.2% (n = 80) in 2011, and 52.4% (n = 140) in 2015 (P = 0.001). There was a significant increase in the number of patients prescribed melatonin (P = 0.020). Discussion: This study reports a reduction in benzodiazepine prescriptions in primary care alongside increases in nonbenzodiazepine and melatonin prescribing, with an increase in prescribing rates of this drug class overall. Conclusion: Changes in this prescribing practice may reflect the medicalization of insomnia, local changes in prescribing practice and alongside national recommendations. PMID:28217600

  9. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  10. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  11. Impacts of curricular change: Implications from 8 years of data in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics classes at the University of Colorado Boulder were significantly transformed beginning in 2004. They now regularly include: interactive engagement using clickers in large lecture settings, Tutorials in Introductory Physics with use of undergraduate Learning Assistants in recitation sections, and a staffed help-room setting where students work on personalized CAPA homework. We compile and summarize conceptual (FMCE and BEMA) pre- and post-data from over 9,000 unique students after 16 semesters of both Physics 1 and 2. Within a single institution with stable pre-test scores, we reproduce results of Hake's 1998 study that demonstrate the positive impacts of interactive engagement on student performance. We link the degree of faculty's use of interactive engagement techniques and their experience levels on student outcomes, and argue for the role of such systematic data collection in sustained course and institutional transformations.

  12. Vertebral augmentation by kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty: 8 years experience outcomes and complications

    PubMed Central

    Yaltirik, Kaan; Ashour, Ahmed M; Reis, Conner R; Özdoğan, Selçuk; Atalay, Başar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Context: Minimally invasive percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques; vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty have been treatment choices for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty regarding complications, correction of vertebral body height, kyphosis angle and pain relief assessment using visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records for 100 consecutive patients treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in our department database. Patients with osteoporotic compression fractures, traumatic compressions, and osteolytic vertebral lesions, including metastases, hemangiomas, and multiple myeloma, were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative VAS pain scores, percentages of vertebral compression and kyphotic angles were measured and compared as well as demographic characteristics and postoperative complications. Mobilization and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were treated by 110 procedures. 64 patients were operated on due to osteoporosis (72 procedures). Twelve patients were operated on because of metastasis (13 procedures), 8 patients were operated on because of multiple myeloma (9 procedures). Five patients had two surgeries, 1 patient had 3 surgeries, and 1 patient had 5 surgeries. The mean preoperative VAS was 74.05 ± 9.8. In total, 175 levels were treated, 46 levels by kyphoplasty and 129 by vertebroplasty. The mean postoperative VAS was 20.94 ± 11.8. Most of the patients were mobilized in the same day they of surgery. Mean LOS was 1.83 days. Six patients had nonsymptomatic leakage of polymethlymethacrylate, and patient had epidural hematoma, which was operated on performing hemi-laminectomy. Conclusions: Percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are both effective and safe minimally invasive procedures for the

  13. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’An; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  14. Pediatric malaria: 8 year case series in Atlanta, Georgia, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, Julie; Guarner, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Background Although malaria is frequent in travelers, it is often misdiagnosed on initial presentation, especially in children. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiology, clinical and laboratory presentation, and treatment of children with malaria in the United States. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 50 confirmed cases of malaria from 2 pediatric metropolitan hospitals in Atlanta, GA from 2000 – 2008. Results Malaria smears were performed in 385 unique patients; 50 (12.6%) were positive. American children who had visited family and friends in malaria endemic countries comprised 62% of our cases. Most cases visited Nigeria or Cameroon; all but 3 travelled to Africa. Three patients presented 8 – 12 months following travel. Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed most frequently (72%). Most patients had low level parasitemia (<1%). Gametocytes were rarely identified. Treatment was primarily with quinine and either doxycycline or clindamycin, transfusion was rare. All patients responded rapidly to treatment. Although 7 (14%) had hyperparasitemia (>5%), no fatalities or long-term sequelae were seen. Conclusions Malaria diagnosis can be difficult in children because parasitemia is usually below 1%. A high index of suspicion is required in patients who have travelled to Africa. PMID:20920055

  15. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-22

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  16. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  17. Diffuse Infiltrative Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis Completely Cured by Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: Case Report with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suk Bae

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and its treatment options are determined by shape, liver function, loci, and stages of cancer. Diffuse type of infiltrative HCC accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) has the poorest prognosis among other HCCs and there are no other prominent treatment options than systemic chemotherapy. In this study, we report a case of a 56-year-old man with diffuse infiltrative HCC accompanied by PVTT who achieved complete remission for 8 years after receiving conventional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using adriamycin and gelfoam. PMID:27920652

  18. Pulmonary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas: A Coincidence of 2 Rare Tumors in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Oğuz, Berna; Orhan, Diclehan; Varan, Ali; Karnak, Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is extremely rare in children and is characterized by a mucus-secreting and squamous cell combination. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas is a rare tumor of the pancreas, which is mostly seen in young women. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy previously diagnosed and treated by lung lobectomy for MEC. He was admitted to our hospital with an incidentally recognized mass at the pancreas during postoperative workout studies. Distal pancreatectomy was performed. Surgery was curative for both tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pseudopapillary neoplasm concomitant with MEC in the literature.

  19. Use of Antibiotics in Pediatrics: 8-Years Survey in Italian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Buccellato, Elena; Melis, Mauro; Biagi, Chiara; Donati, Monia; Motola, Domenico; Vaccheri, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate antibiotic consumption in the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna Region, from 2004 to 2011, with a focus on the antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections, and to analyse the ADRs reported for antibiotics by the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna hospitals. Methods Reference population was represented by all the patients (0–14 years old) admitted to the pediatric wards of all the hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Drug consumption was expressed as number of DDDs per 100 Bed-Days (BD) and data were analysed by active substance, by therapeutic subgroups or by ward type. The time trends of antibiotic consumption were statistically analysed by linear regression. All the suspected ADR reports associated with antibiotics, reported between January 2004 and December 2011 were drawn by the Italian Spontaneous Reporting Database. Results Overall antibiotic consumption showed only a slight increase (p = 0.224). Among the pediatric wards, pediatric surgery showed the highest increase from 2004 to 2011 (p = 0.011). Penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors was the first therapeutic group with a statistically significant increase over years (p = 0.038), whereas penicillins with extended spectrum presented a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.008). Moreover, only 5 drugs out of the 8 antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections were used. Pharmacovigilance data showed 27 spontaneous ADR reports associated to ATC J01 drugs. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid had the highest number of ADR reports (n = 7). Conclusions The steadily increasing consumption in penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors, in association with a considerable decrease of plain penicillins, raises a serious concern. Pharmacovigilance reports seem to suggest a safe use of antibiotics in the hospital setting of Emilia-Romagna. Further studies to investigate the reason for prescribing antibiotics in children inpatients are needed. PMID:26405817

  20. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and socioeconomic status among Finnish girls and boys aged 6-8 years.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Lindi, Virpi; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-05-01

    We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0.012). Girls had lower levels of unsupervised PA (45 vs. 54 min/day, p = 0.001), supervised PA (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.009), and PA during school recess (1.8 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.032) than boys. Girls had higher levels of total SB (3.8 vs. 3.4 h/day, p = 0.015) but lower levels of screen-based SB (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/day, p < 0.001) than boys. Lower parental education and household income were associated with lower levels of supervised PA in girls (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively) and in boys (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Lower parental education and household income were also related to higher levels of screen-based SB in boys (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively) but not in girls. Girls have lower levels of total, unsupervised, and supervised PA, PA during recess, and screen-based SB but higher levels of total SB than boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with lower levels of supervised PA in both genders and higher levels of screen-based SB in boys.

  1. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  2. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  3. Sudden onset vision loss in an 8-year-old female with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Wysong, Ashley; Lai, Jennifer; Alcorn, Deborah M; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an 8-year-old girl with large irregular café au lait macules on the right cheek and right lower extremity presenting with sudden onset vision loss and found to have polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on imaging. The classic triad of McCune-Albright syndrome is discussed along with the importance of recognition in patients with partial presentation. This case also highlights a rare and potentially devastating neurologic complication of McCune-Albright syndrome, as well as the need for early diagnosis and continual surveillance in these patients.

  4. A tape recorder as a therapeutic "witness" in the treatment of an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tuber, Steven; Seckin, Banu

    2012-11-01

    A tape-recorded session of an early moment in an 8-year-old girl's psychotherapy experience is presented. The use of the recording device is immediately taken up by the child as a means of creating a "witness" for her depiction of both intensely distorted experiences of her therapist and poignant portrayals of her life as miserable and despairing. A discussion of both the process and the content generated from the use of the tape recorder is described, with implications drawn as to its effectiveness in the therapeutic process.

  5. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  6. Effect of adaptor duration on 8-year-olds' facial identity aftereffects suggests adult-like plasticity of the face norm.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mayu; Robertson, Crystal; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-06-01

    Adapting to a face shifts the perceived identity of a subsequent face in the direction opposite to the adapting face, a phenomenon known as a face identity aftereffect. In the present study, we examined the temporal dynamics of such aftereffects in children at an age when face processing abilities are not yet adult-like. We hypothesized that children's difficulties in face processing may stem from an unstable mental representation of facial identity, which may be especially prone to adaptation aftereffects. Using a novel procedure designed especially for children, we show that both 8-year-olds and adults demonstrate identity aftereffects of similarly small size after just one second of viewing the adapting face, and that the strength of the aftereffect increases logarithmically and similarly with longer adapting durations for both age groups. The findings suggest that the mental representation of facial identity in 8-year-olds is no more malleable than that of adults, at least in response to short-term adaptation.

  7. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  8. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  9. Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species.

  10. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  11. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  12. Electroencephalography Spectral Power Density in First-Episode Mania: A Comparative Study with Subsequent Remission Period

    PubMed Central

    GÜVEN, Sertaç; KESEBİR, Sermin; DEMİRER, R. Murat; BİLİCİ, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to investigate spectral power density (PSD) in first-episode mania and subsequent remission period and to evaluate their difference. Methods Sixty-nine consecutive cases referring to our hospital within the previous 1 year, who were evaluated as bipolar disorder manic episode according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) at the first episode and had the informed consent form signed by first degree relatives, were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included having previous depressive episode, using drugs which could influence electroencephalographic activity before electroencephalography (EEG), and having previous neurological disease, particularly epilepsy, head trauma, and/or loss of consciousness. EEG records were obtained using a digital device in 16 channels; 23 surface electrodes were placed according to the International 10–20 system. Spectral power density (dbμV/Hz) of EEG signal provided information on the power carried out by EEG waves in defined frequancy range per unit frequency in the present study. Results A peak power value detected on the right with FP2P4 and on the left with F7T3 electrodes were found to be higher in the manic episode than in the remission period (p=0.018 and 0.025). In the remission period, in cases with psychotic symptoms during the manic period, F4C4 peak power value was found to be lower than that in cases with no psychotic findings during the manic period (p=0.027). There was no relation was found between YMRS scores and peak power scores. Conclusion Electrophysiological corollary of mood episode is present from the onset of the disease, and it differs between the manic and remission periods of bipolar disorder. In the remission period, peak power values of PSD distinguish cases with psychotic findings from cases without psychotic findings when they were manic.

  13. Importance of root development in autotransplantations: a retrospective study of 137 teeth with a follow-up period varying from 1 week to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Denys, Delphine; Shahbazian, Maryam; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Laenen, Annouschka; Wyatt, Jan; Vinckier, Frans; Willems, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of autotransplanted teeth with a variable but individually maximized follow-up period in order to provide information on the long-term clinical outcome. The sample was obtained from patients who were treated at the University Hospitals KU-Leuven, Belgium, during the period 1996-2010. Of the total of 109 subjects (137 teeth), 98 patients were invited for recall, of whom 68 patients (87 teeth) responded positively. Eleven out of the 109 patients were excluded due to loss of the transplanted tooth. Although 41 patients had no re-examination visit, clinical and radiological data from all 109 subjects were included in the sample. The follow-up period varied from 1 week of 14.8 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. Transplanted teeth receiving orthodontic treatment had a lower risk of ankylosis and were less likely to fail. The risk of root resorption was lower for teeth with stages one-half to three-quarters of root length at the time of transplantation. Molars were more susceptible to ankylosis. Almost all teeth showed partial or full obliteration of the pulp. Absence of further root development was higher in donor teeth with root length stage less than one-half. Trans-alveolar transplantation was less successful. Autotransplantation can be a valid alternative method in young adolescents for replacing missing teeth because of agenesis or trauma. The optimal time to transplant is when the root has reached two-thirds to three-quarters of the final root length.

  14. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  15. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  16. Frontal Bone Hemangioma in an 8-year-old Female: A Common Tumor in a Rare Location

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhimanyu; Singh, Usha Rani; Sihag, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is a rare bone tumor accounting for 0.7%–1.0% of all bone tumors. In the skull, frontal bone is the commonly involved bone. An 8-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with complaints of pain and swelling over forehead for 4 months. X-ray revealed a lytic expansile lesion involving frontal bone with sunburst pattern of bony spicules radiating to periphery of the lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a well-circumscribed lesion with both intra as well as extracranial components. Histopathology revealed a vascular tumor consisting of both small (capillary) and large (cavernous) sized vessels. A diagnosis of mixed type of hemangioma of the frontal bone was given. Recognition of hemangioma on radiology and confirmation by histopathology is essential for proper management as it might be confused clinically with other locally aggressive/malignant lesions. PMID:28163515

  17. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  18. Seizures triggered by July 4th fireworks in an 8-year-old girl with perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Jared R; Golomb, Meredith R

    2011-05-01

    Warnings regarding fireworks displays as a possible seizure-producing stimulus have been around for several years, but there is a lack of well-documented cases. This case describes photic- and/or pattern-induced seizures that appeared to be triggered by July 4 fireworks. This 8-year-old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and known seizure disorder because of perinatal right middle cerebral artery stroke had a cluster of seizures within minutes of the onset of a professional fireworks display. The seizures stopped when the child's eyes were covered and she was taken away from the scene. The importance of photic- and pattern-induced seizures in children is discussed.

  19. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  20. Emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with KPC-type carbapenemase in a teaching hospital: an 8-year study.

    PubMed

    García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment.

  1. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  2. Extended AB period study of the electron pairing transition in t-J ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Koichi; Aoki, Hideo

    1996-11-01

    The extended Aharonov-Bohm period test, recently proposed by the present authors, is used to study the electron pairing transition in the t-J ladders. The critical point is detected as a gap opening in the extended spectral flow. The result suggests a pairing prior to the onset of a phase separation, which is consistent with a recent Tomonaga-Luttinger analysis.

  3. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  4. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  5. Perception of Nonnative-accented Sentences by 5- to 8-Year-olds and Adults: The Role of Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Bent, Tessa; Atagi, Eriko

    2017-03-01

    To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements. Further, phonological memory was more closely tied to perception of native talkers whereas phonological awareness was more closely related to perception of nonnative talkers. These results suggest that the ability to recognize words produced in unfamiliar accents continues to develop beyond the early school-age years. Additionally, the linguistic skills most related to word recognition in adverse listening conditions may differ depending on the source of the challenge (i.e., noise, talker, or a combination).

  6. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  7. Ionic adsorption on the brucite (0001) surface: A periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkos, Eszter; Kerridge, Andrew; Austin, Jonathan; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the generalised gradient approximation level is employed within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method (PEECM) to model the brucite (0001) surface. Three representative studies are then used to demonstrate the reliability of the PEECM for the description of the interactions of various ionic species with the layered Mg(OH)2 structure, and its performance is compared with periodic DFT, an approach known to be challenging for the adsorption of charged species. The adsorption energies of a series of s block cations, including Sr2+ and Cs+ which are known to coexist with brucite in nuclear waste storage ponds, are well described by the embedded cluster model, provided that basis sets of triple-zeta quality are employed for the adsorbates. The substitution energies of Ca2+ and Sr2+ into brucite obtained with the PEECM are very similar to periodic DFT results, and comparison of the approaches indicates that two brucite layers in the quantum mechanical part of the PEECM are sufficient to describe the substitution. Finally, a detailed comparison of the periodic and PEECM DFT approaches to the energetic and geometric properties of differently coordinated Sr[(OH)2(H2O)4] complexes on brucite shows an excellent agreement in adsorption energies, Sr-O distances, and bond critical point electron densities (obtained via the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules), demonstrating that the PEECM can be a useful alternative to periodic DFT in these situations.

  8. Multiperiodicity in quasi-periodic pulsations of flare hard X-rays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Szaforz, Ż.

    We present a case study of the solar flare (SOL2001-10-02T17:31) that showed quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in hard X-rays with two simultaneously excited periods, P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s. Complete evolution of the flare recorded by the Yohkoh telescopes, together with the patrol SOHO/EIT images, allowed us to identify magnetic structures responsible for particular periods and to propose an overall scenario which is consistent with the available observations. Namely, we suggest that emerging magnetic flux initiated the reconnection with legs of a large arcade of coronal loops that had been present in an active region for several days. The reconnection excited MHD oscillations in both magnetic structures simultaneously: period P_1 was generated in the emerging loop and in a loop being a result of the reconnection; period P_2 occurred in the arcade. Both resonators produced photons of different spectra. We anticipate that multiperiodicity in hard X-rays can be a common feature of flare hybrids, i.e. the events, in which magnetic structures of different sizes interact.

  9. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  10. Tear-drop fracture of the axis in a child with an 8-year follow-up: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guanhua; Li, Weidong; Bao, Guofeng; Sun, Yuyu; Wang, Lingling; Cui, Zhiming

    2014-05-01

    We reported a 12-year-old boy with neck pain and dysphagia 6 days after his neck being tied by another boy's arms from the back. The boy was found to have a tear-drop fracture of the axis in both radiograph and MRI, which was a rare case in children. He was placed in a cervical traction with Glisson belt and received transfusion for 2 weeks until his neck pain and dysphagia were released. Thereafter, an operation of anterior fusion and fixation was chosen to ensure further stability of the cervical spine and replacement of the fracture fragment. An 8-year follow-up examination showed a satisfactory range of motion of the cervical spine, fusion at C2-3 intervertebral space, and normal signal of C3-4 intervertebral disk. We conclude that tear-drop fractures of the axis in children may be caused by extension injury without a high-energy trauma, and operation of anterior fusion and fixation can be the treatment of choice.

  11. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  12. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  13. Study of the resonances of periodic plane media immersed in water: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Aissam; Maréchal, Pierre; Lenoir, Olivier; Ech-Cherif El-Kettani, Mounsif; Chenouni, Driss

    2013-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of the resonances of 1D periodic media composed of N elementary cells formed with two perfectly bonded layers which exhibit a high acoustic impedance contrast. In the case of a periodic bilayer structure constituted of a fluid layer and an elastic plate, it was shown in previous theoretical works that additional modes appear compared to those of a single plate. These are called structure modes. At low frequency, the so-called vertical modes are found. Approximate expressions of their cut-off frequencies are given and their numerical values match with the exact ones. At high frequency, the Lamb type modes are degenerated and modes in the fluid layers are also observed. Preliminary experimental results have already proved the existence of such phenomena for one and two periods. In our work, an experimental validation has been performed in the case of N periods made with a glass isotropic elastic plate and a water fluid layer, where the number N ranges from two to five. A good agreement is shown compared to theoretical works.

  14. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  15. An 8-year record of gas geochemistry and isotopic composition of methane during baseline sampling at a groundwater observation well in Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Jones, Don; Lam, Vien

    2016-02-01

    Variability in baseline groundwater methane concentrations and isotopic compositions was assessed while comparing free and dissolved gas sampling approaches for a groundwater monitoring well in Alberta (Canada) over an 8-year period. Methane concentrations in dissolved gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 4,380 ± 2,452 μg/L, yielding a coefficient of variation (CV) >50 %. Methane concentrations in free gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 228,756 ± 62,498 ppm by volume, yielding a CV of 27 %. Quantification of combined sampling, sample handling and analytical uncertainties was assessed via triplicate sampling (CV of 19 % and 12 % for free gas and dissolved gas methane concentrations, respectively). Free and dissolved gas samples yielded comparable methane concentration patterns and there was evidence that sampling operations and pumping rates had a marked influence on the obtained methane concentrations in free gas. δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values of methane were essentially constant (-78.6 ± 1.3 and -300 ± 3 ‰, respectively) throughout the observation period, suggesting that methane was derived from the same biogenic source irrespective of methane concentration variations. The isotopic composition of methane constitutes a robust and highly valuable baseline parameter and increasing δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values during repeat sampling may indicate influx of thermogenic methane. Careful sampling and analytical procedures with identical and repeatable approaches are required in baseline-monitoring programs to generate methane concentration and isotope data for groundwater that can be reliably compared to repeat measurements once potential impact from oil and gas development, for example, may occur.

  16. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  17. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  18. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  19. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  20. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  1. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  2. Numerical study of deformation-induced fluid flows in periodic osteonal matrix under harmonic axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah

    2009-05-01

    Living bone is a tissue that is constantly renewed. It has been demonstrated that bone fluid flow and induced shear effects on the bone cells are important players in triggering and signaling bone formation and remodelling. This Note presents a model studying interstitial fluid flow in cortical bone under axial harmonic loads. These living tissues are considered as saturated anisotropic poroelastic material characterized by three-dimensional periodic groups of osteons. Using a frequency-domain analysis, the fluid shear stress variations are studied for various loading conditions and geometrical or physical bone matrix parameters. To cite this article: V.-H. Nguyen et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  3. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  4. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  5. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  6. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  7. A comparative study of stress episode prevalence and duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H; McGroarty, Jennifer N; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsumura, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    This study reconstructs linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) prevalence and stress episode duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido, Japan (HKJ). Results are compared to Jomon period samples from coastal Honshu, Japan (HSJ) and Tigara Inupiat from Point Hope, Alaska (PHT) to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the manifestation of stress among circum-Pacific foragers. LEH were identified macro- and microscopically by enamel surface depressions and increased perikymata spacing within defects. Individuals with more than one anterior tooth affected by LEH were labeled as LEH positive. Stress episode durations were estimated by counting the number of perikymata within the occlusal wall of each LEH and multiplying that number by constants reflecting modal periodicities for modern human teeth. LEH prevalence and stress episode duration did not differ significantly between the two Jomon samples. Significantly greater frequencies of LEH were found in HKJ as compared to PHT foragers. However, HKJ foragers had significantly shorter stress episode durations as compared to PHT. This suggests that a greater proportion of HKJ individuals experienced stress episodes than did PHT individuals, but these stress events ended sooner. Similarity in stress experiences between the two Jomon samples and differences between the HKJ and PHT are found. These findings are important for two reasons. First, stress experiences of foraging populations differ markedly and cannot be generalized by subsistence strategy alone. Second, due to significant differences in episode duration, stress experiences cannot be understood using prevalence comparisons alone.

  8. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  9. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6–8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C. V.; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life. PMID:27727193

  10. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6-8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort).

    PubMed

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C V; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-10-11

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6-8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents' level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child's life.

  11. DMFT Study for Valence Fluctuations in the Extended Periodic Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzaki, Ryu; Nasu, Joji; Koga, Akihisa

    2016-02-01

    We study valence fluctuations at finite temperatures in the extended periodic Anderson model, where the Coulomb interaction between conduction and localized f-electrons is taken into account, using dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method. The valence transition with the hysteresis is clearly found, indicating the first-order phase transition between the Kondo and mixed-valence states. We demonstrate that spin correlation rapidly develops when the system approaches the valence transition point. The comparison of the impurity solvers, the CT-QMC, non-crossing approximation, and one-crossing approximation, is also addressed.

  12. Analytical Study of Periodic Solutions on Perturbed Equatorial Two-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Mortari, Daniele; Selim, Hadia H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents analytical derivations to study periodic solutions for the two-body problem perturbed by the first zonal harmonic parameter. In particular, three different semianalytical approaches to solve this problem have been studied: (1) the classic perturbation theory, (2) the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and (3) the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method. In addition, the numerical integration by Runge-Kutta algorithm is established. However, the numerical comparison tests show that by increasing the value of angular momentum the solutions provided by Lindstedt-Poincaré and Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky methods become similar, and they provide almost identical results using a smaller value for the perturbed parameter which quantify the dynamical flattening of the main body, the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky provides more accurate results to design elliptical periodic solutions than Lindstedt-Poincaré technique when the perturbed parameter has a relatively large value, regardless of the value of angular momentum. This study can be applied to equatorial orbits to obtain closed-form analytical solutions.

  13. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  14. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  15. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  16. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  17. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  18. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  19. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  20. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  1. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  2. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  3. A comprehensive study for the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chew, Weng Cho

    2010-03-15

    A comprehensive study of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with the periodic strip structure is presented in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is employed to discretize the inhomogeneous wave function for modeling the solar cell. In particular, the hybrid absorbing boundary condition and the one-sided difference scheme are adopted. The parameter extraction methods for the zeroth-order reflectance and the absorbed power density are also discussed, which is important for testing and optimizing the solar cell design. For the numerical results, the physics of the absorption peaks of the amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell are explained by electromagnetic theory; these peaks correspond to the waveguide mode, Floquet mode, surface plasmon resonance, and the constructively interference between adjacent metal strips. The work is therefore important for the theoretical study and optimized design of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell.

  4. An ab initio periodic study of acidic chabazite as a candidate for dihydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Civalleri, B; Pisani, C; Ugliengo, P

    2006-06-01

    A theoretical B3LYP study, adopting a polarized double-zeta quality Gaussian basis set, was performed to characterize acidic chabazite by using the periodic CRYSTAL03 program. Different Si/Al loadings (1/1, 3/1, 5/1, and 11/1) were considered, and for each of them the most stable aluminum distribution and location of the acidic proton, needed as charge balancer, were identified. With the optimal structures, the energy of formation and the anharmonic O-H stretching frequency were calculated with the latter being in good agreement with the experimental data. The B3LYP optimal position of H2 physisorbed at the acidic Brönsted sites of chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1 and 5/1) brings about an interaction energy definitely smaller than that derived from infrared spectroscopy, because of the known deficiencies of this functional to cope with dispersive interactions. The latter was included by means of an ONIOM-like procedure that combines periodic B3LYP energy with results at the MP2 level on selected clusters cut out of the chabazite framework. Adsorption of two H2 molecules for Si/Al = 5/1 chabazite showed a complete independence of each Brönsted site, and neither through-space nor intrastructure polarization effects are present. Within the periodic B3LYP approach shifts in both O-H and H-H anharmonic frequencies were also computed and compared with unperturbed values and with the available experimental results.

  5. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  6. Sample size determination for alternate periods of use study designs with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jorge G; Neerchal, Nagaraj K

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external use of products with little or no possibility of carry over effects, and (b) the periods of use are dictated by the subjects or by some specific event, such as diaper leakage or menstrual flow. We consider a number of such study designs for estimating the difference in the efficacy of two treatments or test products. We provide brief descriptions of studies to motivate the study design, the underlying data structure, and computations of the variances of the usual unbiased estimators of the difference in efficacy, and the sample size formulas. The situations considered here cover a number of popular crossover designs. The objective of our work is to provide guidance to members of a wide audience on how to answer the sample size question for their own nonstandard situations. We conclude the article with a brief report on a simulation study we conducted to investigate the impact of estimation on the sample size determination and consequently on the actual power realized in an effort to promote the "best practice" of checking whether the recommended sample sizes indeed achieve the desired level of power.

  7. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention.

  8. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α deficiency presenting as recurrent acute proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kara, Bülent; Genç, Hülya Maraş; Uyur-Yalçın, Emek; Sakarya-Güneş, Ayfer; Topçu, Uğur; Mülayim, Serap; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) plays an important role in aerobic energy metabolism and acid-base equilibrium. PDHC contains of 5 enzymes, 3 catalytic (E1, E2, E3) and 2 regulatory, as well as 3 cofactors and an additional protein (E3-binding protein) encoded by nuclear genes. The clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency ranges from fatal neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurologic dysfunction without lactic acidosis. Paroxysmal neurologic problems such as intermittent ataxia, episodic weakness, exercise-induced dystonia and recurrent demyelination may also be seen although they are rare. Here, we present an 8-year-old boy complaining of acute proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities with normal mental status. He had a history of Guillain-Barré-like syndrome at the age of 2 years. Electrophysiologic studies showed sensorial polyneuropathy findings in the first attack and sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy findings in the last attack. The genetic analysis revealed a previously reported hemizygote novel mutation of the PDHA1 gene (p.A353T/c.1057G > A), which encodes the E1α subunit of PDHC. Thiamine was ordered (15 mg/kg/day), dietary carbohydrates were restricted and clinical findings improved in a few weeks. This rare phenotype of PDHC deficiency is discussed.

  10. Exploring the elements of narrative that emerge in the interactions between an 8-year-old child who uses an AAC device and her teacher.

    PubMed

    Soto, Gloria; Hartmann, Elizabeth; Wilkins, David P

    2006-12-01

    Narrative abilities have been identified as a link to successful school achievement and, in particular, to the acquisition of literacy. Children who use AAC may be at risk of impaired narrative facility due to the differences in their language learning experiences, limitation of their AAC systems, and limitations from constrained access to physical and social environments. In this study, the elements of narrative that emerged in the interactions between an 8-year-old child who used an AAC device and her teacher are described. This assessment was achieved through use of the Narrative Assessment Profile (Bliss, McCabe, & Miranda, 1998) in the context of five tasks designed to elicit a spectrum of narrative features. Results indicate that the interactions between the child and her teacher made it difficult to assess whether or not the child had control of certain features of narrative. From a purely structural analysis, most narrative discourse dimensions appeared to be severely compromised and therefore in need of immediate intervention. Discussion includes aspects of narrative intervention and suggested topics for further research.

  11. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change.

  12. Long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and criminal recidivism: follow-up 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric investigation.

    PubMed

    Stalenheim, E Gunilla

    2004-01-01

    This study is a follow-up investigation of a forensic psychiatric sub-population 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric evaluation. The aim was to examine the long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and antisocial behavior over time. Data on criminal records were obtained at follow-up from the National Council for Crime Prevention. Basic data included findings of psychiatric and psychological assessments, as well as values for serum triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxin (FT4), and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, all obtained during the forensic psychiatric examination. Criminal recidivists at follow-up had higher serum T3 levels than non-recidivists, and much higher values than normal controls, while their levels of free T4 were lower. The T3 levels in criminal recidivists correlated to psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scale of Personality. In violent recidivists, a remarkably high correlation was noted between T3 levels and Irritability and Detachment, traits that have previously been linked to the dopaminergic system. Stepwise multiple regression analyses confirmed the relationships of T3 levels and platelet MAO activity with personality traits in criminal recidivists. The predictive validity of biological markers of psychopathy, T3 and platelet MAO, measured during forensic psychiatric investigation, is stable over time. The results indicate chronic alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in this group of subjects.

  13. Detection of (in)activity periods in human body motion using inertial sensors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  14. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  15. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  16. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  17. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  18. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  19. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Nilsson, Lennart; Falk, Magnus; Kristenson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Background The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma. Aim To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up. Material and Methods 428 men and 438 women, aged 45–69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Results 53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR) for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033). Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low. Conclusion Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events. PMID:26389803

  20. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  1. A periodic density functional theory study of cumene formation catalyzed by H-mordenite.

    PubMed

    Rozanska, X; Barbosa, L A M M; van Santen, R A

    2005-02-17

    A periodic density functional theory study of the alkylation of benzene with propene in proton-exchanged mordenite has been achieved. The two different reaction routes that are usually proposed for this reaction, namely the direct and the step-by-step reaction pathways, have been investigated. The explicit consideration of the zeolite catalyst framework allows a better level of description of the interactions between the catalyst framework and the reaction than what is obtained with the cluster approach method. The direct reaction route is found to be the preferred one. It is observed that the cluster approach method, which does not describe the zeolite framework, is unable to qualitatively described the trend in activation energies. This is owing to the greater stabilization of larger transition state by the mordenite zeolite framework compared with smaller ones.

  2. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  3. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  4. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  5. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  6. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  7. Anti-pertussis antibody kinetics following DTaP-IPV booster vaccination in Norwegian children 7-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Aase, Audun; Herstad, Tove Karin; Jørgensen, Silje Bakken; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Berbers, Guy; Steinbakk, Martin; Aaberge, Ingeborg

    2014-10-14

    At the age of 7-8 years a booster of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and polio vaccine is recommended for children in Norway. In this cross-sectional study we have analysed the antibody levels against pertussis vaccine antigens in sera from 498 children aged 6-12 years. The purposes of this study were to investigate the duration of the booster response against the pertussis vaccine antigens pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA); to determine the presence of high levels of pertussis antibodies in absence of recent vaccination; and to analyse how booster immunisation may interfere with the serological pertussis diagnostics. Prior to the booster the IgG antibody levels against PT revealed a geometric mean of 7.3IU/ml. After the booster the geometric mean peak anti-PT IgG response reached to 45.6IU/ml, followed by a steady decline in antibody levels over the next few years. The IgG anti-FHA levels followed the anti-PT IgG profiles. Three years after the booster the geometric mean IgG levels were only slightly above pre-booster levels. Prior to the booster 44% of the sera contained ≤5IU/ml of anti-PT IgG compared to18% 3 years after and 30% 4 years after the booster. When recently vaccinated children were excluded, 6.2% of the children had anti-PT IgG levels above 50IU/ml which may indicate pertussis infection within the last 2 years. This study indicates that the currently used acellular pertussis vaccines induce moderate immune responses to the pertussis antigens and that the antibodies wane within few years after the booster. This lack of sustained immune response may partly be responsible for the increased number of pertussis cases observed in this age group during the last years.

  8. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation

    PubMed Central

    ALEXANDER, MELANNIE; BURCH, JAMES B.; STECK, SUSAN E.; CHEN, CHIN-FU; HURLEY, THOMAS G.; CAVICCHIA, PHILIP; RAY, MEREDITH; SHIVAPPA, NITIN; GUESS, JACLYN; ZHANG, HONGMEI; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.; CREEK, KIM E.; LLOYD, STEPHEN; YANG, XIAOMING; HÉBERT, JAMES R.

    2015-01-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the ‘period’ (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9–4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4–18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7–5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  9. ABCA3 mutations led to pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with pulmonary hypertension in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ota, Chiharu; Kimura, Masato; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    ABCA3 is highly expressed in alveolar epithelial type 2 cells and is associated with surfactant homeostasis. Patients with ABCA3 mutations develop various respiratory complications, such as fatal respiratory distress syndrome or interstitial lung disease. We describe a patient with pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with pulmonary hypertension, associated with compound heterozygous mutations of the ABCA3 gene. This is the first report showing that mutations in the ABCA3 gene lead to pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, including combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, in childhood. Treatment with prostacyclin analogue, warfarin, and inhaled oxygen was effective to improve patient's hemodynamic condition as well as pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:E21-E23. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Effects of Severe Psychosocial Deprivation and Foster Care Intervention on Cognitive Development at 8 Years of Age: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Nathan A.; Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous reports from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project suggested that children removed from institutions and placed into intervention displayed gains in IQ relative to children randomized to remain in institutional care. Method: The current report presents data from the 8-year follow-up of these children. One hundred and three…

  11. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large…

  12. National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) Position Statement on Early Childhood Certification for Teachers of Children 8 Years Old and Younger in Public School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators' (NAECTE) position statement on early childhood certification for teachers of children 8 years old and younger in public school settings. The association requires public schools to employ and assign teachers with early childhood certification/endorsement to early…

  13. The Development of Norm-Based Coding and Race-Specific Face Prototypes: An Examination of 5- and 8-Year-Olds' Face Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Lindsey A.; Hatry, Alexandra J.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2011-01-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of…

  14. Asynchronous Polar BY Cam: the Spin-orbital Synchronization and Variation of Accretion Geometry on the 8-year Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, E.; Andreev, M.; Babina, Y.; Malanushenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to estimate the time of a spin-orbital synchronization for asynchronous polar BY Cam have been made many times since 1994 year. However the estimates obtained did not coincide in a wide region, varying from 150 years (Piirola et al. 1994) up to >3500 years (Kafka et al. 2005). We have undertaken photometric observations of BY Cam over 8.1 years (2004 - 2012) and collected an array of data covering 998 hours during 178 nights. Analyzing the data, we have obtained the most reliable estimate of the spin-orbital time synchronization, Ts = 250±20 years, which agrees very well with both Ts = 150- 290 yrs for asynchronous polar V1500 Cyg (Pavlenko & Pelt 1991); (Stockman et al. 1988) and the theoretically predicted Ts < 1000 yr for asynchronous polars as a whole (Andronov 1987). We also found that the accretion stream switches between two dipole magnetic poles and the equatorial magnetic poles during a synodic ˜ 15-d cycle; the number of switching and their phases can be kept during neighbor cycles but varies on a scale of years. Probably this may depend on the phase of the long-term ˜ 1500 day periodicity (Andreev et al. 2012).

  15. Baseline serum MMP-3 levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis are still independently predictive of radiographic progression in a longitudinal observational cohort at 8 years follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, there is no reliable tool for predicting disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously demonstrated an association between specific baseline biomarkers/clinical measures including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and 2-year radiographic progression in patients with RA. This study further evaluates the predictive capability of these baseline variables with outcome extended over 8-years. Methods Fifty-eight of the original cohort (n = 118) had radiographic progression from baseline to mean 8.2-years determined using the van der Heijde modified Sharp method. The contribution of each predictor variable towards radiographic progression was assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Traditional factors (including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor) and biomarkers of tissue destruction (including MMP-3, C-telopeptide of type II collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) measured at baseline were associated with radiographic progression at endpoint. Multivariate logistic regression identified anti-CCP seropositivity [OR 9.29, 95%CI: 2.29-37.64], baseline elevated MMP-3 [OR 8.25, 95%CI: 2.54-26.78] and baseline radiographic damage [OR 5.83, 95%CI: 1.88-18.10] as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic progression. A model incorporating these variables had a predictive accuracy of 0.87, assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion In our cohort with onset of RA symptoms < 2-years, multivariate analysis identified anti-CCP status and baseline MMP-3 as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic disease outcome at 8.2-years. This finding suggests determination of baseline MMP-3, in conjunction with traditional serologic markers, may provide additional prognostic information for patients with RA. Furthermore

  16. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  17. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  18. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  19. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  20. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  1. An Orbital Period Study of the W UMa-Type Binary RZ Comae Berenicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jia-Jia

    2005-12-01

    New photoelectric and CCD photometry observations of a short-period W UMa-type binary system, RZ Com, are presented. The light curves of Broglia (1960, Contr. Milano-Merate, 165) were symmetric in V band, while the present light curve shows a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.015mag. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. A small-amplitude oscillation (A = 0.0058 d), with a period of 44.8yr has been discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +4.12 × 10-8 d yr-1. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. The mass ratio of RZ Com is q = 0.43. The secular period variation is in agreement with the conclusions of Qian (2001, MNRAS, 328, 914; 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1260). This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

  2. Migraine and periodic limb movement disorders in sleep in children: a preliminary case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful. No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children. Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians. Methods After a preliminary sleep habits screening with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, 34 migraine subjects affected by migraine without aura (20 M, 14 F) (mean age 9.08; SD ± 2.28) and 51 volunteers healthy children (28 M, 23 F) (mean age 9.37; SD ± 1.81) accepted to underwent overnight PSG recordings in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, in order to define the macrostructural sleep characteristics and the prevalence of PLMd. Subsequently, the migraineurs sample was studied in order to define the relationship between disability, pain intensity, therapeutical responsiveness and the presence of PLMd. Results In the migraineurs children group, the individuals with PLM pathological index (PLMI ≥ 5) represent the 26.47% of sample and present higher frequency (p < 0.001), intensity (p < 0.001), duration (p = 0.006) and life impairment as scored in the PedMIDAS (p < 0.001) of headache and lower efficacy of prophylactic (p = 0.001) and acute (p = 0.006) pharmacological treatment than MoA children without PLM pathological index. Conclusions This preliminary study indicates the potential value of the determination of the PLMd signs, and the importance of the PSG evaluation in children affected by migraine, particularly when the clinical and pharmacological management tend to fail in the attacks control. PMID:23815623

  3. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  4. Orbital period studies of the two contact binaries TZ Bootis and Y Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.; Liu, Q.

    2000-03-01

    The physical properties of the two A-type contact binaries TZ Boo and Y Sex are nearly the same. In the present paper, many of their published times of light minima are collected and the changes in their orbital periods are analyzed. It is indicated that the orbital period of TZ Boo shows several alternating jumps while it undergoes a secular decrease of -11.8x10-8 days/year. Several random jumps superposed on a secular decrease (-5.5x10-8 days/year) are also found in the period of Y Sex. The secular decrease is usually interpreted as mass transfer from the more to the less massive components, or mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the systems. According to the AML theory, on the contact stage, the orbital AML is mainly caused by the mass transfer from the less to the more massive component and the mass ratio decreasing and orbital period gradually increasing are the corresponding results. The extremely low mass ratio and orbital angular momentum of the two systems show that they are evolved via AML and the present secular decrease in the periods may suggest that the magnetic activity in the two systems are very strong. The relation between the changes of the orbital periods and the magnetic activity in the two systems are discussed. We think that the interplay between the variable AML and variable magnetic coupling can explain both the jumps and secular decrease in the orbital periods of the two systems. Table~2 and Table~4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strabg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  5. Economic Outcomes of High School Completers and Noncompleters 8 Years Later. Issue Brief. NCES 2007-019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzl, Gregory; Kena, Grace

    2006-01-01

    This Issue Brief uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) to compare the economic outcomes of high school completers at three different points in time with the outcomes of individuals who did not complete high school. Differences by sex and the type of credential earned are also examined. The findings suggest that…

  6. Executive Function Skills of 6-8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children's self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based…

  7. The Art of Teaching Children the Arts: Music, Dance and Poetry with Children Aged 2-8 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Olsson, Bengt; Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the theoretical framework of developmental pedagogy is presented as a tool in studying and developing children's knowing within the arts. The domains of art focused on are music, poetry and dance/aesthetic movement. Through empirical examples from a large-scale research project, we illustrate the tools of developmental pedagogy…

  8. Reading and Writing Performances of Children 7-8 Years of Age with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Shen, Miau-Lin; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) refers to a delay in motor development that does not have any known medical cause. Studies conducted in English speaking societies have found that children with DCD display a higher co-occurrence rate of learning difficulties (e.g., problems in reading and writing) than typically developing (TD) children.…

  9. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  10. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  11. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge Through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large metropolitan area). Information was presented along with unrelated or related episodes; the latter challenged children to identify the relevant subset of episodes for integration. In Experiment 1, 4- and 6-year-olds integrated in the unrelated context. Six-year-olds also succeeded in the related context in forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, 8-year-olds succeeded in open-ended and forced-choice testing. Results illustrate a developmental progression in productive extension of knowledge due in part to age-related increases in identification of relevant information.

  12. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  13. [Study on ammonia-N degradation monitoring by analyzing long-period fiber grating spectrum character].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-yue; Liang, Da-kai; Zeng, Jie; Cao, Zhi-bin; Zeng, Jian-min

    2010-09-01

    In the present paper, the principle of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring sensor was discussed in detail firstly based on a sensitive characteristic that the resonance spectrum of long-period fiber grating changes with refractive index in external environment. The relationship between the resonance peaking wavelength of long-period fiber grating and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was also analyzed detailedly. Then, the long-period fiber grating spectrum measurement technology was selected to obtain long-period fiber grating spectrum curves corresponding to seven different kinds of concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, and the resonance wavelengths increased with the increase in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The variations of the resonance wavelength decreased from 2.707 to 0.068 nm and had a relatively good corresponding relationship with the concentration values of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The responsivity of this correlation is 52.78 pm x mg(-1) x L. The concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was acquired exactly through the way of monitoring the changes of the spectrum attribute, at the same time, the process and the extent of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater degradation were estimated. This method, which can directly monitor the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, is simple and easy to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which can avoid the electronic interference. There is no necessary to use chemic reagent to sign the solutions, which are going to be degraded. In conclusion, the late-model long-period fiber grating ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring system could achieve a real time, rapid, accurate and long distance measurement.

  14. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  15. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  16. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  17. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  18. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  19. Insulin resistance, physical fitness, body composition and leptin concentration in 7-8 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Jantine D; van Breda, Eric; Keizer, Hans; Rump, Patrick; Hornstra, Gerard; Kuipers, Harm

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and physical fitness, leptin concentration, body composition and family history for diabetes in non-selected young children. Physical fitness, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, anthropometric characteristics and medical history were available in two hundred and fifty-seven 7-year-old Dutch children. Correlations with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance were studied. A multiple regression model was calculated for HOMA. The differences between children with or without a family history for diabetes were not significant. Boys scored higher on glucose concentration and aerobic fitness and lower on sum of skin folds and leptin concentration (p<.05). After adjustment for sum of skin folds, HOMA was significantly associated with leptin in both genders (boys r=.184 p=.031; girls r=.430 p=.000). The association between physical fitness and HOMA was mediated by sum of skin folds. The associations were stronger in girls than in boys. In the regression model (R(2)=.205) the leptin concentration was the only significant predictor for HOMA. The influence of family history for diabetes on insulin resistance is shown as a trend at this age. Our findings suggest that plasma leptin concentration is independently associated with the development of insulin resistance in a non-selected prepubertal population. The association of physical fitness with insulin resistance seems to be mediated by the sum of skin folds.

  20. Reading and writing performances of children 7-8 years of age with developmental coordination disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Shen, Miau-Lin; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) refers to a delay in motor development that does not have any known medical cause. Studies conducted in English speaking societies have found that children with DCD display a higher co-occurrence rate of learning difficulties (e.g., problems in reading and writing) than typically developing (TD) children. The present study examined the reading and writing performance of school-aged children with DCD and TD children in Taiwan to determine whether reading and writing difficulties also co-occur with DCD in a non-English speaking society. The Chinese Reading Achievement Test and the Basic Reading and Writing Test were administered to 37 children with DCD (7.8 ± 0.6 years) and 93 TD children (8.0 ± 0.7 years). Children with DCD had significantly lower writing composite scores than TD children on the Basic Reading and Writing Test (105.9 ± 20.0 vs. 114.4 ± 19.9). However, there were no significant differences between children with DCD and TD children in their scores on the Chinese Reading Achievement Test and in their reading composite scores on the Basic Reading and Writing Test. These results contrasted interestingly with those obtained from English-speaking children: English-speaking DCD children showed poorer reading and poorer writing than English-speaking TD children. The possibility that the logographic nature of the Chinese script might have protected the DCD children against additional reading difficulty is discussed.

  1. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  2. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  3. Orbital Period Variation Study of the Algol Eclipsing Binary DI Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, M. A.; Amin, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the orbital period changes of the Algol semi-detached eclipsing binary DI Peg by constructing the (O-C) residual diagram via using all the available precise minima times. We conclude that the period variation can be explained by a sine-like variation due to the presence of a third body orbiting the binary, together with a long-term orbital period increase ( dP/dt=0.17 sec/century) that can be interpreted to be due to mass transfer from the evolved secondary component (of rate 1.52×10^{-8} M_{⊙}/ yr) to the primary one. The detected low-mass third body (M_{3 min.}=0.22±0.0006 M_{⊙}) is responsible for a periodic variation of about 55 years light time effect. We have determined the orbital parameters of the third component which show a considerable eccentricity e_{3}= 0.77±0.07 together with a longitude of periastron ω_{3}=300° ± 10°.

  4. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  5. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  6. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  7. [Post-ligation syndrome: a follow-up of 556 cases, 5 to 8 years after tubal sterilization].

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, J A; Ianni, F

    1989-01-01

    Five to eight years later, we obtained an answer in 66.3% of 556 patients who had a sterilization between January 1978 and end of December 1981, in order to find any complication forming the so called Post-sterilization Syndrome. We traced back 80.6% of 62 patients who showed a genital pathology at the time of their surgery. We also could obtain an answer in 64.6% of 494 patients who had no apparent genital pathology at the time of their sterilization. We found that 12 patients of the first and 25 patients of the second group (10%) had suffered a major gynecological surgery since their sterilization. But in studying their records, we found that all their surgery was surgically indicated like for fibroids, prolapse, cervical cancer, etc. Three patients of the first and 16 patients of the second group (5%) showed bleeding problems which necessitated a D & C. In all, considering the age of the patients, there was no relationship between the sterilization and the rate of complications.

  8. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  9. Executive Function Skills of 6 to 8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children’s self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based neuropsychological measure of EF skills. The sample included 74 children (37 females; M = 86.2 months) who participated in two assessments of working memory and inhibitory control: Knock-Tap (NEPSY: Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp, 1998), and participation in event-related potential (ERP) testing that included the Directional Stroop Test (Davidson, Cruess, Diamond, O’Craven, & Savoy, 1999). Three main findings emerged. First, children grouped as high versus low performing on the NEPSY Knock-Tap Task were found to performed differently on the more difficult conditions of the DST (the Incongruent and Mixed Conditions), suggesting that the Knock-Tap Task as a low-cost and easy to administer assessment of EF skills may be one way for teachers to identify students with poor inhibitory control skills. Second, children’s performance on the DST was strongly related to their ERP responses, adding to evidence that differences in behavioral performance on the DST as a measure of EF skills reflect corresponding differences in brain processing. Finally, differences in brain processing on the DST task also were found when the children were grouped based on Knock-Tap performance. Simple screening procedures can enable teachers to identify children whose distractibility, inattentiveness, or poor attention spans may interfere with classroom learning. PMID:20798857

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma: Our 8-year clinical experience in a single French institute (2002–2009)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), its use as a standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative cutaneous melanoma remains controversial. We wished to evaluate our experience of SLNB for melanoma. Methods A single center observational cohort of 203 melanoma patients with a primary cutaneous melanoma (tumour thickness > 1 mm) and without clinical evidence of metastasis was investigated from 2002 to 2009. Head and neck melanoma were excluded. SLN was identified following preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe interrogation. Results The SLN identification rate was 97%. The SLN was tumor positive in 44 patients (22%). Positive SLN was significantly associated with primary tumor thickness and microscopic ulceration. The median follow-up was 39.5 (5–97) months. Disease progression was significantly more frequent in SLN positive patients (32% vs 13%, p = 0.002). Five-year DFS and OS of the entire cohort were 79.6% and 84.6%, respectively, with a statistical significant difference between SLN positive (58.7% and 69.7%) and SLN negative (85% and 90.3%) patients (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0096 respectively). Postoperative complications after SLNB were observed in 12% of patients. Conclusion Our data confirm previous studies and support the clinical usefulness of SLNB as a reliable and accurate staging method in patients with cutaneous melanoma. However, the benefit of additional CLND in patients with positive SLN remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23228015

  11. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  12. Shortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yu, Hongbin; Platnick, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Liu, Zhaoyan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DREs) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using 8 years (2007-2014) of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: southeastern (SE) Atlantic region, where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over the African Savanna; tropical northeastern (TNE) Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, respectively; and the northwestern (NW) Pacific, where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asian. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in the TNE Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m-2 (range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m-2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within the atmosphere are -0.15 W m-2 (range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m-2), and 0.17 W m-2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m-2), respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region, the JJA (July-August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m-2 (range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m-2) at TOA. All our DRE computations are publicly available1. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly caused by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, the uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval, and the ignorance of cloud and potential aerosol diurnal cycle. In situ and remotely sensed

  13. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  14. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration.

  15. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy.

  16. Influence of harvest method and period on olive oil composition: an NMR and statistical study.

    PubMed

    D'Imperio, Marco; Gobbino, Marco; Picanza, Antonio; Costanzo, Simona; Della Corte, Anna; Mannina, Luisa

    2010-10-27

    The influence of harvest period and harvest method on olive oil composition was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by some quality parameters such as free acidity, peroxide value, and UV spectrophotometric indices. This work focuses on two secondary factors (harvest period and harvest method) and investigated their interactions with primary (genetic and pedoclimatic) and secondary (agronomic practices and technological procedures) factors. To avoid misinterpretation, the general linear model analysis (GLM) was used to adjust the result obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this way, the effect of the factor of interest was corrected for the effects of the other factors that might influence the variable under investigation. The weight of each factor was evaluated by the variance component analysis (VCA). Finally, multivariate statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were applied. Samples were grouped according to the harvest period and harvest method. Volatile compounds, that is, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, as well as the sn-1,3-diglycerides and squalene, significantly decreased during the ripening. The relative value of the ΔK parameter and the hexanal amount were higher in the olive oils obtained from olives harvested by one type of hand-held machine (shaker), whereas the unsaturated fatty chains in the olive oils were higher when another type (comb) was used.

  17. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  18. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part I: numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Kamm, R D

    1982-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of the technique of periodic external compression for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. In the model the veins of the lower leg are portrayed as a continuous system rather than as discrete elements as in previous models. Consequently, we are able to explore the detailed effects of different modes of compression including (i) uniform compression, the simultaneous application of uniform pressure over the entire lower leg, (ii) graded compression, the application of nonuniform pressure, maximum at the ankle and minimum at the knee, and (iii) wavelike compression, a wave of compression proceeding from the ankle toward the knee. These numerical results indicate that the effectiveness of uniform compression is severely compromised by the formation of a flow-limiting throat at the proximal end of the compression cuff that reduces both the rate at which blood is discharged from the lower leg and the total blood volume removed. Both of these detrimental effects can be avoided by the use of either wavelike of graded compression. Both alternated methods are shown to produce more uniform augmentation of volume flow rate, flow velocity and shear stress, throughout the entire lower leg. In the companion paper, Part II [18] (see following article), these same compression modes are tested using a simple hydraulic model consisting of a single latex tube inside a foam cylinder as a highly simplified representation of a human leg.

  19. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  20. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  1. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  2. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fought, Rick L

    2014-07-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals.

  3. Photometric study and absolute parameters of the short-period eclipsing binary HH Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Demircan, Y.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system HH Bootis from new CCD (BVRI) light curves and published radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2011 and 2012 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO). Light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be a W-type W UMa system of a type different from that suggested by Dal and Sipahi (2013). An interesting cyclic period variation in the time intervals between primary and secondary eclipses ("half-period variation") was discovered and analyzed and its possible cause is discussed. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.627M⊙ , M2 = 1.068M⊙ , R1 = 0.782R⊙ and R2 = 0.997R⊙ . New light elements were derived and finally the evolutionary status of the system is discussed.

  4. The First Photometric Study of the Short-period Shallow Contact System LO Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Han, Q. W.; Liu, J. Z.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the first complete photometric light curves in the B, V, and R passbands for an eclipsing binary LO Com are presented, and the photometric solution for the LO Com is derived by analyzing these light curves by using the Wilson and Devinney code. From the photometric solution, it is found that the LO Com is a W-type W UMa binary with a mass ratio of q={m}2/{m}1=2.478 and a contact degree of f=(3.2+/- 0.25) % . By combining the two new minimum times with those published earlier in the literature, we have found that the (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation corresponding to a long-term decrease in the orbital period with a rate of {{d}}P/{{d}}t=-1.18× {10}-7 days yr-1. This long-term decrease in its orbital period may be caused by mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one.

  5. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  6. Coding Properties of Three Intrinsically Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells under Periodic Stimuli: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Yi-Hong; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing) by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency). Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike- rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs' spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin's three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s) or all of the Hodgkin's three excitabilities. PMID:27721751

  7. Evolution of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) from idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (IHCM) vs. inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi): a rare case of sudden death in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Schmidt, Peter; Kandolf, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    In rare cases, the diagnosis of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in children was established postmortem. Our case report deals with the sudden and unexpected death of an 8-year-old boy. The postmortem examination revealed non-obstructive hypertrophy with irregular arrangement of muscular fibers, dilatation of the ventricles, endocardial fibrosis, microfocal vacuolization with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, and signs of inflammation with interstitial fibrosis. We present an evolution from idiopathic cardiomyopathy to DCM. To some extent, there were morphologic signs of an inflammatory process that first led us to suspect a specific inflammatory DCM.

  8. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case. PMID:21418566

  9. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Sridhar; Bentley, George

    2011-03-18

    We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case.

  10. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  11. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  12. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of an implant retrieved 8 years after insertion in a sinus augmented with anorganic bovine bone and anorganic bovine matrix associated with a cell-binding peptide: a case report.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2012-08-01

    Few histologic and histomorphometric reports are present in the literature regarding the peri-implant bone response around implants inserted in sinuses grafted with different biomaterials. Anorganic bovine bone (ABB) and anorganic bovine matrix with the addition of an active cell-binding peptide (PepGen P-15) are xenogenic materials that have been reported to present biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. A monolateral sinus augmentation procedure with ABB (50%) and PepGen P-15 (50%) was performed in a 54-year-old man. Two titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface were inserted after 6 months. After an additional 6 months, a fixed prosthetic restoration was fabricated. One implant fractured in the coronal portion after an 8-year loading period and was removed using a 5-mm trephine bur. Few particles of both grafting materials were present in the peri-implant bone. No graft material particles were found in contact with the implant surface, and bone was always interposed between the graft materials and surface. No inflammatory cell infiltrate, multinucleated giant cells, or foreign body reaction cells were found. The tissues around the implant were composed of 51.4% ± 4.8% bone, 6.2% ± 0.7% ABB particles, 2.4% ± 0.5% PepGen P-15, and 40.0% ± 7.1% marrow spaces. The bone-implant contact percentage was 78.4% ± 4.1%. A sinus augmentation procedure using ABB and PepGen P-15 produced bone formation with subsequent implant osseointegration, which was still present after 8 years of implant loading.

  13. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of the long period variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, Michael; Siluszyk, Marek; Wawrzynczak-Szaban, Anna

    2012-07-01

    We analyze experimental data of neutron monitors and solar wind parameters during #21 solar cycle (1976-1987). In galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is well established a step like changes in both ascending and descending periods of solar activity. We compose two-dimensional (2-D) time dependent model of GCR modulation based on Parker's transport equation to explain a general 11-year wave of the GCR intensity with the step-like changes, and each step-like changes individually, i.e. time scale of investigations is carried out by means of daily and monthly data. An innovation in proposed model is that besides the well known fundamental processes responsible for modulation of the GCR intensity, we implement in the model the parameters characterizing temporal changes of the exponent n of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turbulence, module B of the IMF, tilt angle δ of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet, and changes of drift effect of the GCR particles upon solar activity assuming that drift effect of the GCR particles is maximal in the minimum epoch, when drift dominates, and is neglected in the maximum epoch, when diffusion dominates. We show that an acceptable compatibility is kept for the investigated period of 1976-1987 (solar cycle #21), when the expected temporal changes of the GCR particles density (11-year wave) is shifted for 18 months with respect to the temporal changes of the smoothed experimental data of the GCR intensity. We consider, that a delay time ˜18 months can be considered as an effective delay time caused by the combined influence of all parameters implemented in the 2-D model.

  14. The study of atmospheric CO pollution over the center of Moscow in autumn period

    SciTech Connect

    Fokeeva, E.V.; Pekour, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The results of CO near-ground concentration measurements are presented which were taken by virtue of electrochemical method at the center of Moscow during one autumn month in 1993. Simultaneous measurements were performed of the total column content of CO over Moscow making use of sun radiation absorption detection in the infrared (in the wavelength range of 4.6 mcm). To determine an urban increment of CO content over regional background the data of analogous measurements were used which were collected in the rural suburb 45 km west from Moscow center One-hour averaged near-ground CO concentration were in the limits 0.4 to 5.8 mg/m{sup 3}, and an average total column CO content vary from 0.09 to 0.167 atm*cm. The measurements were accompanied by acoustic sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer with the use of three component Doppler SODAR. The peculiarities of average and concrete diurnal variation of near-ground CO concentrations can well be interpreted by virtue of SODAR data indicating the type of stratification, the mixing height and the wind velocity during a whole day. Comparison and analysis are performed of the average diurnal variations of near-ground CO concentration in autumn and summer periods in account to the occurrence frequency of surface inversion within selected periods. Almost complete coincidence has been found of the shape of CO concentration diurnal variations with those of NO and soot. An estimate of specific CO source power in the city is performed in account to the data on the mixing height and wind velocity mean within a layer of 250 m.

  15. Kimura's disease: case report of an Italian young male and response to oral cyclosporine A in an 8 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Beccastrini, Enrico; Emmi, Giacomo; Chiodi, Michela; Di Paolo, Camilla; Benedetta Silvestri, Elena; Massi, Daniela; Maggi, Enrico; Liotta, Francesco; Emmi, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    Kimura's disease is a benign chronic inflammatory disease, common in Asian males and rare in Western people. Clinically, Kimura's disease is characterized by subcutaneous nodular lesions, usually localised in head and neck, often associated with regional lymphadenopathy. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE are often observed. We report a case of a 40-year-old Italian patient presenting with nodular subcutaneous lesions and peripheral eosinophilia. Based on clinical, histopathological and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was made. The patient was treated with very low doses of cyclosporine A with no evidence of disease recurrence over the following 8 years. However, the discontinuation of cyclosporine A determined a relapse of the disease. The relevance of this case is due to the rarity of the disease in Italy, to its peculiar clinical presentation and, moreover, it is the first case in literature that has a good response to treatment with low doses of cyclosporine A, documented in an 8-year follow-up.

  16. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive lacosamide among patients with partial-onset seizures in a long-term open-label extension trial of up to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, William; Fountain, Nathan B; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; McShea, Cindy; Isojarvi, Jouko; Doty, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Long-term (up to 8 years of exposure) safety and efficacy of the antiepileptic drug lacosamide was evaluated in this open-label extension trial (SP615 [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00552305]). Patients were enrolled following participation in a double-blind trial or one of two open-label trials of adjunctive lacosamide for partial-onset seizures. Dosage adjustments of lacosamide (100-800 mg/day) and/or concomitant antiepileptic drugs were allowed to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Of the 370 enrolled patients, 77%, 51%, and 39% had >1, >3, or >5 years of lacosamide exposure, respectively. Median lacosamide modal dose was 400mg/day. Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were dizziness (39.7%), headache (20.8%), nausea (17.3%), diplopia (17.0%), fatigue (16.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (16.5%), nasopharyngitis (16.2%), and contusion (15.4%). Dizziness (2.2%) was the only TEAE that led to discontinuation in >2% of patients. Ranges for median percent reductions in seizure frequency were 47-65%, and those for ≥ 50% responder rates were 49-63% for 1-, 3-, and 5-year completer cohorts. Exposure to lacosamide for up to 8 years was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to previous double-blind trials, and efficacy was maintained.

  17. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-11

    INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY 10: 097 STUDY NO: 097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 ~eek ·1 GROUP: 7557 7541...097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume IJeek ·1 IJeek 2 IJeek 4 IJeelc 8 IJeek 13...animals sacrificed after the recovery period. It was usually focal and subcapsular. It consisted of interstitial fibrosis , mononuclear cell

  18. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  19. A numerical study of periodic slug flow at zero gravity and normal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, K.; Bugg, J. D.; Gabriel, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports numerical simulations of slug flow at zero and normal gravity. The particular experimental results chosen for validation were obtained at microgravity under conditions which resulted in evenly-spaced and evenly-sized Taylor bubbles facilitating a simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The numerical technique was a free-surface method which explicitly tracked the motion of the gas-liquid interface using a volume-of-fluid specification and a finite volume discretisation of the solution domain. The large scale features of the bubble such as the classic bullet-shaped nose were well predicted by the model. Unsteady features of the bubble shape such as waves in the film and fluctuations of the bottom surface were also predicted but are harder to compare quantitatively to the experiments. The velocity field predictions reveal several interesting features of the flow. When viewed by an observer moving with the bubbles, the liquid slug is dominated by a large recirculating region with the flow travelling from the leading to the trailing bubble along the tube centreline. In this frame of reference, the near-wall region features a jet of fluid issuing from the film of the leading bubble which entrains fluid in the slug. As the film of the trailing bubble begins to form, the entrained fluid must be ejected since the flowrate in the film of each bubble must be the same. It appears to be this process that drives the main recirculation.

  20. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  1. The study of structural color filter based on periodic nanohole arrays for bio-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seunguk; Shin, Jeonghee; Yoo, Seungjun; Kim, Samhwan; Jeon, Byoungok; Moon, Cheil; Jang, Jae-Eun

    2015-07-01

    A nanostructure which induces localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be utilized in visible light and near infrared (NIR) regions and it shows promising features as a bio-detector because LSPR state is changed easily by different bio-related materials. Owing to transparent property of many biomolecules as well as diluted states in base solutions, it is hard to distinguish each other by eye or microscope analysis. However, difference in molecular structure and composition makes difference in optical characteristics such as a refractive index or a dielectric constant. Therefore, our LSPR-based nanohole array structure which has high sensitivity to detect small changes in optical characteristics can be a great candidate for a bio detector. Here, we fabricated structural color filters (SCFs) to detect wavelength shifts for several biomolecules and optimized the nanohole array structures for high sensitivity. Periodic nanohole arrays were designed to present resonance peaks in visible light region for optical analysis and fabricated in Au or Al thin film layer. The spectral shifts were detected caused by biomolecules.

  2. Evanescent-wave amplification studied using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruopeng; Zhao, Bo; Lin, Xian Qi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present both theoretical analysis and experimental verification of evanescent-wave amplification by using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model. We propose a series-shunt capacitor (C-C) structure to simulate a magnetic plasma, whose permittivity is positive and permeability is negative, and a series-shunt inductor (L-L) structure to simulate an electric plasma, whose permittivity is negative and permeability is positive, in which the structure cells are not required to be electrically small. In addition, we derive and define an effective permittivity and permeability for the C-C and L-L structures in closed forms, which are completely different from the published ones. When the two structures are cascaded together to form a bilayer structure, we show that evanescent waves which exist in two single layers independently can be amplified exponentially if a certain resonant condition is satisfied. Such a resonant condition is equivalent to the antimatching condition for the permittivity and permeability of the effectively electric and magnetic plasmas. To show the accuracy of this equivalent medium model, we compare both circuit-simulation results for the C-C and L-L structures and theoretical-prediction results for the effective magnetic and electric plasmas, which have excellent agreement. Finally, we design an experiment using lumped capacitors and inductors mounted on a printed circuit board to verify the amplification of evanescent waves sufficiently. The measurement results have good agreement with the simulation results.

  3. Periodic limb movements during sleep and prevalent hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B; Sillau, Stefan; Dean, Dennis A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with immediate increases in blood pressure. Both PLMS and hypertension have different distributions across racial/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether PLMS is associated with hypertension among various racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1740 men and women underwent measurement of blood pressure and polysomnography with quantification of PLMS. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, diastolic BP ≥90, or taking antihypertensive medication. For those taking antihypertensives, an estimated pretreatment SBP value was derived based on observed SBP and medication type/dose. Measures of PLMS, PLMS index, and PLMS arousal index were the main explanatory variables. Hypertension and SBP were modeled with logistic and multivariable regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle/habitual factors, apnea-hypopnea index, and race/ethnicity. In the overall cohort, prevalent hypertension was modestly associated with PLMS index (10 U; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.10) and PLMS arousal index (1 U; 1.05; 1.01-1.09) after adjusting for confounders. Association in the overall cohort was influenced by large effect sizes in blacks, in whom the odds of prevalent hypertension increased by 21% (1%-45%) for 10 U PLMS index increase and 20% (2%-42%) for 1-U PLMS arousal index increase. In blacks, every 1-U PLMS arousal index increase was associated with SBP 1.01 mm Hg higher (1.01; 0.04-1.98). Associations between PLMS and blood pressure outcomes were also suggested among Chinese-Americans but not in whites or Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling men and women, prevalent hypertension and SBP are associated with PLMS frequency in blacks.

  4. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  5. Undergraduate Pilot Training Task Frequency Study. Final Report for Period October 1972-October 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James E.; Rust, Steven K.

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the number of training task repetitions required for an Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) student to become proficient, and (2) to determine the total number of task repetitions that UPT students receive for each maneuver in T-37 and T-38 training. The project was conducted in two parts. Study 1…

  6. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  7. Using the Fourier-series approach to study interactions between moving wheels and a periodically supported rail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Li, M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the Fourier-series approach is employed to study wheel-rail interactions generated by a single, or multiple wheels moving at a constant speed along a railway track. This approach has been previously explored by other researchers and what is presented here is an improved version. In this approach, the track is represented by an infinitely long periodic structure with the period equal to the sleeper spacing and the vertical irregular profile (roughness) of the railhead is assumed to be periodic in the track direction with the period equal to the length of a number (integer), N, of sleeper bays. By assuming linear dynamics for the wheel/track system and for steady state, each wheel/rail force is a periodic function of time and can be expressed as a Fourier series. Fourier coefficients are then shown to be determined by solving, separately, N sets of linear algebraic equations. The coefficient matrix of each set of equations is independent of rail roughness and therefore this approach is particularly useful in modelling the generation and growth of rail roughness of short wavelengths. Excitation purely from the axle loads moving over the periodic track structure is realised by assuming a smooth railhead surface, and subsequently roughness equivalent to such an excitation is defined and evaluated. This equivalent roughness may, in addition to the actual rail roughness, be input into models in which the effect of moving axle loads has been excluded, so that the predictions from those models can be improved. Results are produced using the improved Fourier-series approach to investigate the effects of wheel speeds, roughness wavelengths and interactions between multiple wheels on wheel/rail contact forces.

  8. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR242511 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-07

    HISTORICAL DATABASE REPORT HCV PLT PT RBC RETICS WBC DBA IF IF DOG BEAGLE Male CONTROL DATA MEAN 69.6 286 7.8 6.37 0.4 8.2...PERIOD IN DOGS EMI?? INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL HEMATOLOGY REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 - SEX: HALE STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV ...Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV - SEX: FEMALE UNITS: fL Animal ID WEEK -3 WEEK -1 WEEK 4

  9. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1].

  10. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  11. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  12. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  13. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  14. Measured and predicted changes in tree and stand water use following high-intensity thinning of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus nitens plantation.

    PubMed

    Medhurst, Jane L; Battaglia, Michael; Beadle, Christopher L

    2002-08-01

    We investigated changes in the pattern of water use of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden plantation soon after thinning. Sap flow sensors using heat pulse technology were deployed across three stands thinned to a final density of 100, 250 or 600 trees ha-1 plus an unthinned control (1250 trees ha-1). Changes in the relationship between tree size and daily water use were measured for 4 to 7 months after thinning. Thinning had no effect on sapwood water content. The increase in tree water use as a result of thinning was driven largely by significant changes in the radial pattern of sap velocity through the sapwood. The use of a canopy fraction factor in the Penman-Monteith equation to account for discontinuous canopies showed promise as a simple and effective method of scaling the model to predict transpiration from thinned plantations.

  15. 13-week drinking water toxicity study of hydrogen peroxide with 6-week recovery period in catalase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Freeman, C; Trochimowicz, H; de Gerlache, J; Jacobi, S; Malinverno, G; Mayr, W; Regnier, J F

    2000-07-01

    A GLP OECD guideline study was conducted to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (HP) when administered continuously in the drinking water of catalase-deficient (C57BL/6N) mice and reversibility of toxic effects. Groups of mice (15/sex/group) received solutions of 0, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm HP in distilled water for 13 weeks; five/sex/group continued on untreated distilled water for an additional 6 weeks. Animals drinking 3000 ppm HP exhibited depressed water and food consumption and body weight. Females drinking 1000 ppm HP had reduced water consumption with intermittent effects on food consumption, but no body weight effects. HP administration did not produce any mortality, clinical signs, hematological effects or organ weight effects on brain, liver, kidneys, adrenals, testes, heart or spleen. Total protein and globulin were depressed among high dose males. Mild to minimal duodenal mucosal hyperplasia was noted in animals receiving 1000 and 3000 ppm HP and one male receiving 300 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no other histopathological findings. All effects noted during the treatment period, including the duodenal hyperplasia, were reversible during the 6-week recovery period. Females dosed with 300-3000 ppm HP during the treatment period showed increased water consumption during the recovery period. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL), based on duodenal mucosal hyperplasia, is 100 ppm in drinking water or 26 and 37 mg/kg/day HP, respectively, for males and females.

  16. An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.

  17. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  18. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  19. CBVE: A Study to Measure Its Effectiveness in Kentucky. Final Report. Interim Period 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Roger D.; Cobb, Robert A.

    An interim study was conducted in Kentucky to determine the effectiveness of Competency Based Vocational Education (CBVE) and to compare its effectiveness to that of traditional teaching methodologies. Research surveys of those directly involved in the implementation of CBVE were used to ascertain if CBVE is meeting its self-stated goals.…

  20. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of…

  1. [Hematopoiesis during remote period after acute radiation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Suvorova, L A; Galstian, I A; Nadezhina, N M; Nugis, V Iu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the long (19.7 +/- 1.8 year) hemopoiesis follow-up study in 152 patients after acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a result of exposure to gamma-, gamma-beta and gamma-eta radiation in a wide dose range (1.2-9.8 Gy) it was detected that cytopenia appears in the late consequences period: thrombocytopenia was found in 26.9% cases, leukocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia--in 13.1% patients. A higher ARS degree causes the increase of various disorders (cytopenia and cytosis) in the late period. It reflects a tight interrelation between blood cell contents and radiation dose. Frequency of cytopenias increases if such somatic disorders: persistent hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis and late radiation ulcers as appear.

  2. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  3. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-03-15

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320({+-} 0.002) and f = 5.8({+-} 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476({+-} 0.005) and f = 21.3({+-} 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264({+-} 0.002), and f = 49.7({+-} 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  4. Energy and water balance studies of a snow cover during snowmelt period at a high arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.; Maréchal, D.; Sand, K.; Killingtveit, Å.

    The predicted global warming is supposed to have an enhanced effect on the arctic regions. How this will influence the water, carbon dioxide and methane balances in the European arctic tundra is the objective of the EU-funded project ``Understanding Land Surface Physical Processes in the Arctic'' (LAPP), to which where SINTEF is one of several contributors. The snow cover is one of the limiting factors for these exchange processes and knowledge of how it behaves and will behave under a different climate is important. Data collected for water and energy balance studies in an area close to Ny-Ålesund at 79°N at Svalbard are the basis of this study. Measurements during the ablation periods since 1992 show an average air temperature for the periods of 2.1°C, an average incoming shorwave radiation of 230W/m2 and an average measured runoff intensity of 14mm/day with a maximum of 68mm/day. Three models of different complexity are tested in order to simulate the water and energy balance of a snow cover on the arctic tundra. The three models are: a complex numerical model (CROCUS), a simple energy balance model and a temperature index model. The simulations were carried out for the melt periods in 1992 and 1996 as these two periods represent very different meteorological conditions. The results of these simulations exposed weaknesses in all the models. The energy balance model lacks calculation of cold content in the snowpack. This influences both the outgoing longwave radiation and the timing of the melt. Due to the effect of compensating errors in the simulations, CROCUS performed better than the simple energy balance model but also this model has problems with the simulation of outgoing longwave radiation. The temperature index model does not perform well for snowmelt studies in regions were radiation is the main driving energy source for the melt.

  5. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  7. Physically based distributed hydrological model calibration based on a short period of streamflow data: case studies in four Chinese basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guoqiang; Cui, Xingqi; Yu, Jingshan; Zuo, Depeng; Xu, Zongxue

    2017-01-01

    Physically based distributed hydrological models are widely used for hydrological simulations in various environments. As with conceptual models, they are limited in data-sparse basins by the lack of streamflow data for calibration. Short periods of observational data (less than 1 year) may be obtained from fragmentary historical records of previously existing gauging stations or from temporary gauging during field surveys, which might be of value for model calibration. However, unlike lumped conceptual models, such an approach has not been explored sufficiently for physically based distributed models. This study explored how the use of limited continuous daily streamflow data might support the application of a physically based distributed model in data-sparse basins. The influence of the length of the observation period on the calibration of the widely applied soil and water assessment tool model was evaluated in four Chinese basins with differing climatic and geophysical characteristics. The evaluations were conducted by comparing calibrations based on short periods of data with calibrations based on data from a 3-year period, which were treated as benchmark calibrations of the four basins, respectively. To ensure the differences in the model simulations solely come from differences in the calibration data, the generalized likelihood uncertainty analysis scheme was employed for the automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. In the four basins, contrary to the common understanding of the need for observations over a period of several years, data records with lengths of less than 1 year were shown to calibrate the model effectively, i.e., performances similar to the benchmark calibrations were achieved. The models of the wet Jinjiang and Donghe basins could be effectively calibrated using a shorter data record (1 month), compared with the dry Heihe and upstream Yalongjiang basins (6 months). Even though the four basins are very different, when using 1-year or

  8. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  9. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays.

  10. An Ultraviolet Study of Non-periodic Variability in Accreting Pre-Main Sequence Stars: UXors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, N. L.; Herbst, W.

    1994-05-01

    Many earlier type (K0 or hotter) pre-main sequence stars are known to occasionally and irregularly fade by as much as 2-3 magnitudes in V. Such excursions occur on timescales of ten to forty days. They include both G-type T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars. We propose UX Ori as a prototype for this class of variable stars and refer to them as UXors. We have used archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of 5 such objects, namely: RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. The leading hypothesis for explaining their behavior is variable circumstellar obscuration. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent width of these (emission) features [FeII(1,62,63) and MgII(1)] increases as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200 to 8900 angstroms were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2200 angstroms, caused by iron lines is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright. The source and location of the variable obscuring material is discussed.

  11. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  12. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  13. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  14. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  15. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  16. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  17. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  18. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  19. Intraindividual Variability Is a Fundamental Phenomenon of Aging: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study across Young, Middle, and Older Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Bunce, David; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Moment-to-moment intraindividual variability (IIV) in cognitive speed is a sensitive behavioral indicator of the integrity of the aging brain and brain damage, but little information is known about how IIV changes from being relatively low in young adulthood to substantially higher in older adulthood. We evaluated possible age group, sex, and task…

  20. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning in 7- and 8-Year-Old Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Lindsay C.; Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Theory of mind requires belief- "and" desire-understanding. Event-related brain potential (ERP) research on belief- and desire-reasoning in adults found mid-frontal activations for both desires and beliefs, and selective right-posterior activations "only" for beliefs. Developmentally, children understand desires before beliefs; thus, a critical…

  1. Positive and Negative Effects of Finance-based Social Capital on Incident Functional Disability and Mortality: An 8-year Prospective Study of Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohta; Minai, Junko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) involve group financial self-help activities. These voluntary financial cooperative associations—mujin in Japanese—are found in some rural areas of Japan. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that active participation in mujin correlates with rich social capital and better functional capacities among older adults. However, the effect of mujin on subsequent health outcomes is unknown. Methods In 2003, we conducted a baseline interview survey of 583 functionally independent adults randomly selected from Yamanashi Prefecture residents aged 65 years or older. They were followed up until 2011. We used proportional hazards models, and factor analysis of 8 mujin-related questions identified 2 components: the “intensity and attitude” and “financing” aspects of mujin. Results The hazard ratios (HRs) for incident functional disability—identified by using the public long-term care insurance database—per 1-SD increase in factor scores were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68–0.99) for the intensity and attitude score and 1.21 (1.07–1.38) for financing score. Adjustments for age, sex, marital status, household composition, physical health, education, income, and other factor scores only slightly attenuated these HRs. The results for mortality models were very similar to those for incident functional disability. Conclusions ROSCA-type activities in Japan could have beneficial effects on the health of older adults if used primarily for the purpose of friendship. Mujin for aggressively financial purposes might be somewhat harmful, as such activities might reflect the “dark side” of social capital, ie, overly demanding expectations of group conformity. PMID:23117222

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Sex-Typed Behavior in Boys and Girls: A Longitudinal General Population Study of Children Aged 2.5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Croudace, Tim; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The stability of sex-typed behavior from the preschool to the middle school years was examined. The Preschool Activities Inventory, a measure of within-sex variation in sex-typed behavior, was completed by the primary caregiver when the child was 2.5, 3.5, and 5 years, and a modified version, the Child Activities Inventory, was completed by the…

  3. Total ovulating period: any contribution to ovarian carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Odukogbe, A A; Adebamowo, C A; Adeniji, A O; Omigbodun, A O; Olayemi, O; Oladokun, A; Owolabi, M S; Aimakhu, C; Adewole, I F; Owoaje, E

    2005-09-01

    The etiology of ovarian cancer has many postulates including that of incessant ovulation. Women of high parity especially those that breastfeed in addition are supposed to be protected. Ovarian cancer patients in the developing world are of higher parity than their Caucasian counterparts. Our study compared the length of reproductive career (LRC), the physiological ovulation free period (PFP) and the total ovulating period (TOP) amongst histologically proven ovarian cancer patients and age - matched controls. This is a questionnaire survey of 21 ovarian cancer patients managed by us between 1st December 1998 and 31st July 2002 and 42 gynaecological patients not known to have ovarian cancer. The mean age among the patients was 45.7+16.9 years while among the controls it was 45.4 +/- 16.1 years. The mean parity of the patients was 3.6 +/- 2.2 compared to 3.4 +/- 2.9 in the controls. The patients had a mean LRC of 23.8 +/- 11.2 years while in the controls it was 25.7+10.8 years. The mean PFP of the patients was 7.4 +/- 5.6 years and for the controls 7.1 +/- 6.5 years. The patients had a mean TOP of 15.8 +/- 8.8 years while this was 18.6 +/- 8.1 years for the controls. None of these differences was statistically significant. Our study revealed no statistically significant differences in the total ovulating periods between ovarian cancer patients and age-matched controls. Further studies will be necessary.

  4. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  5. A 35-month prospective study on onset of scabies in a psychiatric hospital: discussion on patient transfer and incubation period.

    PubMed

    Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Yasumura, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of scabies introduction into a hospital. We addressed the following question: Do patients transferred from other institutions pose a higher risk than patients from the community? From July 2003 to May 2006, a trained physician surveyed the inpatients and staff of a psychiatric hospital (six wards, 300 beds) on a monthly basis. During the study period, specific infection control measures beyond standard precautions, such as prophylactic treatment, were not adopted. There were 333 newly-admitted patients during the study period and among them, 122 were transferred from other institutions. Seven patients were diagnosed with scabies. Two of these patients were infected while in the hospital (secondary infection), thus the number of introduced scabies cases (index cases) was five. Four of the index cases were transferred from other institutions (three from psychiatric hospitals and one from a nursing home). The source of infection for one index case was unexplained. The rate of scabies infection among transferred patients was 3.3% while the infection rate among patients from the community was 0.5%. Therefore, transferred patients pose a higher risk than those from the community. The average time from admission to diagnosis of scabies was 141 days (range 34-313 days). The hospital personnel checked the skin condition of all patients at admission and none of the four patients showed symptoms of scabies.

  6. Total Hip Prostheses in Standing, Sitting and Squatting Positions: An Overview of Our 8 Years Practice Using the EOS Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine; Brusson, Adrien; Folinais, Dominique; Amel, Maria; Clarke, Ian; Pour, Aidin Eslam

    2015-01-01

    More total hip arthroplasty (THA) is performed worldwide and especially in younger and more active patients compared to earlier decades. One of the focuses of THA research in the future will be on optimizing the radiological follow-up of these patients using 2D and 3D measurements of implants position while reducing the radiation dose delivered. Low-dose EOS® imaging is an innovative slot-scanning radiograph system providing valuable information in patient functional positions (standing, sitting and even squatting positions). EOS has been proven accurate and reliable without significant inconvenience caused by the metallic artifacts of implants. The ability to obtain precise data on implant orientation according to the patient posture opens new perspectives for a comprehensive analysis of the pelvic frontal and sagittal balance and its potential impact on implants function and failures. We report our 8 years experience on our first 300 THA patients using this technology routinely for pre and post op evaluation. Our results will be compared and confronted with the actual literature about this innovative technology. We shall especially emphasize our experience about patients with abnormal posture and the evolution of the subject over time, because the phenomenon of an aging spine is frequently associated with the process of aging hips. PMID:25861404

  7. The International Geophysical Month: Short periods of cooperative study can consolidate the gains of the International Geophysical Year.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, R A; Martin, L H

    1961-12-01

    For convenience, we summarize below some of the main advantages of the IGM concept. 1) Most organizations can mount and support intensive field operations for short periods. 2) High-quality data would be obtained, and the data could be processed more promptly than in long-term projects. 3) Laboratory equipment could in many instances be mnade available for field operations. 4) Top-caliber researchers would be available for field operations. 5) The participation of small research groups and of research workers from government and industry would be fostered. 6) Student participation would improve educational programs in, and attract needed talent to, the geophysical sciences. 7) Ship, satellite, and rocket observations could be scheduled for IGM's. 8) International scientific conferences scheduled to follow IGM's would attract working scientists. It is not suggested that these short-term exercises should replace the long synoptic programs characteristic of the IGY. Rather it is proposed that they supplement and guide any such future long-term program. If adopted, they would produce many data of value for the planning and timing of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. To bring emphasis on special observations during the IQSY, International Geophysical Months might well be scheduled to coincide with the June and December solstices, to be followed by an IGM at an equinoctial period. This would provide periods for concentrated sampling-periods in somewhat the same category as the Regular World Intervals adopted during the IGY. The more elaborate experiments could be confined to the International Geophysical Months, so that only those studies for which continuous observations are essential would be scheduled for the entire period. The duration of an International Geophysical Month would be sufficient for carrying out experiments requiring moving platforms such as ships, rockets, or satellites. It is recommended that every effort be made to schedule the first IGM

  8. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  9. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  10. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach, over 8 years, in 11 cities of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Koksal, Iftihar; Akan, Özay Arıkan; Özgültekin, Asu; Kendirli, Tanil; Erben, Nurettin; Yalcin, Ata Nevzat; Ulusoy, Sercan; Sirmatel, Fatma; Ozdemir, Davut; Alp, Emine; Yıldızdaş, Dinçer; Esen, Saban; Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Hava; Yýlmaz, Gürdal; Kaya, Selçuk; Ulusoy, Hülya; Tulunay, Melek; Oral, Mehmet; Ünal, Necmettin; Turan, Güldem; Akgün, Nur; İnan, Asuman; Ince, Erdal; Karbuz, Adem; Çiftçi, Ergin; Taşyapar, Nevin; Güneş, Melek; Ozgunes, Ilhan; Usluer, Gaye; Turhan, Ozge; Gunay, Nurgul; Gumus, Eylul; Dursun, Oguz; Arda, Bilgin; Bacakoglu, Feza; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Leyla; Geyik, Mehmet Faruk; Şahin, Ahmet; Erdogan, Selvi; Kılıc, Aysegul Ulu; Horoz, Ozden Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in Turkey and analyse predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. Design: An observational, prospective, interventional, before-and-after study was conducted from August 2003 to August 2011 in 12 intensive care units (ICU) of 12 hospitals in 11 cities. The study was divided into a baseline and a follow-up period and included random 30-minute observations for hand hygiene compliance in ICU. The hand hygiene approach included administrative support, supplies availability, education and training, reminders in the workplace, process surveillance, and performance feedback. Results: We observed 21,145 opportunities for hand hygiene. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.8% to 91% (95% CI 87.6–93.0, p 0.0001). Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance: males vs. females (39% vs. 48%; 95% CI 0.79–0.84, p 0.0001), ancillary staff vs. physicians (35% vs. 46%, 95% CI 0.73–0.78, p 0.0001), and adult vs. pediatric ICUs (42% vs. 74%, 95% CI 0.54–0.60, p 0.0001). Conclusions: Adherence to hand hygiene was significantly increased with the INICC Hand Hygiene Approach. Specific programmes should be directed to improve hand hygiene in variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance.

  11. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  12. Choice of fluid therapy in patients of craniopharyngioma in the perioperative period: A hospital-based preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, K. K.; Dutta, Pinaki; Singh, Apinderpreet; Gupta, Prakamya; Srinivasan, Anand; Bhagat, Hemant; Mathuriya, S. N.; Shah, Viral N.; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electrolyte imbalance and acute diabetes insipidus (DI) are the most common complications in patients undergoing craniopharyngioma surgery. Improper management of water and electrolyte imbalance is common cause of morbidity and mortality. Data is sparse and controversial regarding the choice of fluid therapy in this population during perioperative period. Methods: In this retrospective-prospective study involving 73 patients (58 retrospective), the type of fluid therapy was correlated with occurrence of hypernatremia, hyponatremia, DI, morbidity, and mortality. In the retrospective study, 48 patients received normal saline and 10 received mixed fluids as per the prevailing practice. In the prospective group, five patients each received normal saline, half normal saline, and 5% dextrose randomly. Results: The sodium values were significantly higher in first 48 h in the group that received normal saline compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The use of normal saline was associated with higher incidence of hypernatremia, DI, and mortality (P = 0.05), while the group that received 5% dextrose was associated with hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and seizures. There was no perioperative hypotension with use of any of the fluids. Conclusion: Our results indicate half normal saline was fluid of choice with diminished incidence of water and electrolyte abnormalities without increase in mortality during postoperative period. PMID:25101200

  13. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  14. 13-week inhalation toxicity study (including 6- and 13-week recovery periods) with ammonium persulfate dust in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Signorin, J; Ulrich, C E; Butt, M T; D'Amato, E A

    2001-11-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of ammonium persulfate was characterized using Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) at respirable dust concentrations of 0, 5.0, 10.3, and 25 mg/m(3). Whole-body exposures were conducted 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk. Gravimetric airborne test material samples were taken daily and particle size samples were taken weekly from each exposure chamber for analysis. Ten animals/sex/group were necropsied after 13 wk of exposure, and 5 animals/sex/group were held for 6- and 13-wk recovery periods. Animals were observed for clinical signs. Effects on body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry and hematology, ophthalmologic parameters, organ weights, gross lesions, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no exposure-related deaths during the study. Rales and increased respiration rate were noted in both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group, and in a few animals in the 10.3 mg/m(3) group. The incidence of these clinical signs decreased to zero during the first few weeks of the recovery period. Body weights for both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group were significantly depressed during most of the exposure period compared to the control group. By the end of the recovery period, body weights for the exposed animals were similar to the control group values. Lung weights were elevated in the 25 mg/m(3) group after 13 wk of exposure, but were similar to controls at 6 wk postexposure. Irritation of the trachea and bronchi/bronchiole was noted microscopically after 13 wk of exposure to 25 mg/m(3). These lesions had recovered by 6 wk postexposure. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10.3 mg/m(3), while the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for exposure of rats to a dust aerosol of ammonium persulfate was 5.0 mg/m(3).

  15. Brownian dynamics studies on DNA gel electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-10-01

    The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte beads and the gel as a three-dimensional array of immobile beads. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded beads to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the beads are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.

  16. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period.

  17. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  18. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  19. Survivorship and relative risk of revision in computer-navigated versus conventional total knee replacement at 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dyrhovden, Gro S; Fenstad, Anne M; Furnes, Ove; Gøthesen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose The long-term effects of computer-assisted surgery in total knee replacement (CAS) compared to conventionally operated knee replacement (CON) are still not clear. We compared survivorship and relative risk of revision in CAS and CON based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Patients and methods We assessed primary total knee replacements without patellar resurfacing reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register from 2005 through 2014. The 5 most used implants and the 3 most common navigation systems were included. The groups (CAS, n = 3,665; CON, n = 20,019) were compared using a Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, ASA category, prosthesis brand, fixation method, previous surgery, and diagnosis with the risk of revision for any reason as endpoint. Secondary outcomes were reasons for revision and effects of prosthesis brand, fixation method, age (± 65 years), and hospital volume. Results Prosthesis survival and risk of revision were similar for CAS and CON. CAS had significantly fewer revisions due to malalignment. Otherwise, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups in analyses of secondary outcomes. Mean operating time was 13 minutes longer in CAS. Interpretation At 8 years of follow-up, CAS and CON had similar rates of overall revision, but CAS had fewer revisions due to malalignment. According to our findings, the benefits of CAS at medium-term follow-up are limited. Further research may identify subgroups that benefit from CAS, and it should also emphasize patient-reported outcomes. PMID:27775460

  20. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m-3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2-1 samples were 1) soot and 2) (ammonium)sulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2-1 samples were 0-12% and 83-97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-). During the intermediate period, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest

  1. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  2. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  3. Light trapping efficiency of periodic and quasiperiodic back-reflectors for thin film solar cells: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Pisco, M.; La Ferrara, V.; Mercaldo, L. V.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2013-08-01

    Recently, great efforts have been carried out to design optimized metallic nano-grating back-reflectors to improve the light absorption in thin film solar cells. In this work, we compare the performances of deterministic aperiodic backreflectors in the form of 1-D nanogratings based on the generalized Fibonacci deterministic aperiodic sequence with a standard periodic one. The case of study here analyzed relies on a realistic solar cell model, where light absorption is evaluated only in the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon P-I-N junction. We found that the results of comparison are strongly influenced by the amorphous silicon extinction coefficient within the near-infrared wavelength range, where most photonic-plasmonic modes (responsible for the light absorption enhancement typically observed when structured metal nanogratings are employed) are excited. In particular, with device-grade hydrogenated amorphous silicon, we demonstrate that Fibonacci-like backreflectors are able to provide an absorption enhancement of about 4% and 20% with respect to periodic and flat metallic backreflectors, respectively. We also found that aperiodic gratings guarantee better results in terms of robustness to the incident angle of the incoming radiation. Overall, our results confirm that aperiodic geometries are effectively able to offer some intriguing perspectives to enhance light trapping capability in thin film solar cells especially thanks to the large set of patterns employable to enable a proper design of resonant modes number and their spectral locations.

  4. Recurrence rates of bipolar disorder during the postpartum period: a study on 276 medication-free Italian women.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Rosso, Gianluca; Aguglia, Andrea; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    The postpartum period is considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study was to examine the frequency and the polarity of postpartum episodes in a clinical sample of women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. In addition, we sought to examine whether there are differences in terms of clinical features of bipolar disorder between women with and without postpartum episodes. Lastly, we analyzed the potential relationship between polarity of the postpartum episodes and clinical features of bipolar disorder. The presence/absence of postpartum episodes and their characteristics were obtained from medical records of 276 women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. Two hundred seven women (75.0 %) had a history of one or more postpartum mood episodes: depressive (79.7 %), (hypo)manic (16.4 %), or mixed episodes (3.9 %). Psychotic symptoms during postpartum episodes were associated with depression in 37 (22.4 %) patients, with mania in 19 (67.8 %) patients, and with mixed episodes in 7 (87.5 %) patients. Postpartum manic and mixed episodes were significantly associated with type I disorder and with psychotic features. Our findings indicate high risk of clinically ascertained mood episodes during postpartum period in bipolar women who are not treated during pregnancy.

  5. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  6. Determination of Normal Ranges of Shock Index and Other Haemodynamic Variables in the Immediate Postpartum Period: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Hannah L.; Cottam, Kate; Hezelgrave, Natasha L.; Seed, Paul T.; Briley, Annette; Bewley, Susan; Chappell, Lucy C.; Shennan, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the normal ranges of vital signs, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) (HR/systolic BP), in the immediate postpartum period to inform the development of robust obstetric early warning scores. Study Design We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study evaluating vital signs collected within one hour following delivery in women with estimated blood loss (EBL) <500ml (316 women) delivering at a UK tertiary centre over a one-year period. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to explore associations of demographic and obstetric factors with SI. Results Median (90% reference range) was 120 (100–145) for systolic BP, 75 (58–90) for diastolic BP, 90 (73–108) for MAP, 81 (61–102) for HR, and 0.66 (0.52–0.89) for SI. Third stage Syntometrine® administration was associated with a 0.03 decrease in SI (p = 0.035) and epidural use with a 0.05 increase (p = 0.003). No other demographic or obstetric factors were associated with a change in shock index in this cohort. Conclusion This is the first study to determine normal ranges of maternal BP, MAP, HR and SI within one hour of birth, a time of considerable haemodynamic adjustment, with minimal effect of demographic and obstetric factors demonstrated. The lower 90% reference point for systolic BP and upper 90% reference point for HR correspond to triggers used to recognise shock in obstetric practice, as do the upper 90% reference points for systolic and diastolic BP for obstetric hypertensive triggers. The SI upper limit of 0.89 in well postpartum women supports current literature suggesting a threshold of 0.9 as indicating increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27997586

  7. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Periodic density functional theory investigation of the uranyl ion sorption on three mineral surfaces: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-06-04

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO(2)(110), Al(OH)(3)(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H(2)O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms' protonation state.

  9. Numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential. In the tight-binding method the probability density is expanded on a basis of Wannier states to transform the Smoluchowski equation to a discrete master equation that can be interpreted in terms of thermal hopping between potential minima. We calculate the Wannier states and hopping rates for a variety of potentials, including tilted cosine and ratchet potentials. For deep potential minima the Wannier states are well localized and the hopping rates between nearest-neighbor states are qualitatively well described by Kramers' escape rate. The next-nearest-neighbor hopping rates are negative and must be negligible compared to the nearest-neighbor rates for the discrete master equation treatment to be valid. We find that the validity of the master equation extends beyond the quantitative applicability of Kramers' escape rate.

  10. Deep Long-period Seismicity Beneath the Executive Committee Range, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, Studied Using Subspace Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, R. C.; McMahon, N. D.; Myers, E. K.; Lough, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lough et al. (2014) first detected deep sub-icecap magmatic events beneath the Executive Committee Range volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land. Here, we extend the identification and analysis of these events in space and time utilizing subspace detection. Subspace detectors provide a highly effective methodology for studying events within seismic swarms that have similar moment tensor and Green's function characteristics and are particularly effective for identifying low signal-to-noise events. Marie Byrd Land (MBL) is an extremely remote continental region that is nearly completely covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The southern extent of Marie Byrd Land lies within the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), which includes the volcanic Executive Committee Range (ECR). The ECR shows north-to-south progression of volcanism across the WARS during the Holocene. In 2013, the POLENET/ANET seismic data identified two swarms of seismic activity in 2010 and 2011. These events have been interpreted as deep, long-period (DLP) earthquakes based on depth (25-40 km) and low frequency content. The DLP events in MBL lie beneath an inferred sub-WAIS volcanic edifice imaged with ice penetrating radar and have been interpreted as a present location of magmatic intrusion. The magmatic swarm activity in MBL provides a promising target for advanced subspace detection and temporal, spatial, and event size analysis of an extensive deep long period earthquake swarm using a remote seismographic network. We utilized a catalog of 1,370 traditionally identified DLP events to construct subspace detectors for the six nearest stations and analyzed two years of data spanning 2010-2011. Association of these detections into events resulted in an approximate ten-fold increase in number of locatable earthquakes. In addition to the two previously identified swarms during early 2010 and early 2011, we find sustained activity throughout the two years of study that includes several previously

  11. Effect of red chili consumption on postoperative symptoms during the post-hemorrhoidectomy period: randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relation between consumption of chilies and postoperative symptoms after hemorrhoidectomy in patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoidal disease. A total of 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics and analgesics alone (control patients) or daily consumption of 3 g of chili powder along with identical antibiotics and analgesics (chili group). The evaluation of symptoms-pain, anal burning, pruritus, bleeding-during the postoperative period was assessed by means of patients' self-questionnaires. A global score for evaluating each postoperative symptom was compared between the two groups at the 1-week follow-up. No significant difference in age, sex distribution, or grade of disease was noted between the two groups at baseline. The incidence of post-hemorrhoidectomy symptoms was higher in the group consuming chilies during the first postoperative week. The global score for postoperative pain (14.60 for the chili group vs. 7.97 for the control group, p < 0.001) and for anal burning (12.90 for the chili group vs. 7.82 for the control group, p < 0.0001) were significant. Although bleeding (6.95 in the control group and 7.57 in the chili group, p < 0.81) and pruritus (8.06 in the control group and 8.75 in the chili group, p < 0.69) were more common in the chili group, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. This study shows that consumption of 3 g of red chilies per day during the postoperative period after hemorrhoidectomy increases the intensity of typical postoperative symptoms, stool frequency, and the consumption of analgesics.

  12. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  13. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  14. Study of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with solar wind parameters during the period 1998-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharayat, Hema; Prasad, Lalan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of solar wind parameters (solar wind speed V, plasma flow pressure, and plasma density) on cosmic ray intensity and on geomagnetic storms for the period 1998-2005 (solar cycle 23). A Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method has been done for the study. From the present study we have found that the solar wind speed is a highly effective parameter in producing cosmic ray intensity decreases and geomagnetic storms. No time lag is found between cosmic ray intensity decreases, geomagnetic storms, and peak value of solar wind speed. Further, we have found that the plasma flow pressure is effectively correlated with geomagnetic storms but it is weakly correlated with cosmic ray intensity. The cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms are found to be weakly correlated with plasma density. The decrease in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms takes place one day after the peak values of plasma flow pressure and plasma density. There is a time lag of one day between solar wind parameters (plasma flow pressure and plasma density) and cosmic ray intensity decrease, geomagnetic storms. Also, we have found a high correlation of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with the product of interplanetary magnetic field B and solar wind speed V i.e. B\\cdot V. This study may be useful in predicting the space-weather phenomena.

  15. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Watson, Hunna J; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  16. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H.; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating. PMID:27110061

  17. Clinical learning environments for student nurses: key indices from two studies compared over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Lewin, David

    2007-07-01

    In 1978, a longitudinal study commenced in England to illuminate criteria for the evaluation of hospital wards as clinical learning environments for student nurses. It derived measures to quantify the clinical learning experienced by 71 students in three cohorts in three training hospitals over their entire programme. In 2003, a second study, based in one English School of Health Studies, using clinical placements in three NHS trusts, employed a retrospective, cross-sectional, analytic survey design with anonymised, self-completion questionnaires, to map the clinical learning of 272 students as part of a quality assurance and enhancement initiative. This paper explores changes over time by comparing data based on five key indices, devised in the first study and revisited in the second. Concepts of clinical learning and supervision are reviewed as part of this changing context and background together with limitations implicit in the comparison. The findings suggest an average 20% improvement in the quality of hospital based clinical learning environments over a 25 year period, based mainly on trained staff personally supervising students more extensively, testing their theoretical knowledge more frequently and spending more time performing practical procedures with them. However, unacceptable variations in clinical learning opportunities persist for some students.

  18. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine

    2017-01-01

    Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350

  19. Assessing the quality of the snow model used in the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) against MODIS satellite observations over 8 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Burek, P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Flood Alert System is under development at the European Commission Joint Research Centre since 2003 to foster international information exchange on early flood warning within Europe. The aim of EFAS is to provide catchment-wide flood forecasts indicating the probability of upcoming events between 3-10 days in advance with emphasis on transnational river basins. EFAS is designed to use full sets of Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS) in the short- and medium term. EFAS consists of a rainfall-runoff model with a routing component (LISFLOOD) that is set-up on a 5km grid for entire Europe and runs in pre-operational model twice a day. The LISFLOOD model also includes a snow model based on a degree-day scheme. For this, each pixel is divided in 3 zones in order to represent the heterogeneity of the area regarding altitude. Then, snow is melt according to the air temperature, the amount of rainfall, and a calibrated snowmelt rate. The aim of this study is to compare the snow simulated by the LISFLOOD model (in fact the snow cover fraction) to the observed MODIS Snow Cover Area data. The period of this study is July 2002 - June 2010 and the area covers the entire Europe. For this work, the LISFLOOD model is forced by observations, not by forecasts, which means that the initial states of EFAS are in fact analyzed. A first comparison has been performed, between the version of the LISFLOOD model previously used in EFAS (until November 2011), and the current version. For the new version, better meteorological input (precipitation and temperature) were used, and the snow model has been improved (artifact to mimic glaciers, better distribution of the three altitudinal zones - Gaussian instead of linear-, and seasonal variation of the snowmelt rate). This comparison showed the important overall improvement of agreement for the new LISFLOOD version between the model and the observed MODIS data. The second step was to measure the impact of some of the important

  20. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  1. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  2. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  3. Superintendent Communication Strategies and Experiences That Promote Trust and Positive Relationships with the School Board during the Entry Period: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents have vast demands placed upon them by their school boards and via the political pipeline. The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. It is during the entry period that determines…

  4. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  5. Psychological Analysis of Oral Cancer Patients during Pre-operative Period in South Indian Population: A Prospective, Quantitative, Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamatchinathan, Prabhusankar; Muthuraman, Varun; Antharaju, Yuvaraj; Kumar, Mahendra; Varadharajan, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral cancer is prevalent worldwide with high incidence of mortality and morbidity. It is associated with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Moreover, patients affected are more likely to develop psychological issues and thus, addressing psychological needs of such patients is crucial. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of oral cancer patients in the pre-operative period, thereby providing them with the necessary psychological support. Materials and Methods A total of 206 patients, scheduled to undergo treatment for oral cancer were selected from various cancer centres in South India. After informed consent, 171 patients were finally analysed for their quality of life using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) version 4; and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Head and Neck (FACT-H&N), as a Quality of Life (QOL) survey. Result Most of the patients had poor quality of life and were found to be emotionally distressed pre-operatively as they did not have proper emotional support from society. Conclusion From the study it was observed that catering to the psychological needs of oral cancer patients is important and psychological counselling should be a part of a comprehensive treatment plan for such patients. PMID:27891463

  6. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  7. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  8. Degrees Granted and Enrollment Trends in Historically Black Colleges: An Eight-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Elias, Jr.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study looks at two indexes of growth and development of black colleges: trends in student enrollment and trends in the awarding of degrees. This 8-year study covers the period 1966-1973. There are 98 of the 107 historically black schools including 86 4-year schools, 50 private schools, and 36 public. Results indicated that baccalaureate…

  9. Study of Fe/Cr Magnetic Multilayers and Periodic Arrays of Submicron Magnetic Dots by Vector Network Analyzer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Farkhad; Francisco Sierra, Juan; Awad, Ahmad; Pryadun, Vladimir; Kakazei, Gleb

    2008-03-01

    Vector network analyzer (VNA) technique up to 8.5 GHz was applied to measure in-plane dynamic response in Fe/Cr magnetic multilayers and for the in-plane magnetized periodic arrays of Permalloy circular magnetic dots. In the antiferromagnetically coupled [Fe/Cr]n multilayers (n=10,20,40) we have investigated field dependence of the acoustic resonance in a wide range of temperatures between 300K down to 2K both for the low magnetic fields and close to the saturation field. FMR studies of the array of FeNi dots with diameter of 1 micron, the aspect ratio L/R=0.1 and with centre to centre distance varying between 1.2 to 2.5 micron allowed to resolve multiple FMR resonances as a function of magnetic field. We have found the main FMR linewidth to be dependent on the magnetic history. For the magnetic fields below 300 Oe, where magnetic vortex state forms, we have observed the field dependence of the radial modes (fr > 6GHz) to show minima close to the zero magnetic field.

  10. [Tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: Results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].

    PubMed

    Marennikova, S S

    1989-06-01

    In accordance with recommendations of the Global Commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. The study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of Equatorial Africa, occurring most frequently in Zaire. In about 70% of cases of monkeypox in human the disease is contracted from animals serving as natural virus carriers and in about one-third of such cases, from humans having monkeypox. The infectivity of humans with monkeypox for persons having close contacts with them is somewhat lower (12.3%) than in smallpox when this characteristic varies from 37% to 88%. Monkeypox in humans may take an asymptomatic course. Some species of tropical squirrels serve as natural virus carriers. These investigations have also resulted in essential corrections being made in understanding the ecology of cowpox virus, another orthopoxvirus pathogenic for man. At least 5 species of rodents have proved to be of interest as natural carriers of cowpox virus.

  11. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role.

  12. A periodic DFT study of adsorption of water on sodium-montmorillonite (001) basal and (010) edge surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenliang; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Water molecules can be easily adsorbed on the surface or in the interlayer space of clay minerals. This process is named hydration which plays an important role in various application fields. In order to find how water interacted with surface through minimizing the interaction among multiple waters, the adsorptions of single water molecule on external surfaces of sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT), including (001) basal and (010) edge surface, were theoretically investigated based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) method. The adsorption energies and geometries as well as electronic properties were studied in the work. It was found that water molecule was adsorbed on Na-MMT (001) basal surface mainly through electrostatic interaction between water molecule and Na+ cation, and was adsorbed on (010) edge surface through hydrogen bonding between water and surface sbnd OH or sbnd OH2 groups. The adsorption energy Eads value of water molecule on (010) edge surface was larger than that on (001) basal surface. After adsorption, a part of electron density was transferred from both Na-MMT (001) and (010) surfaces to water molecule. Based on the PDOS, there was the bonding between Na 3s and Ow 2p orbitals on (001) basal surface and between H 1s and O 2p orbitals for hydrogen bonds on (010) edge surface.

  13. Household Costs of Healthcare during Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period: A Case Study from Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sabina, Nazme; Blum, Lauren S.; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Ronsmans, Carine

    2006-01-01

    A household survey was undertaken in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, to estimate the costs incurred during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period for women delivering at home and in a health facility. Those interviewed included 121 women who delivered at home, 120 who delivered in an ICDDR,B basic obstetric care (BEOC) facility, 27 who delivered in a public comprehensive obstetric care (CEOC) hospital, and 58 who delivered in private hospitals. There was no significant difference in total costs incurred by those delivering at home and those delivering in a BEOC facility. Costs for those delivering in CEOC facilities were over nine times greater than for those delivering in BEOC facilities. Costs of care during delivery were predominant. Antenatal and postnatal care added between 7% and 30% to the total cost. Services were more equitable at home and in a BEOC facility compared to services provided at CEOC facilities. The study highlights the regressive nature of the financing of CEOC services and the need for a financing strategy that covers both the costs of referral and BEOC care for those in need. PMID:17591341

  14. Effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on the cutaneous silent period: a randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pujia, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano; Brienza, Marianna; Vestrini, Elisa; Valente, Gabriele Oreste; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-04-30

    The cutaneous silent period (CSP) involves a transient inhibition of the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the hand muscles induced by a painful electrical stimulation of the digital nerves. The neurotransmitters potentially involved in mediating the CSP have not been completely elucidated thus far. However, few studies suggest that the monoaminergic system may play a role in the CSP. We elicited CSPs in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand before and 3h after administration of a single oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20mg) or placebo. The two experimental sessions (drug and placebo) were performed in a random order at ≥1-week intervals. All recordings were numbered anonymously and analysed offline in a blind manner by one investigator. A significant increase in the CSP duration was observed 3h after escitalopram administration (p=0.01), and no changes were observed in the reflex latency and subjective pain sensation (p>0.05). No significant changes were observed in the CSP duration in subjects who received the placebo (all, p>0.05). Our results indicate that escitalopram increases the central disposition of serotonin and increases the activity of the spinal inhibitory interneurons on the α-motoneurons of the hand muscles. Thus, our results indicate the involvement of the monoaminergic system in controlling the spinal pain mechanisms by supraspinal descending pathways originating from the brainstem neural structures.

  15. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  16. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  17. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  18. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-07-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in all PM0.2-1 samples were ammonium sulphates with/without carbon and dark inclusion(s) (number proportion of particles 54-86%), carbon/sulphate mixture with dark inclusions(s) (4-10%), internally mixed soot/sulphate particles (2-22%), soot (0-12%) and K-rich particles with S and/or C (0-9%). During the pollution episode (PM1.6~18 μg m-3, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%, also fly ash particles), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period (PM1.6~2 μg m-3, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-. During the intermediate period (PM1.6~5 μg m-3, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest in the PM3.3-11 samples (0-81% and 0-22%, respectively). The origin of different particle types and the

  19. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando; Wang, Chumin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires.

  20. A time period study on the efficiency of luminol in the detection of bloodstains concealed by paint on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Deepthi; Ghosh, Shayani

    2017-02-11

    Forensic Science is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. It is a science which relies on physical evidence; one of the important physical evidences being blood. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficacy of luminol reagent in detecting bloodstains on different surfaces, concealed by multiple layers of paint, over a period of time and also to compare the intensities of chemiluminescence exhibited by them. In this study, dry wall, wooden planks and metal surfaces were identified as commonly encountered surfaces at crime scenes and hence 25 of each surface were simulated and blood was spattered, which were then concealed by progressive layers of paint specific to each surface. Thereafter, each surface was critically observed for the intensity of chemiluminescence, following the application of luminol and the results were documented as photographs. The research was conducted for duration of 50 days, in order to study the effect of ageing of concealment upon detection of bloodstains using luminol. Varying intensities of chemiluminescence were displayed by all the three simulated surfaces deposited with paint over bloodstains up to three layers of concealment, depending on the nature of the surface which were captured using photography. The highest intensity of chemiluminescence was shown by concealed bloodstains on dry wall and metal surfaces, despite the number of layers of concealment. However, an increase in the number of layers of concealment produced a significant decrease in the intensity of chemiluminescenece displayed by the bloodstains concealed by paint upon reacting with luminol on metal sheets, which was not found to be uniform and consistent on the other surfaces. These findings highlight the fact that bloodstains concealed by paint could be effectively detected by luminol reagent, despite the nature and ageing of concealment and thereby provide a lead to

  1. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  2. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. Results We identified four distinct trajectory groups: ‘rapid PTH drop’ experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), ‘gradual PTH decrease’ experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), ‘slow PTH decrease with high phosphate’ experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the ‘rapid PTH drop’ and at month 24 in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ groups. Conclusions Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the

  3. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  4. Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Małgorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rusłan; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to

  5. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.

  7. A global study of type B quasi-periodic oscillation in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H. Q.; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Li, Zi-Jian; Bu, Qing-Cui; Qu, JinLu

    2017-04-01

    We performed a global study on the timing and spectral properties of type-B quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the outbursts of black hole X-ray binaries. The sample is built based on the observations of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), via searching in the literature in RXTE era for all the identified type-B QPOs. To enlarge the sample, we also investigated some type-B QPOs that are reported but not yet fully identified. Regarding to the time lag and hard/soft flux ratio, we found that the sources with type-B QPOs behave in two subgroups. In one subgroup, type-B QPO shows a hard time lag that first decreases and then reverse into a soft time lag along with softening of the energy spectrum. In the other subgroup, type-B QPOs distribute only in a small region with hard time lag and relatively soft hardness. These findings may be understood with a diversity of the homogeneity showing up for the hot inner flow of different sources. We confirm the universality of a positive relation between the type-B QPO frequency and the hard component luminosity in different sources. We explain the results by considering that the type-B QPO photons are produced in the inner accretion flow around the central black hole, under a local Eddington limit. Using this relationship, we derived a mass estimation of 9.3-27.1 M⊙ for the black hole in H 1743-322.

  8. Origin of short-period signals following P-diffracted w